CE 516

Design of Water Distribution Systems
In this section, we have learned how to size pipelines and pumps for pipe networks. We will now examine some of the practicalities which need to be considered when designing such closed conduit systems. This is a review of section 2.5 in your text (which you should read). The primary function of water distribution systems are to 1. meet the water demands of users while maintaining acceptable pressures in the system 2. supply water for fire protection at specific locations within the system, while maintaining acceptable pressures for normal service. 3. provide sufficient level of redundancy to support minimum level of service during emergency conditions (i.e. power loss or water main failure.) Components The components of a water distribution system include: • pipelines - carry water from the treatment facility to the users. transmission mains - the largest pipes which carry flow from the water treatment facility to the network. These pipes are often greater than (D > 600 mm). feeder mains - (pipelines which feed flow from the transmission main to the individual pipe networks of every service area (D ∼ 400 - 500 mm) distribution mains - the grid of pipelines which provides service to all users (D ∼ 150 - 300 mm) service lines - pipelines which go from the distribution mains to the individual house/facility.

The individual lines are sized as per momentum equation (Darcy-Weisbach) and energy equation (head loss equation.)

Closed Conduit Flow

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Design of water distribution systems

Because of variable demand requirements multiple pumps or pumps with variable motors are often required.accommodates demand fluctuation by storing excess water until it’s necessary ground storage .required for monitoring flows Closed Conduit Flow 2 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . cyclical. booster pumps .storage tank at the elevation required to deliver water at required pressure (or head).maintain required service pressure along long pipelines fire-service pumps . and emergency demands • storage facilities .ground level storage which discharge water to the system with a pump elevated storage .provide additional capacity for emergency situations Pumps operate at the intersection of pump performance and network system curves and must adjust to highly variable demand. As such. • Valves .maintain required pipeline service pressure.CE 516 Components (continued) • pumps . multiple pumps may be required for steady.required for removing components and rerouting flows • Meters .

CE 516 Component Design Life The preferred design life for the various components of water supply systems is given with the following table (Chin. Table 3.11) Component Sources of supply River Wellfield Reservoir Pumps Low-lift High Lift Water Treatment Service Reservoir Distribution system Pipe or Conduit Distribution Grid Design Period (years) indefinite 10-25 25-50 10 10 10-15 20-25 Design Capacity Max daily Max daily Average annual Max daily Max hourly Max daily Working storage + fire + emergency Max daily + fire OR max hourly demand 25-50 Closed Conduit Flow 3 of 12 Design of water distribution systems .

CE 516 Operating Pressure of System The required system pressure demands on several considerations listed below: • excellent flow to a 3 story building requires 290 kPa • adequate flow for residential areas requires 240 kPa • adequate flow to a 20 story building requires 830 kPa* *Please note this isn’t desirable because of waste and leak. pressures of greater than 650 kPa should be avoided. Generally. instead most tall buildings have their own on site pumps. • adequate flow to most systems recommends 410-520 kPa ordinary consumption for 10 story buildings adequate service for sprinklers in buildings of 4-5 stories adequate fire hydrant service adequate margin for fluctuations due to clogging and other losses Closed Conduit Flow 4 of 12 Design of water distribution systems .

Possible demand sources include: • residential • commercial • industrial • public The average city requires 660 liters/day/person. Table 3.CE 516 Water Demand Demands of the entire population must be considered before designing a water distribution system. 2000. The distribution of demand between all the possible sources is given in the table below. Typical distribution of water use for an average city (Shin.4) Category Average use Percent of total (liters/day)/person Residential 260 Commercial 90 Industrial 190 Public 70 Loss 50 Total 660 Closed Conduit Flow 5 of 12 Design of water distribution systems .

1986 AWWA) Closed Conduit Flow 6 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . that serve 95 million people is given in the table below. 2000. Average distribution of per capita water demand (Shin.CE 516 Water Demand (continued) The distribution of average per capita rates among 292 water supply systems in the U. S. Table 3.5) Range Number of Percent of total (liters/day)/person systems 190-370 30 8 380-560 132 34 570-750 133 34 760-940 51 13 950-1130 19 5 >1140 27 7 Please note: these figures are based on 392 US water supply systems serving 95 million people (1984 Water Utility Operating Data.

• empirical models . Closed Conduit Flow 7 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . empirical models are as reliable as disaggregate models. Because the demand of the system 20 years in the future is not known. including: • aggregate models . A variety of Forecasting models exist.treat the population as a whole • disaggregate models . These models require large quantities of data. the water demand at the end of the network design life is generally used as the basis for the project design. Please note that after 10 years. it is necessary to make some kind of prediction or forecasting about the municipality growth.are based solely on data.CE 516 Water Demand Projections When planning for a water supply system.break up the population into groups and predict the growths of each group. An example of this is cohort analysis (Sykes 1995) which segregates age and gender. Population growth is not generally steady and tends to grow at varying rates.

CE 516 Geometric growth phase .occurs when growth becomes limited by available resources Each of the above phases is generally limited to 10 years in duration. but for projections greater than 20 years a 50% error can be expected.occurs when there are wide open spaces and is modelled with Arithmetic growth phase . use existing data to determine a & b. that for projections of less than 10 years a 10% error can be expected.occurs after the initial growth has leveled off and is modelled with Declining growth phase . Closed Conduit Flow 8 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . For situations when a longer projection is required a long term projection can be approximated with an S-curve (most common used is a logistic curve) Please note. Please note.

daily. weekly. and in the case of emergencies such as fires.23) Closed Conduit Flow 9 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . Typical daily variations are given in the below figure (Chin. Figure 3.CE 516 Demand Variations The demand in a water distribution system varies. seasonally.

6 Typical value In emergency situations as a result of fires the demand may increase significantly.5 1. 1980).0 2. Table 3.1-1. An example of the demand factors is found in the below table (Chin.5-3.000 L/min Please see Chin for a more complete discussion of needed fire flows and the required coefficients Closed Conduit Flow 10 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . Their method estimates the Needed Fire Flow.6). with N F Fi = Ci Oi (X + P )i where C is the construction factor O is the occupancy factor X is the exposure factor P is the proximity factor i is the location where the flow is needed The maximum needed fire flow is less than 45. Condition Daily average in maximum month Daily average in maximum week Maximum daily demand Maximum hourly demand Minimum hourly demand Range of demand factors 1.0-4.CE 516 The range of demand conditions are specified with peaking or demand factors.2-1. NFF.2-0.0 0.6 1. The most common method for estimating peak demands due to fires is a method proposed by the Insurance Services Office (ISO.

000-26.000-34.000-21.000 19.000-17.000-13.CE 516 Required fire flow durations to satisfy insurance requirements (Chin.000 38.000-30.000-45.000 Durations (hours) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Closed Conduit Flow 11 of 12 Design of water distribution systems .000-38.000 15.000 26. Table 3.10) Required fire flow (L/min) <9.000 34.000 11.000 23.000 30.

000 people.CE 516 Example A water-supply system is being designed to serve a population of 200. with an average per capita demand of 600 L/day/person and a needed fire flow of 28. then what should be the design capacity of the supply pumps and water treatment plant? For what must be kept in the service reservoir to accommodate a fire? What should the design capacity of the distribution pipes be? Solution a) find design capacity assume: given: b) determine required flow duration and volume c) determine design capacity for pipes Closed Conduit Flow 12 of 12 Design of water distribution systems . If the water supply is to be drawn from a river.000 L/min.

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