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7, 2013

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ˆ -Mappings Contra ω

M.Lellis Thivagar School Of Mathematics, Madurai Kamaraj University Madurai-625021, Tamil Nadu,INDIA, mlthivagar@yahoo.co.in M.Anbuchelvi (Corresponding author) Department of Mathematics, V.V.Vanniaperumal College For Women Virudhunar-626001, Tamil Nadu, INDIA. rsanbuchelvi@gmail.com

ˆ -closed (resp.open) functions, contra ω ˆ -quotient Abstract: In this paper we intend to introduce contra ω ˆ -irresolute functions, by utilizing ω ˆ -closed sets. Also we find their basic properties and functions and contra ω some applications. ˆ -closed function, contra ω ˆ -quotient and ω ˆ -quotient functions. Keywords and Phrases : contra ω AMS subject classification 2010 : 57C05

1. Introduction [1] The notion of contra continuity was introduced by J.Dontchev. In 1991, M.Lellis Thivagar [7] extended the notion of quotient functions on α -open sets, semi-open and pre-open sets in topological spaces. In ˆ -quotient functions, contra ω ˆ -closed functions this paper we introduce and investigate the properties of contra ω ˆ -open functions, by utilizing ω ˆ -closed sets. Also we find some applications of ω ˆ - quotient functions. and contra ω Preliminaries Throughout this paper a "space" means a topological space which lacks any separation axioms unless explicitly stated. For a subset A of X , cl( A ) , int (A ) and A c denote the closure of A , the interior of A and the ˆ O(X). (resp. ˆ -open (resp. ω ˆ -closed) sets of X is denoted by ω complement of A respectively.The family of all ω ˆ ωC(X) ) Let us recall the following definitions, which are useful in the sequel. Definition 2.1 A subset A of a space X is called a i) a -open set [3] if A ⊂ int(cl(int δ ( A)).

ˆ - closed set [4] if αcl( A ) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and U is g ˆ -open in ( X, τ) . ii) αg ˆ -open in ( X, τ) . ˆ -closed set [5] if acl( A ) ⊆ U whenever A ⊆ U and U is αg iii) ω Definition 2.2 A function f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is called

ˆ -continuous [8] if f −1 (V) is ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ) for every open set V of ( Y, σ). i) contra ω ˆ -open (resp. ω ˆ -closed) [8] if f ( V ) is ω ˆ -open( resp. ω ˆ -closed) set of ( Y, σ) for every open ii) ω ( resp.closed) set V of (X, τ).

2.

ˆ )* -open ( resp. Strongly ω ˆ )* -closed) [8] if f ( V ) is ω ˆ -open or (ω ˆ -closed or (ω ˆ -open iii) Strongly ω ˆ -closed) set of ( Y, σ) for every ω ˆ -open ( resp. ω ˆ -closed) set V of ( X, τ). ( resp. ω

ˆ -continuous [8] if f −1 (V) is ω ˆ -open set of ( X, τ) for every open set V of ( Y, σ). iv) ω ˆ -Closed Functions 3. Contra ω ˆ -closed (resp.contra ω ˆ -open) if image of every Definition 3.1 A function f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is said to be contra ω ˆ -open ( resp. ω ˆ -closed) subset of ( Y, σ). closed ( resp.open) subset of (X, τ) is ω ˆ -closed map (resp.strongly contra ω ˆ Definition 3.2 A function f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is said to be strongly contra ω ˆ -open (resp. ω ˆ -closed) subset of open map) if image of every a -closed (resp. a -open) subset of (X, τ) is ω ( Y, σ). ˆ -closed map (resp.completely contra Definition 3.3 A function f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is said to be completely contra ω ˆ -open map) if the image of every ω ˆ -closed (resp. ω ˆ -open) subset of ( X, τ) is ω ˆ -open (resp. ω ˆ -closed) subset ω ˆ ˆ ˆ of ( Y, σ). Also f is said to be ω -irresolute iff inverse image of every ω -open set is ω -open. (equivalently, ˆ -closed set is ω ˆ -closed.) inverse image of every ω ˆ -closed map (resp.completely contra ω ˆ -open map) is strongly contra ω ˆ Theorem 3.4 Every completely contra ω ˆ -open map) closed map.( resp.strongly contra ω

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ˆ -closed ( resp. Proof. Let F -be any a -closed (resp. a -open) subset of (X, τ). By [5] Proposition 3.2 (i), F is a ω ˆ -closed) subset of ( X, τ) and hence by hypothesis, f ( F) is ω ˆ -open (resp. ω ˆ -closed) subset of ( Y, σ). Thus, f is ω ˆ -closed map.( resp.strongly contra ω ˆ -open). strongly contra ω Remark 3.5 Reversible implication is not always true as seen from the following example. Example 3.6 Let X = {a , b, c, d} = Y, τ = {∅,{a},{a , b}, X} , σ = {∅,{b, c},{a , b, c},{b, c, d}, Y} . Define f as an identity ˆ -closed map but not completely contra ω ˆ -closed map as function. Then, f is strongly contra ω ˆ ˆ f ({b, c, d}) = {b, c, d} is not a ω -open subset of ( Y, σ) whereas {b, c, d} is a ω -closed subset of ( X, τ). ˆ -closed map and strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map (resp.completely contra ω ˆ Remark 3.7 The notion of contra ω closed map) are independent is understood from the following examples. Example 3.8 Let X = {a , b, c, d} , τ = {∅,{a},{a , b}, X} , Y = {a , b, c, d} σ = {∅,{b, c},{a , b, c},{b, c, d}, Y} . Define ˆ -closed map, but not f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) as f (a ) = a , f ( b) = b, f (c) = c and f (d ) = d. Then, f is strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map . contra ω Example3.9 Let X = {a , b, c, d} , τ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, X} , Y = {a , b, c, d} σ = {∅,{a},{c},{a , b},{a , c},{a , b, c},{a , c, d}, Y} .Define f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) as f (a ) = c, f ( b) = c, f (c) = b and f (d ) = a . ˆ -closed map, but a strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map. Then, f is contra ω Example 3.10 Let X = {a , b, c, d} , τ = {∅,{b, c},{a , b, c},{b, c, d}, X} , Y = {a , b, c, d} σ = {∅,{a},{c},{a , b}{a , c},{a , b, c},{a , c, d}, Y} . ˆ -closed map, but Define f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) as f (a ) = a , f (b) = c, f (c) = c and f (d ) = b. Then f is completely contra ω ˆ -closed map as f ({d}) = {b} is not a ω ˆ open subset of ( Y, σ) whereas {d} is a closed subset of ( X, τ). not contra ω ˆ -closed (resp.strongly Remark 3.11 From the following Examples, it is known that composition of contra ω ˆ -closed, completely contra ω ˆ -closed contra ω ˆ -closed) mappings is not always contra ω ˆ -closed contra ω ˆ -closed, completely contra ω ˆ -closed contra ω ˆ -closed) mapping. (resp.strongly contra ω Example 3.12 Let X = Y = Z = {a,b,c,d} and topologies endowed on them are τ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, X} , σ = {∅,{a}, Y} , η = {∅,{b, c},{a , b, c},{b, c, d}, Z} respectively. Define f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) as f(x) = a for all x in X and ˆ -closed maps. If define g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) by g(a) = a, g(b) = b, g(c) = g(d) = c. Then, f and g are contra ω ˆ g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is defined by ( g o f )(x) = g(f(x)) for all x in X, then g o f is not a contra ω -closed map. Example 3.13 Let X = Y = Z = {a,b,c,d}, τ = {∅,{a},{a , b}, X} , σ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, Y} and η = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b},{a , b, c},{a , b, d}, Z} . Define f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) as f(x) = a for all x in X and define ˆ -closed maps g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) by g(a) = c, g(b) = c, g(c) =a, g(d) = b. Then, f and g are strongly contra ω ˆ -closed). If g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is defined by ( g o f )(x) = g(f(x)) for all x in X, then (resp.completely contra ω ˆ -closed map (resp.completely contra ω ˆ -closed). g o f is not a strongly contra ω

Theorems on Compositions. ˆ -closed map and g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is strongly ω ˆ -open Theorem 3.14 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is completely contra ω ˆ -closed map (resp.strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map) map, then g o f : (X, τ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω ˆ -closed (resp. a -closed) subset of ( X, τ). By [5] Proposition 3.2 (i), every a-closed Proof. Let F be any ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ) and since f is completely contra ω ˆ -closed map, f( F ) is ω ˆ -open subset of subset is ω ˆ -open map, (g o f )( F) = g (f ( F)) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Thus, g o f is ( Y, σ). Since g is strongly ω ˆ -closed map ( resp.strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map ) completely contra ω ˆ -closed map and g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is strongly ω ˆ -open Theorem 3.15 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map. map, then g o f : (X, τ) → ( Z, η) is strongly contra ω ˆ -closed map, f ( F) is ω ˆ -open Proof. Let F -be any a -closed subset of (X, τ). Since f is strongly contra ω ˆ -open map, (g o f )( F) = g (f ( F)) is ω ˆ -open in ( Z, η). Thus, g o f is subset of ( Y, σ). Since g is strongly ω ˆ -closed map. strongly contra ω ˆ -continuous, surjective map and g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is any map such that Theorem 3.16 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is ω ˆ -closed map, then g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω ˆ -closed map. g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω

ˆ -continuous, f −1 (F) is ω ˆ -closed subset ( X, τ) and Proof. Let F be any closed subset of ( Y, σ). Since f is ω ˆ -closed, g(f (f −1 (F))) is ω ˆ -open in ( Z, η). Since f is surjective, g( F) is ω ˆ since g o f is completely contra ω ˆ open subset of ( Z, η). Thus, g is contra ω -closed map. ˆ -irresolute map and g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is any map such that Theorem 3.17 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is surjective ω

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ˆ -closed map, then g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω ˆ -closed g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω map. ˆ closed subset of ( Y, σ). Since f is ω ˆ -irresolute function, f −1 (F) is ω ˆ -closed subset of Proof. Let F -be any ω ˆ -closed map, g(f (f −1 (F))) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Since f is ( X, τ) and since g o f is completely contra ω ˆ ˆ surjective, g(F) is ω -open subset of ( Z, η). Thus, g is completely contra ω -closed map. ˆ -irresolute map such that Theorem 3.18 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is any function and g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is an injective, ω ˆ -closed map,then f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) is contra ω ˆ -closed map. g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω ˆ -closed map, g (f ( F)) is ω ˆ -open subset of Proof. Let F -be any closed subset of (X, τ). Since g o f is contra ω ˆ -irresolute function, g −1 (g(f (F))) = f (F) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ). Thus, f ( Z, η) and since g is injective ω ˆ -closed map. is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map such Theorem 3.19 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is any function and g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is an injective, ω ˆ -closed map,then f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) is completely contra ω ˆ that g o f : (X, τ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω closed map. ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Since g o f is completely contra ω ˆ -closed map, g (f ( F)) is ω ˆ Proof. Let F be any ω ˆ -irresolute map, g −1 (g(f (F))) = f (F) is ω ˆ -open subset of open subset of ( Z, η) and since g is injective, ω ˆ -closed map. ( Y, σ). Thus, f is contra ω ˆ -closed map and g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω ˆ -closed map, Theorem 3.20 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is ω ˆ -closed map. then g o f : (X, τ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω ˆ -closed map, f ( F) is ω ˆ -closed subset of ( Y, σ) and Proof. Let F be any closed subset of (X, τ). Since f is ω ˆ -closed map, g (f ( F)) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Thus, g o f is contra ω ˆ -closed since g is completely contra ω map. ˆ -closed map and g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω ˆ Theorem 3.21 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is strongly ω ˆ -closed map. closed map, then g o f : (X, τ) → ( Z, η) is completely contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Since f is strongly ω ˆ -closed function, f ( F) is ω ˆ -closed subset Proof. Let F be any ω ˆ -closed map, g (f (( F)) is ω ˆ -open in ( Z, η). Thus, g o f -is contra of ( Y, σ) and since g is completely contra ω ˆ -closed map. ω ˆ -Quotient and Contra ω ˆ -irresolute Mappings 4 Contra ω ˆ -quotient map if f is contra ω ˆ Definition 4.1 A surjective function f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is said to be contra ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ). continuous and f −1(V) is closed subset of (X, τ) implies that V is a ω ˆ -quotient map provided a Definition 4.2 A surjective function f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is said to be strongly contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). set V is open subset of ( Y, σ) iff f −1(V) is ω ˆ -quotient function is contra ω ˆ -continuous map. Theorem 4.3 Every strongly contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Therefore, f Proof. Let V be any open subset of ( Y, σ). By hypothesis, f −1(V) is ω ˆ -continuous map. is contra ω Remark 4.4 Reversible implication is not always true from the following example. Example 4.5 Let X = {a , b, c, d} τ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, X} Y = {p, q, r} σ = {∅,{p, q}, Y} . Define f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) as ˆ -continuous function but not strongly contra ω ˆ f (a ) = r , f ( b) = r , f (c) = p and f (d ) = q. Then f is contra ω quotient. ˆ -quotient and strongly contra ω ˆ -quotient are independent is understood Remark 4.6 The notion of contra ω from the following examples. Example 4.7 Let X = {a , b, c, d} , τ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, X} , Y = {p, q, r} σ = {∅,{p, q}, Y} . Define f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) ˆ -continuous,surjective and f −1 (p, q) is the only as f (a ) = r, f (b) = r, f (c) = p and f (d ) = q. Then f is contra ω ˆ open in ( Y, σ). Therefore it is contra ω ˆ -quotient. Further more, closed subset of (X, τ) as well as {p, q} is ω ˆ -closed sets in ( X, τ) but {p} and {q} are not open in ( Y, σ). Therefore, it is not a f −1({p}) and f −1({q}) are ω ˆ -quotient. strongly contra ω Example 4.8 Let X = {a , b, c, d} , τ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, X} , Y = {p, q, r} σ = {∅,{p},{p, q}, Y} . Define ˆ -quotient f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) as f (a ) = q, f ( b) = r , f (c) = p and f (d ) = q. Then f is surjective and strongly contra ω

map. Further more, f −1(p, q) is the only closed subset of

( X, τ)

ˆ open in and {p, q} is not a ω

( Y, σ).

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ˆ -quotient. Therefore, it is not a contra ω Theorem 4.9 Let f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) be any function. Then the following statements are equivalent. ˆ -quotient map. i) f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is contra ω ˆ -continuous and surjective function,then f −1 (V) is open subset of ( X, τ) ii) If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( Y, σ). implies that V is ω ˆ -continuous map. Suppose that f −1 (V) is Proof. (i) ⇒ (ii) Let f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) be a surjective and contra ω ˆ any open subset of (X, τ). Then X \ f −1(V) = f −1(Y \ V) is a closed subset of (X, τ) By hypothesis, Y \ V is ω ˆ -closed subset of ( Y, σ). open subset of ( Y, σ). Therefore, V is ω ˆ -continuous map. Suppose that V is any subset of (ii ) ⇒ (i) Let f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) be a surjective and contra ω

Y such that f −1 (V) is closed subset of ( X, τ). Then X \ f −1 (V) = f −1 (Y \ V) is open subset of ˆ -closed subset of ( Y, σ). Therefore, V is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ) hypothesis, Y \ V is ω ˆ -quotient map. f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) is contra ω

( X, τ).

By and hence

ˆ -continuous and contra ω ˆ -closed map,then f is Theorem 4.10 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is a surjective, contra ω ˆ -quotient map. contra ω ˆ -continuous map.It suffices to show that for any subset V of Y , Proof. Given that f is a surjective and contra ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ). Suppose that V is any subset of f −1(V) is closed subset of ( X, τ) implies that V is ω ˆ -closed and surjective, V = f (f −1 (V)) is ω ˆ Y such that f −1 (V) is closed subset of ( X, τ). Since f is contra ω ˆ -quotient map. open subset of ( Y, σ) and hence f is contra ω ˆ -quotient map, then f is contra ω ˆ -closed map. Theorem 4.11 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is an injective contra ω

Proof. Let V be any closed subset of (X, τ). Since f is injective by hypothesis, V = f −1(f ((V))) is closed ˆ -quotient map, f ( V ) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ). Thus, f is contra ω ˆ subset of (X, τ) and since f is contra ω -closed map. ˆ -irresolute function. If g : ( Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is a Theorem 4.12 Let f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) be surjective,closed and ω ˆ ˆ contra ω -quotient map, then g o f : (X, τ) → ( Z, η) is a contra ω -quotient map.

ˆ -continuous map, g −1 (F) is ω ˆ -open subset of Proof. Let F be any closed subset of ( Z, η). Since g is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, f −1 (g −1 (F)) = (g o f )(F) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( X, τ). Thus g o f is a and since f is ω ˆ -continuous map. As f and g are surjective maps, g o f is a surjective map. Suppose that V is any contra ω ( Y, σ)

subset of

g ( V ) = f (f of ( Z, η).

−1

( Z, η)

−1 −1

such that (g o f )−1(V) is closed in

( X, τ).

Since f is surjective and closed function

ˆ -quotient map, V is ω ˆ -open subset (g (V))) is closed subset of ( Y, σ) and since g is contra ω

ˆ -open set is ω ˆ -open. Let {A α : α ∈ Λ } be a covering of X by both Theorem 4.13 Assume that any union of ω ˆ -quotient map for each α ∈ Λ , then f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) is pre open and closed subsets of X. If f | A α is contra ω ˆ -quotient map. contra ω ˆ -continuous, f Proof. Since f | A α is surjective, f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is surjective. Since each f | A α is contra ω ˆ -continuous map. Suppose that F is any subset of Y such that f −1 (F) is open subset of ( X, τ). is contra ω

− 1

By

ˆ -closed subset of relative topology, ( f | A α ) ( F ) is open subset of ( Aα ,τ | Aα ) . By hypothesis, F is ω ˆ -quotient map. ( X, τ). Thus, f : ( X, τ) → ( Y, σ) is contra ω ˆ -irresolute function if f −1 (V) is ω ˆ -closed subset of Definition 4.14 f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is said to be contra ω ˆ -open set V of ( Y, σ). Equivalently, inverse image of ω ˆ -closed subset of ( Y, σ) is ω ˆ ( X, τ) for every ω open subset of (X, τ). Example 4.15 Let X = {a , b, c, d} τ = {∅,{a},{b},{a , b}, X} Y = {p, q, r} σ = {∅,{p, q}, Y} .Define f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) ˆ -irresolute function. as f (a ) = r, f (b) = r, f (c) = p and f (d ) = q. Then f is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map. Then the following statements hold. Theorem 4.16 Suppose that f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, then g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is ω ˆ -irresolute map. i) If g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, then g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map. ii) If g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is ω ˆ -continuous map, then g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is ω ˆ -continuous map. iii) If g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω

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ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Since g is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, g −1 (V) is ω ˆ -closed Proof. i) Let V be any ω ˆ -irresolute map, f −1 (g −1(V)) = (g o f )(V) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( X, τ). subset of ( Y, σ) and since f is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map. Thus, g o f is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Since g is ω ˆ -irresolute map, g −1 (V) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ) ii) Let V be any ω ˆ -irresolute map, f −1 (g −1(V)) = (g o f )(V) is ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Thus, g o f is and since f is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map. contra ω ˆ -continuous map, g −1 (V) is ω ˆ -closed subset of iii) Let V be any open subset of ( Z, η). Since g is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, f −1 (g −1(V)) = (g o f )(V) is ω ˆ -open subset of ( X, τ). Thus g o f ( Y, σ) and since f is contra ω ˆ -continuous map. is ω Theorem 4.17 If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) and g : (Y, σ) → ( Z, η) are such that ˆ -closed map and g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, then g is contra i) f is surjective strongly ω ˆ -irresolute map ω ˆ -irresolute map and g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) ˆ -open map, then f is ii) g is an injective contra ω is strongly ω ˆ -open map. completely contra ω ˆ -irresolute map and g o f : ( X, τ) → ( Z, η) iii) g is an injective contra ω ˆ f is strongly ω -closed map. ˆ -open map, then is completely contra ω

ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Since g o f is contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, (g o f )(V) = f −1 (g −1(V)) Proof. i) Let V be any ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Since f is surjective and strongly ω ˆ -closed map, g −1 (V) = f (f −1 (g −1 (V))) is ω ˆ is ω ˆ -irresolute map. closed subset of ( Y, σ). Thus, g is contra ω ˆ -open subset of ( X, τ). Since g o f is strongly ω ˆ -open map, (g o f )(V ) = g (f ( V )) is ω ˆ -open ii) Let V be any ω ˆ -irresolute map f (V) = g −1 (g(f (V))) is ω ˆ -closed subset of subset of ( Z, η). Since g is an injective contra ω ˆ -open map. ( Y, σ). Thus, f is completely contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Since g o f is completely contra ω ˆ -open map, (g o f )(V ) = g (f ( V )) iii) Let V be any ω ˆ -open subset of ( Z, η). Since g is an injective contra ω ˆ -irresolute map, f (V) = g −1 (g(f (V))) is ω ˆ -closed is ω ˆ -closed map. subset of ( Y, σ). Thus, f is strongly ω

5. Applications ˆ -open subset of (X, τ ) is open in (X, τ ). Theorem 5.1 If (X, τ ) is a submaximal space, then every ω ˆ -open subset of (X, τ ). By [5] Proposition 3.5, proof. Suppose that (X, τ ) is a submaximal space and V be any ω ˆ every ω -open set is pre-open. By [6] Theorem 4, every pre-open set is open in submaximal space. Therefore, V ˆ -open subset of (X, τ ). is ω Remark 5.2 Converse of Theorem 5.1 is not always true from the following example. ˆ -open subsets of (X, τ ) are Example 5.3 Let X = {a, b, c} and τ = { φ , {a}, X}. Then the set of all ω ˆ -open subset of (X, τ ) is open in (X, τ ) which is not a submaximal space. { φ , {a}, X}. Therefore, every ω

ˆ -open subset of (X, τ ). Lemma 5.4 In a semi regular space (X, τ ), every open subset of (X, τ ) is ω ˆ proof. By [2], every open subset is δ-open subset of (X, τ ) and by [5] Proposition 3.2, every δ-open subset is ω ˆ -open subset of (X, τ ). -open subset of (X, τ ). Therefore, every open subset of (X, τ ) is ω Remark 5.5 Converse of Lemma 5.4, is not always possible from the Example 5.3. ˆ closed map is completely contra ω ˆ closed Theorem 5.6 If (X, τ) is submaximal then every contra ω ˆ closed) map. (resp.strongly contra ω ˆ ( resp. a )-closed subset of a submaximal space ( X, τ). By Theorem 5.1, F is closed Proof. Let F be any ω ˆ closed map, then f ( F) is ω ˆ open subset of ( Y, σ). Therefore, f is subset of (X, τ) and since f is contra ω ˆ ˆ completely contra ω closed ( resp.strongly contra ω closed) map. ˆ -quotient map is contra ω ˆ -quotient map, provided that both domain and Theorem 5.7 Every strongly contra ω co-domain are semi-regular. ˆ -quotient map and V be any open subset of ( Y, σ). By Proof. Let f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) be a strongly contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Therefore, f is contra ω ˆ -continuous map. Suppose that F is hypothesis, f −1(V) is ω

any subset of Y such that f −1(F) is closed subset of (X, τ). Since X is semi-regular, by Lemma 5.4, f −1(F) is

5

Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.7, 2013

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ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Since f is strongly contra ω ˆ -quotient map, F is open in the semi-regular space ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ). ( Y, σ) and by Lemma 5.4, V is ω ˆ -quotient is strongly contra ω ˆ -quotient map, provided that both domain and coTheorem 5.8 Every contra ω

**domain are submaximal. ˆ -quotient map and V be any open subset of ( Y, σ). By hypothesis, Proof. Let f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) be a contra ω
**

ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Suppose that F is any subset of Y such that f −1 (F) is ω ˆ -closed subset of f −1(V) is ω ˆ ( X, τ). Since X is submaximal, by Theorem 5.1, f − 1 ( F ) is closed subset of ( X, τ). By hypothesis, F is ω -open subset of the submaximal space ( Y, σ) and by Theorem 5.1, F is open subset of ( Y, σ). ˆ -continuous and Theorem 5.9 Let ( Y, σ) be a submaximal space. If f : (X, τ) → (Y, σ) is surjective,contra ω ˆ -closed map, then f is strongly contra ω ˆ -quotient map. completely contra ω ˆ -continuous map, f −1 (V) is ω ˆ -closed subset Proof. Let V be any open subset of ( Y, σ). Since f is contra ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). of (X, τ). Finally,suppose that F is any subset of Y such that f −1(F) is ω

−1

Since f is

ˆ -closed map, f (f (V)) = V is ω ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ) and since Y is a surjective completely contra ω ˆ -quotient map. submaximal, V is open subset of ( Y, σ). Thus, f is strongly contra ω ˆ -irresolute Mappings.) Theorem 5.10 (Pasting Lemma for Contra ω Let (X, τ) be a topological space such that X = A ∪ B where A and B are both pre open and closed subsets of Let f: (A, τ |A) →(Y, σ) and f: (B, τ |B) →(Y, σ) be contra ˆω-irresolute functions such that f(x) = g(x) for every ˆ -irresolute function (f∇g )( x ) = f ( x ) for every x ∈ A and x ∈ A ∩ B. Then f and g combine to give a contra ω (f∇g )( y) = g ( y) for every y ∈ B. ˆ -open subset of ( Y, σ). Then (f∇g) −1 (F) = f −1 (F) ∪ g −1 (F) . By hypothesis, f −1 (F) and g −1 (F) Proof. Let F be ω ˆ -closed subsets of (A, τ |A )) and (B, τ |B ) respectively. By [5] Theorem 6.30 (i) (a), f −1 (F) and g −1 (F) are are ω ˆ -closed subsets of ( X, τ). By [5] Theorem 4.11, f −1(F) ∪ g −1 (F) is ω ˆ -closed subset of ( X, τ). Therefore, ω ˆ -irresolute function. (f∇g ) is contra ω

References 1. Dontchev J. (1996) Contra-continuous functions and strongly closed spaces, Int.J.Math.Mat.Sci., 19, 303- 10. 2. Dontchev J. and Ganster M. (1996) On δ-generalized closed sets and T3/4-spaces, Mem.Fac.Sci.Kochi Univ., (Math.), 17, 15-31. 3. Erdal Ekici. (2008) On open sets A* -sets and Decompositions of continuity and super continuity, Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest,Rolando Eotvos,Sect.Math., 51(1), 39-51. ˆ -closed sets in topological spaces", Assiut 4. El-Monsef M.E. ; Rose Mary S. ; Lellis Thivagar M. (2007) On αg University Journal of Mathematics and Computer Science, Vol -36, 43-51. 5. Maki H.; Lellis Thivagar M. ; Santhini S. & Anbuchelvi M. (2013) New sort of generalized closed sets, (submitted) 6. Reilly I.L. and Vamanamurthy M.K. (1990) On Some Questions Concerning Pre-open sets, Kyungpook Mathematical Journal, 30, No-1, 87-93. 7. Thivagar M.L. (1991) A note on Quotient Mappings, Bull.Malaysian Math.Soc.(Second series), 14, 21-30. 8. Thivagar M.L. and Anbuchelvi M. Remarks on non-contra continuity (accepted ) International Journal of Advanced Computer and Mathematical Sciences.

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