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Prescribed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board as a Textbook for class Seven from the academic year 2013

Mathematics
Class Seven

Written by
Saleh Motin Dr. Amal Halder Dr. Amulya chandra Mandal Sheik Kutubuddin Hamida Banu Begum A. K. M. Shahidullah Md. Shajahan Siraj

Edited by
Dr. Md. Abdul Matin Dr. Md. Abdus Samad

Language Specialist
Naheed Quayyum

NATIONAL CURRICULUM AND TEXTBOOK BOARD, DHAKA

Published by
National Curriculum and Textbook Board 69-70, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka
[All rights reserved by the publisher]

Trial Edition
First Edition: December, 2012

Co-ordinator
Md. Nasir Uddin

Computer Compose
Color Graphic

Cover
Sudarshan Bachar Sujaul Abedeen

Illustration
Md. Kabir Hossain

Design National Curriculum and Textbook Board
For free distribution from academic year 2010 by the Government of Bangladesh Printed by :

.Preface Education is the pre-requisite for holistic development. Besides. a broad range starting from moral and human values of the students. there could be some unintentional mistakes in it. Everything is done in the curriculum to enable students to grow up a scientifically conscious nation to be able to apply science in every sphere of life and to realize the Vision of Digital Bangladesh 2021. Prof. setting sample questions and publishing of the book. I hope the book will ensure happy reading and expected skill acquisition of the learners. environment. One of the most important objectives of Secondary Education is to develop students’ intrinsic talents and potentials to build the country in line with the spirit of the Language Movement and the Liberation War. Thanks to those who have sincerely applied their talent and labour in writing. With all these things under consideration Mathematics has been presented easily and nicely at the lower secondary level to make it useful and delightful to the learners. In the next edition of the book. the application of Mathematics has increased in family and social life including personal life. In the beginning of every chapter. Very little time was available for writing the textbook. learners’ ability. the Liberation War. In the curriculum. more care will be taken to make the book more elegant and error free. creative questions and other tasks are included to make teaching-learning and assessment more creative and effective. Various activities. and quite a number of mathematical topics have been included in the text book. there is a need for well-developed human resources. talent and receptivity. editing. awareness of history and culture. It will ensure also the learning of the students according to their age. religion-caste-creed and gender is given due importance. All textbooks are written in the light of this new curriculum. learning outcomes are added to indicate what they might learn. The new curriculum of secondary education has been developed keeping in mind the aims and objectives of the National Education Policy 2010. inclination aptitude and prior experience have been given due consideration. purpose of education at this stage is also to prepare students for higher levels of study by integrating and enhancing the basic knowledge and skills acquired at the primary level. arts-literature-heritage. objectives and demands of the time have been properly reflected. social. The secondary level of education also takes into consideration the process of learning that helps students become skilled and worthy citizens in the backdrop of country’s economic. Dhaka. national ideals. drawing. Mathematics plays an important role in developing scientific knowledge at this time of the 21st century. aims. Mostafa Kamaluddin Chairman National Curriculum & Textbook Board. cultural and environmental realities. nationalism. This textbook has been written keeping in mind the promise and vision of the 21st century and in accordance with the new curriculum. In order to face the challenges of the fast changing world and to accelerate the development and prosperity of Bangladesh. Special attention has been paid to the flourishing of creative talents of the students and for selecting and presenting the topics of the textbooks. So. Md. Not only that. In the development of the textbooks. In addition. any constructive and logical suggestions for its improvement will be paid mentionable attention. As a result.

Profit and Loss Measurement Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions Algebraic Formulae and Applications Algebraic Fractions Simple Equations Parallel Straight Lines Triangles Congruence and Similarity Information and Data Answer Pages 1-15 16-34 35-43 44-61 62-79 80-90 91-105 106-112 113-129 130-144 145-151 152-156 .CONTENTS Chapter One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Heading of the Chapter Rational and Irrational Numbers Proportion.

These numbers are known as rational numbers. ●●● ●●● ●●● In the figure. So the total number of marbles is 3 × 3 = 32 = 9. Here. . The marbles are placed at equal distances with 3 marbles in each of 3 rows. We say that the square of 3 is 9 and the square root of 9 is 3. ∴ A square is the product of multiplication of a number by itself and the number is the square root of the product. the students will be able to− ¾ Identify rational and irrational numbers ¾ Locate the rational and irrational numbers in the number line ¾ Explain square and square roots of a number ¾ Find square roots by the methods of factorization and division ¾ Solve real life problems by applying the methods of square roots. if the area of a square is x2 square units.1 Squares and square roots Geometrically a square is a rectangle with equal sides. At the end of this chapter. integer and fractional numbers. Apart from these. In our previous classes we have concepts of natural. Hence.Chapter One Rational and Irrational Numbers We quantify the objects around us by numbers. the number of marbles in a row and the number of rows are equal. then the length of each side is x units. there are numbers which can not be expressed as the ratio of two integers and these numbers are known as irrational numbers. 1. Conversely. In this chapter we shall be acquainted with irrational numbers and their applications. the figure is a square. These numbers can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. 9 marbles are arranged in a square array. The square with a side of x units has an area x2 square units.

Such numbers are square numbers. 49 is that they can be expressed as product of a n integer by itself. Generally. 1057. For example. number 36 49 64 81 100 Number 11 12 13 14 15 Sq. 6. Which of the followings numbers are perfect square? 2062. The digits 2. 4. If a number have any of the digits 0. 33333. The square root of a perfect square number is a natural number. 9. 25. 3.2 Mathematics Observe the following table : Length of a side of the square (m) 1 2 3 5 7 a Area of the square (m2) 1× 1 = 1 = 12 2 × 2 = 4 = 22 3 × 3 = 9 = 32 5 × 5 = 25 = 5 2 7 × 7 = 49 = 7 2 a × a = a2 The characteristic of the numbers 1. the square of numbers from 1 to 20 have been written : Number 1 2 3 4 5 Sq. 7 or 8 are not in the units place of any square numbers. 1. 4. 5. . number 121 144 169 196 225 Number 16 17 18 19 20 Sq. It is to be noted that the digits in the units place of these number are 0. This number is known as a perfect square number. 9 in its units place. the square of 21 is 212 or 441 which is a perfect square and square root of 441 is 21 which is a natural number. 5. Write five numbers whose digits in the units place help to draw conclusion that they are not square numbers. if a natural number m can be expressed as square n 2 of another natural number n then m is square number. number 1 4 9 16 25 Number 6 7 8 9 10 Sq. number 256 289 324 361 400 Let us observe the digits in the units place of the square numbers included in the table. 1068.6 or 9 only. 3. 4. 1. 23453. is it always a square number? 2. Activity : 1. Properties of Square Numbers In the following rows.

If the digit in units place is 4 or 6. root 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 .Rational and Irrational Numbers 3 Let us consider square numbers having 1 in the units place from the above table : Square number 1 81 121 361 Number 1 9 11 19 If the digit in units place is either 1 or 9. What would be the digit in the units place of the following numbers : 1273. number 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 Sq. the digit in units place of the square number will be 9. 2. 9876474. 99580. root 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sq. the digit in units place of the square number will be 6. 1426. Activity : 1. number 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 Sq. 13645. root 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sq. the digit in units place of the square number will be 1. From the table construct a rule for square numbers whose digit in the units place is 4. Similarly Square number 9 49 169 and Square number 16 36 196 256 Number 3 7 13 Number 4 6 14 16 If the digit in units place is either 3 or 7. number 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 Sq. A table of a few perfect squares along with their square roots are given below : Sq.

4 Mathematics Symbols of Square Root To express a square root. Observe : Steps to determine the square root of a perfect square number are: (1) At first. Example 1. The square root of 25 is written as 25 or (25 )2 . 16 = 4 × 4 = 42 2 16 ∴ Square root of 16 is 4 2 8 2 4 ∴ Resolving 16 into prime factors we get 2 16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = (2 × 2) × (2 × 2) Taking one factor out of every pair of factors. so the square root of 25 is 5. the given number is to be resolved into its prime factors (2) Each pair of same factors has to be written together. Finding square root through prime factorization : We know. two symbols are used. We know. we get 2 × 2 = 4 ∴ Square root of 16 = 16 = 4 2 36 2 18 3 9 3 Similarly. 5× 5 = 25. Activity : Make a list of perfect squares from a few natural numbers. side by side (3) One factor is to written from each pair of factors of same type (4) The successive multiplication of the written factors will be the required square root. Find the square root of 3136. 36 = 6 × 6 = 62 ∴ Square root of 36 is 6 ∴ We resolve 36 into prime factors and get 36 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 = (2 × 2) × (3 × 3) We take one factor from each pair of factors and get 2 × 3 = 6 1 36 = 6. ∴ Square root of 36 = Solution : 2 3136 2 1568 2 784 2 392 2 196 2 98 7 49 7 .

Draw a vertical line (sign of division) to the left of 704. (5) Subtract 16 from 23.3 Finding the square root by division method An example illustrates the method for finding the square root of a number : Example 2. Keep a space for inserting a digit in between 8 and the vertical line. 3136 ∴ =2×2×2×2×2×2×7×7 = (2 × 2) × (2 × 2) × (2 × 2) × (7 × 7) Square root of 3136 = 3136 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 7 = 56 Activity : Determine the square root of 1024 & 1849 with the help of prime factors.e. Write 4 at the right side of vertical line. Now write 16 just below 23. 23 04 23 04 (3) 23 04 (4) The first pair is 23. 23 04 4 16 23 04 4 16 7 (6) To the right of the result 7. take two digits at a time and form pairs. Find the square root of 2304 by division method. Place a horizontal line over every pair. whose square root is 16 or 4. (4 × 2) or 8 to the left side of vertical line. Draw a vertical line to the right of the number as in division. Solution : (1) (2) Write down the number 2304 From right side. Its previous square number is 16. 1. 23 04 4 16 8 7 04 . put the next pair 04.Rational and Irrational Numbers 5 Here. 23 04 4 16 7 04 (7) Put twice of the quotient 4 i.

23 04 48 16 88 7 04 7 04 0 (9) ∴ 48 is obtained in the quotient. Again.B. if even number of zeros are at the right of a number. 64. are perfect square. the number of points will be same as the number of digits in the square root. find an one digit number which is to be placed at the right of 8 so that the number so formed when multiplied by that digit equals to 704 or less than704. Put this 8 to the right of 4 in the quotient. In this case it is 8. that is. 81. Example 3. 36. 25. in the units place can never be a perfect square. Find the square root of 31684 by division method. if the last digit can not be in pair for of forming pairs from right side. Activity : Find the square root of 1444 and 10404 by of division method. : To find the square root by division method.6 Mathematics (8) Now. For example. . 49 etc. one factor is to be taken for the square root of that number. Some important points on square and square root : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) From each pair of equal prime factors of a number. 100. it will not be a perfect square. the number may be a perfect square. it has to be considered without pair. If a point is put on after every alternate digits of a number starting from right to the left. 2304 = 48 N. 4900 etc. Solution : 27 3 16 84 178 1 216 189 348 2784 2784 0 ∴ Square root of 31684 = 31684 = 178 Required square root is 178. are perfect squares. The number consisting of digit 2 or 3 or 7 or 8 at the extreme right. This is the required square root. A number may be a perfect square if the digit at its units place is 1 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 9. For example. If odd number of zeros are in the right of a number.

2. here number of dots over the number are two since 100 = 10 0 ) o o 47089 = 217 (consists of three digits. 5041 and 4489.Rational and Irrational Numbers 7 For example. Required least number is 6. So the given number is not perfect square. Find the digits at units place of the square root of the numbers 529. here number of dot over the number is one since 81 = 81 ) o 100 = 10 (consists of two digits. 81 = 9 (consists of one digit. Example 5. the remainder is 1565 in finding the square root. Example 4. The least number when added to 651201 will make the total sum a perfect square and then its square root will be 806 + 1 = 807 Square of 807 is 807 × 807 = 651249. here number of dots over the number are three since 47089 = 4 7 0 8 9 ) Activity : 1. 3925. Solution : . 1234321 and 52900. What is the least number which is to be subtracted from 8655 to get a perfect square number ? Solution : 86 55 93 81 183 5 55 5 49 6 Here. The required least number is 651249 – 651201 = 48. if 6 is subtracted from the given number then the number will be a perfect square. What is the least number which is to be added to 651201 to get a perfect square number ? 65 12 01 806 64 1606 1 12 01 96 36 15 65 Hence. o o o Therefore. 6 is the remainder in finding the square root of 8655 by division. Find the number of digits of square roots of the numbers 3136.

For each pair of zeros in the decimal of a number. horizontal line is to be drawn over the digits in pairs from the right side of decimal point.8 Mathematics Exercise 1. one zero is to be put after decimal point in the square root. There are two parts of a decimal fraction. horizontal bar is to be drawn on two digits each from the units place gradually to the left. 3. If a digit is left alone in this way. In the usual way of determining square root.4 Finding square root of decimal fraction The way in which the square root of the perfect square number or whole number is determined by long division. the quotient would be a perfect square ? (a) 972 (b) 4056 (c) 21952 What is the least number which is to be subtracted from 4639 so that the difference is a perfect square ? What is the least number to be added to 5605 so that the total sum is a perfect square ? 4. Find the square root of each by factorization: (a) 169 (b) 529 (c) 1521 Find the square root of each by division method: (a) 225 (b) 961 (c) 3969 (d) 11025 (d) 10404 What is the least number which is to be multiplied with the following numbers to get a perfect square number ? (a) 147 (b) 384 (c) 1470 (d) 23805 What is the least number by which when the following number are divided. the activity over the integer part is carried out and a decimal point should be put in the square root before considering the first two digits after decimal point. the square root of the decimal fraction is also determined in the same way. 6. (3) (4) . Steps for finding a square root (1) In the whole part. then a zero is put beside the digit and then the bar is put on two digits. The part on the left side of decimal point is the whole or integral part and the part on the right side of decimal point is called decimal part.1 1. 1. 5. (2) In the decimal part. 2.

If needed.B.Rational and Irrational Numbers 9 Example1. 2. at least 6 digits after the decimal are to be taken. the fourth digit after decimal is being 8. (3) . If the numbers after decimal place upto which square root is to be determine are 0. 1 is added with third digit and the required value of square root (upto 3 decimal places) becomes 3·042. Solution : Rules for finding approximate value of square root: (1) (2) To find the square root correct upto two decimal places. Find the square root of 0·002916 26·5225. 1 should not be added with the previous digit. after the last digit. 25 30 00 00 3·0418 9 604 25 30 24 16 6081 1 14 00 60 81 60828 53 19 00 48 66 24 4 52 76 Required square root = 3·042 (approx. To find the square root correct upto three decimal places. zero is to be added to the right as required. the square root upto three decimal point is to be determined. Solution : 0 ⋅ 002916 0·054 26·5225 5·15 25 25 104 416 101 1 52 416 1 01 0 1025 51 25 Required square root = 0·054 51 25 Required square root 5·15 0 Solution : Determination of square root in approximate value : Example 3. 1.) N. 3 or 4. 9. It does not change the value of the number. Find the square root of Example 2. Find the square root of 9·253 upto three decimal places. : In the above square root.

Activity: 1. 7. 32 16 25 Here. Find the square root of 7⋅12 upto two decimal places. 1 is to be added to the previous digit.10 Mathematics (4) If the next digit after decimal place upto which square root is to be determined is 5. When the numerator and denominator of a 16 fraction are perfect square or numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are perfect square. the numerator of the fraction is 25. we get 25 . the fraction is said to be a perfect square fraction. 2. 64 . Find the square root of 52 9 . Example 4. 6. which is a perfect square number and 16 denominator 16 is also a perfect square number. 1⋅5 Perfect square fraction 50 is reduced to least form. Find the square root of 81 Solution : Square root of the numerator 64 of the fraction = 64 = 8 and square root of denominator 81 = 81 = 9 ∴ Square root of 64 = 81 64 8 = 81 9 Required square root = 8 9 Example 5. If the denominator is not a perfect square number then it is to be transformed into perfect square by multiplication. 25 is a perfect square fraction. 8 or 9. 1⋅6 Square root of a fraction The square root of fraction is determined by dividing the square root of numerator by the square root of denominator of the fraction. Find the square root of 50⋅6944. 16 1 9 Solution : Square root of 52 = 52 9 = 841 = 29 = 7 16 4 4 16 16 1 ∴ Square root of 52 9 = 7 16 4 . If So.

etc. . are not perfect squares. the square root of the numbers which is not perfect square is an irrational number. etc... 5 1⋅7 Rational and irrational numbers 1. 3× 2 6 1 . .. 0⋅1 = 10 10 100 0 Again. 49 8 2. So..4.. etc. ..... Find the square root of 1 upto two decimal places. the number 3. 15 1 203 ..... etc. 15 38 = 15 15 38 × 15 15 × 15 = 570 = 23 ⋅ 8747 = 1·5916 (app. Find the square root of 2 Solution : The square root of 2 8 = 28 = 15 15 8 upto three decimal places.. is a fractional number. Find the square root of 27 46 .. So. . ... Similarly.. can not be expressed in a fractional form. These are irrational Observe : 2 . all natural numbers and fractions are rational numbers.Rational and Irrational Numbers 11 Example 6. the numbers of digits after decimal are not fixed... 2⋅03..6.. 6 . 3 . 2 2 1 1 Again.. etc. zero. are decimal numbers. 0 = . 0...3= = ..3.) 225 ∴ The square root upto three decimal places = 1·592 (approx.....1. 2⋅03 = which are fractional forms of the numbers.. 1⋅5. are natural numbers.. These numbers can be expressed in the form of a fraction... .2.. Here... 1 The numbers discussed above are rational numbers.. 5 . are irrational numbers and the numbers 2.... 1⋅5 = ...5. numbers.. So.. 5..) Activity : 1.. 6 . it cannot be expressed in a fractional form.2= 2... etc. 1= Irrational Numbers : 2 = 1 ⋅ 4142135 .3......

0 1 2 Again..732 . 4 . 1⋅8 Expression of rational and irrational numbers in a number line The number line of rational numbers Observe the number line as below : 0 1 2 3 4 5 The dark point on the above number line denotes 2. the darkened point is the location of of 3 on the number line. it denotes 3 approximately. 25 .12 Mathematics Example 7. which is natural number 72 = 2 × 36 = 2 × 6 2 = 6 2 . 121 . 16 32 .455 and 5 in the number line. Separate the rational and irrational number from 1 1 . 9 25 . 1. 4 Irrational numbers on the number line : 3 is an irrational number where 3 = 1. 3 . Locate the numbers 3. Hence. 2 4 .. 72 . = 52 = 5 . are rational numbers and 72 is an irrational number. 0 2 1 2 3 Activity : 1. the position of the dark point lies between 1 and 2. 9 7 and Activity : 1... 25 27 . in the above number line. 0 ⋅ 12 = 12 = 3 . 1 ⋅ 0563. ie. So.) Now.. 100 25 0 ⋅12.. 7 Solution : Here. which can not be written as fraction 49 72 7 = = = 1 . Select the irrational number from the following numbers 49 . mark the 7th part with a dark point which denotes 1⋅7. . which is a fractional number. = 1. the dark point denotes 1 + 4 3 or 1 . 25 . 3 The denoted dark point lies at 3 out of 4 parts..7 (approx. dividing the segment in between 1 and 2 into 10 equal parts.. . which is a natural number 7 7 7 4 49 ∴ 0 ⋅ 12.

M. This least number will be L. Therefore. Example 9. 5. of 9. The number required to arrange in 9. To make a perfect square (2 × 2) × (3 × 3) × 5 is to be multiplied at least by 5. 12 96 36 9 66 3 96 3 96 0 The required number of trees is 36. 12 3 9. Here. there are 1296 mango trees. A scout team can be arranged in 9. In a garden. Solution : The scout team can be arranged in 9. 6 3. Find the number of trees in each row of the garden. (2 × 2) × (3 × 3) × 5 can not be arranged in square form. 10 and 12. 10 and 12 rows and also in square form is (2 × 2) × (3 × 3) × (5 × 5) = 900 ∴ The required number of scouts is 900. ∴ The number of trees in each row will be the square root of 1296. 2 9. Find the minimum number of scouts in that scout team.M. 10 and 12 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × 5 = (2 × 2) × (3 × 3) × 5 But obtained L. Here.M. . the number of scouts is divisible by 9. 10 and 12 rows. of 9. 2 ∴ L.Rational and Irrational Numbers 13 Example 8.C. 10 and 12. 5. 10 and 12 rows. 10.C. they can be arranged in a square form. Along the length and breadth of the garden there are equal number of mango trees. Solution : There are equal number of mango trees in each row along both length and breadth of the garden. Again.C.

The price of each plant is Tk. A farmer buys 595 plants for making a garden.1025 ? (a) 1. 16 is a perfect square fraction 225 iii.5 (b) 1. 144 (c) 11 (c) 169. 12 (a) How much money did he spend to buy the plants? (b) How many of the plants will be left if number of plants in each row of the garden is equal to number of rows? (c) What is the least number which is to be added to the difference of the number of total taka of spent and the number of plants so that the sum will be a perfect square number? .14 Mathematics Exercise 1⋅2 1. the square root of 0. Answer the following question using the above information: (i) If one of the number is 12.01 ii. The value of (a) i and ii 3 is almost equal to 2.0001 is 0. ii and iii On the basis of above information which one of the following is true? 5. What is the square root of 289 ? 361 (a) 13 19 (b) 17 19 (c) 19 13 (d) 19 17 2. (b) ii and iii (c) i and iii (d) i. Observe the information below: i. The difference of square of two consecutive numbers is 25. 169 (b) 9 (b) 121. 225 (2) What are the squares of the numbers? (3) 25 is to be subtracted from the square of which of the two numbers so that the difference is a perfect square? (a) the greater one (b) smaller one (c) both (d) none of the above 4.05 3. 196 (d) 13 (d) 196.05 (d) 0. What is the square root of 1.005 (c) 1. what is the other one? (a) 5 (a) 144.

find the number of the labours. 9 rows. The difference of squares of two consecutive numbers is 37. 17. (b) What is the least number by which the number in troops is to be multiplied so that the troops can be arranged in a square form? (c) At least how many troops should have to join to arrange troops so obtained in a square form ? (d) 32 241 324 9. Find the two numbers. 6250. 6. The daily wage of each labour is 10 times of their numbers. If the total daily wage is Tk. Each member of a cooperative society subscribes 20 times the number of the members in Takas. find the number of members of the society. 15. 14. 12. but cannot be arranged in a square form. 8. 11. Find the square root: (a) 0·36 (b) 2⋅25 (e) 0⋅000576 7. Find the number of students in each row. 18. (c) 0⋅0049 (f) 144⋅841225 (d) 641⋅1024 Find the square root upto two decimal places: (c) 0⋅036 (a) 7 (b) 23⋅24 Find the square root of the following fractions: (b) 49 (c) 11 97 (a) 1 144 121 64 Find the square root upto three decimal places: (a) 6 (b) 2 5 (c) 7 9 6 13 7 At least how many soldiers is to be removed or is to be added with 56728 soldiers so that the soldiers can be arranged in form of a square. Find out the number of trees in each row. What is the least perfect square number which is divisible by 9. In a garden 36 trees were left excess while planting 1800 trees in square. 20480. 2704 students of a school can be arranged in a square for display. 13. The total amount raised being Tk. . 10. 16.Rational and Irrational Numbers 15 6. (a) Find the factors of 6. 15 and 25 ? Labours were employed to reap paddy from a paddy field. Find two such consecutive least numbers whose difference of squares is a perfect square? A troops can be arranged in 5.

length : breadth : height = 8 : 5 : 6 Here. time and distance and boat and tide using unitary method and ratio in real life ¾ Explain what profit and loss is ¾ Solve problems related to profit and loss ¾ Solve problems of daily life related to tax. breadth and height of a box are 8 cm. the subsequent of first ratio which is the age of the father in this case is equal to antecedent of second ratio. 2⋅1 Ratio of multiple expressions and successive ratios Ratio of multiple expressions: Let us suppose that. we face various types of problems and we can easily solve all these problems using the concept and explanation of ratio and proportion. To convert two ratios into successive ratio. If the subsequent of first ratio is not equal to the antecedent of second ratio. the length. In this context students should have clear knowledge about profit and loss. then they are made equal to find the successive ratio. The ratio of three or more quantities of this type is called the ratio of multiple expressions. The ratio of length. In this chapter the topics related to ratio. It is to be noted that. This type of ratio is called successive ratio. ¾ Explain the concept of proportion ¾ Solve problems related to proportions ¾ Solve problems related to time and work. both the antecedent and the subsequent of second ratio are to be multiplied by the subsequent of first ratio and both antecedent and subsequent of first ratio are to be multiplied by antecedent of second ratio. Profit and Loss In our daily life. we come across at large scale with transactions and its related loss and profit in our daily life. and 6 cm. proportion and profit-loss are discussed in detail. Successive ratio : Let us suppose that the ratio of ages of son and father = 15 : 41 and the ratio of the ages of father and grandfather = 41 : 65. the students will be able to – ¾ Explain the ratio of multiple expressions and the successive ratios. the ratio of three quantities is represented. At end of this chapter. respectively. tube and tank. breadth and height = 8 : 5 : 6 In brief. So students should have the concept of ratio and proportion and they must acquire the skill of their application.Chapter Two Proportion. Similarly. 5 cm. . When two ratios are put together we get son’s age : father’s age : grandfather’s age = 15 : 41 : 65. VAT and money exchange.

Here. Among them if we consider first quantity 25. Of the four quantities. Here the ratio of the prices of salt and chips = 25 : 10 or 5:2. then we can write. if the ratio of first and second quantity and the ratio of third and fourth quantity are equal to each other. second quantity 10. 19 : 25 and 9 : 17 2⋅2 Proportion Let us suppose that Shohag bought a packet of chips with Tk. we can say. There are 4 quantities in this ratio. Profit and Loss 17 Example 1. there are 70 students in the class of Shohag. 25 : 10 = 50 : 20. Each quantity of proportion is called proportional. Again. 25 from a shop. then the four quantities form a proportion. Alternative solution : Solution : First ratio = 7 : 5 = 7 5 7 × 8 56 = = 5 × 8 40 = 56 : 40 first ratio = 7 : 5 = 7 × 8 : 5 × 8 = 56 : 40 second ratio = 8 : 9 = 8 × 5 : 9 × 5 = 40 : 45 Second ratio =8:9 = 8 9 8 = × 5 = 40 9 × 5 45 = 40 : 45 ∴ Successive ratio of two ratios is 56 : 40 : 45 Activity : Express the following ratios as successive ratio : 1. Express them as successive ratio. salt with Tk.Proportion. Among them. the ratio of the number of boys and girls = 50 : 20 or 5 : 2. third quantity 50 and fourth quantity 20. . Therefore. 23 : 11 and 7 : 13 3. 7 : 5 and 8 : 9 are two ratios. the ratios are equal. first quantity: second quantity = third quantity : fourth quantity. In both the cases. 10 and 1 kg. there are 50 boys and 20 girls. 12 : 17 and 5 : 12 2.

6. Determine the fourth proportional of 3. 7 and 14. if the second quantity and third quantity are equal. we can write 25 : 10 : : 50 : 20. Solution : Here. then first quantity × fourth quantity = (second quantity)2. In proportion the symbol ‘: :’ is used instead of the symbol ‘=’ . We know that. first quantity × fourth quantity = second quantity × third quantity ∴ ∴ 8 × 14 = 7 × third quantity third quantity = 8 × 14 or 16 7 1 2 Required third quantity is 16 . the second quantity is 6 and the third quantity is 7 We know that.18 Mathematics The first and second quantities of a proportion are of same kind and the third and fourth quantities are of another kind. • first and fourth quantities of proportion are called marginal quantities. the first quantity is 8. Hence it is not necessary that the four quantities should be of same kind. then a proportion will be formed. Solution : Here. Again. If two quantities of each ratio are of same kind. first quantity : second quantity = third quantity : fourth quantity or first quantity second quantity = third quantity fourth quantity or first quantity × fourth quantity = second quantity × third quantity Observe. • second and third quantities of proportion are called mid-quantities. the first and fourth quantities of proportion are called marginal quantities and second and third quantities are called mid-quantities. 7. So. first quantity × fourth quantity = second quantity × third quantity ∴ 3 × fourth quantity = 6 × 7 2 6 or fourth quantity = × 7 or 14 3 1 Required fourth proportional is 14 Example 3. the first quantity is 3. Determine the third quantity of 8. Example 2. the second quantity is 7 and the fourth quantity is 14.

a × c = b 2 . if the three quantities are known. Observe : • Second quantity is called mid-proportional or mid-quantity of first and third quantities. multiplication of first and third quantities is equal to b c the square of second quantity. c are proportionals of the proportion a : b : : b : c. first quantity × third quantity = (second quantity)2 Here. second and third quantities are 9. If three quantities a. Then. 5. That is. then the proportion is called continued proportion. • The three quantities of continued proportion are of same kind. ∴ 4 × 16 = (mid-quantity)2 ∴ (mid-quantity)2 = 64 ∴ mid-quantity = 64 = 8 Required continued proportion is 4 : 8 :: 8 : 16 and mid-proportional is 8. we can form two ratios 5 : 10 and 10 : 20 with three quantities Tk. first quantity × fourth quantity = second quantity × third quantity Let us suppose that. first quantity = 4 and third quantity = 16. Out of three quantities if the ratio of first and second quantities and the ratio of second and third quantities are mutually equal. 10 and Tk. Example 4. 20. The three quantities are called continued proportional. Profit and Loss 19 Activity : Fill in the gaps of the following : (a) : 9 :: 16 : 8 (b) 9 : 18 :: 25 : Continued Proportion : Let us suppose that. then a b = or. If first and third quantities of a continued proportion are 4 and 16. 5 : 10 : : 10 : 20 This type of proportion is called continued proportion. 5. 18 and 20 respectively. determine mid-proportional and continued proportion. Tk. . Tk. 20 are called continued proportional. Tk. 10 and Tk.Proportion. Solution : We know that. we can write 5 : 10 = 10 : 20 or. then fourth quantity can be determined. first. The rule of three We know. The method of finding the forth quantity is called rule of three. b. Here. 9 × fourth quantity = 18 × 20 or fourth quantity 2 18 × 20 = 9 1 = 40 ∴ fourth quantity is 40 In this way.

500 = Tk. 500 is to be distributed in the ratio of 3 : 2. 12 persons can do a piece of work in 9 days. the simple ratio of the number of persons is equal to the inverse ratio of time periods. 200 : the price of 7 notebooks 5 Tk. 500 = Tk. 300 5 2 and the second portion = parts of Tk. To divide a given quantity into various parts of fixed ratio is called proportional division. Required time = 3 1 Proportional division Let us suppose that Tk. That is. how many days would 18 persons take to complete the work? Solution : It is to be noted that. 200 5 ∴ The first portion = So. At the same rate of working. the price of notebooks will be increased. Here. if the period of time are to be reduced. = 7 the price of 7 notebooks 40 7 × Tk. 200 or. 280. the sum of antecedent and subsequent of the ratio 3 : 2 = 3 + 2 = 5 3 parts of Tk. . the ratio of the number of notebooks = the ratio of the prices of notebooks ∴ 5 : 7 = Tk. ∴ 12 : 18 = Required time : 9 days 2 12 = Required time or. 200. Example 6. If the price of 5 notebooks is Tk. if the number of persons be increased then the period of time will be reduced. the number of persons will have to be increased. Again. Here. What is the price of 7 notebooks? Solution : Here. if the number of notebooks is increased.20 Mathematics Example 5. 200 ∴ the price of 7 notebooks = 5 1 = Tk. 9 days 18 3 3 2 × 9 days = 6 days or. quantity of one part = given quantity × propotional number of that part sum of the antecedent and subsequent quantities In the this way a quantity may be divided into various parts.

= 4 m. 72 = Tk. 10 The part of Sumit = 3 parts of 20 m. Profit and Loss 21 Example 7. Sumit and Chaitee. Feroja and Khadija then how much will each of them get ? Tk. 570 are to be divided among three students in the ratio of their ages. 20 1 or. = 6 m. Sumit and Chaitee are 10m. What is the quantity of cloth for each ? Solution : Quantity of cloth = 20 m. cloth is to be divided in the ratio 5 : 3 : 2 among three siblings Amit. ∴ Robin’s income is Tk. a : b : c. Activity : 1. determine. and that of Tapan and Robin is 5 : 4. 10 ∴ The part of Amit. 2. 3. If the income of Ponir is Tk. = 10 m.Proportion. 13 and 15 years respectively. then how much will each of them get? Example 8. If a : b = 4 : 5. 20 m. If Tk. The ratio of income of Ponir and Tapon is 4 : 3. 6m and 4m respectively. 72 . and the part of Chaitee 10 = 2 parts of 20 m. 4800 is divided in the ratio 4 : 3 : 1 among Aisha. b : c = 7 : 9. If their ages are 10. 120. what is the income of Robin ? 3 15 3× 5 5 × 3 15 5 = = 15 : 12 the ratio of income of Tapon and Robin is 5 : 4 = = 4 × 3 12 4 20 = 20:15 Solution: The ratio of income of Ponir and Tapan is 4 : 3 = 4 = 4 × 5 = Ponir’s income : Tapon’s income : Rabin’s income = 20 : 15 : 12 ∴ Ponir’s income : Robin’s income = 20 : 12 Ponir' s income 20 = Robin' s income 12 Ponir' s income × 12 or. Robin’s income = 20 6 120 × 12 = Tk. given ratio = 5 : 3 : 2 Sum of the numbers of ratio = 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 ∴ The part of Amit = 5 parts of 20 m.

13⋅5. Form the proportion. 7. 25 (e) 125 boys and 25 teachers. 1 1 : :: 3 5 7 10 5. 49 (d) 5 2 . 7. Sami and Siam in the ratio of 5 : 4 : 2. what is the price of 25 kg rice? 550 shirts are made daily in a garments factory. Two marginal quantities of the continued proportion are given below. Determine the fourth proportional of the following quantities: 1 (a) 5. 28 cm. 4200 in the ratio of their ages. how much will each of them get ? If Tk. 10. 2160 is divided among Rumi. 9. Write down proportion using the following quantities : (a) 3 kg. Their father divided Tk. 2500 and Tk. 6. 7 years and 9 years respectively. 33 (c) 16. 600. 4⋅5. 180. 6300 amongst them. 4 (e) 5. 24. and 1 minute (d) 12 notebooks. 25. 18 years and 20 days (c) 7 cm. determine how much will Labib and Sami get ? Sabuj. He gave Tk. 10 (b) 15. Tk. 7 2 If the price of 15 kg rice is Tk. Find their amounts ? . 20 and Tk. 15 pencils. 24 3. Jesmin and Kakali in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. If Siam gets Tk. Dalim and Linkon are three brothers. 500 2. 15 seconds. Fill in the gaps : (a) 11 : 25 :: (d) 4. Tk.1 7 5 (e) 1⋅5. How many shirts are made in a week? Ages of three sons of Mr. Tk. Kabir are 5 years. 81 (c) 16. Thus Sabuj gets 3 parts of Dalim and Dalim gets double of 5 Linkon. : 50 : (b) 7 : (e) :: 8 : 64 (c) 2⋅5 : 5⋅0 :: 7 : : 12⋅5 :: 5 : 25 (b) 25. how much will each of them get ? Some money are being divided among Labib.22 Mathematics Exercise 2⋅1 1. 10 (b) 9 years. 8. 32 (d) 8. 10 days. 5. 8 . 6 kg. (a) 6. and Tk.

4200 is divided amongst three students in the ratio of their classes. 60. Again. The ratio of income of Salman and Yousuf is 4 : 5. In that piece of ornament. he sold 12 ball pens at Tk. Mimuna and Raisa in the ratio 4 : 3 : 1 how much taka will each of them get ? 15. 5 = Tk. Find how many grams of silver are there in an ornament weighing 19 grams. 12 The cost price of 1 ball pen is Tk. If they are the students of Class VI. Here. As a result the selling price 12 of 1 ball pen is Tk. If a : b = 4 : 7. ∴ Loss = Cost price – Selling price = Tk. The ratio of income of Solaiman and Salman is 5 : 7. 14. (20−18) = Tk.Proportion. then there is a loss. zinc and silver. what is the income of Yousuf ? 2⋅3 Profit-Loss A shopkeeper bought one dozen ball pen at Tk. 12. 1 for each ballpen. The selling price of 1 ball pen is Tk. Here shopkeeper bought 12 ball pen at Tk. 6 – Tk. Again. 9600 is divided amongst Sara. 120. The purchasing price of any thing is called cost price and the selling price of that thing is called selling price. shopkeeper gains a profit Tk. . As a result the cost price of 1 ball pen is Tk. In that sweet drink. Here the banana seller has a loss of Tk. 13. If the income of Solaiman is Tk. 5. find a : b : c. VII and VIII. how many taka will each of them get ? 16. 72.72. Profit and Loss 23 11. If the selling price is more than the cost price then it is profitable. If the selling price is less than the cost price. 1. 60 or Tk. 2. b : c = 10 : 7. the ratio of bronze and zinc is 1 : 2 and the ratio of Zinc and silver is 3 : 5. Tk. If Tk. 18. Two equal size glasses are filled with sweet drink. let us suppose. a banana seller bought a bunch of four bananas at Tk. 6. ∴ Profit = Selling price − Cost price = Tk. A piece of ornament is made by mixing bronze. 2 for each bunch of four bananas. 72 or Tk. 60 and sold at Tk. 20 and sold at Tk. If the sweet drink of two glasses are mixed together. 6. the ratio of water and syrup in the first glass is 3 : 2 and in the second glass it is 5 : 4 respectively. find the ratio of water and syrup. 5.

000) = Tk. 18. 1. 20 there is loss Tk.. Again. then he gains ( Tk.000 − Tk.50. 1.. 5 is sold at Tk.000. employees’ salaries.24 Mathematics Let us suppose that.. 20 1 × 100 . If that merchant investing Tk. All these costs are added to the cost price of the cloth. (2. 2 20 ∴ .. 1 . . ∴ Required loss is 10%. then there is a profit of Tk.000) = Tk. .. Tk. y That is. Tk. Tk. the rent of shop. That is. Selling price = Cost price + Profit or.. . then he would have a loss of Tk. 5 2 × 100 ..80..000 in a month. 1 5 ∴ ∴ Required profit is 20%. The sum of these is called investment. 2. 50. 2. 10 20 1 .00... Tk. electric bill of the shop and miscellaneous expenses. Observe : Profit = Selling price – Cost price or. 2 ∴ . then his loss is Tk.. 1 ∴ . .000 as profit. 1 .80. Cost price = Selling price + Loss or..000 – 1. 20 5 1 The banana seller buying bananas at Tk. For example in the discussion above we see that when a ballpen bought at Tk.00. 6. Tk. . 100 . a cloth merchant who rented a shop appointed 5 employees.. Selling price = Cost price – Loss We can express profit or loss in percentage. 20. for Tk.50. He bears.. . = Tk. 2. if he sold cloth at Tk.000. Tk.00.000 sold cloth at Tk. 2. 20 sold at Tk.. 100 . Tk.. . Tk. Cost price = Selling price – Profit y Loss = Cost price – Selling price or. = Tk. 5 there is profit Tk. for Tk. 2.

15 75 1 20 15× 100 ∴ . Tk. it is profitable. What is his loss ? Solution : Here. 15 . 1200 Here. 100 ∴ Required loss is Tk. what is the percentage of profit ? Solution : Here. 20 75 5 1 ∴ Required profit is 20%. 1000 = Tk. An orange seller bought 100 oranges for Tk. Tk. Tk. 1 . = Tk. 90 – Tk. 1200 − Tk. . 75 = Tk. Due to reduction of the price of rice. ∴ the selling price being less than the cost price. 1200. 100 Example 11. Profit = selling price – cost price = Tk. he sold it at Tk. That is. What is his profit ? Solution : The selling price of 100 oranges is Tk. 90.Proportion. 75 and is sold at Tk. If 15 ball pens are bought at Tk.. it is profitable. the cost price of one sack of rice is Tk. 1600 and the selling price of one sack of rice is Tk.. 15 ∴ In Tk. ∴ Profit = selling price – cost price = Tk. 1600 − Tk.. 75 and the selling price of 15 ball pens is Tk. 90 the selling price being more than the cost price. 1000 and sold it for Tk.. Profit and Loss 25 Example 9. . 200.. ∴ Required profit is Tk. Tk. A shopkeeper bought one sack of 50 kg of rice at Tk. 1500 = Tk. 1500. 200. ∴ Loss = cost price – selling price = Tk. 1500. . 1000 The cost price of 100 oranges is Tk. 1600. the shopkeeper bears a loss.. Example 10. 100 . . 75 the profit is Tk.. the cost price of 15 ball pens is Tk. the selling price being more than cost price.

350 = Tk. 100 . Tk. Tk. = Tk. ∴ Loss = cost price – selling price = Tk. Tk. . Tk. he lost Tk. 500. the selling price being less than the cost price there is a loss ∴ The price of 1 . the selling price of 1 hilsha is Tk. 400. 50 ∴ For Tk. 1 . Tk. If it is sold for Tk. 1600. Tk. .. 2750 450 3200 3600 3200 400 ∴ Profit is Tk. Tk. Tk.. there is a loss of Tk. 75 per kg.. he sold each hilsha at Tk... 1600 400 1600 4 = Tk. A tea seller buys one box of tea-leaves at the rate of Tk.. . 3600. 80 per kg. 12 400 2 2 4 2 ∴ Loss is 12 1 % 2 Example 13. A fish seller bought four hilsha fishes at Tk. 50 . 450. selling price cost price subtracting. . What is the percentage of his gain or loss ? Solution : The price of 4 hilsha = Tk. profit = = = = = = Tk. = Tk. 400 Again. 400 – Tk. 400 there is loss of Tk. 350. When a person sells a box of grapes for Tk. Selling the whole tea-leaves at the rate Tk. 350 Here. then what is the profit or loss ? Solution : Selling price of grapes loss adding. How many kgs of tea-leaves did he buy ? . Example 14. cost price Again. 50 400 ∴ 25 1 1 25 50× 100 .. 2750.. . Tk. Tk.26 Mathematics Example 12.

90 . 5 1 ∴ 100 kgs tea-leaves is bought. 100. . Tk.. (100 + 5) = Tk. ∴ The cost price of (5+6) dozen or 11 dozen is Tk. 5 There is loss Tk. Tk.. Tk. the selling price = Tk. 80 Selling price of per kg of tea-leaves = Tk.. 1 .. 505 .. he gets Tk. If the selling price is Tk. 500 . (100 − 10) = Tk. An egg seller purchases 5 dozen of eggs at the rate of Tk. = 100 kgs Example 15. Cost price of 1 dozen is Tk. 6 .. 1 . . 90. 75 ∴ Selling 1 kg of tea-leaves there is a loss of Tk. 98. the cost price of the goat is Tk. 450 more.. What is the cost price ? Solution : Let us suppose that. than it is 5% profitable. (505 + 540) = Tk. 5 for 1 kg . 540 Again. .... Profit and Loss 27 Solution : Cost price of per kg of tea-leaves = Tk. 101 ∴ ... 98 ∴ If one dozen is sold at Tk. In 10% loss the selling price is Tk. 3 for each dozen. . 105 . . 101 and 6 dozen at the rate of Tk. . What should be the selling price if he wants to gain Tk... . 95 11 On an average the cost price of 1 dozen eggs is Tk.. 3 per dozen? Solution : Cost price of 1 dozen is Tk. 101× 5 = Tk.. 90× 6 = Tk. 5 . .Proportion. . 90 In 5% profit the selling Tk. 5 100 1 × 500 . 3 as profit. (95 + 3) = Tk. A goat is sold at a loss of 10%. Tk. Example 16.... 95 For profit of Tk.. . 1045 = Tk. 1045 ∴ The cost price of 1 dozen = Tk.

100 1 ∴ Nabil paid Tk. 15 more. 250 per kg from a sweetshop. .200 and a three piece at Tk.. 2 kg .. . (105 − 90) = Tk.. . 27650. .. 250 ∴ .. Tk. Tk. Monthly basic pay of Mr. . Ishraq bought one dozen pencil at Tk.80. . If the tax for next slab of income is at the rate of Tk... 1. . how many taka did he pay to the shopkeeper ? Solution : The price of 1 kg Sandesh is Tk..800... . . Example 17.. If the rate of VAT is Tk.. Nasir pay as income tax? . 4 ∴ ∴ . If the rate of VAT is Tk. 100 15 30 15 1 Tk. Kona bought a silk saree at Tk. The tax for annual income for Tk. 500 VAT for Tk. 1 . 20 Tk. .. (250 × 2) = Tk.. Observation : Tax payable at a fixed rate with the cost price of a thing is called VAT (Value Added Tax).. Activity : 1.. ... 1. 100 × 450 = Tk.. how many taka will she pay to the shopkeeper ? 2. . Tk. how many taka does Mr. 500 . 15 If the selling price is Tk. 4 100 . Nabil bought 2 kgs of Sandesh at the rate of Tk.. . If the rate of VAT is Tk.. Tk. . . 1.000 The cost price of the goat is Tk. . .. 5 4 × 500 = Tk. Nasir is Tk. 4 percent..28 Mathematics The selling price is in 5% profit – the selling price in 10% loss = Tk.. 4 per 100.. 3000. 100 ∴ . then the cost price is Tk. Tk. Tk. 1 ..000 is Tk. 250 from a stationery shop.. . . 3. Tk. 450 . Tk. (500 + 20) = Tk... . ∴ . what is the price of each pencil ? Example 18. 100 is Tk. 0. 4 percent.. 520 to shopkeeper.. . 10 per 100..

1 . Tk. What is the amount of profit or loss ? 4. 5.. or Tk. 100 is Tk.80. Prodip Gregory is a businessman.. 1. The buying rate of Milk vita milk Tk. Profit and Loss 29 Solution : Monthly basic pay per month is Tk.51.. sold it at the rate of Tk.. Nasir pays Tk.. If a shopkeeper bought 5 metres of cloth at the rate of Tk. Tk. 10 100 1518 10 × 1 . for 12 months = Tk.650 ∴ . 51. (3. He has to travel to various countries in the world for business purposes. 200 per metre and then he sold it at the rate of Tk. 27. If it is sold at the rate of Tk.800 . how much Bangladeshi currency does he need ? Solution : 1 US Dollar = Tk. As a result he has to buy US Dollar to carry with him. (27. how much did he lose ? 3. Tk. 100 1 ∴ Mr.70..31.800 − 1. If 1 US Dollar = Tk. 40 per kg and sold it at the rate of Tk.650 × 12) = Tk. . Tk. . 1.. 60 per four. 15. 50 per four.180 ∴ . .51. 81⋅50 and he needs 7000 US Dollar. 55 per litre. 15. what is the percentage of profit ? .. Rabi bought 50 kg rice at the rate of Tk.500.180 as tax.800 The tax for Tk. .. 81⋅50 × 7000 = Tk. 52 per litre.800 = Tk. .. Tk.000). If an orange seller bought 5 dozen oranges at the rate of Tk. 10 ∴ .70.. Example 19. . 81⋅50 7000 . 5..800 ∴ The annual income tax payable for Tk. how much did he gain as profit ? 2..500⋅00 ∴ Required amount of Bangladeshi currency is Tk. . 225 per metre.. . 44 per kg. 3.31. Exercise 2⋅2 1.Proportion.

500 to the shopkeeper.63 Rupee. How many taka will the shopkeeper return her ? Mr. Effective speed of a boat against the current (up stream) = Actual speed of the boat – Speed of the stream. 8. Some chocolates were bought at Tk. The effective speed along with the current will be found by adding the speed of stream and the actual speed of boat. So. If Bangladeshi Tk. he gained Tk. if it is sold at Tk. The speed of the boat in the river along with the current is its effective speed. how much Bangladeshi taka would he need for Indian 3000 Rupee ? Nilim is a service holder. Roy is a government officer.250. 25. Again the effective speed can be determined when going against the current by subtracting the speed of the stream from the actual speed of boat. 2000 as profit. 8 per piece. 625. The income tax of one lac eighthly thousand taka of first slab of annual income is 0 taka. . 7. 1 is equal to Indian 0. 20 per metre. profit or loss ? If an object is sold at Tk.30 Mathematics 5. what is the percentage of profit or loss ? If the selling price of a car is 4 portion of cost price. His monthly basic pay is Tk. 4 percent. 22. How many metres of cloth did the shopkeeper purchase ? An item is bought at Tk. 5. and sold at Tk. He will go to India to visit Religious places. 8⋅50 per piece then the profit was Tk. How many taka does he has to pay as tax ? 2⋅4 Problems related to speed The speed of a boat in still water is its actual speed. What is the cost price of that object ? If the selling price of a watch is Tk. 190 and is sold Tk. 10. The rate of VAT is Tk. if 6 amloki is sold at Tk. 11. effective speed of a boat along with the current (down stream) = Actual speed of the boat + Speed of stream. 400. 6. 10. what is the percentage of profit or loss ? The buying price of 8 amloki is Tk. what is the percentage of profit or loss ? The cost price of 25 metres of cloth is equal to the selling price of 20 metres of cloth . she gave Tk. 125 per metre . the loss is 10%. 9. 15. if the shopkeeper sold it at the rate of Tk. 175 . there is as much amount loss. The rate of income tax of next annual income slab is Tk. How many chocolates were purchased? The buying price of cloth is Tk. what should be the price of the watch if a profit of 10% is to be gained by selling it ? Maisha bought 15 metres red ribbon at the rate of Tk. 14. 150 per metre. 13. there will be the profit amounting three times the loss. . what is the percentage of 5 12. 5 . 480.

.. Now. in 50 minutes the second pipe vacates the tank ∴ ....Proportion.. ∴ Along with the current the boat travels 10 km in 1 hour 1 .. parts of the tank 40 Again. the boat can travel 6 km. Water enters into the tank through one pipe and water flows out by the other pipe.. The time for travelling 50 km is 5 hours. 3 Effective speed of boat against the current = Actual speed of boat – speed of stream. .. how long does it need to fill the tank ? Solution : In 40 minutes the first pipe fills the tank 1 ∴ . A water tank has two pipes. = (6 − 2) km/hour = 4 km/hour Effective speed of the boat along with the current = Actual speed of boat + speed of stream. .. .... . 6 . 1 .. if the two pipes are kept open together.. . 1km .. 1 parts of the tank 50 5−4 1 1 1 ⎞ If the two pipes are kept open together then ⎛ = parts of the ⎜ − ⎟ = 200 200 ⎝ 40 50 ⎠ tank is filled with water.. .. . . how long does it need to travel 50 km.. ∴ Speed of stream = Actual speed of boat – effective speed of boat... . .... Against the current. .. 1 .. 10 ∴ ... ... second pipe takes 50 minutes. . in (1×3) hours or 3 hours ∴ In 3 hours the boat travels 6 km. .. . Against the current it needs thrice that time to travel 6 km. . .. . . .. 5 1 × 50 . . when going along with the current ? Solution : The boat can travel 6 km in 1 hour. . = 2 km ∴ ... .. = (6 + 4) km/hour = 10 km/hour. 1 . ... 1 . 6 According to the problem. .. 1km . = 5 hours 10 1 Example 21. . Profit and Loss 31 Example 20.. 1 . A boat can travel 6 km per hour in still water. . To fill the empty tank the first pipe takes 40 minutes and to vacate the filled tank..

. 1 hour or 1× 60 × 60 seconds 48000 48000 3 3 1 × 60 × 60× 60 seconds 48000 8 42 = 9 seconds 2 1 = 4 seconds 2 The train will cross the pillar in 4 1 seconds. The speed of 60 m. ... 1 × 200 .. long train is 48 km per hour. Required time is 3 hours 20 minutes. 48 km = 48 × 1000 m 48000 m. How much time will the train take to cross a nearby pillar of the rail line ? Solution : To cross the pillar the train has to pass the distance equal to its length. . Example 22... .. 1 = 200 minutes = 3 hours 20 minutes.. . .. which is the mid-proportional ? (a) 8 (b) 50 (c) 10 (d) 20 What is the fourth proportional of 3. . . Which is the successive ratio of 5 : 4 and 6 : 7 ? (a) 24 : 30 : 28 (b) 30 : 24 : 28 (c) 28 : 24 : 30 (d) 24 : 28 : 30 If 1st and 3rd quantity of a continued proportion are 4 and 25 respectively. . .. The train crosses 48000 metre in 1 hour .. 5 and 15 ? (a) 20 (b) 25 (c) 10 (d) 35 2. .32 Mathematics 1 parts of the tank is filled with water in 1 minute 200 ∴ 1 .. . 1 60 .. . 3.. . 2 Exercise 2⋅3 1....... . .

The first and second pipes can fill the empty cistern in 12 hours and 18 hours respectively. what is the percentage of profit? (a) 20% (c) 25% (b) 15% (d) 33 1 % 3 5. A shopkeeper bought a match box at Tk. In how many days can A. If both pipes are opened together. 11. 25 per four banana and it is sold at the rate of Tk. 27 . A banana seller bought bananas at the rate of Tk.Proportion. 10 days after beginning the work had to stop for 6 days due to bad weather. 1·50 and it is sold at Tk. B and C together can do that work in 20 days. 2. Match the following quantities in two columns by drawing lines. he gains Tk. what is the speed of boat in still water? 9. How many days would Halima need to complete the whole lot of work ? 30 workers can build a house in 20 days. 5 workers can reap crops of the land of 8 bigha of field in 6 days. 12. If the speed of current is 3 km/hour. Swapon and Ratan together can finish that piece of work in how many days ? Habiba and Halima together can do a piece of work in 20 days.00. They were working together. Ratan can do that piece of work in 16 days. How many extra workers will be needed to finish the work on time ? A and B together can do a piece of work in 16 days. Halima finished the rest of the work in 21 days. but after 6 days Habia went away. 50 as profit. How many bunches of four banana did he purchase ? (a) 25 bunch of four banana (c) 50 bunch of four banana (b) 20 bunch of four banana (d) 27 bunch of four banana 6. 13. how much time will the empty cistern need in order to be filled? A boat can cross 36 km in 4 hours along with current. B and C together do that same piece of work? A cistern has two pipes. . (a) If the cost price is more than the selling price (b) If the cost price is less than the selling price (c) Time along with current (a) Time against the current (a) less time (b) profitable (c) more time (d) less oriented 7. 8. 10. Profit and Loss 33 4. How many days will 25 workers need to reap the land of 25 bigha ? Swapon can do a piece of work in 24 days.

how much time will the train need to cross the bridge ? Mr. give the answer of the following questions. it is seen that the costing is Tk. In how many hours can Lily and Mily together do that work? Two pipes separately can fill an empty cistern with water in 20 minutes and 30 minutes respectively. Under this circumstances. 20. The cistern is completely empty and both the pipes are opened together to fill the cistern. Determine the speed of the boat in still water and the speed of the current. : (a) (b) (c) (d) What percentage of the road was repaired in 12 days? How many extra workers were needed to finish the work on time? What is the percentage of extra workers as compared with the number workers appointed earlier? To finish the repairing work. what is the speed of the current per hour? A boat can travel with the help of oar 3 km in 15 minutes along with current and against the current it travels 1 km in 15 minutes. 21. What is the length of the bridge? A 120 metre long train will cross 330 metre long bridge. If the speed of the train is 30 km per hour. 19.34 Mathematics 14.25. To do this work he appointed 20 workers. Jashim is a contractor. With 7 pairs of cows how many hectors of land can he cultivate in 12 days? Lily can do a piece of work in 10 hours alone. . A farmer can cultivate 40 hectors of land in 8 days with 5 pairs of cows. The speed of a 100 metre long train is 48 km/hour. But after 12 days the work had to close for 4 days for bad weather. After finishing the repairing. 16. If the speed of the ship is 9 km/hour in still water. A ship can travel 77 km water way in 11 hours against the current. When will the first pipe need to be closed so that the cistern be completely filled in 18 minutes. what is the percentage of his loss? 15. 2 lac. Mily can do that work in 8 hours.000. That train can cross a bridge in 30 seconds. 2. He gets a job to repair 2 km road in 30 days for Tk. 18. 17.

In British system yard. weight. the measurement of length. weight and volume of a liquid is discussed in detail. One ten-millionth part of the length from the North pole to the Equator along the latitude through Paris is considered to be 1 metre. At the end of this chapter. Again. This distance is also found by comparing with the same standard length. In order to measure the length or distance we compare them with a specific length. at present most of the countries of the world use Metric system. from the market. On the other hand. area. bazar or station from our home. fruits. electrical wire. rope etc. Throughout the world the metal scale made of admixture of Platinum and Uranium is considered as the ideal or standard scale. area and time. This standard length is known as the unit of measurement of length. In metric system metre is the unit of measurement of length. In this chapter. foot and inch are in use as the units of measurement of length. as liquids do not have definite shape. In the previous classes we have learnt how to measure length. For commercial purpose and domestic use we need to measure these goods. these are measured by volume using a pot of known volume. oil. we need to know the distance of a school. It is kept in . However. we use different consumer goods such as rice. Solid goods are measured by weight. sugar.Chapter Three Measurement In our everyday life. milk. pulse. water etc. These are sold by comparing with a standard length. salt. the students will be able to – ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Measure length and distance using different measuring tools Find the area of rectangle and square using a scale Measure weight of goods by different measuring units of weight Measure volume of liquids by different measuring units of volume Measure goods of our everyday use approximately. 3⋅1 Measurement of Length We buy cloths.

Units of measurement of length Metric system 10 millimetres (mm) = 1 centimetre (cm) 10 centimetres = 1 decimetre 10 decimetres = 1 metre (m) 10 metres = 1 decametre 10 decametres = 1 hectometre 10 hectometres = 1 kilometre (km) British system 12 inch = 1 foot 3 feet = 1 yard 1760 yards = 1 mile Relation between Metric and British system 1 inch 1 mile 1 metre 1 kilometre = = = = 2⋅54 centimetres (approx.36 Mathematics French Science museum. When needed any country of the world can get a duplicate one to measure exactly the same length as that of the standard scale. Hence express inch into centimetres. Bangladesh has introduced International Standard or System of International Units in 1982.) Activity: 1. 2. Give examples of a few things of daily use that we measure by length.) 39⋅37 inches (approx. Measure with a ruler the length and breadth of a book and a table in inches and centimetres.) 1⋅61 kilometres (approx. Measure the length and width of your classroom with a measuring tape. 3. . for measuring lengths and weights. 1 metre = One ten-millionth part of the length from the North pole to the Equator We observe that.) 0⋅62 miles (approx.

The area of a square of side 1 metre is square metre. Remark: The meaning of 4 metres square is not the same as 4 square metres. So. Similarly. various institutions etc. Every region usually has length and breadth. Let the length of a side of a square be 1 metre. So. Similarly 1 square foot. one needs to find out how many units fit in the region.Measurement 37 3⋅2 Measurement of Area The concept of measurement of area is very important in our daily life. Therefore. metre. Therefore. The unit of area is square units. 1 square centimetre etc are also used as units of area. considering the square with side of 1 decimetre in length and dividing into 10 equal parts as before. 1 square metre = 10000 square centimetres. the area of a small square is 1 decimetre × 1 decimetre = 1 square decimeter. We need the area of the land on which these institutions lie. Each of the sides of the square is divided into ten equal parts and the opposite points of division are joined together. An enclosed space is a region and the measurement of the region is area. are important constructions for us. it can be shown that the area = 1 square decimeter = 10 centimetres × 10 centimetres or 100 square centimetres. But 4 square metres means the area of region is 4 square metres. the area of the square is 1 sq. In this case the length of each segment is 1 decimetre. All our dwelling houses. So for measurement of area a square with a side of 1 unit length is taken as unit of area. educational institutions. In the figure there are 100 such squares. hospital. In measuring the area of a region. 1 square metre = 100 square decimetres. . 4 metre square means a square region with a side of 4 metres in length and whose area is 16 square metres.

and find their areas. Rectangle b l Parallelogram Area = base × height = l×h Area = Area = length × breadth = l×b h l Triangle h 1 × base × height 2 1 × (b × h) = 2 b Relation between Metric and British system in measuring area British system 1 sq. doors.47 acres (approx.centimetre = 0. 2.) 1 sq.45 sq. inch = 6.centimetres (approx.) Activity: 1.inches (approx.) 1 sq. windows etc.155sq. foot = 929 sq.84 sq.38 Mathematics Formulae for area of some regions .76 sq.) 1 sq. To measure the weight different units are used in different countries. tables.3 Measurement of weights Every object has its own weight.) Local system 1 sq. metres (approx. Units of measurement of weight 10 milligrams (mm) 10 centigrams 10 decigrams 10 grams 10 decagrams = 1 centigram = 1 decigram = 1 gram (gm) = 1 decagram = 1 hectogram . centimetres (approx. 3.) 1 hectre = 2. In groups measure with a ruler the length and breadth of benches. feet (approx. metre = 10. Measure with a ruler the length and breadth of a book and a table in centimeters and find their areas. yard = 0.

In cities and villages. the use of these balances is more convenient. 10 kg etc. 50 gm. Some of them are capable of calculating the price of goods to be measured. of purified water at 4o Celsius is equal to 1 gram There are two more units for measurement of weights. 5 kg. 10 gm. The pointer of the balance moves clockwise like the minutes’ hand of a clock. The weight is measured in grams. 200 gm. 500 gm. for measurement of large amount of goods. scales and weights are used for measuring weight of goods. The digital balance looks like a small box with a digital display on one side. 100 gm. just like a calculator. . For this reason. 1 kg. Goods to be weighed are kept on top of the balance and one of the lateral sides is graduated like a clock. Now a days in cities weights are measured using graduated balances. Presently. When something is placed on the balance the digit at the tip of the pointer represents its weight. The weights are of 5 gm. classical balances are still in use. These balances look like the lower part of a truncketed pyramid. The units are quintal and metric ton. 2kg. These units are used for measurement of large quantities of goods. However. digital balances are replacing the graduated balances.Measurement 10 hectograms 100 kilograms 1000 kilograms or 10 quintals Unit for measuring weight : gram = 1 kilogram (kg) = 1 quintal = 1 metric ton 1 kilogram = 1000 grams 39 The weight of 1 cc.

But a liquid has no definite shape. 500. 200.) = = = = 1 cubic decimetre 1 cubic metre 1 litre 1 kilogram Metric units of measurement of volume . 5.3.2. 4 2 vertical container made of transparent glass marked by 25. A variety of soft drinks are sold in 250. breadth and height. books.39 millilitres (approx. 300. Usually we use a 1 litre measuring container. 8. 100. So liquids are measured by a measuring pot of definite volume. 10 nominals. 3⋅4 Measuring Volume of Liquids The space occupied by a liquid is the volume of the liquid. 4. These bottles come in 1. 50.5. These measuring containers are conical or 1 1 cylindrical shaped aluminium mugs of . 2. 2000 millilitre bottles. Usually these pots are used while measuring milk and oil. In English 1 cubic centimetre is abbreviated as cc. in groups and express them in metric units. 500.40 Mathematics Activity : Use a normal or digital balance to measure the weight of your ruler. It takes the shape of its container. Again. . 1000 millilitres are widely used. A solid has length. … etc litres. Now-a-days for convenience of consumers edible oil is sold in bottles. 1000. 1 cubic centimetre (cc)= 1 millilitre 1000 cubic centimetres (cc) 1000 cubic decimetres 1000 cubic centimetres 1 litre of water (weight) 1 cubic inch = 16. tiffin box etc. 1.

How much diesel does it require to run 1 kilomtre? Solution: The car runs 80 kilimetres by burning 10 litre of diesel 10 1000 ∴ Ó Ó 1 Ó Ó Ó Ó Ó = millilitres or 125 80 8 millilitres of diesel Example 4. 2. The area of a triangular piece of land is 216 sq. Example 5. If he gets 700 gm of rice out of 1 kg of paddy. Example 1. The base and height of a triangular field are 6 m and 4 m respectively. Example 3. Guess the volume of a container of unknown volume. Example 2. 4 The production of potato per acre is 26 metric tons 250 kg. A car burns 10 litres of diesel to run 80 km. Raihan produces 400 kg paddy from one acre of land. . then how much is produced in 1 acre of land? Solution: 16 acres of land produce 420 metric tons of potatoes 420 ∴1Ó Ó Ó Ó Ó Ó Ó 16 1 = 26 or 26 metric tons 250 kg.Measurement 41 Activity: 1. metres. Then measure the volume of the container and determine the error in your estimation. If the base of the land is 18 m. What is the area of the triangular region? 1 Solution: The area of the triangular region = × base × height 2 1 = × (6 ×4) sq. find the quantity of rice he gets? Solution: 1 kg of paddy gives 700 gm of rice ∴ 400 Ó Ó Ó 700 × 400 Ó Ó = 280000 gm = 280 kg The required amount of rice is 280 kg. find the height of the land. metres ∴ The required area of the triangular region is 12 square metres. If 420 metric tons of potatoes are produced in 16 acres of land. Measure approximately the capacity of a water container. metres 2 = 12 sq.

m The area of the banks = (4000 − 3024) sq. m = 3024 sq. m = 4000 sq.42 Mathematics Solution: We know that 1 × base × height = Area of the triangle 2 1 or. x = 16 The perimeter of the rectangular field = 2 × (length + breadth) = 2 × (48+16) metres = 2 × 64 metres = 128 metres ∴ Perimeter of the square field = 128 metres 128 ∴ length of the square field = metres or. m = 976 sq. m . 32 metres 4 ∴ Area of the square field = 32 × 32 sq. If the width of the bank on all sides is 4 m then what is the area of the banks? Solution: 80 The length of the pond excluding banks = {80 − (4 × 2)} m = 72 m 50 4 The width of the pond excluding banks = {50 − (4 × 2)} m = 42 m The area of the pond including banks = (80 × 50)sq. 9 metres × height = 216 sq. A pond with banks is 80 m long and 50 m wide. metres 2 or. × 18 metres × height = 216 sq. metres = 1024 sq. metres Example 7. What will be area of a square fields whose perimeter is equal to the perimeter of the rectangular filed? Solution: Let the breath = x metres Length = 3x metres So 3x = 48 or. The length of a 48 m long rectangular field is three times its breadth. m The area of the pond excluding banks = (72 × 42) sq. Example 6. metres 216 metres or 24 metres or height = 9 The required height is 24 metres.

A merchant sells 20 kg 400 gm of lentil per day. What is the output of the mill per day ? 11. How much potato will be produced in 11 pieces of land of an equal area ? 9. In a steel mill 200000 metric tons of rod is produced in a month. Find the area of the walkway. 20 kg 850 gm of mustard was produced in a piece of land. The cost to cover the floor with a carpet is Tk. 52.Measurement 43 Exercise 3 1. On an average how much lentil does he sell each month ? 12. Find the length and breadth of the house. 7. 28 metric ton of paddy was produced in Paresh’s 16 acres of land. 17.5 litres. The length of a rectangular plot is 3 times the breadth. Find the area of the parallelogram. The base and height of a parallelogram are 40 m and 50 m respectively. Find the length and breadth of the plot. A family requires 1. What is the production of paddy per acre ? 10.37 dekametres in metres. 5. If the price of a litre of milk is Tk. decimetres.25 litres of milk daily.00. There is a 2 m wide walkway around the inside of the garden. metre. The length and breadth of a rectangular garden is 60 m and 40 m respectively.50 per sq. How much rice and salt does he sell per month? 15.50 at the rate of Tk. The volume of a mug is 1. Find the area of each triangle with the following bases and heights: (a) base 10 m and height 6 m (b) base 25 cm and height 14 cm 4. Find the total surface area of the cube. 100 per metre ? 6. how much does the family spends for milk in 30 days? 16. 1102. How many mugs of water will be there in 270 litres of water? 14. What is the cost of fencing around a 100 m long and 50 m wide rectangular park at a rate of Tk. The length of a house is three times its breadth. 3. 7. Joseph produces 500 kg 700 gm of potato in a piece of land. centimetres and millimitres. The length of one edge of a cube is 4 m. A walk around the plot makes 1 km. 8. Express 5. What is the production of mustard in 7 similar equal pieces of land? 13. A merchant sells 18 kg 300 gm of rice and 5 kg 750 gm of salt each day on an average. . Express in kilomitres: (a) 40390 cm (b) 75 m 250 mm 2.

2 × (3 × 4) = 2 × 12 = 24 ∴ (2 × 3) × 4 = 2 × (3 × 4). 4. In this chapter. it becomes 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8 = 2 × 4 . It is said that. b are any two algebraic expressions. Associative law of Multiplication : (2 × 3) × 4 = 6 × 4 = 24 . Only the numbers with positive sign are used in Arithmetics. 2 × 4 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 8 . the numbers with both positive and negative signs and numerical symbols are used. Subtraction. we have learnt to add or subtract expressions with signs and have developed our concept regarding addition and subtraction of Algebraic expressions. In the same way. 2 is multiplied by 4. if a. At the end of this chapter. subtraction. But in Algebra. 2 × 3 = 6 . for any three algebraic expressions a. b. Multiplication and Division. c . Again.2 Multiplication of expressions with signs We know. In the same way. which is the associative law of multiplication. multiplication and division of algebraic expressions through proper use of brackets. Again. (a × b) × c = a × (b × c) which is the associative law of multiplication. In class VI. if 2 is taken 4 times.Chapter Four Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions The four fundamental operations in Mathematics are Addition. students will be able to − ¾ ¾ Multiply and divide the algebraic expressions Solve the problems of our daily life involving addition. Subtraction is the inverse operation of Addition and Division is the inverse operation of Multiplication. product is not changed when multiplicand and multiplier commutate with each other.1 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions Commutative law of Multiplication : We know. then a × b = b × a that is. That is. multiplication and division of the expressions with signs and of Algebraic expressions will be discussed. which is the commutative law of multiplication. 3 × 2 = 6 ∴ 2 × 3 = 3 × 2. 4.

.... = − (b × a ) = −( a × b ) = − ab That is.. commutative law of multiplication... a × a × a = a3 ......(iv) Observe : * The product of two like signed expressions will be preceded by (+) sign...(iii) Therefore.... ( −2) × 4 = −( 2 × 4) = −8 In general.(i ) Again. a × (−b) = −(a × b) = −ab ... n are any natural numbers............ Again.... This process is called the exponential law of multiplication. (a m )n = a mn .Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 45 For any algebraic expressions a and b ... (−a) × (−b) = −{(−a) × b} [by (iii) ] = − {−(a × b)} [by (ii) ] = − ( − ab) = a × b [Q the additive inverse of x is − x ] = ab That is..... (−a) × b = −(a × b) = −ab . a × a × a × a = a4 ∴ a 2 × a 4 = (a × a) × (a × a × a × a) = a × a × a × a × a × a = a 6 = a 2 + 4 We know..(ii) Again... a × b = ab .. (−a) × (−b) = ab . am × a n = am+ n where m. a × ( −b ) = ( −b ) × a..... Exponential laws of Multiplication : (+1) × (+1) = +1 (−1) × (−1) = + 1 (+1) × (−1) = −1 (−1) × (+1) = −1 a × a = a 2 .. ( −2) × 4 = (−2) + ( −2) + ( −2) + ( −2) = −8 = −( 2 × 4) That is..... In general.. * The product of two unlike signed expressions will be preceded by (−) sign.... ( a 3 ) 2 = a 3 × a 3 = a 6 = a 3 × 2 = a 6 In general.

. area of the rectangle ABCD = length × breadth = BC × AB = AB × ( BE + EC ) = 2 × ( a + b ) = 2( a + b ) ∴ 2( a + b ) = 2 a + 2b....46 Mathematics Distributive law of Multiplication: We know.. Other symbols are taken in the product without any change. area of the rectangle ECDF = length × breadth = EC × CD = b × 2 = 2 × b = 2b ∴ Area of the rectangle ABCD = Area of the rectangle ABEF + Area of the rectangle ECDF = 2a + 2b Again... The product is to be written by multiplying the algebraic symbols which exist in both terms by the law of indices.... Area of the rectangle ABEF = length × breadth = BE × AB = a × 2 = 2 × a = 2a 2 B a E b C A F D Again. .. This rule is called the Distributive law of Multiplication. m( a + b + c + . In general.. 4.3 Monomial Multiplied by Monomial In the case of the multiplication of two monomial expressions. 2( a + b ) = ( a + b) + ( a + b) [Q 2 x = x + x] = ( a + a ) + (b + b ) = 2a + 2b Again we get from the figure... their numerical coefficients are to be multiplied by the rule of multiplying the signed numbers..) = ma + mb + mc + ......

Multiply12a 2 xy 2 by − 6ax 3b .Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 47 Example 1. Solution : (5 x 2 y + 7 xy 2 ) × 5 x 3 y 3 = (5 x 2 y × 5 x 3 y 3 ) + (7 xy 2 × 5 x 3 y 3 ) according to the distribution law = (5 × 5) × ( x 2 × x 3 ) × ( y × y 3 ) + (7 × 5) × ( x × x 3 ) × ( y 2 × y 3 ) = 25 x 5 y 4 + 35 x 4 y 5 Alternative Method : ( ) 5 x 2 y + 7 xy 2 × 5 x3 y3 25 x 5 y 4 + 35 x 4 y 5 The required product is 25 x 5 y 4 + 35 x 4 y 5 The required product is 25 x 5 y 4 + 35 x 4 y 5 . = 12 × ( −6) × ( a 2 × a ) × b × ( x × x 3 ) × y 2 = − 72 a 3bx 4 y 2 The required product is − 72 a 3bx 4 y 2 . Example 2. Example 3. Solution : ( − 7 a 2 b 4 c ) × 4a 2c3d = (−7 × 4) × (a 2 × a 2 ) × b 4 × (c × c 3 ) × d = − 28a 4b 4 c 4 d The required product is − 28a 4b 4 c 4 d . Example 5. Multiply − 5a 3bc 5 by − 4 ab 5 c 2 . Multiply 5x2 y 4 by 3x2 y3 . Multiply 5 x 2 y + 7 xy 2 by 5 x 3 y 3 . Solution : 5x2 y 4 × 3x2 y3 Solution : 12 a 2 xy 2 × ( −6 ax 3b ) = (5 × 3) × ( x 2 × x 2 ) × ( y 4 × y 3 ) = 15x4 y 7 [by rules of indices] The required product is 15x4 y 7. Example 4. Multiply − 7 a 2b 4 c by 4a 2 c 3d . Activity : Multiply : (a) 7 a 2b 5 by 8a 5b 2 (b) − 10 x 3 y 4 z by 3 x 2 y 5 (c) 9ab 2 x 3 y by − 5 xy 2 (d) − 8a 3 x 4by 2 by − 4abxy 4⋅4 Polynomial Multiplied by Monomial If a polynomial is multiplied by a monomial then every term of multiplicand (first expression) is to be multiplied by multiplier (second expression). Solution : ( −5a 3bc 5 ) × (−4ab5c 2 ) = ( −5) × ( −4) × ( a 3 × a ) × (b × b 5 ) × (c 5 × c 2 ) = 20 a 4b 6 c 7 The required product is 20a 4b 6c 7 .

.48 Mathematics Example 6. Example 7. Solution : ( 2a 3 − b 3 + 3abc ) × a 4 b 2 = (2a 3 × a 4b 2 ) − (b 3 × a 4b 2 ) + (3abc × a 4b 2 ) = 2a 7b 2 − a 4b 5 + 3a 5b 3c Alternative Method : = 2a 7b 2 − a 4b 5 + 3a 5b 3c × a 4b 2 2a 7b 2 − a 4b 5 + 3a 5b 3c The required product is 2a 7 b 2 − a 4b 5 + 3a 5b 3c . 8 p 3 q 2 (c) − 2c d + 3d c − 5cd . Then they are added by the rule of addition of expressions with sign. Multiply − 3 x 2 zy 3 + 4 z 3 xy 2 − 5 y 4 x 3 z 2 by − 6 x 2 y 2 z . 2 3 2 3 5 4⋅5 Polynomial Multiplied by Polynomial If a polynomial is to be multiplied by another polynomial. each term of the multiplicand is to be multiplied by each term of the multiplier separately. Multiply 2a 3 − b 3 + 3abc by a 4 b 2 . If there are dissimilar terms. 4 5 2 3 4 4 5 6 3 Activity : Multiply the first expression by the second expression 2 2 (a) 5a + 8b . − 7c d . Then the similar terms are written one below another. they are written separately and are placed in the product. 4ab (b) 3 p 2 q + 6 pq 3 + 10 p 3 q 5 . Solution : (−3 x 2 zy 3 + 4 z 3 xy 2 − 5 y 4 x 3 z 2 ) × (−6 x 2 y 2 z ) = (−3x 2 zy 3 ) × (−6 x 2 y 2 z ) + (4 z 3 xy 2 ) × (−6 x 2 y 2 z ) − (5 y 4 x 3 z 2 ) × (−6 x 2 y 2 z ) = {( −3) × (−6) × x 2 × x 2 × y 3 × y 2 × z × z} + {4 × (−6) × x × x 2 × y 2 × y 2 × z 3 × z} − {5 × (−6) × x 3 × x 2 × y 4 × y 2 × z 2 × z} = 18 x 4 y 5 z 2 + (−24 x 3 y 4 z 4 ) − (−30 x 5 y 6 z 3 ) = 18 x 4 y 5 z 2 − 24 x 3 y 4 z 4 + 30 x 5 y 6 z 3 The required product is 18 x y z − 24 x y z + 30 x y z .

Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 49 Example 8. This product should be so written that the like terms of both the product lie one below the other. Example 10. − a 2b + 2ab 2 − b 3 a 3 − 3a 2b + 3ab 2 − b 3 3 2 The required product is a − 3a b + 3ab − b . Multiply 2 3 x 2 + 5 xy + 2 y 2 . Multiplicand Multiplier Multiplying by a Multiplying by − b Product 2 3 Solution : a − 2ab + b 3 a−b a − 2a 2b + ab 2 Adding. Multiplying by 3 x Multiplying by − 4 x Multiplying by − 5 Product 2 The required product is 6 x 4 + x 3 − 34 x 2 + x + 20 . Rules of Multiplication : (i) At first. . Multiplicand Multiplier Multiplying by 3x + 2 y x+ y 3 x + 2 xy 3 xy + 2 y 2 2 3x 2y 2 xy 2y2 x y x Multiplying by y Product 3x 2 3 xy Adding. Multiply Solution : 2 x 2 + 3 x − 4 by 3 x 2 − 4 x − 5 . Multiplicand Multiplier 2 2 x 2 + 3x − 4 3x 2 − 4 x − 5 6 x + 9 x − 12 x − 8 x 3 − 12 x 2 + 16 x − 10 x 2 − 15 x + 20 6 x 4 + x 3 − 34 x 2 + x + 20 4 3 Adding. (iii) The algebraic sum of the two products is the required product. we multiply each item of the multiplicand by the first term of the multiplier. The required product is Example 9. Multiply 3 x + 2 y by Solution : x+ y. 2 a 2 − 2ab + b 2 by a − b . 3 x 2 + 5 xy + 2 y 2 (3 x + 2 y ) × ( x + y ) = 3 x 2 + 5 xy + 2 y 2 . (ii) Then the terms of the multiplicand are multiplied by the second term of the multiplier.

50 Mathematics Activity : Multiply the first expression by the second expression : (a) x + 7. 7. a + b x 2 − 2 xy + y 2 . 2 4 Show that. 10b 3 xyz − 12m 2 a 2 x 3 . 3ax 5 y − 2abx 2 . 27. 9 x 2 y 2 x 3 − y 3 + 3 xyz. a + b x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 . 2 2 4 4 . − 2ma 2 x 2 2. x − xy + y 2 2 2 24. 3a + 2b x + 1. AB = what? Show that. 4. 13. If A = a2 − ab + b2 and B = a + b . x + 3 a + b + c. 5. prove that. 9. x − y a 2 + ab + b 2 . b 2 − ab + a 2 a2 + b2 . 17. 1 + y + y 2 3 3 x + xy + y . 5 xy 2a 2 − 3b 2 + c 2 . 10. 8. ( x + y )( x − y )( x + y ) = x − y . a 3b 2 2a − 3b. 3. 22. 23. − 6 p5q 4 7 a 3bx 5 y 2 . − 2b 2 − 3 p 2q3 . x 4 y a + b. 18. ( a + 1)( a − 1)( a + 1) = a − 1. AB = x − y . x + y x 2 + 2 x − 3. 14. 4a 3 5a 2 x 2 . 16. 6az 8a 2b. 15. 21. 2 5 xy. 3a + 4b 2 2 (c) x − x + 1. x + 9 a 2 − ab + b 2 . − 3 x 5 y 3 a 2b 2 5 x 2 − 4 xy. 19. 6. a + b + c y 2 − y + 1. 1 + x + x . 3ab. a − b 2 x + 3 y. 26. If A = x2 + xy + y 2 and B = x − y . 20. 28. 11. x − 1 2 2 a 2 − ab + b 2 . 25. (b) Exercise 4⋅1 Multiply the first expression by the second expression (1 to 24) : 1. 12.

a m ÷ a n = a m−n [cancelling the common factors from the numerator 3 5− 2 = a = a . am = a m − m = a0 am am Again. . In the same way.Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 51 4⋅6 Division of Algebraic Expressions Division of expressions with signs : We know. a ≠ 0. a ≠ 0. am ÷ am = m = 1 a 0 ∴ a = 1. Therefore. (a ≠ 0). am ÷ am = Corollary : a 0 = 1. * The quotient of two expressions with opposite sign will be preceded by (−) sign. a a×a In general. a × ( −b) = ( − a ) × b = − ab − ab ÷ a = a × ( −b) ÷ a = −b − ab ÷ b = − a − ab ÷ ( − a ) = b − ab ÷ ( −b) = a − ab a − ab b − ab −a − ab −b = a × ( −b ) a (−a) × b = b (−a) × b = −a a × ( −b ) = −b = = = = = −b = −a =b =a Observe : + 1 + 1 − 1 − 1 − 1 + 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 + 1 − 1 − 1 * The quotient of two expressions with same sign will be preceded by (+) sign. Division Rule of Exponents : a5 a × a × a × a × a 5 2 a ÷a = 2 = = a × a × a. a ≠ 0 and the denominator ] m > n. where m and n are natural numbers and This process is called division rule of exponents. Observe : If a ≠ 0.

Example 13. Divide Solution : − 45x13 y9 z 4 by − 5x6 y 3 z 2 . the division of numerical coefficient is done by arithmetic rule and division of algebraic symbol is done by division rule of exponents. Divide 10a b by 5a2b3 . 3ab 2 (b) − 28 p 3q 2 r 5 .8 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial We know. Solution : 40 x 8 y10 z 5 − 8x 4 y 2 z 4 = 40 x 8 y10 z 5 × × × − 8 x4 y 2 z 4 = − 5 × x 8−4 × y10−2 × z 5−4 = −5 x 4 y 8 z The required quotient is − 5 x 4 y 8 z. Activity : Divide the first expression by the second expression : (a) 12a 3b 5c .52 Mathematics 4⋅7 Division of a Monomial by a Monomial For division of a monomial by a monomial. − 8 x 6 y 2 z 5 4. = − 45 x13 y 9 z 4 × × × − 5 x6 y3 z 2 − 45 x13 y 9 z 4 − 5x 6 y 3 z 2 = = 9 × x13−6 × y 9−3 × z 4−2 = 9 x 7 y 6 z 2 The required quotient is 9 x7 y 6 z 2 . Solution : 5 7 10a 5b 7 10 a 5 b 7 = × 2× 3 5a 2 b 3 5 a b = 2 × a 5 − 2 × b 7 − 3 = 2a 3b 4 2a3b4 . a + b + c is a polynomial expression. Divide 40 x 8 y10 z 5 by − 8x 4 y 2 z 4 . − 5 x 5 y 2 (d) − 40 x10 y 5 z 9 . . The required quotient is Example 12. 7 p 2 qr 3 (c) 35 x 5 y 7 . Example 11.

4 3 2. Activity : 1. Divide 35a5b4c + 20a6b8c3 − 40a5b6c4 by 5a 2b3c Solution : 35a5b4c + 20a6b8c3 − 40a5b6c4 5a 2b3c 35a 5b 4 c 20a 6 b 8 c 3 40a 5b 6 c 4 = + − 5a 2 b 3 c 5a 2 b 3 c 5a 2 b 3c = 7 a 5− 2b 4−3c1−1 + 4a 6−2b8−3c 3−1 − 8a 5− 2b 6−3c 4−1 = 7 a 3b + 4a 4b5c 2 − 8a 3b 3c 3 [Q c1−1 = c 0 = 1] The required quotient is 7a3b + 4a4b5c2 − 8a3b3c3 . Example 15. Divide 28a5b6 − 16a6b8 − 20a7b5 by 4a b .Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 53 Now. (a + b + c) ÷ d a+b+c a b c = = + + d d d d Example 14. 10x5 y3 − 12x3 y8 + 6x 4 y 7 Solution : 2x2 y 2 10 x 5 y 3 12 x 3 y 8 6 x 4 y 7 = − + 2x2 y2 2x2 y2 2x2 y 2 = 5 x 5−2 y 3−2 − 6 x 3−2 y 8−2 + 3 x 4−2 y 7−2 = 5 x 3 y − 6 xy 6 + 3 x 2 y 5 The required quotient is 5x3 y − 6xy6 + 3x2 y5 . (a + b + c) ÷ d = ( a + b + c) × = a× 1 d [distributive law of multiplication] 1 1 1 + b× + c× d d d a b c = + + d d d Again. Divide10 x5 y 3 − 12 x3 y 8 + 6 x 4 y 7 by 2 x 2 y 2 . . Divide 9x 4 y 5 + 12x8 y5 + 21x9 y 6 by 3x3 y 2 .

Solution : Here. both the dividend and the divisor are arranged in descending order of the powers of x. Divide 2x − 7 xy + 6 y by x − 2 y . * The difference will be the new dividend. both the expressions are arranged in descending order of the powers of x . * In this way the division should be continued.54 Mathematics 4. Then the division is done step by step as in arithmetic as follows: * The quotient so obtained by dividing the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor is the first term of the required quotient. * The product so obtained by multiplying all the terms of the divisor by that term of the quotient will be written below the like terms of the dividend and then will be subtracted from the dividend. 2 2 The required quotient is 2x − 3 y . * The quotient so obtained by dividing the first term of the new dividend by the first term of the divisor will be the second term of the required quotient. x − 2 y ) 2 x 2 − 7 xy + 6 y 2 ( 2 x − 3 y 2 x 2 − 4 xy ( −) ( + ) − 3 xy + 6 y 2 − 3 xy + 6 y 2 ( + ) ( −) 0 1st step : 2 x 2 ÷ x = 2 x 2nd step : − 3 xy ÷ x = −3 y . Divide 6x2 + x − 2 by 2x − 1 . 1st step : 6x 2 ÷ 2x = 3x 2nd step : 4x ÷ 2x = 2 2 x − 1 ) 6 x 2 + x − 2 ( 3x + 2 6 x 2 − 3x ( −) ( + ) 4x − 2 4x − 2 ( −) ( + ) 0 The required quotient is 3x + 2 .9 Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial : In the case of division of a polynomial by a polynomial. The difference should be written in descending order as before. at first the dividend and the divisor are both arranged in descending order of the powers of their common algebraic symbol. Solution : Here. Example 16. Example 17.

Divide 2x + 110 − 48x by 4x + 11 + x2 . we get. Divide 16x + 36x + 81 by 4x − 6x + 9 Solution : Here. the new dividend has also been arranged in descending order of the powers of x.Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 4 2 2 55 Example 18. 4 Example 19. Remark : In second step. x + 4 x + 11 ) 2 x − 48 x + 110 ( 2 x − 8 x + 10 2 x 4 + 8 x 3 + 22 x 2 − 8 x 3 − 22 x 2 − 48 x + 110 − 8 x 3 − 32 x 2 − 88 x 10 x 2 + 40 x + 110 10 x 2 + 40 x + 110 0 The required quotient is Example 20. x4 − 1 by x2 + 1 . Solution : By arranging both the dividend and the divisor in descending order of the powers of dividend = x . Divide 2x2 − 8x + 10. . 4 x 2 − 6 x + 9 ) 16 x 4 + 36 x 2 + 81 ( 4 x 2 + 6 x + 9 1st step : 16 x 4 ÷ 4 x 2 = 4 x 2 16 x 4 + 36 x 2 − 24 x 3 2nd step : 24 x 3 ÷ 4 x 2 = 6 x ( −) ( −) (+) 3rd step : 36 x 2 ÷ 4 x 2 = 9 3 24 x + 81 24 x 3 − 36 x 2 + 54 x ( −) (+) ( −) 2 36 x − 54 x + 81 36 x 2 − 54 x + 81 ( −) ( + ) ( −) 0 The required quotient is 4 x 2 + 6 x + 9. both the expressions are arranged in descending order of the powers of x . 2x4 + 110 − 48x = 2x4 − 48x + 110 2 divisor = 4 x + 11 + x 2 4 = x 2 + 4 x + 11 2 Now.

x2 + 5 24. x2 + 1 ) x4 −1 ( x2 −1 x4 + x2 − x2 −1 − x2 −1 0 The required quotient is x − 1. a + 2b 16. 2 x 2 y 2 z 14. 45a 4. a 2 bc + b 2 ca + c 2 ab. 6x2 + x − 2. 9a2 2. 2x − 1 17. − 4ayz 3 2 6. x − 3ab 2 2 2 x6 . 81x 4 + y 4 − 22 x 2 y 2 . x4 + x2 + 1. a 3b 4 − 3a 7 b 7 . 6a 5b3 − 9a 3b 4 . 15 x 3 y 3 + 12 x 3 y 2 − 12 x 5 y 3 . 7. 4a 2 − b2 26. 12a 4 + 11a 2 + 2. − a 3b 3 11. 3. 3 x 2 y 2 − 22x y z. 3a 2 3. 1 − 18. 2 a 2 b 2 + 5abd + 3d 2 . x2 y 2 + 1 28. Divide a 4 + a 2b 2 + b 4 by a 2 − ab + b2 . 2. 16 p 4 − 81q 4 . a + b + c 32. a 2 x − 4ax + 3ax 2. 3a3b2 − 2a 2b3. − 28 x 4 y 3 z 2 . x2 − 8xy + 16 y 2. 9xy 10. a 2 − 2 a + 3 30. 4a 4 + b4 − 5a 2b2. x − 4 y 23. 3 x − 2 y 3 2 2 3 13. 24a 2b 2 c − 15a 4b 4 c 4 − 9a 2b 6 c 2 . − 3ab 2 15. x 4 + x 2 y 2 + y 4 . x2 − x + 1 25. ab + d 27. 64 − a3. − 2xyz 8. a + 2 xyz 20. − 6 a 2 x 4. a 2 + 4axyz + 4 x 2 y 2 z 2 . x4 + 8x2 + 15. 3a 2 + 2 35. x3 + y3. − 36a z y . 1 − x + x 2 29. a 2b2 9. a − 4 22. 3a 2b 2 12. 2 p + 3q 21. Divide 2m2 − 5mn + 2n2 by 2m − n . 6 x 8 y 6 z − 4 x 4 yz + 2 x 2 y 2 z 2 . Divide 81 p 4 + q 4 − 22 p 2 q 2 by 9 p2 + 2 pq − q2 . both the expressions are arranged in descending order of the powers of x . 6 y 2 + 3 x 2 − 11xy. − 24a5.56 Mathematics Solution : Here. 30 a 4 x 3 . 2 Exercise 4⋅2 Divide the first expression by the second expression : 1. x4 y 4 − 1. x3 y − 2x2 y 2 + axy. x 2 − xy + y 2 . a + 3x − 4 33. 36x4 y3 + 9x5 y 2. 9 x 2 + 2 xy − y 2 34. Activity : 1. a b + 2a b . x + y 19. x − 8abx + 15a b . x2 − 2xy + a 31. 4 xy 2 z 3 3 2 5. a 5 + 11a − 12.

+. × and ÷ sign have been used in the expression. signs of the terms inside the bracket will be changed to its opposite signs when the bracket is removed. observe : b > c. Again. a > b − c In figure. second and third brackets are done successively. a − (b − c ) = a − b + c If (–) sign precedes a bracket. the rule of ‘BODMAS’ is followed. Besides that. −. c are distributed to each student and some money became surplus. a from poor welfare fund for 10 poor students of the school. Again. the operations of first. In the simplification of such expression. We can express the information mentioned above in terms of algebraic expression as : [{a − ( 2b + c ) × 10} + d ] ÷ 2 Here. The rule for placing the brackets is [{( )}]. signs of the terms inside the bracket will not be changed when the bracket is removed. Elimination of brackets : Observe : b>c In figure.Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 57 4⋅10 Use of Brackets The Managing Committee of a school sanctioned Tk. in case of brackets. . a + (b − c ) = a + b − c If (+) sign precedes a bracket. d is added to that money and the rest of the total money is divided equally among 2 disabled students. first. Tk. From that money 2 note-books each costing Tk. b and 1 pen costing Tk. second and third brackets have been used.

58 Mathematics Activity : Place the brackets by keeping the values of the following expressions unchanged : expression sign before position of bracket expression with brackets bracket + 2nd & 3rd terms 7+5−2 within 1st bracket 7−5+2 a−b+c−d a−b−c−d − + − ” ” 3rd & 4th terms within 1st brackets ” ” Activity : Remove the brackets of the following expressions : expressions with brackets expressions without brackets 8 + ( 6 − 2) 8 − (6 − 2) p + q + (r − s) p + q − (r − s) Example 21. Solution : a + {b − (c − d )} = a + {b − c + d} Example 23. Simplify : a − [b − {c − ( d − e)} − f ] Solution : a − [b − {c − ( d − e)} − f ] = a − [b − {c − d + e} − f ] = a + b − c + d. Simplify : a + {b − (c − d )}. Solution : 6 − 2{5 − (8 − 3) + (5 + 2)}. = 6 − 2{5 − 5 + 7} = 6 − 2{+7} = 6 − 14 = −8. Example 22. Simplify : 6 − 2{5 − (8 − 3) + (5 + 2)}. . = a − [b − c + d − e − f ] = a −b+c−d +e+ f.

b = 2 . Insert the third and fourth terms of 3 x − 4 y − 8 z + 5 within first bracket by putting (−) sign before the bracket. If x = −1 . which one of the following is the value of x 3 + 2 x 2 − 1 ? 2 (c) 5 x y2 2 (d) − 5 x y2 . Simplify : 3 x − [5 y − {10 z − (5 x − 10 y + 3 z )}]. − 25 x y = What ? 5 xy 3 (a) − 5 x 2 y 2 (b) 5 x 2 y 2 4. Solution : 3 x − [5 y − {10 z − (5 x − 10 y + 3 z )}] = 3 x − [5 y − {10 z − 5 x + 10 y − 3 z}] = 3 x − [5 y − {7 z − 5 x + 10 y}] = 3 x − [5 y − 7 z + 5 x − 10 y ] = 3 x − [5 x − 5 y − 7 z ] = 3x − 5 x + 5 y + 7 z = −2 x + 5 y + 7 z = 5 y − 2 x + 7 z. 8 x + y − [ 7 x − {5 x − ( 4 x − 3 x − y ) + 2 y}] Exercise 4⋅3 1. 3 x − 4 y − (8 z − 5) Again. Example 25. x − {2 x − (3 y − 4 x + 2 y )} 2. 3 x − {4 y + (8 z − 5)}. Solution : The third and fourth terms of the expressions 3 x − 4 y − 8 z + 5 are 8 z and 5 respectively. If a = 3. Then insert the second term and the expression inside the first bracket together within second bracket by putting (−) sign before it. Which one of the following is the product of 3a 2b and − 4ab 2 ? (a) − 12a 2b 2 (a) 5a 3b (b) − 12a 3b 2 (b) 5a 6 b 2 (c) − 12 a 2 b 3 (c) 5a 3b 2 (d) − 12a 3b 3 (d) 5a 3b 3 2. According to the question. Activity : Simplify : 1. what is the value of (8a − 2b) + ( −7 a + 4b) ? (a)3 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 15 5. Which one of the following is the quotient if 20a 6b 3 is divided by 4a 3b ? 3 3.Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions 59 Example 24.

60

Mathematics

(a) 0 (a) − 2 x 4 y 2 z 3

(b) − 1 (b) − 2 x 4 y 3 z 2

(c) 1 (c) − 2 x 3 y 3 z 3

(d) − 2 (d) − 2 x 4 y 3 z 3

6. Which one of the following is the quotient if 10 x 6 y 5 z 4 is divided by − 5 x 2 y 2 z 2 ? 7. 4a 4 − 6 a 3 + 3a + 14 is an algebraic expression. One student writes, from the expression, the following information : (i) a is the variable of the polynomial expression (ii) degree of the polynomial is 4
(iii) 6 is the coefficient of a . Which one of the following is the correct on the basis of the above information ? (b) ii and iii (c) i and iii (d) i, ii and iii (a) i and ii
3

8. 2 years ago Babuls’ age was

x years and his mother’s age was 5 x years. Then–

(1) What is the present age of mother? (b) 5 x years (c) ( x + 2) years (d) (5 x + 2) years (a) x years (2) What is the sum of present age of them? (a) 6 x years (b) (5 x + 4) years (c) (6 x + 4) years (d) (6 x + 2) years (3) What is the difference between the present age of them? (a) (6 x − 4) years (b) ( 4 x − 2) years (c) ( x − 2) years (d) 4 x years

Simplify (9 to 23) :
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

7 + 2[ −8 − {−3 − ( −2 − 3)} − 4]

− 5 − [ −8 − {−4 − ( −2 − 3)} + 13]

7 − 2[ −6 + 3{−5 + 2( 4 − 3)}]

x − {a + ( y − b)}

3 x + ( 4 y − z ) − {a − b − ( 2c − 4a ) − 5a}
− a + [ −5b − {−9c + ( −3a − 7b + 11c )}]
− a − [ −3b − {−2a − ( − a − 4b)}]
{2a − (3b − 5c)} − [ a − {2b − (c − 4a )} − 7c]

− a + [ −6b − {−15c + ( −3a − 9b − 13c)}]
− 2 x − [ −4 y − {−6 z − (8 x − 10 y + 12 z )}]

18.

Multiplication and Division of Algebraic Expressions

61

19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

3 x − 5 y + [ 2 + (3 y − x ) + {2 x − ( x − 2 y )}]
4 x + [ −5 y − {9 z + (3 x − 7 y + x)}]
20 − [{( 6a + 3b ) − (5a − 2b )} + 6]

15a + 2[3b + 3{2 a − 2( 2 a + b )}]

[8b − 3{2 a − 3( 2b + 5) − 5(b − 3)}] − 3b
Insert the second, third and forth terms of a − b + c − d within the first bracket by putting (−) sign before the bracket. In the expression a − b − c + d − m + n − x + y , insert the 2nd, 3rd and 4th terms within a bracket preceding by (−) sign and insert 6th and 7th terms within first bracket preceding by (+) sing. The (−) sign precedes the first bracket to enclose the third and fourth terms of 7 x − 5 y + 8 z − 9 . Then enclose the second term and the expressions within first bracket within the second bracket which the precedes (+) sign.

26.

27.

15 x 2 + 7 x − 2 and 5 x − 1 are two algebraic expressions.
(a) Subtract the second expression from the first expression. (b) Find the product of the two expressions. (c) Divide first expression by the second expression.

28.

2 x + y, 3 x − z and x − 4 y − 3 z + 2 are three algebraic expressions.
(a) (b) Find the sum of first and second expressions. Write the additive inverse expression of the third expression and subtract the obtained third expression from sum of the first and second expression.

(c) Simplify : 7 + [(2x + y) − {(3x − z) − ( x − 4 y − 3z + 2) + 10} ]. (d) Multiply third expression by first expression.

Chapter Five

Algebraic Formulae and Applications
Any general rule or axiom expressed by algebraic symbols is called Algebraic formula or simply formula. We use formula in different cases. The first four formulae and the method to find the corollaries with the help of four formulae have been discussed in this chapter. Besides, finding of the values of algebraic expression and factorization by the application of Algebraic formulae and corollaries have been presented here. Moreover, concepts regarding dividend, divisor, factor, multiple with the help of algebraic expressions and finding H.C.F. and L.C.M. of not more than three algebraic expressions have been discussed.

At the end of this chapter, the students will be able to −
¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ State and apply algebraic formulae in determining square Find the values of expressions by applying algebraic formulae and corollaries Resolve into factors by applying algebraic formula Explain factors and multiples Find H.C.F. and L. C. M. of not more than three algebraic expressions having numerical coefficients.

5.1 Algebraic Formulae Formula 1. (a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2
Proof :

( a + b) 2 means to multiply ( a + b) by (a + b)
= a (a + b) + b( a + b) = a 2 + ab + ba + b 2

∴ (a + b) 2 = (a + b)(a + b) .

= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
∴ ( a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

The square of the sum of two quantities = square of first quantity + 2 × first quantity × second quantity + square of second quantity.

a 2 + b 2 = (a + b) 2 − 2ab We know. Area of P = a × a = a 2 Area of Q = a × b = ab Area of R = a × b = ab Area of S = b × b = b Now. ( a + b) 2 − 2ab = a 2 + b 2 ∴ a 2 + b 2 = ( a + b) 2 − 2ab. We know. Find the square of ( m + n) .Algebraic Formulae and Applications 63 The geometrical explanation of the formula : ABCD is a square. where AB = a + b BC = a + b A a b B a P R a b Q S b D a b C We divide the square by a and b in such a way that we get four squares P. Solution : ( m + n) 2 = ( m) 2 + 2 × m × n + ( n ) 2 = m 2 + 2mn + n 2 Example 2. Example 1. the area of square = (length)2 and the area of rectangle = length × breadth Therefore. Here. Q. R. ( a + b) 2 − 2ab = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 − 2ab [subtracting 2ab from both sides] or. Find the square of (3 x + 4) Solution : (3 x + 4) 2 = (3 x ) 2 + 2 × 3 x × 4 + ( 4 ) 2 = 9 x 2 + 24 x + 16 . the area of square ABCD = the area of ( P + Q + R + S ) 2 ∴ ( a + b)2 = a 2 + ab + ab + b 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ∴ ( a + b)2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 Corollary 1. P and S are squares and Q and R are rectangles. S . ( a + b ) 2 = a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 or.

We know. (a − b ) 2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2 Proof : ( a − b) 2 means to multiply ( a − b) by (a − b) . (a − b) 2 + 2ab = a 2 − 2ab + b 2 + 2ab or. ∴ ( a − b) 2 = ( a − b)( a − b) = a ( a − b ) − b( a − b ) = a 2 − ab − ba + b 2 = a 2 − ab − ab + b 2 ∴ ( a − b) 2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2 Square of the difference of two quantities = square of first quantity − 2 × first quantity × second quantity + square of second quantity. 103 Formula 2. 5 + 2a 4. 15 5. [substituting − b instead of b ] a 2 + b 2 = (a − b) 2 + 2ab 2 2 2 We know. (a − b) 2 + 2ab = a 2 + b 2 [adding 2ab on both sides] ∴ a 2 + b 2 = ( a − b) 2 + 2ab. . Observe : The second formula can be obtained by using the first formula. Find the square of 105 by (2 x + 3 y) applying the formula of square. x + 2 y 2. 2 Solution : (105) 2 = (100 + 5) 2 Solution : ( 2 x + 3 y ) = (100) 2 + 2 × 100 × 5 + (5) 2 = ( 2 x ) 2 + 2 × 2 x × 3 y + (3 y ) 2 = 10000 + 1000 + 25 = 4 x 2 + 12 xy + 9 y 2 = 11025 Activity : Find the square of the expressions with the help of the formula : 1.64 Mathematics Example 3. ( a + b) = a + 2ab + b 2 2 2 ∴ {(a + (−b)}2 = a 2 + 2 × a × (−b) + (−b) 2 ∴ (a − b)2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2 Corollary 2. Find the square of Example 4. ( a − b) = a − 2ab + b or. 3a + 5b 3.

ax − by 3. 5 x − 3 2. ( a + b) 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2 ab + 4 ab = ( a − b ) 2 + 4ab ∴ (a + b) 2 = (a − b) 2 + 4ab Corollary 4. Solution : (98) 2 = (100 − 2) 2 = (5 x ) 2 − 2 × 5 x × 3 y + (3 y ) 2 = 25 x 2 − 30 xy + 9 y 2 = (100) 2 − 2 × 100 × 2 + ( 2) 2 = 10000 − 400 + 4 = 9604 Activity : Find the square of the expressions with the help of the formula : 1. 95 4. 5 x − 6 Corollaries from the first and second formulae: Corollary 3. Example 6. Solution : Solution : ( p − q) 2 (5 x − 3 y ) 2 = ( p)2 − 2 × p × q + (q )2 = p 2 − 2 pq + q 2 Example 7. Find the square of ( p − q ) . ( a − b) 2 = a 2 − 2ab + b 2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2ab − 4ab [Q +2ab = −2ab + 4ab] = ( a + b) − 4ab ∴ (a − b) = (a + b) − 4ab 2 [Q −2ab = +2ab − 4ab] 2 2 Corollary 5. ( a + b) 2 + ( a − b) 2 = ( a 2 + 2ab + b 2 ) + ( a 2 − 2ab + b 2 ) = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 + a 2 − 2ab + b 2 = 2a 2 + 2b 2 = 2( a 2 + b 2 ) 2 2 2 2 ∴ (a + b) + (a − b) = 2(a + b ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 Corollary 6. ( a + b) − ( a − b) = ( a + 2ab + b ) − ( a − 2ab + b ) = a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 − a 2 + 2 ab − b 2 = 4 ab 2 2 ∴ (a + b) − (a − b) = 4ab . Find the square of 98 by applying the formula of square.Algebraic Formulae and Applications 65 Example 5. Find the square of (5 x − 3 y ) .

If a + b = 4 and ab = 2 . If a + b = 5 and ab = 6 . If a + b = 7 and ab = 9 . or. a + 2 = 27. a 2 + b 2 = ( a + b) 2 − 2ab find the value of Solution: ( a − b) 2 . If p − p = 8 . a ( a − b) 2 . ∴ 2 ⎛1⎞ 1 p − 2 × p × p + ⎜ ⎟ = 64 ⎝ p⎠ p 2 + 1 − 2 = 64 p2 p 2 + 1 = 64 + 2 p2 p 2 + 1 = 66 (proved) p2 2 Activity : 1. = (7) 2 − 2 × 9 = (5) 2 − 4 × 6 = 49 − 18 = 25 − 24 = 31 =1 1 Example 10. prove that p 2 + 12 = 66 . or. p − = 8 p 1 ∴ ⎛ ⎜p− p⎞ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 = (8 ) 2 [Squaring both sides] or. find the value of 1 2 1 2.66 Mathematics Example 8. . If a − a = 5 . p Solution : p 2 + ( a − b) 2 = ( a + b) 2 − 4ab 1 = ⎛ p − 1 ⎞ + 2× p× 1 ⎜ p⎟ p ⎠ p2 ⎝ 2 ⎡ ⎢ ⎣ Q a 2 + b 2 = (a − b) 2 + 2ab ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ = (8) 2 + 2 = 64 + 2 = 66 (proved) Alternative method: 1 Given that. find the value of Solution: a2 + b2 . show that. Example 9.

Find the square of 3x − 2 y + 5 z . Find the square of a + b + c . Find the square of ( x + y − z ) . . Solution : Let. a + b = p ∴ (a + b + c) 2 Alternative Solution : (a + b + c)2 = {( a + b) + c}2 = (a + b)2 + 2 × ( a + b) × c + c 2 [substituting the value of p] = {( a + b) + c}2 = ( p + c ) 2 = p 2 + 2 pc + c 2 = ( a + b) 2 + 2 × ( a + b) × c + c 2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 + 2ac + 2bc + c 2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 + 2ac + 2bc + c 2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2bc = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca Activity : 1. 2nd quantity = 5z ] = (3 x) 2 − 2 × 3 x × 2 y + (2 y ) 2 + 2 × 5 z (3 x − 2 y ) + 25 z 2 = 9 x 2 − 12 xy + 4 y 2 + 30 xz − 20 yz + 25 z 2 = 9 x 2 + 4 y 2 + 25 z 2 − 12 xy + 30 xz − 20 yz. Find the square of a + b + c . where (b + c ) = m 2. x + y = m ∴ ( x + y − z ) 2 = {( x + y ) − z}2 = (m − z ) 2 = m 2 − 2mz + z 2 = ( x + y) 2 − 2 × ( x + y) × z + z 2 = x 2 + 2 xy + y 2 − 2 xz − 2 yz + z 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2 xy − 2 xz − 2 yz Solution : (3 x − 2 y + 5 z ) 2 [substituting the value of m] Example 13.Algebraic Formulae and Applications 67 Example 11. = {(3 x − 2 y ) + 5 z}2 = (3 x − 2 y ) 2 + 2 × (3x − 2 y ) × 5 z + (5 z ) 2 [Q1st quantity = 3x − 2 y . Find the square of a + b + c . where ( a + c ) = n Example 12. Solution : Let.

Simplify : ( 2 x + 3 y ) 2 − 2( 2 x + 3 y )( 2 x − 5 y ) + ( 2 x − 5 y ) 2 Solution : Let. If x = 7 and y = 6 . 2a + 2b − c 2 2 18. 55 9. 2 2 3. 2 2 Solution : Given expression = 16x − 40xy + 25 y 2 2 = ( 4 x ) 2 − 2 × 4 x × 5 y + (5 y ) 2 = (4 x − 5 y )2 = ( 4 × 7 − 5 × 6) 2 [substituting the values of x and y ] 2 = ( 28 − 30) = ( −2) 2 = ( −2) × ( −2) =4 Activity : 1. 2. 5a + 9m 2 2 8. ax − by 12. If x = 3 then what is the value of 9 x 2 − 24 x + 16 ? Exercise 5⋅1 Find the square with the help of the formulae (1−16): 5x − 7 3. Simplify (17−24) : 17. 2 a − b + 3c 13. (5a + 3b ) 2 + 2(5a + 3b )( 4 a − 3b ) + ( 4 a − 3b ) 2 . 3 x − 2 y + z 15. x 2 + y 2 − z 2 16. 2. Simplify : (5a − 7b) + 2(5a − 7b)(9b − 4a) + (9b − 4a) . bc + ca + ab 1. a − 2b − c 14. ( 2 a + 1) − 4 a ( 2 a + 1) + 4 a 2 2 a+5 5.68 Mathematics Example 14. xy − 6 y 10. 97 4. find the value of 16x − 40xy + 25 y . 2 x + y − z 11. Find the square of 3x − 2 y − z . 990 7. 2 x + 3 y = a and 2 x − 5 y = b Given expression = a − 2ab + b 2 2 = (a − b)2 = {(2x + 3 y) − (2x − 5 y)}2 [substituting the values of a and b ] = {2x + 3 y − 2x + 5 y}2 = (8 y)2 = 64 y 2 Example 15. 3a − 11xy 6.

If a − b = 7 and ab = 3 . show that. If x + ( a + b) 2 = 61. (7a + b) 2 − 2(7a + b)(7a − b) + (7a − b) 2 20. ( 2 a − 3b + 4c ) 2 + ( 2 a + 3b − 4c ) 2 + 2( 2 a − 3b + 4c )( 2 a + 3b − 4c ) Find the value (25−28) : 25. m 4 + 4 = 2 . 25 x 2 + 36 y 2 − 60 xy. what is the value of x 2 + y 2 + 5 xy ? 34. If x + y = 7 and xy = 10 . (2 x + 3 y ) 2 + 2(2 x + 3 y )(2 x − 3 y ) + (2 x − 3 y ) 2 21. (5 x − 2) 2 + (5 x + 7) 2 − 2(5 x − 2)(5 x + 7) 22. c = −67. 81a + 18ac + c . 2 28. 2 2 30. show that a + b = 1 1 1 ⎞2 ⎛ 2 . show that 31. m m Formula 3. If m + 1 1 = 2 . If a + b = 8 and a − b = 4 then ab = what ? 33. 2 2 29. when x = −4. ( a + b )( a − b ) = a 2 − b 2 Proof : (a + b)(a − b) = a (a − b) + b(a − b) = a 2 − ab + ab − b 2 ∴ (a + b)(a − b) = a 2 − b 2 Sum of two quantities × its difference = the difference of the squares of the two quantities. b = 6. (3ab − cd ) 2 + 9(cd − ab) 2 + 6(3ab − cd )(cd − ab) 23. If a + b = 5 and ab = 12 . ( x + a )( x + b ) = x 2 + (a + b ) x + ab Proof : ( x + a )( x + b ) = ( x + a ) x + ( x + a )b = x 2 + ax + bx + ab = x 2 + (a + b) x + ab That is. 9 x + 30 x + 25. 2 2 27. ( 2 x + 5 y + 3 z ) + (5 y + 3 z − x ) − 2(5 y + 3 z − x )(2 x + 5 y + 3 z ) 2 2 24. when a = 7. Formula 4. when x = −2. 16a − 24ab + 9b .Algebraic Formulae and Applications 69 19. prove that =5 ⎜ x − 2 ⎟ = 525 x x ⎠ ⎝ 32. y = −5 26. when a = 7. ( x + a )( x + b) = x 2 + (algebraic sum of a and b ) x + ( product of a and b) .

Using formula multiply ax 2 + b by ax 2 − b . 3. 2. Multiply p 2 − 2r by p 2 − 3r . . Multiply px + 3 by px − 5 .70 Mathematics Example 16. 2 2 Solution : ( p − 2 r )( p − 3r ) = ( p 2 ) 2 + ( −2r − 3r ) p 2 + ( −2 r ) × ( −3r ) = p 4 − 5rp 2 + 6r 2 = p 4 − 5 p 2 r + 6r 2 Activity : 1. Solution : Example 18. Solution : (3 x + 2 y )(3 x − 2 y ) = (3 x ) 2 − ( 2 y ) 2 = 9x2 − 4 y2 Example 17. Multiply ( 2 a + 3) by ( 2 a − 3) . Example 20. Multiply ( 4 x + 5) by ( 4 x + 3) . Solution : ( px + 3)( px − 5) = ( px) 2 + {3 + ( −5)} px + 3 × ( −5) = p 2 x 2 + (3 − 5) px − 15 = p 2 x 2 + ( −2) px − 15 = p 2 x 2 − 2 px − 15 = a 2 + (3 + 2)a + 3 × 2 = a 2 + 5a + 6 Example 21. Multiply a + 3 by Solution : ( a + 3)( a + 2) a + 2. Using formula multiply 3 x + 2 y by 3 x − 2 y . = {(3 x + 1) + 2 y}{(3 x + 1) − 2 y} = (3 x + 1) 2 − ( 2 y ) 2 = 9x2 + 6x + 1 − 4 y2 = 9x2 − 4 y2 + 6x + 1 Example 19. Using formula multiply 3 x + 2 y + 1 by Solution : (3 x + 2 y + 1)(3 x − 2 y + 1) ( ax 2 + b)( ax 2 − b) = ( ax 2 ) 2 − (b) 2 = a 2 x4 − b2 3x − 2 y + 1 . Multiply (6 a − 7 ) by (6 a + 5) .

( 4 x 2 + 3 y 2 ). ( a + b) and ( a − b) are the two factors of the algebraic expression a 2 − b 2 . we can express any algebraic expression as the product of two or more factors. associative and distributive laws for multiplication. (13 + 12 p ) 4. 6 = 2 × 3. When an algebraic expression is a product of two or more expressions. ( a + b + c ) 1 ⎞ ⎛ 5 ⎞ 8. (13 − 12 p ). ( ab + 3). ( 4 x − 3) 3. ⎛ ⎜ x − y ⎟. ( x 2 + 1) 5⋅2 Factors of algebraic expressions We know.Algebraic Formulae and Applications 71 Exercise 5⋅2 Find the products with the help of formulae : 1. each of these latter expressions is termed as a factor of first expression. (9a 2 + b 2 ). we know that a 2 − b 2 = ( a + b)( a − b) Then. (3a + b). Resolve into factors : ax − by + ax − by . (10 + xy) 6. Resolve into factors : 20 x + 4 y . Solution : ax − by + ax − by = ax + ax − by − by = 2ax − 2by = 2(ax − by ) . Solution : 20 x + 4 y = 4 × 5 x + 4 × y = 4(5 x + y ) [according to distributive law of multiplication] Example 23. ( a − b − c ). ( x + 1). ( x 2 + x + 1) 1 1 ⎞ ⎛1 1 ⎞ 9. (9 x 4 − 3a 2 x 2 + a 4 ) 12. ( 4 x + 3). By using the algebraic formulae and also by using commutative. (3a − b) 11. Here. ( 4 x 2 − 3 y 2 ) 7. (10 − xy). ( a 4 + 3a 2 x 2 + 9 x 4 ). ( x 2 − x + 1). From the formula 3. 2 and 3 are the two factors of 6. ⎛ ⎜ x − a ⎟. ⎜ x − a ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 10. ( x − 1). ⎜ x + y ⎟ ⎝4 3 ⎠ ⎝4 3 ⎠ 2. ( ab − 3) 5. Example 22.

Resolve into factors : Solution : = 2 x 2{( 2 x ) 2 − ( a ) 2} = 2 x 2 ( 2 x + a )( 2 x − a ) Example 28. Resolve into factors : 2 x − 6 x 2 . [by distributive law] 25 − 9 x 2 = (5)2 − (3 x ) 2 = (5 + 3 x )(5 − 3 x ) 8 x 4 − 2 x 2 a 2 = 2 x 2 (4 x 2 − a 2 ) Example 27. x + 6 x + 4 x + 24 x 4 2 3 4. Activity : Resolve into factors : 1. x 2 + 4 x + xy + 4 y = x( x + 4) + y ( x + 4) = ( x + 4)( x + y ) Observe : To select two quantities in such a way that by applying the distributive law we can find a common factor between the two quantities.72 Mathematics Example 24. Solution : Let. 15 y − 9 y 2 3. 2a + 3a + 2ab + 3b 2 Resolving into factors with the help of algebraic formulae : Example 26. Resolve into factors : 25( a + 2b) 2 − 36( 2a − 5b) 2 . a + 2b = x and 2a − 5b = y ∴ Given expression = 25 x 2 − 36 y 2 = (5 x ) 2 − ( 6 y ) 2 = (5 x + 6 y )(5 x − 6 y ) = {5( a + 2b ) + 6( 2a − 5b)}{5( a + 2b ) − 6( 2a − 5b )} [substituting the values = (5a + 10b + 12a − 30b)(5a + 10b − 12a + 30b) = (17 a − 20b)( 40b − 7 a ) of x and y ] . 28a + 7b 2. Resolve into factors : Solution : 25 − 9 x 2 . Resolve into factors : Solution : x 2 + 4 x + xy + 4 y . Solution : 2 x − 6 x 2 = 2 x(1 − 3 x ) Example 25. 5a 2b 4 − 9a 4b 2 5. 8 x 4 − 2 x 2a 2 .

4. 4 + 8a 2 + 9a 4 11. Solution : 4 x 2 − 4 xy + y 2 − z 2 = (2 x)2 − 2 × 2 x × y + ( y )2 − z 2 = (2 x − y)2 − ( z )2 = ( 2 x − y + z )( 2 x − y − z ) Example 31. x 2 + xy + zx + yz 3. Resolve into factors : 2bd − a 2 − c 2 + b 2 + d 2 + 2 ac . x + 7 x + 10 2 3.Algebraic Formulae and Applications 73 Example 29. Resolve into factors : 4 x 2 − 4 xy + y 2 − z 2 . ab( px + qy ) + a 2 qx + b 2 py 9a 2 − 4b 2 16 x 4 − 81y 4 2. 7. 25 x 4 − 36 y 4 4. 2a 2 + 6a − 80 . Resolve into factors : [Q ( x + a )( x + b) Solution : x 2 + 5 x + 6 2 = x 2 + (a + b) x + ab. m + m − 30 2 Exercise 5⋅3 Resolve into factors: 1. = x + ( 2 + 3) x + 2 × 3 Here. 12. a = 2 and b = 3] = ( x + 2)( x + 3) Example 30. 8. Solution : 2bd − a 2 − c 2 + b 2 + d 2 + 2ac = b 2 + 2bd + d 2 − a 2 + 2ac − c 2 = (b 2 + 2bd + d 2 ) − ( a 2 − 2ac + c 2 ) = (b + d ) 2 − ( a − c ) 2 = (b + d + a − c )(b + d − a + c ) = ( a + b − c + d )(b − a + c + d ) Activity : Resolve into factors :: 2 2 1. 9 x 2 − ( 2 x + y ) 2 5. a − 81b 2. a 2 + bc + ca + ab 4x2 − y 2 a 2 b 2 − 49 y 2 a 2 − ( x + y)2 y 2 − 6 y − 91 (2 x − 3 y + 5 z ) 2 − ( x − 2 y + 3z ) 2 10. x2 + 5x + 6 . 5. 6. 9.

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13.

p 2 − 15 p + 56

14. 45a 8 − 5a 4 x 4 16. ( x 2 + 1) 2 − ( y 2 + 1) 2 18. a 2 − b 2 + 2bc − c 2 20. 4 x 2 + 12 xy + 9 y 2 − 16a 2

15. a 2 + 3a − 40 17. x 2 + 11x + 30 19. 144 x 7 − 25 x 3a 4

5.3 Dividend, Divisor, Factor and Multiple x, y and z are three expressions.
Let,

x
Dividend

÷

y

=

z

Divisor Quotient

In the above example, the process of division has been shown. x is divided, so x is dividend ; divided by y , so y is divisor and z is quotient. For example, 10 ÷ 2 = 5 Here, Dividend 10 2 Divisor 5 Quotient In this case, 10 is a multiple of 2. Again, 10 is also a multiple of 5. If a quantity (Dividend) is divisible by another quantity (Divisor), then the dividend is a multiple of the divisor. The divisor is called a factor.

5.4 Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.)
From Arithmetic we know, 1, 2 , 3 , 4, 6 , 12 The factors of 12 are The factors of 18 are The factors of 24 are The common factors of 12, 18 and 24 are 2, 3, and 6. Among these, the highest factor is 6. ∴ The H.C.F. of 12, 18 and 24 is 6. In Algebra, The factors of The factors of The factors of

1, 2 , 3 , 6 , 9 , 18 1, 2 , 3 , 4, 6 , 8, 12, 24

xyz are
5 x are 3 xp are

x , y, z

5, x

3, x , p

∴ The common factor of the expressions xyz, 5 x, 3 xp is ∴ The H.C.F. of the expressions is x .

x.

Algebraic Formulae and Applications

75

The quantity which is the factor of each of to two or more quantities, then that quantity is a factor of each of them and that quantity is called the common factor of the given expressions.. The product of the highest number of factors which are common to two or more quantities is called the Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) of those quantities.

Rules of finding H.C.F.
(a) To find H.C.F. of the numerical coefficients by applying the rules of Arithmetic. (b) To find the factors of the algebraic quantities. (c) Product of the H.C.F. of the numerical coefficients and the successive multiplication of the highest common factors of the expressions will be the required H.C.F. Example 32. Find the H.C.F. of 8 x yz and 10 x y z . Solution : 8 x yz = 2 × 2 × 2 × x × x × y × z × z
2 2 2 2 3 2 3

10 x 3 y 2 z 3 = 2 × 5 × x × x × x × y × y × z × z × z Therefore, the common factors are 2, x, x, y , z , z.
The required H.C.F. 2 × x × x × y × z × z = 2 x yz
2 2 2 2

Example 33. Find the H.C.F. of 2( a − b ) and ( a − 2ab + b ) .
2 2

Solution : 1st quantity = 2( a − b ) = 2( a + b)(a − b)
2 2

2nd quantity = a − 2ab + b = ( a − b)(a − b)
2 2

Here, H.C.F. of the coefficients 2 and 1 is 1. and that of the common factors is ( a − b) The required H.C.F. is ( a − b) Example 34. Find the H.C.F. of x − 4, 2 x + 4 and x + 5 x + 6 .
2 2

Solution : 1st expression 2nd expression 3rd expression

= x 2 − 4 = ( x + 2)( x − 2)

= 2 x + 4 = 2( x + 2) = x 2 + 5 x + 6 = x 2 + 2 x + 3x + 6 = x( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = ( x + 2)( x + 3)

Here, the H.C.F. of the coefficients 1, 2 and 1 is 1. common factor = ( x + 2) The required H.C.F. is 1 × ( x + 2) = ( x + 2)

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Mathematics

Activity : Find the H.C.F. 1. 3 x 3 y 2 , 2 x 2 y 3 3. ( x 2 − 25), ( x − 5) 2

2. 3 xy, 6 x 2 y, 9 xy 2 4. x 2 − 9, x 2 + 7 x + 12, 3 x + 9

5⋅5 Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.)
In Arithmetic, we know, The multiples of 4 are 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, ............. The multiples of 6 are 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, ............. The common multiples of 4 and 6 are 12, 24, 36 ,............. The least common multiples of 4 and 6 is 12. The L.C.M. of two or more numbers is such a number which is the least among the common multiples of those quantities. In case of algebraic expressions,

x2 y2 ÷ x2 y = y 2 2 2 and x y ÷ xy = x

x 2 y 2 is divisible by both the quantities x 2 y and xy 2 . 2 2 2 2 Therefore, x y is a common multiple of x y and xy .
That is, Again, x y = x × x × y
2

xy 2 = x × y × y
Here, x occur maximum two times and y occur maximum two times in the two expressions. ∴ L.C.M. = x × x × y × y = x 2 y 2 Remark : L.C.M. = common factors × factors which are not common. The product of highest power of all possible factors of two or more expressions is called the least common multiple (L.C.M.) of the expressions.

Rules of finding L.C.M.
At first the L.C.M. of the numerical coefficients should be determined for finding the L.C.M. Then the highest power of factors should be found. Then their product will be the L.C.M. of the given expressions. 2 3 3 2 3 3 Example 35. Find the L.C.M. of 4 x y z , 6 xy z and 8 x yz . Solution : The L.C.M. of the coefficients 4, 6 and 8 is 24 3 3 3 The highest power of the factors x, y, z are x , y and z respectively. The required L.C.M. is 24 x 3 y 3 z 3

of the coefficients 2. Which one is the value of (a) 8 x 2 (b) 8 y 2 ( x + y ) 2 + 2( x + y )( x − y ) + ( x − y ) 2 ? (c) 4 x 2 (d) 4 y 2 . The required L. is ( a − b)( a + b) 2 2 2 3 3 Example 37.M. What is the product of ( 2 x + 3) and ( 2 x − 3) ? (b) 4 x 2 + 12 x − 9 (c) 4 x 2 − 12 x − 9 4. 4 x y − 16 xy and 5 x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 ) Solution : 1st expression = 2 x 2 y + 4 xy 2 = 2 xy( x + 2 y ) 2nd expression = 4 x 3 y − 16 xy 3 = 4 xy ( x 2 − 4 y 2 ) = 4 xy ( x + 2 y )( x − 2 y ) 3rd expression = 5 x 2 y 2 ( x 2 + 4 xy + 4 y 2 ) = 5 x 2 y 2 ( x + 2 y ) 2 The L. ( x − 2 y ) respectively. 9 x 3 y 2 and 12 x 2 y 2 3. What is the square of 11 ? (a) 22 (a) a 2 + 10a + 25 (a) 4 x 2 − 9 (b) 101 (c) 111 (c) a 2 + 5a + 25 (d) 121 (d) a 2 − 5a + 25 (d) 4 x 2 + 9 2. of 2 x y + 4 xy .Algebraic Formulae and Applications 77 2 2 2 Example 36. a 4 − 9 and a 4 + 6a 2 + 9 4. 3 x 2 y 3 . x 4 − 49 x 2 2. of a − b and a + 2ab + b .C. a 2 − 4. Find the L. ( x + 2 y ) 2 .C. Which one is the square of a − 5 ? (b) a 2 − 10a + 25 3. is 20 x y ( x − 2 y )( x + 2 y ) 2 2 2 Activity : Find the L. Find the L. a − 2.C.M. a 2 − a − 2 Exercise 5⋅4 1. : 1.C.M. y 2 .M. 2 Solution : 1st expression The highest powers of the possible factors of given expressions are (a − b) and = a 2 − b 2 = ( a + b)( a − b) 2 2 2 2nd expression = a + 2ab + b = ( a + b ) ( a + b) 2 The required L.C.M. 4 and 5 is 20. x 2 + 10 x + 21. 3a 2 + 9.M. The highest powers of the possible factors of the given expression are x 2 .C.

F.78 Mathematics 5. (i ) x 2 − 16 and (ii ) x 2 + 3 x − 4 are two algebraic expressions. a 2 . Which one of the following is correct on the basis of the above information? (b) i and iii (a) i and ii (c) ii and iii (d) i.F. If a + b = 4 and a − b = 2 . (1) If x = 1 . (iii ) The full expression of H. Which one is the Least Common Multiple of a. of 2a and 3b ? (a) 1 (b) 6 (c) a 9.C. (d) i. what is the value of ab ? (a) 3 (b) 8 (c) 12 (d) 16 6.C. (ii ) To determine the common multiple of expressions for finding the L. (i ) ( a + b ) = a + 2 ab + b 2 2 2 (ii ) 4ab = ( a + b) 2 + ( a − b) 2 (iii ) a 2 − b 2 = ( a + b )( a − b) Which one of the following is correct on the basis of the above information ? (b) i and iii (a) i and ii (c) ii and iii 10. ii and iii (i ) The full expression of L. then which one of the following is the difference of (i ) and (ii ) (b) − 15 (a) 0 (c) 15 (d) 16 (2) Which one of the following is the resolving into factors of ( ii ) (b) ( x + 1)( x − 4) (a) ( x − 1)( x + 4) (c) ( − x + 1)( x + 4) (d) ( − x + 1)(4 − x ) (3) Which one of the following is the common factor of (i ) and (ii ) ? (a) ( x − 4) (b) ( x − 1) (c) ( x + 1) (d) ( x + 4) . What is H. If a quantity is divisible without reminder by another quantity. is Least Common Factor.C.C. then what is called dividend in respect of divisor? (a) Quotient (b) Remainder (c) Multiple (d) Factor 7.M. ii and iii 11. a( a + b) ? (a) (b) a a2 (c) a ( a + b ) (d) b (d) a 2 ( a + b ) 8.M. is Highest Common Factor.

If x = 2 . 3a x . 5ab 2 x 2 .Algebraic Formulae and Applications 79 12. a 2 + 2 a − 15 2 2 31. x + 7 x + 10 33. 9a 4bd 2 2 2 2 2 25. (d) xy( x + y )( x + 2 y ) Find the H. (d) Find the L. 9 x − 25 y . a − b 19. of the two expressions. 10a 2by 2 x 3 y − xy 3 . (b) Find a by using formula. a 2 + a − 20. 15 y 3 z 4 2 2 2 26. a 2 + 5a + 4 Find the L. x + 3 x + 2 2 2 29. (b − c ). 16 a 3 x 4 y.M.F. 40 a 2 y 3 x. x − 625 and x + 3 x − 10 are two algebraic expressions.M. a 4 + 2a 3b + a 2b 2 a 2 − 16. x − 8 x + 15. 23. a 3 − ab 2 . 22. 15ax − 25ay 30. x + 5 x. 9 ay 2 2 2 17.M.C. 6ab 2 c 2 2 2 2 2 15. x − 10 x + 25 2 2 2 5 x 2 y 2 . (c) y ( x + y )( x − y ) (d) xy( x + y )( x − y ) (2) Which one of the following is the H. 6 pqx 2 2 27. 20. x + 2 x. x 2 + 9 x + 20 21. . Then. (1) Which one of the following is the resolving into factors of first expression? (b) x( x + y )( x − y ) (a) ( x + y )( x − y ) 3 3 (c) y ( x + y ) (d) x( x − y ) (3) Which one of the following is the L. of the two algebraic expressions? (a) x( x + y )( x − y ) (b) y ( x + y )( x − y ) (c) 13. (a) Find a + b . 24.C. 28ax 3 18. x + 2 x − 15 32. If a = 2 x − 3 and b = 2 x + 5 then. 2 p xy . of the two expressions. of the following (13 − 22): 3a 3b 2 c. 6 axy . (c) Find the product of a and b by using formula.C. Then. x 2 + 7 x + 12. x 3 y − xy. of the two algebraic expressions? (a) ( x + y ) (b) ( x − y ) xy( x 2 − y 2 )( x + 2 y ) 14. x − 3 x − 10. a + ab. x − 25.F.C. 4 2 2 ab = What ? 34.C. a 2 − 7 a + 12. (b + c ) 2 2 28. x 2 − 2 x + 1 16. (c) Find the H. 3a + 12. ( x − y ) 2 xy − y. (a) For resolving the first expression into factors which formula should be used ? (b) Resolve the second expression into factors. x + 5.C. 3 pq . of the following (23 − 32): 6a 3b 2 c. ( x y − xy ) and ( x − y )( x + 2 y ) are two algebraic expressions.F. 10 xz 3 .

Chapter Six

Algebraic Fractions
Fraction means a broken part of something whole. In everyday life, we use a whole object along with its parts as well. So, fraction is an inevitable part of mathematics. Like arithmetic fraction, in algebraic fraction, the reduction of fraction to its lowest terms and making them with common denominator are also very important. Many complicated problems of arithmetic fraction can easily be solved by algebraic fraction. So, the students should have clear idea about the algebraic fraction. In this chapter, reduction of fraction, making them with common denominator and addition, subtraction of fractions have been presented.

at the end of this chapter, the students will be able to –
¾ ¾ ¾ explain what is algebraic fraction reduce and make the fractions with common denominator add, subtract and simplify algebraic fractions.

6⋅1 Fractions
Abeer divided an apple into two equal parts and gave one part to his brother Kabir. Then each of two brothers got half the apple, that is, 1 part. This 1 is a fraction. 2 2

Again, let us suppose that Tina coloured 3 parts out of four equal parts of a circle. Thus, we can say that she coloured

3 part of the whole circle. 4

3 Here, 1 , are the arithmetic fractions, whose numerators 2 4 are 1, 3 and denominators are 2, 4 respectively. If only the numerator or only the denominator or both numerator and denominator of any fraction be expressed by algebraic letter symbols or expressions, then it will be an algebraic
fraction ; such as

a 5 a 2a a x 2x + 1 , etc. , , , , , , 4 b b a + b 5x x + 1 x − 3

are algebraic fractions.

Algebraic Fractions

81

6⋅2 Equivalent Fractions
Let us look at two equal square regions. In figure 1,

1 part has been 2 coloured black and in figure-2, two parts out of four equal parts have been coloured black. But we fig. 1 fig. 2 see that the total black coloured portions of the two 1 1 × 2 2 again 1 1 × 3 3 . figures are equal, = = ; = = 2 2× 2 4 2 2×3 6 3 In this way 1 = 2 = = 5 = ........, are equivalent fractions. 2 4 6 10 In the same way in case of algebraic fraction, a = a × c = ac [multiplying numerator
one part out of two equal parts, i.e. and denominator. by c, c ≠ o ] Again, ac = ac ÷ c = a [ dividing numerator. and denominator. by bc bc ÷ c b ∴ a and ac are mutually equivalent fraction. bc b
b b×c bc

c, c ≠ o]

It is to be observed that if the numerator and denominator of any fraction be multiplied or divided by the same non-zero quantity, there will be no change in the value of the fraction. Activity : Write down three equivalent fractions for each of the fractions

2 a and . 5 x

6⋅3 Reduction of fractions
Fill in the blank spaces (two are worked out) :

9 3× 3 3 = = 12 2× 2×3 4 2 a b = ab 2 3x = 6 xy

23 = 24

x3 x × x × x = =x x× x x2 2mn = 4m 2

Reduction of a fraction means to transfer the fraction to its lowest terms. For this purpose, both the numerator and denominator are to be divided by their common divisor or factor. If there is no common divisor or factor in between numerator and denominator of a fraction, such fraction is said to be in its lowest terms.

82
2 Example 1. Reduce the fraction 4a bc . 6ab 2c 2× 2× a× a×b×c 2a 4a 2bc = . Solution : = 2× 3× a × b × b × c 3b 6ab 2 c 4a 2bc 2abc × 2a 2a Alternative method : = . = 2 2abc × 3b 3b 6ab c

Mathematics

[H.C.F. of numerator and denominator is 2 abc]

Example 2. Transform

2a2 + 3ab into its lowest terms. 4a2 − 9b2 2a2 + 3ab 2a2 + 3ab Solution : = 4a2 − 9b2 (2a)2 − (3b)2 a a(2a + 3b) = . [ = Q x2 − y2 = (x + y)(x − y)] (2a + 3b)(2a − 3b) 2a − 3b

Example 3. Reduce :

x 2 + 5x + 6 x 2 + 3x + 2 x 2 + 5x + 6 x2 + 2x + 3x + 6 Solution : = 2 x + x + 2x + 2 x 2 + 3x + 2 x( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) ( x + 2)(x + 3) = = x( x + 1) + 2( x + 1) ( x + 1)(x + 2) x+3 . = x +1

6⋅4 Fractions with common denominators
Fractions with common denominator is also known as the fractions with equal denominator. In this case, the denominators of the given fractions are to be made equal. We consider the fractions

a m and . L.C.M. of the denominators 2b and 3n is 2b 3n

6bn.
∴ we are to make the denominators of the two fractions each equal to 6bn . Here,

a = a × 3n 2b 2b × 3n 3an = 6bn

[Q 6bn ÷ 2b = 3n]

Algebraic Fractions

83

and

m = m × 2b [Q 6bn ÷ 3n = 2b] 3n 3n × 2b = 2bm . 6bn

∴ The fractions with common denominator are

2bm 3an and . 6bn 6bn

Rules for expressing the fractions with common denominator:
1. Find the L.C.M. of the denominators of the given fractions. 2. Divide the L.C.M. by the denominators of each fraction to find the quotient. 3. Multiply the numerator and denominator of the respective fraction by the quotient thus obtained. Example 4. Express the fractions with common denominator: Solution : L.C.M. of the denominators

a b . , 4x 2x2

4 x and 2 x 2 is 4 x 2 .

ax a = a× x = . 4x2 4x 4 x × x b×2 b = = 2b . Q 4x 2 ÷ 2x 2 = 2 , ∴ 2 2 2x × 2 4x2 2x ax 2b , . ∴ The fractions with common denominator are 4 x 2 4x2
Q 4x 2 ÷ 4x = x , ∴
Example 5. Transform the fractions into its common denominator:

2 5 , 2 a − 4 a + 3a − 10
2

Solution : Denominator of the first fraction = a 2 − 4 = ( a + 2)(a − 2) Denominator of the second fraction 2 2 = a + 3a − 10 = a − 2 a + 5a − 10 = a(a − 2) + 5(a − 2) = (a − 2)(a + 5) ∴ L.C.M. of the two fractions = (a + 2)(a − 2)(a + 5) ∴

2 2 × (a + 5) 2 [Multiplying numerator and = = a − 4 (a + 2)(a − 2) (a + 2)(a − 2) × (a + 5) denominator by (a + 5) ] 2(a + 5) = 2 (a − 4)(a + 5)
2

2 3 . 2 ∴ The required three fractions are respectively 2 x ( x − 4) ( x + 2)( x − 4) 3 x ( x + 2) . 2 . 2 (a − 4)(a + 5) (a − 4)(a + 5) 2 Example 6. of the three denominators is = x( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 4) ∴ first fraction is = 1 × ( x + 2)( x − 4) 1 = x + 3x x( x + 3) × ( x + 2)( x − 4) 2 = Second fraction is = ( x + 2)( x − 4) x( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 4) Third fraction is 2 2 2 × x ( x − 4) = = x + 5x + 6 (x + 2)(x + 3) ( x + 2)( x + 3) × x ( x − 4) 2 x ( x − 4) = x ( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 4) 3 3 = 2 = x − x − 12 ( x + 3)(x − 4) 3 × x( x + 2) = ( x + 3)(x − 4) × x( x + 2) 3x( x + 2) = x( x + 2)(x + 3)(x − 4). x ( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 4) x ( x + 2)( x + 3)( x − 4) .M. Transform the fractions into its common denominator: Solution: Denominator of the first fraction is = x + 3 x = x( x + 3) 2 2 1 .C. x + 3x x + 5x + 6 x − x − 12 2 Denominator of the second fraction is = x 2 + 5 x + 6 = x 2 + 2 x + 3 x + 6 = x( x + 2) + 3( x + 2) = ( x + 2)( x + 3) Denominator of the third fraction is = x 2 − x − 12 = x 2 + 3 x − 4 x − 12 = x( x + 3) − 4( x + 3) = ( x + 3)( x − 4) L. 2(a + 5) .84 Mathematics [[Multiplying the 5 × ( a + 2) 5 5 = = a + 3a − 10 ( a − 2)( a + 5) ( a − 2)( a + 5) × ( a + 2) numerator and denominator by ( a + 2) ] 5(a + 2) = (a 2 − 4)(a + 5) 2 ∴ The required fraction are 5(a + 2) . . x ( x + 2 )( x + 3)( x − 4).

a 2 − a − 12. a + 4 a + 4 a2 − 4 9. bc ac 12. 2x 3 y . a bc ab2c a3c 3. x3 y 3 z 3 x2 y 2 z 2 4. b . x 2 + x − 6. 2 14. 2a + 3b 4a 2 − 9b 2 2 8.Algebraic Fractions 85 Activity : 1. Resolve into factors : a 2 − 9b 2 . 15. b . 2a − 4ab 1 − 4b2 7. x2 − y 2 ( x + y)2 10. pq pr 13. . of the three expressions: a 2 + 3a. a b . 2.M. Find the L. a a − b a + b a(a + b) . 2 2 a − 2ab a + 2b a − 4 a(a + 2) a a+b a−b a−c 2 2 a b . 3m 2n 17. b . 2x 4 y Exercise 6⋅1 Express in lowest terms (1-10) : 1. x y . Express with common denominator : a . x 2 + 2 x − 15 x 2 + 9 x + 20 Express into the fractions with common denominator (11-20) : 11. 3 . x −x−2 x + x−6 2 . x2 + x xy + y 5. a −9 a+3 c . 20. a−b a+b 2 x2 y2 16. 3 . 2 a2b 2. 4a 2b 6a3b 6. 18. a 2 + 5a + 6. c 19.C. 3. a a .

Rules for addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions : (1) (2) (3) Make the fractions to their lowest common denominator. Denominator of the sum will be the lowest common denominator and the numerator will be the sum of the numerators of the transformed fractions. Add : x and . Addition of algebraic fractions : y Example 7. the fractions of each box have common denominators. a a Solution : x y x+ y + = a a a . Subtraction and Simplification of Algebraic Fractions Let us observe : Arithmetic If the whole square region is taken as 1. Denominator of the difference will be the lowest common denominator and numerator will be the difference of the numerators of the transformed fractions. 2 2 = 4 4 1 1 of 1 = 4 4 2 1 + ∴ Total coloured part = 4 4 2 +1 3 = = 4 4 ⎛ 3⎞ 4 3 ∴ White part = ⎜1 − ⎟ = − ⎝ 4⎠ 4 4 4−3 1 = = 4 4 Line drawn part = 2 2x of x = 4 4 1 x of x = Line-drawn part = 4 4 2x x + ∴ total coloured part = 4 4 2 x + x 3x = = 4 4 3x 4x 3x − = ∴ White part = x − 4 4 4 4x − 3x x = = 4 4 = We observe.86 Mathematics 6⋅5 Addition. then its black coloured part = of 1 Algebra If the whole square region is taken as then its black coloured part x.

Add : a and b .Algebraic Fractions 87 Example 8.M. (a + 2)(a − 2) (a + 2)(a − 2) a 2 − 4 b = 2a × y b × x = 2ay − bx Solution : 2a − − = 3x 3y 3xy 3xy 1× (a − 2) (a + 2) × (a − 2) Activity : Fill in the following chart : 1 3 = + 2 4 3 2 = + m n 2 5 = + x 2x 3 2 = + m m2 4 2 = − 5 5 5 1 = − ab a 7 2z = − xyz xy 2 = 5 − 2 p 3p . Find the difference : 1 − 1 . 3x 3y 3xy Example 12.2 y for making equal Subtraction of Algebraic Fractions : Example 10. a + 2 a2 − 4 1 1× (a − 2) 1 1 Solution: 1 − 1 = − = − 2 a + 2 a − 4 a + 2 (a + 2)(a − 2) (a + 2) × (a − 2) (a + 2)(a − 2) a − 2 −1 = a − 3 = (a − 2) − 1 = . Subtract : Solution : a b a−b − = x x x b a from x x Example 11. denominator] 2 xy of 2x × y 2y× x 2 xy 2 x. Subtract : b from 2a . m n b × m = an + bm Solution : a + b = a × n + m n m× n n× m mn Example 9.C. Find the sum : 3a + b . 2x 2y 3a × y b × x 3ay + bx Solution : 3a + b = + = 2x 2y [Taking L.

abc xyz 2 b. Which one of the following is an equivalent fraction of ab ? xy a. a +b a −b Solution : b = a × (a − b) + b × (a + b) = a 2 − ab + ab + b 2 a + (a + b)(a − b) a +b a −b (a + b)(a − b) 2 2 = a +b . Here. the obtained fraction is to be expressed in its lowest terms. Simplify : Example 15. a x . a2 b x y c. Example 13. − xy yz x + y y + z = z × ( x + y ) − x × ( y + z ) = zx + zy − xy − xz Solution : − xy xyz xyz yz y ( z − x) = z − x . Simplify : a2 − b2 x− y y−z z−x + − xy yz zx x− y y−z z−x Solution : + − xy zx yz ( x − y) × z + ( y − z) × x − ( z − x) × y = xyz zx − yz + xy − zx − yz + xy = xyz 2( x − z ) = 2 xy − 2 yz = 2 y( x − z ) = xz xyz xyz Exercise 6⋅2 1. abz xyz d. = yz − xy = xz xyz xyz Example 14. Simplify : a + b .88 Mathematics Simplification of Algebraic Fractions: Simplification of algebraic fractions means to transform two or more fractions associated with operational signs into one fraction or expression. 2 x+ y y+ z.

9 15ab 15ab b. b 6 . 15ab 15ab c. 1 + x 3 3. of the three denominators ? b. 2a( x − 1) x2 −1 . 2( x 2 + 1) d. xyz xyz xyz xyz 5.M. 2b 4b 4b c. 2x + 2 x +1 x+2 2( x + 1) (2) What is the L. y d. Which one of the following pairs expresses fractions denominator ? a. x 2 y 2 . i and ii 6. a( x − 1) 2( x + 1) d. a a . 2a c. x 6 2x + x2 ? 6x d. x y and with common zx yz y2z zx 2 . . 2( x 2 − 1) (3) If the three fractions are transformed into the fractions with equal denominator. xyz 2 xyz 2 b.C. xyz 2 xyz 2 c. b. a( x − 1) 2( x 2 − 1) c. ii and iiii 3a are three algebraic fractions. 10a .Algebraic Fractions 89 2. +1 = bd bd + 1 ii. 2 + x 6 c. ac ac + 1 . b. 2( x − 1) 2 a b. i and iii iii. 2 15a b 15a 2b 4. a + a = 3a . 2 x +1 2x + 2 x −1 Answer the following questions : (1) If second fraction is subtracted from first fraction. d. ( x + 1) 3 ( x − 1) c. ii and iii d. which one of the following will be the second fraction ? a. y2 x2 . Look at the following information : i. Which one of the following is the lowest form of a. Which one of the following pairs expresses fractions 2 and 3a 3 in equal 5ab b. 1 3 denominators ? a. what will be the difference ? 1 a a a. 2( x + 1) a. 3x − 2 x = 13x y 5y 5y In view of the above information. 15ab 15ab 9a d. i. x . 3 2 . 10b . which one of the following is true ? a.

q+r 17. 1 5 + 2 a − 6a + 5 a − 1 a. 9. 2a − 4 7 7 4y 14. Three algebraic fractions are : 1 1 1 . b. 26. a − + + − + + xy b 2b 3b yz zx xy zx yz x y 25. . − x xy + 2 y 2 1 1 a 3a 21. 3a + 2b 8. Transform the second and third fractions into the fractions with common denominator. c. Factorize the denominator of the third fraction. x + y 2a 3b 10. 22. Three algebraic fractions are : x . Find the sum of the given three fractions. 2 3 − x+3 x+2 x2 − 4 y2 20.90 Mathematics Find the sum (7 – 12 ) : 7. . a + − − 2 x+2 x −4 3 6 8 y z x− y y−z z−x x 3a 2a 23. a(a + 2) a 2 + 5a + 6 a 2 − a − 6 a. 24. 1 + 2 5x 5x 5 5 12. b. 2a + 2a x +1 x − 2 11. . c. Express the first and second fractions with equal denominator. p + q − pq qr Simplify : (19 – 24) : 5a 2x b a − 8x 4 y 16. 2 x − 5a 18. 15. x + y x − 4 y x 2 − 3xy − 4 y 2 19. Subtract the first fraction from the sum of second and third fractions. b a + a +b a −b 4 3 + x − 4x − 5 x + 1 2 Find the difference (13 – 18) : b 13. Factorize the denominator of third fractions.

4 x + 3 = x − 1. b. We have also learnt how to form equations from real life problems and to solve it. Let us observe the equation : x + 3 = 7 (a) What is the unknown quantity or variable of the equation ? (b) What is the operational sign of the equation ? (c) Whether the equation is a simple equation or not ? (d) What is the root of the equation ? We know. x + 4 y − 1 = 0. 2 y − 1 = y + 3. equations having degree one of the variables are called simple equations. we have learnt what is equation and what is simple equation. c a(b + c) = ab + ac. we shall only discuss about the simple equations having one variable. 3z − 5 = 0. Distributive law for multiplication : For any value of a. . elementary concepts about graphs have been discussed and the solutions of equations have been shown in graphs in this chapter. We shall also learn about the formation of equations from real life problems and their solution. At the end of this chapter. x + 3 = 7. a + b = b + a and ab = ba . Moreover. operational sign and equality sign is called an equation. Such as. Besides. In this chapter. the mathematical sentence associated with variable. In this chapter of class seven we shall learn about some laws for the solution of equations and its applications. Simple equation may have one or more variables. (b + c)a = ba + ca . cross-multiplication and symmetry ¾ Solve equations by applying the laws ¾ form simple equations and solve them ¾ Explain what is a graph ¾ Plot the points by taking the axes of graphs and use suitable units ¾ Solve the equations through graphs 7⋅1 Revision of previous lessons (1) (2) Commutative law for addition and multiplication : For any value of a. cancellation. these are simple equations. 2x − y + 1 = x + y etc . the students will be able to − ¾ Explain the laws of transposition.Chapter Seven Simple Equations In class six. b.

that is. their quotient will also be equal to one another.92 Mathematics The value of the variable. (3) If each of equal quantities is multiplied by the same quantity. 5 is transposed from left hand side to right hand side by changing its sign. their difference will also be equal to one another. Activity : What is the degree of the equation 2x − 1 = 0 ? Write what is its operational sign. which is obtained by solving an equation is called the root of the equation. What is the root of the equation? 7⋅2 Laws of equations (1) Transposition law : Equation-1 Next step x−5=3 Equation-2 (a) (b) x−5+5=3+5 x = 3+5 Next step [¯axiom (1)] 4x = 3x + 7 (a) (b) 4x − 3x = 3x + 7 − 3x [¯axiom (2)] 4x − 3x = 7 In case of (b) in equation (1). These are as follows : (1) If same quantity is added to each of equal quantities. (4) If each of equal quantities is divided by the same non-zero quantity. their sum will also be equal to one another. We know that there are four axioms for the solution of equations. The equation is satisfied by its root . In case of (b) in equation-2. (2) If same quantity is subtracted from each of equal quantities. if the value of the variable is inserted in the equation. 3x is transposed from one side to another side by changing its sign. their product will also be equal to one another. two sides of the equation will be equal. This transposition is called the transposition law. .

− 5 has been cancelled from both sides. common factor can directly be cancelled from both sides of an equation.C. Similar terms with same sign can directly be cancelled from both sides of an equation. 3 has been cancelled from both sides. ( b ) Cancellation law for multiplication : Equation Next step (a) 4(2x + 1) = 4( x − 2) (b) 4( 2 x + 1) 4( x − 2) = [¯axiom (4)] 4 4 2x + 1 = x − 2 In the case of (b) in the equation. This is called the cancellation law for multiplication. (3) Law of cross-multiplication : Equation (a) Next step x 5 ×6= ×6 2 3 3× x = 2× 5 x 5 = 2 3 (b) In case of (b) in the equation. This law is called the cancellation law for addition (or subtraction).M.Simple Equations 93 (2) Cancellation law : ( a ) Cancellation law for addition : Equation-1 Next step (a) (b) Equation-2 2x + 3 = a + 3 2 x + 3 − 3 = a + 3 − 3 [¯axiom (2)] 2x = a Next step 7 x − 5 = 2a − 5 (a) (b) 7 x − 5 + 5 = 2a − 5 + 5 [¯axiom (1)] 7 x = 2a In case of (b) in equation-1. [both sides have been multiplied by the L. In case (b) in equation-2. 6 of 2 and 3] . we can write.

4 y − 5 = 2 y − 1.S.H. (4) Law of symmetry : Equation : 2x + 1 = 5x − 8 or.S.H.H.S. can be transposed to R. × Numerator of R.S.H. and all terms of R. = 4y − 5 = 4 × 2 − 5 = 8 − 5 = 3 2 y − 1 = 2 × 2 − 1 = 4 − 1 = 3.S. x + 3 − 3 = 9 − 3 [subtracting 3 from both sides] or.H.S.H.S. 2 y = 2 × 2 or.94 Mathematics Numerator of L. Alternative method : x + 3 = 9 Solution : x + 3 = 9 or.S.S.H. This is called the law of cross-multiplication. x = 6 or. 4 y − 2 y = −1 + 5 [by transposing] or. ∴ the solution of the equation is correct.S. x = 6 ∴ solution : x = 6 ∴ solution : x = 6 Example 2. Solve and verify the correctness : Solution : 4 y − 5 = 2 y − 1. y = 2 [ canceling the common factor 2 from both sides] ∴ Solution : y = 2 Verification of correctness : Putting the value 2 of y in the given equation. all terms of L. simultaneously without changing the sign of any term of any side. Applying the above mentioned axioms and laws. or.H.H. 5x − 8 = 2x + 1 In an equation. This is called the law of symmetry. an equation can be transformed into an easy form and finally it takes the form x = a .S. Solve : x + 3 = 9. × Denominator of R. can be transposed to L. = Denominator of L.H.H. = R.H. . x = 9 − 3 [by transposing] or. the value of the variable x is determined. 2 y = 4 or. = R. L.S. that is. ∴ L. Example 1.

6 is 6] or. Solve : 2(5 + x) = 16. or. 2 Example 3. x=3 [dividing both sides by 2] solution . Solution : or. or. 2z = −3 [by cancellation law] 2z 3 or. or. = − [dividing both sides by 2] 2 2 3 or. L.Simple Equations 95 2z z 3 − =− 3 6 4 2z z 3 Solution : − =− 3 6 4 4z − z 3 = − [In left hand side. 2 4 or. or. or. ∴ 2(5 + x ) = 16 2 × 5 + 2 × x = 16 10 + 2 x = 16 [by distributive law] 2 x + 10 − 10 = 16 − 10 [subtracting 10 from both sides] 2x = 6 2x 6 = 2 2 x = 3. Solve : Example 4. 6 4 3z 3 or. z = − 2 3 ∴ solution : z = − . 2 × 2z = 2 × (−3) or.M. of 3.C. =− 6 4 z 3 =− or. 4 × z = 2 × (−3) [by cross-multiplication] or.

x +1 = 3 2 3. Solve : Activity : Solve : 1.C. x = 5 ∴ solution : x = 5 Example 5. 7 y − 5 = y − 1 6.M. 2 x − 1 = 0 2. 3y +1 = 7 y −1 17 − 2 z = 3z + 2 x 1 = 4 3 x +1 = 3 2 . 13 z − 5 = 3 − 2 z 8. 5 x − 3 = 2 x + 3 4. 4x +1 = 2x + 7 2. = 28 2 13x + 33 7 or. 7. [by transposition law] + −x= 4 7 2 [In left hand side. = denominators 4 and 7 is 28] 28 2 21x + 49 + 20 x − 4 − 28 x 7 or. L. 5.96 Mathematics 3x + 7 5 x − 4 1 + = x+3 4 7 2 3x + 7 5 x − 4 1 Solution : + = x+3 4 7 2 3x + 7 5 x − 4 7 or. 3. 28 × = 28 × [Multiplying both sides by 28] 28 2 or. 13 x = 98 − 33 or. 13 x + 33 = 98 or. 13 13 or. [by distributive law] = 28 2 13x + 33 7 or. 4( y − 3) = 8 Exercise 7⋅1 Solve : 1. of the 7(3x + 7) − 4(6 x − 4) − 28 x 7 or. 13 x = 65 13x 65 [dividing both sides by 13] = or.

15.. she has got ( x + 10) marks in Mathematics . 13. Ahona has got x marks in English. Therefore. breadth is 3 metre less than the length and perimeter of the pond is 26 metre. 12. Ahona has got total 176 marks in English and Mathematics and she got 10 marks more in Mathematics than in English. The shopkeeper measured half of a big lump of molasses of x kg. value of x will be obtained . 5( x − 2) = 3( x − 4) 20. Present age of a son is y years. How many marks did she obtain in each of the subjects ? Solution : Let us suppose. x x +5 = +7 3 2 y 2 5y 4 − = − 5 7 7 5 5x 4 x 2 + = + 7 5 5 7 3y +1 3y − 7 = 5 3 10. ( z − 1)( z + 2) = ( z + 4)( z − 2) 7⋅3 Formation of simple equation and solution A customer wants to buy 3 kg of lump of molasses. that is. We want to find what was the weight of the whole lump of molasses. 16. 17. 14. His father’s age is y + 4 y = 45 four times his age and sum of their present ages is 45 years. 11. If 25 is subtracted from five times of a number x . 19. Length of a rectangular pond is x metre. the equation will be + 1 = 3 .Simple Equations 97 9. it became 3 kg. 2. Activity : Form the equations by the given information (one is worked out) : Given information Equation 1. the difference will be 190. Here. what is the value of x ? For this purpose we are to form an x equation involving x . But it became less than 3 kg. If the equation is 2 solved. in an examination.. 3. Example 6. the weight of the whole lump of molasses will be known. that is. After adding 1 kg more. y y y 1 − = − 2 3 5 6 2z −1 =5 3 1 y − 2 2 y −1 + = y− 4 3 3 x +1 x − 2 x − 3 − − =2 2 3 5 2( x + 3) = 10 7(3 − 2 y ) + 5( y − 1) = 34 18.

x − − = 5 2 3 6 x − 3x − 2 x or. 2 x = 166 2 x 166 = [dividing both sides by 2] 2 2 or. x = 30 ∴ Shymol bought 30 pens. x = 83 or. [by cross-multiplication] . 2 3 3 2 By the condition of the problem.M. he gave portion to his sister and 1 2 1 portion to his brother . 3 How many pens did he buy ? Solution : Let.S. ∴ he gave x x 1 1 of x or pens to his sister and of x or pens to his brother. From those pens. Shyamol bought x pens. Example 7. Shyamol bought some pens from a shop. x = 5 × 6 or. = 5 6 or. ∴ x + 10 = 83 + 10 = 93 ∴ Ahona has got 83 marks in English and 93 marks in Mathematics.C.H.. ⎛ x x⎞ x−⎜ + ⎟ = 5 ⎝2 3⎠ x x or. 2 x + 10 = 176 or. x + x + 10 = 176 or. of 2 and 3 is 6 ] 6 x or. L. 5 more pens were left with him. 2 x = 176 − 10 [by transposing] or. = 5 [In L.98 Mathematics By the question.

30 ∴ the total time taken by the bus for its plying between the two places = d ⎞ ⎛d ⎜ + ⎟ hours. ⎝ 25 30 ⎠ d d 1 + =5 According to the question.Simple Equations 99 Example 8. if 5 is added to its twice the sum will be 25 ? 2. the difference will be − 21 ? 3. Again. 5 times the difference will be equal to 20 ? 5. What is the number. = 150 2 or. the time to ply from Aricha to Gabtoli is hours. Sum of three consecutive natural numbers is 63 . 11 × 150 2 or. starting from Aricha with the speed of 30 km per hour returned to Gabtoli. . the difference will be 6 ? 6. It took 5 1 hours in total for its plying between the two places. if 27 is subtracted from it. 7. distance between Gabtoli and Aricha is d km. find the numbers. 25 30 2 6d + 5d 11 or. What is the 2 distance between Gabtoli and Aricha ? Solution : Let us suppose. What is the number. ∴ the time to ply from Gabtoli to Aricha is 25 d Again. What is the number. d hours. 11d = 11 × 75 Exercise 7⋅2 Form equations from the following problems and solve: 1. d = 75 ∴ the distance between Gabtoli and Aricha is 75 km. Find the two numbers. Sum of two numbers is 55 and 5 times the larger number is equal 6 times the smaller number. if 5 is subtracted from it. A bus starting from Gabtoli with the speed of 25 km per hour reached Aricha. 11d = or. What is the number if one-third of it is subtracted from its half. What is the number of which one-third will be equal to 4 ? 4.

This position of Liza is expressed by (3. What is the distance between the two stations ? 15. the total number of runs scored by Imon and Sumon was 58.100 Mathematics 8. and the perimeter of the land is 40 metres. To know the position of a student in seating arrangement in a class-room. If the speed of the train was 25 km per hour. 2). After 5 years. Graphs 7⋅4 Concepts of co-ordinates Famous mathematician Rene Descartes (1596−1650) of France gave first the idea of coordinates. If the sum of their ages is 30 years what are their individual age ? 13. The present age of a father is 6 times the present age of his son. He explained about the position of a point with respect to two mutually perpendicular lines. We observe in the picture that Liza’s position is at the point L which is at a distance of 3 units along the horizontal line OX from a fixed point O and from there it is at a distance of 2 units up along a vertical line parallel to OY . 1 portion is orange and 2 3 40 mangoes. Liza’s position may be considered as a point (. Total price of an exercise book and a pen is 75 taka. What are the present ages of father and son ? 12. Geeta. Reeta and Meeta together have 180 taka. Geeta has 6 taka less and Meeta has 12 taka more than that of Reeta. his position along a horizontal line as well as along a vertical line is to be known. run was 5 runs less than twice the number of Sumon’s run. In a cricket game. sum of their ages will be 45 years. Let us locate the position of a student Liza ( L ) in her class-room. it would take 10 minutes more for the journey. A fruit seller has fruits of which 1 portion is apple.). price of the exercise book would be twice the price of the pen. What are the prices of the exercise book and the pen ? 10. Find the length and breadth of the land. . Number of Imon. How much money does each of them has ? 9. What was the number of runs scored by Imon in that game ? 14. A train moving with the speed of 30 km per hour travelled from kamalapur station to Narayangonj station. How many fruits are there in total ? 11. If the price of the exercise book would be less by 5 taka and the price of the pen be more by 2 taka. Ratio of the ages of Liza and Shikha is 2 : 3. Length of a rectangular land is thrice its breadth.

B(6. What will be the geometric shape of the figure ? Solution : Let the given points be A. Mainly the length of the side of the smallest square in graph paper is considered as a unit. 4) and D(3. 2) of Liza. x co-ordinate of any point is positive and y is negative. 4) → (3. x of any point is negative and y is positive. D . In third quadrant both x and y of any point are negative. 2). 2). the graph is divided into four parts (quadrants). In anticstockwise direction. Similarly in the graphs. 2). Then the coordinates of L (position of Liza) will be (3. co-ordinates of the point P are (−2. The point O is called the origin. To show the position of a point or to plot a point in the graph paper is called plotting of points. B. more 2 units of distance towards the upper side vertically. Generally. third and fourth quadrants respectively. C . 2) → (6. For plotting of points. In the previous section. In first quadrant. 2) → (6. y) . 2) . 4) → (3. C(6. that is. Again. from the origin. these four parts are known as first. Then from that point. right side of x -axis is the positive side and its left side is negative side. In second quadrant. In the figure. both x and y co-ordinates of any point are positive. . Horizontal line XOX ′ is the x -axis and vertical line YOY ′ is the y -axis. (3. Example 1. upper side of y -axis is positive side and the lower side of it is negative side.Simple Equations 101 7⋅5 Plotting of points On a graph paper there are small equal squares made by horizontal and vertical parallel lines. Obviously the co-ordinates of the origin O are (0. 0). As a result. two mutual perpendicular lines XOX ′ and YOY ′ intersect each other at the point O. 4) . the coordinates of any point is written as ( x. Plot the following first four points on a graph paper following the given direction. 4). A(3. second. first more 3 units of distance from origin towards the right side (positive side) along x axis. In fourth quadrant. to find the position (3. two mutually perpendicular straight lines are taken. x is called the x abscissa of the point and y is called the ordinate of the point. From the origin.

the equation 2 x − 5 = 0 is to be solved through graphs. because the expression 2 x − 5 becomes 0 (zero) for that value of x . = 3 3 x=2 Drawing of graphs : Given equation is 3x − 6 = 0 . Thus we get ABCD . T . Taking some different values of x . Solution : 3 x − 6 = 0 or. Let us suppose. we find the corresponding values of 3x − 6 and make the adjoining table: .6 Solution of equations by graphs Solution of equations can easily be found with the help of graphs. To plot the point A. C . 3x = 6 [by transposition] [dividing both sides by 3] ∴ or. Then from there we move vertically upwards by 2 units of length equal to the sum of two consecutive sides of the squares. 7. Then we join the points successively in the direction A → B → C → D → A . The abscissa of the point where the line intersects x -axis. we will get different values of the expression 2 x − 5 . Here the solution of the equation 2 x − 5 = 0 is x = 5 . R.102 Mathematics In the graph paper we take the length of the side of the smallest square as unit. We see that the figure ABCD is a rectangle. taking the values of x as abscissas and the corresponding values of 2 x − 5 as ordinates we shall get different points. Activity : From the graph. find the co-ordinates of the points Q. Solve 3 x − 6 = 0 and show the solution in graphs. Similarly we plot the points B. Thus we get a point which is A. 2 Example 2. x = 2 solution : 3x 6 or. Joining the points. If different values of x be put on left side 2 x − 5 . a straight line can be drawn. D . will be the solution . we take 3 units of length equal to sum of the lengths of three consecutive sides of the squares from the origin O along the right side of x -axis. S . In graphs.

0) . 2). x 2 5 6 3x − 6 0 9 12 ( x. Example 3. Therefore. (2. 2) (4. 2). 2). (2. the solution of the given equation is x = 2. 9) (6. (5. 8). 9). 0). taking some different values of x . 3x − 4) (0. 2). 4).Simple Equations 103 Three points (2. On graph paper.0) whose abscissa is 2. 0) obtained in table-2 and join them successively. Solution : Given equation is 3 x − 4 = − x + 4 . 12). (2. we plot the points (2. we find the corresponding values of − x + 4 and make the table -2 beside : ∴ three points on the graph of − x + 4 are (0. . Now we plot the points (0. 8) x 0 2 4 −x+4 4 2 0 ( x . (4. we find the corresponding values of 3 x − 4 and make the adjoining table 1. two mutually perpendicular lines XOX ′ and YOY ′ be x -axis and y -axis respectively and O be the origin. Again.3x − 6) (2. 2). At this point. ∴ three points on the graph of 3 x − 4 are (0. − x + 4) (0. Then we join the points successively . (2. 0) YOY ′ be respectively x -axis and y axis and O be the origin. Therefore. we plot the points (0. 2) (4. (4. values of 3 x − 4 and − x + 4 are equal. 0) (5. − 4). Taking some different values of x . the solution of the given equation is the abscissa of the point (2. −4) (2. We get a straight line in this case also. x = 2 . that is. (4. we get a straight line in the graph. 8) obtained in table-1 and join them successively. 4). We get a straight line in the graph. We observe that the two straight lines intersect each other at the point (2. 9) and (6. 2). Again. Solve by graphs : 3 x − 4 = − x + 4 . The straight line intersects the x -axis at the point (2. 4) (2. 12) are taken to draw the graph.0). (6. taking the length of one side of the smallest square on both axes as a unit. (5. (4. − 4). Let two mutually perpendicular lines XOX ′ and Table-1 x 0 2 4 3x − 4 −4 2 8 Table-2 ( x. 12) Let.

c. 3 cm. i and iii c. ii and iii d.. 2 cm. Which one of the following is the root of the equation x − 3 = 0 ? 3 3. which of the following equation is correct? a. 2 3 2 2. ( x + 2) cm. According to the given information above which one of the following is correct ? a.104 Mathematics ∴ solution is x = 2 Activity : Draw the graphs of the solution of the following equations : 2. Kanak has 8 chocolates and Keya has 12 chocolates. iii. 1 3 b. 16 4 5. ii. what is the value x ? b. What is the number of which one-fourth is equal to 4 ? b. Which one of the following is the root of the equation x = 1 ? 2 3 1 2 3 b. common factors can be cancelled from both sides of an equation. i. 2 x − 1 = 0 Exercise 7⋅3 1. the number of their chocolates will be equal. root of the equation x + 2 = 2 is 0 . 1 cm. c. 1 a. and ( x + 3) cm. If the perimeter of the triangle be 15 cm. ii and iii 6. 12 c. Then answer the following questions : (1) If Keya gives Kanak x chocolates. 3 c. a. 6 a. Length of the sides of a triangle are ( x + 1) cm.. (x > 0) . 9 d. i and ii b. − 9 . 2x + 1 = x − 3 is a quadratic equation. In this case. 3 x + 5 = 2 1. 6 cm. Observe the following information: i. d. 4. d. 4 d.

(b) (0.. .. By plotting the following points on graph paper join them successively as directed by arrow-heads and give the geometric name of the figures : (a) (2.Simple Equations 105 a. another bus started from Aricha towards Dhaka with the speed of 40km per hour. 0) → (−6. ) (.. → (6. 2 x for which the number of their chocolates will be equal? (3)How many chocolates should Kanak give Keya.. Draw a proportional picture by the given conditions. Solve by forming equation. 6) → (2.. and ( x + 6) cm. Distance between Dhaka and Aricha is 77 km. 0) (0. 6 d. 2). 6) → (2.. 4 a. . − 6). . 8 − x = x − 12 d.. 10 7.. Find the value of x . Length of three sides of a triangle are ( x + 2) cm. 11. c. . . How far from Aricha will the two buses meet? Express it in terms of x . A bus started from Dhaka towards Aricha with the speed of 30 km per hour. c. − 5) (. 6 d. . 8 + x = 12 − x c. 8 + x = 12 b. Draw the graph of the solution. b. 10 (2) What will be the value of b. 3) A (−2. 4 c. The two buses meet at a distance of x km from Dhaka. ( x > 0) and perimeter of the triangle is 18 cm. 8 = 12 + x c.. 6) → (0.. 2) → (6. 2). ) ( . a. .. ( x + 4) cm. . → (8.... ) 8. Fill in the following table from the given graphs (assuming the length of the side of the smallest square as unit along both axes): Point Co-ordinates (4.. 2 b.. Solve and show the solutions in graphs : (a) x − 4 = 0 (b) 2 x + 4 = 0 (e) 3 x + 4 = 5 x (d) 2x + 1 = x − 3 (c) x +3=8 10. At the same time. a. b. ) B C D O P Q (. How much time will take the buses to reach their destinations? . 0) 9. so that the number of chocolates of Keya will be four times that of Kanak? a.

they are parallel. 2) Steps of construction: The drawings which are made to solve the problem. or that the property stated in a theorem is true. d) Proof: The proof shows that the object proposed in a problem has been all accomplished. If we consider the opposite edges of these objects as straight lines. 8⋅1 Geometrical argument Proposition : The subjects discussed in Geometry is generally called a proposition. books etc. ¾ Prove the conditions of parallelism of two straight lines. are of rectangular shape. The theorem consists of the following parts: a) General enunciation: This is a preliminary statement describing in general terms the purpose of the proposition. which enables the reader to follow the reasoning more easily. and refers it to a diagram. which usually requires no further proof. Parts of a construction: 1) Data: The given facts in the problem. chair. At the end of this chapter. doors and windows. c) Construction: The additional drawing made to prove the truth of a problem. Construction: The proposition in which one has to draw geometrical figure and prove its validity by arguments is called Construction. 3) Proof: Justification of the construction by arguments. Corollary: This is a statement the truth of which follows readily from an established proposition as an inference or deduction. . b) Particular enunciation: This repeats in special terms the statement already made. The rooms we live in. table. Theorem: The proposition which is established for some geometrical statement by arguments is called a theorem. the students will be able to ¾ Explain the properties of the angles made by parallel straight lines and a transversal ¾ State the conditions of parallelism of two straight lines.Chapter Eight Parallel Straight Lines Some of the things we see or use in our everyday life are rectangular or circular.

definitions and symbols are required. ∠7 . ∠5 . ∠5 . ∠2 and ∠7 ∠ 3 and ∠5 . ∠4 and ∠8 ∠3 and ∠6 . ∠2 . In the figure. ∠6 . ∠4 and ∠6 . ∠3 . ∠6 ∠1 . The angles may be classified as internal and external or corresponding and alternate. The transversal has made eight angles with the lines AB and CD which are denoted by ∠1 . ∠7 . The symbols used in Geometry Symbol + = > < Meaning addition equal to is greater than is less than is congruent to is parallel to Symbol Meaning angle is perpendicular to triangle circle since therefore ∠ ⊥ ∆ Q ∴ ≅ ll 8⋅2 Transversals A transversal is a straight line that intersects two or more straight lines at different points.           Internal angles External angles Pairs of corresponding angles Pairs of internal alternate angles Pairs of external alternate angles Pairs of internal angles on one side of the transversal ∠3 . ∠2 . ∠2 and ∠6 ∠3 and ∠7 . ∠4 and ∠5 ∠1 and ∠8 .Parallel Straight Lines 107 For discussion of modern deductive geometry some basic propositions. ∠8 ∠1 and ∠5 . ∠4 . ∠8 . ∠4 . The line LM is a transversal of the lines AB and CD. AB and CD are any two straight lines and the straight line LM intersects them at P and Q respectively.

(b) Identify the of corresponding ∠3 and ∠6 . ∠4 .3 Pair of parallel straight lines We already know that if two straight lines in a plane do not intersect each other. ∠5 . In the figure above. ∠2 and ∠6 . ∠4 and ∠8 are mutually corresponding angles. ∠4 and ∠5 are mutually alternate angles.108 Mathematics Properties of corresponding angles: (i) different vertices (ii) are on the same side of the transversal Properties of alternate interior angles: (i) have different vertices (ii) are on opposite sides of the transversal and (iii) lie between the two lines. the straight line EF intersects the lines AB and CD at P and Q respectively. Note that. ∠6 . ∠6 are internal angles. they are also parallel. 8. Conversely. ∠2 . . ∠3 . The perpendicular distance of any point on any of these lines to the other is always the same. Activity 1. The transversal has made a total of eight angles ∠1 . ∠5 . (c) Identify the vertical opposite angle of ∠4 and the angle supplementary to ∠1 . (a) Name the pairs of angles in each figure. This perpendicular distance is known as the distance between the two parallel lines. through a point not on a line only a single parallel line can be drawn. if the perpendicular distances from any two points of a straight line to the other are equal. ∠3 and ∠7 . ∠4 . the straight lines are parallel. If we take segments of these two parallel straight lines. ∠7 . Among the angles (a) ∠1 and ∠5 . (c) ∠3 . they are parallel. The line EF is a transversal of the lines AB and CD. (b) ∠3 and ∠6 . ∠8 with the lines AB and CD.

Measure the pair of interior angles on the same side of the transversal. Verify whether each pair of corresponding angles are equal. the alternate angles are equal. In a ruled sheet of paper draw two parallel lines l and m and a transversal t to the lines l and m. the corresponding angles are equal. When a transversal cuts two parallel straight lines. Your sum should be around 180° .Parallel Straight Lines 109 These alternate angles related to each other. To memorize these statements remember The pair of corresponding angles lie in the letter lie in the letter Z. These three properties of parallel straight lines can not be proved independently. Identify two pairs of alternate angles. When a transversal cuts two parallel straight lines. Verify whether each pair of corresponding angles are equal. Do the following group activity for working out the relations. But if we take any of them as definition of parallel straight lines the other two properties can be proved. Are they really equal? 2. Activity : 1. Definition : If the corresponding angles made by a transversal are equal. F and the pair of alternate angles . As a result of the group activity we reach at the following conclusion: When a transversal cuts two parallel straight lines. Compare the sum with the sum done by your colearners. Are they really equal? 3. Find the sum of the two angles. that pair of interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary. Identify two pairs of corresponding angles. the two straight lines are parallel. so are the corresponding angles.

It is required to prove that ∠AEF = alternate ∠EFD . Prove that when a transversal cuts two parallel straight lines. In the figure AB ll CD and the transversal PQ intersects them at E and F respectively. such that the pairs of corresponding angles are equal. the lines have to be parallel. When a transversal cuts two lines. Particular Enunciation: Let AB ll CD and the transversal PQ intersects them at E and F respectively. Activity : 1. Draw two 60° angles at these points in the same direction. then the lines have to be parallel. When a transversal cuts two lines. such that the pairs of interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary. the pair of interior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary. such that the pairs of alternate interior angles are equal. Proof: Steps (1) ∠PEB = Corresponding ∠EFD (2) ∠PEB = ∠AEF Therefore. Verify whether the drawn sides of the angles are parallel.110 Mathematics Theorem 1 If a straight line intersects two parallel straight lines the alternate angles are equal. As a result of the activity we reach at the following conclusion: When a transversal cuts two lines. Take two points on a straight line. ∠AEF = ∠EFD Justification [ Definition of parallel lines] [ Vertically opposite angles are equal] [From (1) and (2)] Activity : 1. . the lines have to be parallel. (a) ∠AEF = alternate ∠EFD (b) ∠PEB = Corresponding ∠EFD (c) ∠BEF + ∠EFD = 2 right angles. Therefore.

35o b. 75o 3. which one of the following is the value of ∠A + ∠F ? o b. PQ ll SR . 104o c. 50o c. In the figure ∠PQR = 55o . PQ = PR and ∠PRQ = 50 o . 45o c. If ∠B = 52°.Parallel Straight Lines 111 In the figure the transversal PQ intersects the straight lines at E and F respectively and (a) ∠AEF = alternate ∠EFD (b) ∠PEB = Corresponding ∠EFD (c) ∠BEF + ∠EFD = 2 right angles. Which one of the following is the value of ∠ MRN ? a. ∠LRN = 90o and PQ ll MR . 156o a. the straight lines AB and CD are parallel. Therefore. In the isosceles triangle ABC. 2. In the figure AB ll CD ll EF . 55o d. Exercise 8 1. 128o b. 90o In the figure. the line EF is parallel to the base BC and intersects AB and AC at the points E and F respectively. What is the measure of ∠LRS ? a. 76 4. 55o d. 40o b.

(a) Show that 1 ∠APE = 60o 2 (b) Find the value of ∠CQF (c) Prove that. 58o (2) Which one of the following is the value of ∠Z ? 58o 58o b. i and 6. ii b. i. 103 d. 122 o d. 103 d. ii and iii o In the figure. AB llCD. 122 o 5. PQR is an equilateral triangle. i and iii c. ∠BPE = 60 and PQ = PR. 32o o c. On the basis of the above information which one of the following is correct? a. (ii) The bisectors of the vertically opposite angles lie on the same straight line. . 77 o c. (iii) Many parallel lines can be drawn through an external point of it. a.112 Mathematics (1) Which one of the following is the correct value of ∠ X . 148o o (3) Which one of the following is the correct value of y-z? b. 45o c. (i) Two adjacent angles lying on the same line can be equal to one-another. a. a. 28o b. ii and iii d.

Construct triangles from given conditions Solve real life problems using the relations of the sides and the angles. A median connects a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the opposite side. The line segment AD.B. BC CA are the three sides of the triangle. The angle formed at the vertex is an angle of the triangle. ∠B. obtuse angled and right angled. In this chapter the basic theorems and constructions related to triangle are discussed. isosceles and scalene. . Consider the sides AB and CA and find two more medians of the triangle. Again. AB. Depending on the lengths of the sides the triangles are of three types: equilateral. BC and locate the mid-point D of BC . At the end of this chapter. 9⋅1 Medians of a triangle In the figure below ABC is a triangle with vertices A. joining the mid-point of BC to its opposite vertex A is a median of the triangle. say. Prove the fundamental theorems related to triangles. on the basis of the angles.C and angles ∠A.Chapter Nine Triangles We already know that the figure bounded by three line segments is a triangle and the line segments are known as the sides of the triangle. The sum of the lengths of the sides is called perimeter of the triangle. Join AD. Thus. the triangle has three sides and three angles. ∠C . the students will be able to – ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Identify the interior and exterior angles of a triangle. the triangles are also of three types: acute angled. The point common to any two sides is known as vertex. Consider any one of its sides.

9⋅4 Angle sum property of a triangle There is a remarkable property connecting the three angles of a triangle. Draw a triangle whose altitude and median is on the same line segment. 9⋅3 Exterior and interior angles of a triangle If any side of a triangle is extended the angle formed is an exterior angle. the side BC of ∆ABC is produced to D. Clearly ∠ACB is an adjacent angle to ∠ACD. The two angles other than the adjacent interior angle are known as the interior opposite angles. In the ad joint figure. An altitude has one end point at a vertex of the triangle and the other on the line containing the opposite side. Activity : 1. This angle is a straight angle and so has measure 180°. The remaining two angles of the triangle namely ∠ABC and ∠BAC are called the two interior opposite angles or the two remote interior angles of ∠ACD. Cut on the three angles. . Observe the angle ∠ACD formed at the point C. the sum of the measures of the three angles of a triangle is 180°. We are going to see this through the following three activities. How many medians does a triangle have? How many altitudes? 2. Does a median and an altitude lie entirely in the interior of the triangle? 3. The three angles now constitute one angle. This angle lies in the exterior of ∠ABC. The height is given by the line segment that starts from A. Draw a triangle. goes straight down to BC. Thus.114 Mathematics 9⋅2 Altitudes of a triangle In the ad joint figure. Activity : 1. We call it an exterior angle of the ∠ABC formed at vertex C. and is perpendicular to BC. The height is the distance from vertex A to the base BC. This line segment AM is an altitude of the triangle. ABC is a triangle. An altitude can be drawn through each vertex of the triangle. Rearrange them as shown in Fig (ii).

Construction: Extend BC to D and draw CE parallel to BA. Arrange the three copies as shown in the figure. Draw a triangle and make two copies if it. Theorem 1 The sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. It is required to prove that ∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠ACB = 2 right angles. Particular Enunciation: Let ABC be a triangle. Draw any three triangles in your notebook. Tabulate your results. Triangle ∆ABC Measures of Angles ∠A = ∠B= ∠C Sum of the three angles ∠A + ∠B + ∠C Allowing marginal errors in measurement. . do you find that the sum of the three angles always gives 180° (or nearly 180°).Triangles 115 2. Use your protractor and measure each of the angles of these triangles. What do you observe about three angles seen together? Do they make a straight angle? 3.

E is a point on AC produced. AC⊥ BC. The vertical angle of an isosceles triangle is 50°. M. Prove that the sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is equal to 4 right angles. Corollary 3: The acute angles of a right angled triangle are complementary to each other. E. 3. 2. The two line segments PQ and RS intersect at O and L. 4. Exercise 9⋅1 1. F are four points on them such that LM ⊥ RS. Corollary 2: If a side of a triangle is produced then the exterior angle so formed is greater than each of the two interior opposite angles. ∆ABC is a triangle in which ∠ABC = 90°.116 Mathematics Proof: Steps (1) ∠BAC =∠ACE Justification [BA and CE are parallel and AC is a transversal] [Qthe alternate angles are equal] [BA and CE are parallel and BD is a transversal] [Qthe corresponding angles are equal] (2) ∠ABC =∠ECD (3) ∠BAC + ∠ABC = ∠ACE + ∠ECD = ∠ACD (4) ∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠ACB = ∠ACD + ∠ACB (5) ∠ACD + ∠ACB = 2 right angles ∴ ∠BAC + ∠ABC + ∠ACB = 2 right angles [Proved] [Adding the ∠ACB to both sides] Corollary 1: If a side of a triangle is produced then exterior angle so formed is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles. ∠BAC = 48° and BD is perpendicular to AC. EF ⊥ PQ. Find the other two angles. 5. In the triangle ∆ABC. Find the remaining angles. . Prove that ∠MLO = ∠FEO. In the figure. ED⊥AB is drawn to meet BC at O. Prove that ∠CEO = ∠DBO. . Corollary 4: In an equilateral triangle each angle measures 60°.

Triangle Measure of Measure of Comparison Comparison of sides angles of sides angles ∠A = ∆ABC AB = ∠B = BC = ∠C = CA = In each case compare any two sides and their opposite angles. ∠ABC = ∠ACB. Are the two angles equal? If two sides of a triangle are equal. This property of isosceles triangle is used in proof of many theorems. Particular Enunciation: Let ∆ABC be a triangle whose AC >AB. Draw three arbitrary triangles. Take two points on both the sides at equal distance from the vertex. in an isosceles triangle ABC: (i) two sides have same length.e. Thus.Triangles 117 9⋅5 Angle side relations of a triangle There is a property connecting the angles and sides of a triangle. What conclusion can you draw? Theorem 2 If one side of a triangle is greater than another. then the angle opposite the greater side is greater than the angle opposite the smaller side. i. This remarkable property will be proved logically in the next chapter. Activity : 1. The points B and D are joined. Draw an angle. Activity: 1. We are going to see this through the following activity. their opposite angles are also equal. Now measure the base angles with a protractor. (ii) base angles opposite to the equal sides are equal i. It is required to prove that ∠ABC > ∠ACB.e. AB=AC. Measure the lengths of the sides of each triangle with a ruler and also the angles with a protractor and complete the table. Join the two points and obtain an isosceles triangle. . Construction: From AC we cut off AD equal to AB.

[ ∠ABD is a part of ∠ABC ] ∠ABC > ∠ACB (Proved) Theorem 3 If one angle of a triangle is greater than another. external Justification [Base angles of an isosceles angle are equal] [An external angle is greater than each of the two opposite internal angles] ∠ADB > ∠BCD ∴ ∠ABD > ∠BCD or ∠ABD > ∠ACB (3) ∠ABC > ∠ABD Therefore. by hypothesis this is also not true. (ii) Again.e. It is required to prove that AC>AB. if AC<AB then ∠ABC <∠ACB.118 Mathematics Proof: Steps (1) In triangle ∆ABD. ∠ABC >∠ACB . then the side opposite the greater angle is greater than the side opposite the smaller angle. (i) Now if AC = AB then the ∠ABC =∠ACB. AB=AD ∴ ∠ADB=∠ABD (2) In triangle ∆BDC. So this is not true. therefore AC>AB [Proved] Justification [Base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal] [The angle opposite to smaller side is smaller] . (i) AC=AB or (ii) AC < AB. But. Particular Enunciation : Let ∆ABC be a triangle in which ∠ABC > ∠ACB. But by hypothesis. nor less than AB . it must be either equal or less than AB i. AC is neither equal to. (2) Therefore. Proof: Steps (1) If AC is not greater than AB.

. Further.Triangles 119 9⋅6 Sum of two sides of a triangle There is a relation between the sum of the lengths of any two sides with the length of the third side. Draw any three triangles ∆ABC . ∆PQR and ∆XYZ . note that the difference between the measure of any two sides is less than the third side. Are you successful in all of your attempts? If not. Activity : 1. 2. explain. Measure the lengths of the sides of the triangles by a ruler and complete the following table: Triangle ∆ABC Length of sides AB— BC— CA— ∆PQR PQ— QR— RP— ∆XYZ RP— YZ— ZX— Is it true? AB-BC<CA —+—>— BC-CA<AB —+—>— CA-AB<BC —+—>— AB-BC<CA —+—>— BC-CA<AB —+—>— CA-AB<BC —+—>— XY-YZ<ZX —+—>— YZ-ZX<XY —+—>— ZX-XY<YZ —+—>— Yes/No You will observe that the sum of the measures of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side. Try to construct a triangle with any three of them. To understand the relationship do the following group activity. Collect 15 sticks of different lengths.

Construction: BA is produced to D so that AD = AC. ∠ACD = ∠ADC ∴ ∠ACD = ∠BDC (2) But. ∠BCD > ∠ACD ∴ ∠BCD>∠BDC (3) in the triangle BCD. . CE is the bisector of ∠ACD. the side BC of the triangle ABC is extended to D. AB || CE and ∠ECD = 60°. Let BC to be the greatest side. BD= AB + AD = AB + AC ∴ AB + AC > BC (Proved) Justification [Base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal] [∠ACD is a part of ∠BCD ] [Side opposite to greater angle is greater] [ since AC=AD] Exercise 9⋅2 Answer the questions 1-3 on the basis of the following information: In the figure. AD = AC Therefore.120 Mathematics Theorem 4 The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. ∠BCD > ∠BDC ∴BD > BC (4) But. We join C and D. Then it is enough to prove that AB+AC > BC. Proof: Steps (1) In the triangle ∆ADC. It is required to prove that any two of its sides are together greater than the third side. Particular Enunciation: Let ABC be a triangle.

10. ABC is an isosceles triangle and AB = AC. The side BC is extended up to E. Prove that ∠DAB > ∠BCD. what type of triangle is it? (a) equilateral (b) acute-angled (c) right-angled (d) obtuse-angled 9. If ∠A=70° and ∠B = 40° in ∆ABC then what type of triangle is ∆ABC ? (a) obtuse-angled (b) right–angled (c) equilateral (d) isosceles. Which one of the following is the value of ∠ACD? (a) 60° (b) 90° (c) 120° (d) 180° 3. . If the sum of two angles is equal to the third angle of a triangle. AB > AC and the bisectors of the ∠B and ∠C intersects at the point P. What type of triangle ∆ABC is? (a) obtuse-angled (b) isosceles (c) equilateral (d) right-angled 4. Which one of the following is the value of ∠BAC? (a) 30° (b) 45° (c) 60° (d) 120° 2. BC = CD and CD > AD. then which of the following is the value of other acute angle? (a) 40° (b) 45° (c) 50° (d) 60° 8. Prove that AD > AB. 5 The lengths of two sides of a triangle are 5 cm. In the ∆ABC. 11. AB = AD. The equal sides of an isosceles triangle are extended and if one of the external angles is 120° then how much is the other external angle? (a) 120° (b) 90° (c) 60° (d) 30° 7. In the quadrilateral ABCD.Triangles 121 1. If one of the two acute angles of a right angled triangle is 40°. Prove that PB > PC. and 4 cm Which one of the following is the possible measurement of the third side of the triangle? (a) 1 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 9 cm (d) 10 cm 6.

13. AB = AC and D is any point on BC. We are to construct the triangle. c be the given length of the three sides of a triangle. AB ⊥ AC and D is any point on AC. find the measure of PR . b. B a C D . Prove that AB > AD. Steps of construction: (1) We cut off BC equal to a. Prove that the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is the greatest side. If PQ = 6 cm. Prove that BC > BD. Find the measure of ∠QPM.122 Mathematics 12. 9⋅7 Construction of Triangles A triangle has six parts: three sides and three angles. b. ∠QPM = ∠RPM and ∠QPR = 90 o a. PM ⊥ QR . from any ray BD. Prove that the angle opposite the greatest side of a triangle is also the greatest angle of that triangle. What are the measures of ∠PQM and ∠PRM ? C. Construction 1 To construct a triangle when the lengths of its three sides are known. Two triangles are congruent if some combination of these six parts is equal to corresponding parts of the other. In the ∆ABC. A unique triangle can be constructed if one of the following combinations is given: (1) Three sides (2) Two sides and their included angle (3) One side and its two attached angles (4) Two angles and a side opposite to one of the two angles (5) Two sides and an angle opposite to one of the two sides (6) The hypotenuse and a side (or an angle) of a right angled triangle. 14. So. In the ∆ABC. 15. if these combinations are given the triangle is uniquely defined and the triangle can be constructed. In the figure. Let a. 16.

Try to construct a triangle with sides 8 cm. 2. . BC = a. Are you successful in drawing the triangle? Remark : Remember the property of a triangle ‘The sum of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the third side’. So the given sides should be such that the sum of the lengths of any two sides is greater than the length of the third side. Then. and 3 cm. ABC is the required triangle. and 6 cm. Activity : 1. we draw two arcs on the same side of BC. 5 cm. Only then it is possible to construct the triangle. in the ∆ABC. (3) We join A with B and A with C. Proof: By construction.Triangles 123 (2) With centre at B and C and radii equal to c and b respectively. Construct a triangle with sides of length 8 cm. 5 cm. ABC is the required triangle. The two arcs intersect each other at A. AC = b and AB = c.

Let a side a of a triangle and its two adjoining angles ∠B and ∠C be given. BE and CF intersect each other at A. Proof: By construction. Then ABC is the required triangle. Proof: By construction.124 Mathematics Construction 2 To construct a triangle when the lengths of two sides and the angle included between them are known. Steps of construction: (1) We cut off BC equal to a from any ray BD. We are to construct the triangle. Therefore ∆ABC is the required triangle. CA= b and ∠ACB= ∠C. Let a and b be the two given sides and ∠C the given angle between them. Steps of construction: (1) We cut off BC equal to a.C. ∆ABC is the required triangle. Then. from any ray BD. BC =a. ∆ABC is the required triangle.B and A. in the ∆ABC. Construction 3 To construct a triangle when the measures of one of its sides and two of its adjoining angles are given. BC= a. Therefore. (2) We draw ∠BCE equal to ∠C at the point C. (3) We join A. in the ∆ABC. (3) We cut off CA equal to b from the line segment CE. (2) We construct ∠CBE = ∠B at B and ∠BCF = ∠C at C on the line segment BC. (4) We join A and B. . We are to draw the triangle. ∠ABC=∠B and ∠ACB = ∠C.

in triangle ∆ABC. ABC is the required triangle. CG and CF intersect each other at A. ∠BAC =∠A. 2. Steps of construction: (1) We cut off BC equal to a. We are to construct the triangle. ∠ABC = ∠B and BC = a Therefore. ∴ ∠BAC = alternate ∠ACE = ∠A.Triangles 125 Remarks : The sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. ∠ABC = ∠ECD = ∠B. . ∴ The triangle ABC is the required triangle. (3) Again construct ∠ECG =∠A at C of CE on opposite side of the angle ∠B. Proof: By construction. Construction 4 To construct a triangle when the measures of two of its angles and the length of the side opposite to one of them is given. (2) We construct ∠CBF = ∠B and ∠DCE = ∠B at B and C of the line segment BC. so the two given angles should be such that their sum be less than two right angles. Since these are corresponding angles BF ll CE i. Again. from any ray BD. Now BA ll CE and AC is their transversal. BA ll CE . and the length a of the side opposite to the angles ∠A of a triangle be given. Otherwise. Can you draw the triangle? Explain why.e. Try to construct a triangle with a side of length 6 cm and adjoining angles 140° and 70°. Construct a triangle with a side of length 7 cm and adjoining angles 50° and 60°. Activity: 1. no triangle can be drawn. Let two angles ∠A and ∠B.

Then both the ∆ABC and ∆ABC ′ are the required triangles. Therefore. . Let b and c be the two given sides and ∠B the given angle opposite the side b. both ∆ABC and ∆ABC' are the required triangles. in the ∆ABC. Proof : According to construction. (5) We join A with C and C ′ . BA = c. We are to construct the triangle. (2) We draw ∠DBE equal to ∠B at B on BD. BA=c AC' = b and ∠ABC'=∠B. (4) Now with centre at A and radius equal to the side b.126 Mathematics Construction 5 To construct a triangle when the measures of two of its sides and an angle opposite to one of them is given. Steps of construction: (1) Draw any ray BD. AC = b and ∠ABC = ∠B and in the ∆ABC ′ . we draw an arc which cuts line segment BD at C and C ′ . (3) We cut off BA equal to the side c from BE.

(4) We join A and C. 7 cm. 4 cm. 5 cm. (3) With centre at C and radius equal to a. Steps of construction: (1) We cut off BC equal to b from any ray BD. Then ∆ABC is the required triangle. 4 cm. Proof : By construction. the hypotenuse AC= a. 3 cm (b) 3 cm. (c) 2 cm. 6 cm. 2 cm. (iii) There may exist more then one obtuse angle in a triangle. Let a be the given hypotenuse of a right angled triangle and b the given side. then how many triangles can be drawn? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 2. (ii) If the sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side then the triangle can be drawn. we draw an arc which cuts BE at A. Exercise 9⋅3 1. 4 cm. BC = b and ∆ABC= 1 right angle. . We are to construct the triangle.Triangles 127 Construction 6 To construct a right angled triangle when the lengths of hypotenuse and one side are given. (i) If two sides of a triangle and the included angle are given then the triangle can be drawn. If two sides of a triangle and one angle opposite to one of the sides are given. Therefore ∆ABC is the required triangle. (d) 3 cm. In which case is it possible to draw a triangle when the lengths of the sides are respectively (a) 1 cm. (2) We draw a perpendicular BE to BD at B. 3.

Construct the triangle. 30° and 4 cm 10. The lengths of two sides and the angle included by these sides are given. The lengths of the hypotenuse and other one side of a right-angled triangle are given. 7. Answer the questions 4-5 according to the following figure: 4. 4. (a) 3 cm. 30° and 5 cm (b) 60°. (a) 3 cm. 30° and 45° (b) 4.6 cm 6. Measures of two sides and an angle opposite to the first side are given.3 cm and one of the acute angles is 45°.8 cm. Which one of the following is equal to ∠CAD? (a) ∠BAC+∠ACB (b) ∠ABC+ ∠ACB (c) ∠ABC + ∠ACB +∠BAC (d) ∠ABC+∠BAC The lengths of three sides of a triangle are given.7 cm and 5. 4 cm and 6 cm (b) 3.5 cm. 4. The length of a side and two of its adjoining angles are given. ii and iii. To draw a line parallel to BA at the point C. Measures of two angles and a side opposite to the first angle are given. Construct the triangle. one has to draw the angle equal to (a) ∠ABC (b) ∠ACB (c) ∠BAC (b) ∠CAD 5. 45° and 60° 9. The length of a side of a right-angled triangle is 5. 4 cm and 60° (b) 3. Construct the triangle. 5 cm and 30° 11.2 cm and 4. Construct the triangle.7 cm and 3 cm 12. construct the triangle.5 cm (b) 4. .5 cm.128 Mathematics Which one of the following is correct? (a) i and ii (b) ii and iii (c) i and iii (d) i. construct the triangle. (a) 5 cm. (a) 5. (a) 7.7 cm and 45° 8. 6 cm and 60° (b) 4 cm. Construct the triangle.3 cm. (a) 120°.

b = 4. (a) What is the measure of the other angle? (b) What type of triangle is it and why? (c) Draw the triangle. (a) In the figure. There are three points A. (a) Draw a triangle through the three points. (c) Draw a right-angled triangle whose hypotenuse is 2 cm larger than that of the drawn triangle and an angle equal to ∠ACB. (a) Draw an angle equal to ∠B.2 cm. (c) Draw such a triangle whose one side is b and the opposite side of ∠B is a. (b) Draw perpendicular from the vertex to the base of the drawn triangle. (c) If the base of the drawn triangle is the hypotenuse of right angled isosceles triangle then draw the triangle. .5 cm and an angle ∠B=30° of a triangle are given. 14. which is the hypotenuse of the triangle ? (b) Measure the hypotenuse in centimetres and draw an angle equal to the angle ∠ACB. (b) Draw a triangle whose two sides are equal to a and b and the included angle is equal to ∠B. B and C which are not collinear. 15. 16. Two sides a = 3. The length of one side of a triangle is 4 cm and two adjoining angles are 37° and 46°.Triangles 129 13.

If the copy is equal to the original. In this chapter we shall discuss these two important geometrical concepts. . we say copies are identical. By the method of superposition place a copy of AB on CD to find that CD covers AB. the leaves of a tree are similar in shape but different in size and we call them similar. In a Photoshop when we ask for some copy of an original that may be smaller. size and weight. They are not congruent.Chapter Ten Congruence and Similarity We see objects of different sizes and shapes around us. Note that the first pair of line segments has equal lengths. they are similar but not identical. they are equal in all respects. Again. The figures F1 and F2 are congruent and we express them as F1 ≅ F2 . with C on A and D on B. the line segments are congruent. At the end of the chapter. The math textbooks of your class are same in shape. In this method make a trace copy of any one and place it on the second. equal or larger than the original one. Repeat this activity for the other pair of line segments. 10⋅1 Congruence The two figures below are of the same size and shape. the students will be able to – ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Identify identical and similar geometrical figures from different shapes and sizes Distinguish between congruence and similarity Prove congruence of triangles Explain the similarity of triangles as well as that of quadrilaterals Solve mathematical and real life problems using congruence and similarity. If the copies are smaller or larger. The line segments do not coincide when placed one over other. To be sure about this we can use the method of superposition. Some of them are exactly identical and some of them are similar in shape but not equal. We shall confine our discussion to objects in a plane only. If the figures exactly cover each other then we call them congruent. Hence. When are two line segments congruent? Observe the two pairs of line segments given below.

F respectively. Conversely. ∠B = ∠E. Conversely. if two line segments are congruent. Note that since the measurement of these two angles are same BC falls on QR. . What information is needed to prove that two triangles are congruent? In order to find them perform the following group activity. They are congruent. we would express this as ∆ABC ≅DEF If the triangles ∆ABC and ∆DEF are congruent and the vertices A. C fall on D. first place B on Q and AB along QP . if two angles are congruent. BC = EF.Congruence and Similarity 131 If two line segments have the same length. We write ∠ABC ≅∠PQR. B. exactly covers the other. For this. E. then AB = DE. When are two angles congruent? Look at the two angles of measure 40° in the figure. also ∠A = ∠D. the triangles are congruent. Make a trace-copy of the first angle and try to superpose it on the second. The corresponding sides and angles of two congruent triangles are equal. they are congruent. ∆ABC and ∆DEF have the same size and shape. the angles are congruent. AC = DF. their measures are the same. So. If the measures of two angles are equal. ∠C =∠F. 10⋅2 Congruence of triangles If a triangle when placed on another. they are of same length.

(4) Then since B coincides with E and C with F the side BC must coincide with the side EF. (2) Again. (3) Now since AC = DF. and ∠BAC [congruence of angles ] =∠EDF.132 Mathematics Activity : 1. Proof : Steps Justification (1) Place ∆ABC on ∆DEF so that the point A falls on [congruence of sides ] the point D. Particular Enunciation: Let ABC and DEF be two triangles such that AB = DE. then the triangles are congruent. AC = DF and the included ∠ BAC= the included ∠ EDF. Now as AB=DE. the point C must coincide with the point F. (b) Compare your results within the group. It is required to prove that ∆ABC ≅DEF. What do you find? Theorem 1 (SAS theorem) If two sides and the angle included between them of a triangle are equal to two corresponding sides and the angle included between them of another triangle. since AB falls along DE. the side AB along the side DE and C falls on the same side of DE as F. Draw a triangle ∆ABC such that AB= 5 cm. ∆ABC≅DEF (Proved). Hence the ∆ABC coincides with the ∆DEF. BC = 6 cm and ∠B=600 (a) Measure the length of the third side and the two other angles. AC must fall along DF . [congruence of sides ] [A unique line can be drawn through two points] . the point B must coincide with the point E.

∆ABD ≅∠ACD [SAS theorem] So. Construction : We construct the bisector AD of ∠BAC. Proof : In the ∆ABD and ∆ACD (1) AB = AC (by hypothesis) (2) AD is common to both the triangles and (3) the included ∠BAD = the included ∠CAD (by construction). CD is the perpendicular bisector of AB. Prove that AB = AD. 3. Therefore. Proof: In the ∆AOD and ∆BOC given that AO = OB. In the figure ∠BAC= ∠ACD and AB= DC.Congruence and Similarity 133 Example 1. Prove that AD= BC. In the figure. AB = AC. ∆AOD = ∆BOC [SAS criterion] (proved) Theorem 2 If two sides of a triangle are equal. CO = OD. It is required to prove that. In the figure. Prove that. Exercise 10⋅1 1. ∠ABD = ∠ACD. prove that ∆ADC = ∆BDC. then the angles opposite to the equal sides are also equal. Particular enunciation: Suppose in the ∆ABC. . ∠ABC = ∠ACB. 2. AO = OB. ∆AOD = ∆BOC. CO = OD and the included ∠AOD = the included ∠BOC (vertically opposite angles are equal to each other). In the figure. ∠ABC = ∠ACB (Proved). ∠CAD = ∠ACD and ∠ADC= ∠ABC. that is. which meets BC at D. CD = CB and ∠DCA= ∠BCA.

6. BD= CE and ∠AEC=∠ADB. 5. then the triangles are congruent. Prove that AB = AC. 8. We join D and G. It is required to prove that ∆ABC≅DEF. So. AB = DE. If the base of an isosceles triangles are produced both ways. Proof : We now place the ∆ABC on ∆DEF in such a way that the point B falls on the point E and the side BC falls along the side EF but the point A falls on the side of EF opposite the point D. AC = DF and BC=EF. Show that the medians drawn from the extremities of the base of an isosceles triangle to the opposite sides are equal to one another. Theorem 3 (SSS theorem) If the three sides of one triangle are equal to the three corresponding sides of another triangle. Particular Enunciation: In ∆ABC and ∆DEF. the point C falls on the point F. . Prove that the angles of an equilateral triangle are equal to one another. AD= AE. 7. ∆ABD = ACD. In the figure. show that the exterior angles so formed are equal. Prove that. That is. ∆ABC and ∆DBC are both isosceles triangles. FG = CA and ∠EGF = ∠BAC. Since BC= EF.134 Mathematics 4. EG = BA. In the figure. Let the point G be the new position of the point A. ∆GEF is the new position of the ∆ABC.

Justification [Theorem. Then. AC =DF and the included ∠BAC = the included ∠EDF. Proof: Steps (1) Apply the ∆ABC to the ∆DEF. CA must fall along FD. the triangles are congruent. so that B falls on E. ∠C = ∠F and the side BC = the corresponding side EF. Particular Enunciation: Let ∆ABC and ∆DEF be two triangles such that ∠B = ∠E. ∠BAC = ∠EDF So. ∠FDG = ∠FGD (3) So. since BC = EF. ∠ABC ≅∠DEF (proved).2] (2) Again. BA must fall along ED and because ∠C = ∠F.Congruence and Similarity 135 Steps (1) Now. ∠EDF = ∠EGF. that is. ∠ABC≅ ∆DEF ( Proved) Justification [congruence of sides ] [congruence of angles] . C coincides with F. It is required to prove that the ∆ABC ≅ ∆DEF. in the ∆ABC and ∆DEF. (3) the common point A of BA and CA coincides with the common point D of ED and FD . BC along EF and A falls on the side of EF as D. (2) Again because ∠B =∠E. FG = FD. AB = DE. in the ∆FGD. ∠EDG = ∠EGD . ∠EDG + ∠FDC = ∠EGD + ∠FGD or. [SAS theorem] Therefore. [since FG = CA = FD] [Theorem-2] Therefore. Therefore. Theorem 4 (ASA theorem) If two angles and the adjoining side of a triangle are equal to two corresponding angles and the adjoining side of another triangle. EG = ED [since EG = BA = ED]. in the ∆EGD.

in which the hypotenuse AC = hypotenuse DF and AB = DE. ∠ABD =∠ACD [ Theorem 4] Hence. Particular Enunciation: Let ABC and DEF be two right angled triangles. let ABC be a triangle. Proof.136 Mathematics Example 1: If the bisector of the vertical angle of a triangle is perpendicular to the base. ∠BAD =∠CAD [since AD is the bisector of the ∠BAC] ∠ADB = the ∠ADC [since AD is perpendicular to BC] and AD is common to both the triangles. AB =AC. It is required to prove that. Therefore. . prove that it is an isosceles triangle. In the figure. AB = AC (proved) Theorem 5 (HS theorem) If the hypotenuse and one side of a right angled triangle are respectively equal to the hypotenuse and one side of another right angled triangle then the triangles are congruent. In the ∆ABD and ∆ACD. It is required to prove that ∆ABC≅∆DEF. The bisector AD of the vertical angle ∠A is perpendicular at the point D on the base BC of the triangle ABC.

GEF is a straight line. Let G be the point on which C falls. ABC is a triangle in which AB = AC. 2. BA falls on the side ED and the point C on sides] the side of ED opposite to F. Since AB =DE. In the figure ∆ABC . Hence. D and E are points on AB and AC respectively such that BD = CE and BE = CD. therefore. 4. ∆ABC≅∆DEF. (Proved) Exercise 10⋅2 1. AB = AC and O is an interior point of the ∆ABC such that OB = OC. (2) Since ∠DEF + ∠DEG = ∠GEF =1 right angle + 1 right angle = 2 right angles. ∠DFG = ∠DGF or. Prove that ∠ABC = ∠ACB. A falls on D. In the ∆ABC. [ASA theorem] Therefore. ∠DEG = ∠DEF= ∠ABC = one right angle and ∠DGE =∠ACB. In the ∆ABC. ∠BAD= ∠CAE. Thus ∆DEG represents the ∆ABC in its new position. . [Theorem 2] ∠DFE = ∠DGE. BD = DC and BE = CF . Prove that ∠AOB= ∠AOC. Now. Prove that AD = AE. Prove that ∠EDB = ∠FDC . (3) Now in the ∆ABC and ∆DEF ∠ABC = ∠DEF [ each is equal to one right angle] ∠ACB = ∠DFE and side AB = corresponding side DE. ∠DFE = ∠ACB .Congruence and Similarity 137 Proof : Steps Justification (1) Apply the ∆ABC to the ∆DEF so that the point B falls [congruence of on the point E. DG = AC = DF. 3. In the figure. Therefore. in ∆DGF. DG=DF. AB = AC .

10⋅3 Similarity Following are the different sizes of same figure. the sides AB and CD of a quadrilateral ABCD are equal and parallel and the diagonals AC and BD intersect at the point O. AC is the bisector of the ∠BAD and ∠BCD. The figures are said to be similar. the perpendiculars from the end points of the base of an isosceles triangle to the opposite sides are equal. but the distance between two similar points are not the same. Prove that. 7. In the figure. if the perpendiculars from the end points of the base of a triangle to the opposite sides are equal then the triangle is an isosceles triangle. Prove that. 8. 9. Prove that ∆ABC ≅∆ADC.138 Mathematics 5. Prove that AD = BC. In the quadrilateral ABCD. In the quadrilateral ABCD. 6. . AB = AD and ∠B = ∠D = 1 right angle. The shapes of different parts are same. Prove that ∠B = ∠D.

(b) List the matching sides and find the ratio of their lengths. • the matching angles are equal • the matching sides are proportional.Congruence and Similarity 139 Activity : 1. Enlarging or reducing a given figure will always produce a similar figure. the figures are congruent. What do you notice? (c) Measure the lengths of the matching sides and record your results. (a) Do the figures ABCD and EFGH look similar? A B C D Angles E F G H AB = BC = CA = AD = Sides EF = FG = GH = EH = (b) Measure the angles of the two figures and record your results. Are the ratios equal? The similar figures are of same shape but not necessarily of same size. If the sizes of two similar figures are equal. The ratio of matching sides of similar figure indicates the enlargement or reduction with respect to original figure. Properties of similar figures If two figures are similar. What do you notice? 2. ∆ABC has been enlarged to produce the similar ∆LMN. Therefore. . congruence is a special case of similarity. (a) List the matching angles and find the size of each.

(the included angle). DF=4 cm and included angle ∠D =50°. 4 (a ) Construct ∆RTY with RT = 4 cm. Are they all similar? 3 (a) Draw ∆DEF with DE =3 cm. YZ = 9 cm and XZ = 7⋅5 cm. Activity : Work in groups of 3 or 4 to complete this activity. (c) Calculate these ratios of matching sides of ∆RTY and ∆BFG. 1. (b) Draw ∆KLM with KL = 6 cm. ∠R = 90° and TY = 6 cm (the hypotenuse). (c) Are the matching sides in the same ratio? (d) Is ∆LMN similar to ∆XYZ? 2 (a) Draw∆ABC with ∠A = 480 and ∠B =750.5 cm. MN = 3 cm and LN = 2⋅5 cm. Are they equal? (d) Are the two triangles ∆RTY and ∆BFG similar? . We will now look for minimum information necessary to show that the two triangles are similar.(a) Draw ∆LMN with LM = 2 cm. (c) Is ∆ABC similar to ∆LMN? Why? (d) Compare your triangles with those of others. KM=8 cm and included angle ∠K = 50°. Is the triangle unique? (b) Draw ∆XYZ with XY = 6 cm.140 Mathematics 10⋅4. (c) Are the two matching pairs of sides of the triangles proportioned? (d) Are the two triangles similar? Explain. (b) Construct ∆BFG with BF = 3cm. Similar triangles The matching angles of the similar triangles are equal and the matching sides are proportioned. ∠B = 90° and FG= 4. (b) Now draw ∆LMN with ∠L = 480 and ∠M=750.

. The conditions are: 1. and the included angles are equal. 2. the two triangles are similar. Side. Angle (AA) If two angles of a triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another triangle then the two triangles are similar. Hypotenuse.Congruence and Similarity 141 10⋅5 Conditions of similarity From the above discussion we can set some conditions for the similarity of triangles. Side. the two triangles are similar. Right angle. 4. Side (SSS) If the three sides of one triangle are proportional to the three sides of another triangle. Side. Angle. Angle. Side (SAS) If two sides of a triangle are proportional to two sides of another triangle. 3. Side (RHS) If the hypotenuse and a side of a right angled triangle are proportional to the hypotenuse and a side of another right angled triangle then the two triangles are similar.

142 Mathematics 10⋅6 Similar quadrilaterals The matching angles of two similar quadrilaterals are equal and the matching sides are proportional. The conditions are: Activity: Work in groups of 3 or 4 to complete this activity. cm ZW= 5 cm. NK= 2. MN= 3 cm. The draw the other two sides. [ Hints: First draw the angle ∠K and locate two points on its sides at distances equal to KL and KN respectively.. We can set some conditions for the similarity of quadrilaterals. Observe that of two similar quadrilaterals.5 cm. 1. Repeat the above exercise with angles and sides of your choice. Is the quadrilateral unique? (c) Are the ratios of the matching sides of KLMN and WXYZ equal? (d) Measure the matching angles of the quadrilaterals KLMN and WXYZ. Identify the similar pairs from the following figures. (a) the matching angles are equal (b) the matching sides are proportional. XY= 4 cm. KL= 3 cm. LM= 2 cm. Are they equal? (e) Are the quadrilaterals KLMN and WXYZ similar? 2. Justify your answer. . Are the quadrilaterals similar? Two quadrilaterals are similar if their matching sides are proportional. ∠W= 45°. Activity : 1. YZ= 6. (a) Draw the quadrilateral KLMN with sides ∠K = 45°. (b) Draw the quadrilateral WXYZ with sides WX= 6 cm.

Prove that ∆CDY is similar to ∆YDW. .Congruence and Similarity 143 Exercise 10. DY bisects ∠CDW. Explain why the two triangles in each of the following diagrams are similar. 2.3 1. Prove that the two triangles in each of the following diagrams are similar. 4. Estimate the value of y from each of the following pairs of triangles. Prove that ∆PTN and ∆RWT are similar. 3. 5.

He paced out some lengths on the bank of the river and made a sketch diagram as shown. 9. Shihab had to find the width of a river without crossing it. Show that the three triangles in the diagram to the right are similar. Verify whether the quadrilaterals are similar or not? 8. 7. A stick casts a shadow of 0. find the height of the tree.4 m when placed in the ground. If the top of the stick is 1 m above ground level. Identify the matching angles and matching sides of the quadrilaterals.144 Mathematics 6. . and a tree casts a shadow of length 7 m. Calculate the width of the river.

Such as. 90. 60. Recently the magnitude of expression of different events and information of our daily life through numbers has tremendously increased. 85. 70. 75. Any numerical information or event is a statistics and the numerals used to indicate information or event are data of the statistics. Let us suppose that the marks obtained by 35 students in an examination studying in class VI of a school are as follows : 80. 65. 85. the marks 85 obtained by a student is not a statistics. From all these diagrams we can make clear and explicit concept of the presented events. 95. 60. 50. But any discrete number do not form statistics. . 75. 98. 60. 75. In this chapter we shall learn about histogram of the information and data. 55. we can say that the data of a statistics are presented through numbers. 65. 75.Chapter Eleven Information and Data Since ancient times many events or information of practical life are expressed through mathematical numbers for different purposes. 85. 90. 95. 65. students will be able to – ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ Explain what frequency distribution table is Express the unorganized data in the form of organized data through class intervals Draw histograms Find the mode from the drawn histogram Explain the data from the drawn histogram. 70. 65. These topics of statistics are widely used in day to day life of students and that is why they should have clear understanding regarding the same. Here the marks indicated by numbers of that examination form a statistics. We shall also learn how to make frequency distribution table through class intervals for organizing unorganized data. 11⋅1 Information and data We have learnt about regarding information and data in class VI. 95. 80. 100. The statistics used in our day to day life are presented through different types of diagrams to make them comprehensive and attractive. 90. 95. Hence. At the end of the chapter. The numerals used for indicating the marks are data of the statistics. 98. 85. 70. 60. The numerical presentation of information is called statistics. 85. 90.

In such cases. The data collected directly from the source are primary data. 90. 75. 85. 98. number less than 50 can be considered. 85. (2) Secondary data : Suppose we need the temperature of a day of some cities of the world. then we can find the number of classes to be formed. if we form a class at an interval of 5. 90. 95. 80. the data collected indirectly are and less reliable. 70. The easiest method to put the unorganized data in organized form : The lowest and highest marks obtained as stated above are 50 and 100. 60. The data arranged in this way are called organized data. 60. 80. 50. 95. 60. Organized data : If the numbers stated above are arranged in ascending order then we have. 55. The numbers are not arranged in any order of their values. 11⋅3 Unorganized and organized data Unorganized data : The marks obtained in Mathematics stated earlier are unorganized data.146 Mathematics 11⋅2 Statistical data There are two types of statistical data. 95. 98. Starting from 46. They are (1) Primary or direct data (2) Secondary or indirect data. It is not possible to collect the information of temperature in the same way as we have collected the obtained marks of mathematics. The researcher as per his need can directly collect data from the source. 90. 65. 85. 90. Now. 75. (1) Primary data : The marks obtained in an examination in Mathematics stated before are primary data. 65. 65. The primary data are more dependable as directly collected from the source. 60. Since the researcher cannot collect the data directly as per his need. 75. Here the source is indirect. 75. for convenience. Here the numbers are put in a disordered way. 100. 85. 70. The data collected from the indirect source is secondary data. 70. we can use the data collected by some other organization. It is to be noted that the number of classes can be formed at convenient intervals depending . The data can be more easily organized through putting in tabular form which is discussed below. 95. 85. 65.

. the classes for marks will be written in the left column. Following is the table of organized data discussed above : Classes of marks (class interval= 5) 46 − 50 51 − 55 56 − 60 61 − 65 66 − 70 71 − 75 76 − 80 81 − 85 86 − 90 91 − 95 96 − 100 Tally marks l l llll llll lll llll ll llll llll llll lll Total Frequency distribution (No. The range of the data is required to find the number of classes. generally the interval for each class is limited to maximum 15 and minimum 5. the number of classes will be 11 at an interval for 5 marks starting from 46. of students) 1 1 4 4 3 4 2 5 4 4 3 35 Observe : Here. The number of students in a class will be frequency of that class. Range = (Highest number − Lowest number) + 1 Here. The table involving frequency will be the frequency distribution table. 5 5 Here. the number of classes of the discussed data = (Highest number – Lowest number) + 1 5 (100 − 50) + 1 51 = = = 10 ⋅ 2 or 11. Then the obtained marks will be considered one by one and then a tally mark ‘l’ is placed in a column on the right of the first mark put in the class.Information and Data 147 upon data. the class interval is considered to be 5. the tally marks are counted to find the number of students class wise. If the number of tally marks are more than 4 then the fifth one are put diagonally covering the tally marks. There is no hard and fast rule for such classification. at interval of 5. Finally. However. the class interval is kept limited within 5 to 15. But for convenience of processing. After finishing the classification. The class interval can be taken to be any number as per need and for the convenience of distribution of the data.

2. 11. 25.148 Mathematics Example 1. The frequency distribution table for the data is : Temperature Classes 9 − 13 14 − 18 19 − 23 24 − 28 Tally Marks llll llll llll llll lll llll ll l Total Frequency 10 13 7 1 31 Activity : Form groups of 30 from the students of your class. 9. 14. 12. 22. Following steps are to be followed for drawing histogram: 1. 14. 14. 10.) of each member of the group. 12. 18. becomes easier to understand and draw conclusion as well as eye-catching. Measure the heights (in cm. 10. Make the frequency distribution table of the obtained data. 11⋅4 Frequency histogram Any statistics when presented through diagram. 16. 10. the range of the data = (25 − 9) + 1 = 17. The frequency at convenient scale is considered along y-axis and it is the height of rectangle. 11. Histogram or frequency distribution histogram is the diagram of frequency distribution table. 18. 22. 20. Hence. . 12. 18. The interval is considered at convenient scale. The class interval of frequency table is taken along x-axis and the rectangle is drawn considering the class interval as base. Solution : The numerical value of lowest temperature is 9 and that of highest is 25. 20. 14. 18. Same or different convenient scale may be considered for both the axes. Prepare frequency distribution table (the temperatures are in integers) : 20. 20. 14. 15. 15. 12. 21. Following are the temperatures (in degree Celsius) of a city of 31 days of January. the number of classes for 5 degree Celsius is 17 = 3⋅ 4. 14. The presentation of frequency distribution is a widely used method. Hence. 5 ∴ The number of classes is 4.

Following is the frequency distribution table of the marks obtained in mathematics by 125 students of class X studying in a school. the required mode is 52 kg. Draw a histogram and find the mode (approximate by) from the histogram. Class interval Frequency 41 − 45 8 46 − 50 15 51 − 55 25 56 − 60 10 61 − 65 2 Solution : The frequency histogram has been drawn considering each side of the smallest squares of graph paper along x-axis to be one unit of class interval and two sides of the square along y-axis to be 5 units of frequency. The interval is fixed from the point where the perpendicular meets x-axis. the broken segments represent the previous units upto 40. To find the mode. Since the class interval along x-axis has started from 40. The mode from the figure is found to be 52. The fixed interval is the mode. two line segments from uppermost corner points of the rectangle are joined crosswise with the corner points of the top of the rectangles before and after.Information and Data 149 Example 2. Hence. The frequency distribution table of weights (in approximate kg. Hence the mode lies in this class. Interval Frequency 20-30 5 30-40 12 40-50 30 50-60 40 60-70 20 70-80 13 80-90 3 90-100 2 . Draw the histogram of the data from frequency distribution table and find the mode (in approximate value) from the histogram. Example 3. From the histogram.) of 60 students of your school is placed below. it is evident that the mode of frequency is in the class 50 – 55. The class interval is along x-axis and the frequency is along y-axis. The perpendicular is drawn on the base through their point of intersection.

90. 153. 71. 150. 56. What do you understand by data? Explain with an example. 96. 72. 84. 140. Here. Of a quarterly/half yearly examination. 50. 130. 144. 68. Here one unit of graph paper along x-axis and y-axis has been taken to represent 2 units. 67. 73. 159. 132. 150. 64. (a) the water lily group will develop frequency distribution table with the marks obtained in Bangla and draw histogram and (b) the group Rajanigandha will develop frequency distribution table with the marks obtained in English and draw histogram. 48. 47. That is why the mode of the obtained numbers by the students is 54 approximately. 143. 82. 41. 60. 159. 88. 64. 83. 149. 147. 72. 161. 33. from the histogram. 157. 62. 3. 64. . 22. 146. The broken marks have been used to show 0 to 20 along x-axis. 64. 146. 146. 66. 65. 69. 73. 140. 152. The monthly amounts (in thousand taka) of selling in 50 shops are as follows : 132. 62. 97. 152. 6. 144. 145. 53. 141. 67. 141. 140.150 Mathematics Solution : x-axis and y-axis have been drawn on the graph paper. 147. What are the types of data? How are the data of each kind collected? Write down advantages and disadvantages to of such data. 63. 60. 46. 78. 31. 157. 148. 148. such as. What is unorganized data? Give an example. 49. 146. 133. Water lily and Rajanigandha. 162. 27. The histogram has been drawn considering the frequency along y-axis and class interval along x-axis. 149. 2. 44. Arrange them in order to put in an organized form. 5. 22. 158. Following are the marks obtained in Mathematics by 60 students of your class: 50. 55. 136. 4. 71. 63. 99. The interval of the perpendicular drawn from the point of intersection lies to the left of the midpoint of 50 and 60. 61. 138. 92. Exercise 11 1. 75. 151. 148. Name the group . 150. it is observed that the maximum of the marks lie between 50 to 60. 58. 150. 142. 41. 59. Make a frequency distribution table. 140. 45. 160. Activity : Form two groups from the students studying in your class. 162. Write down an unorganized data. 85. 22. 42. 143. 178. 83. 150. 63. 137. 154. 77.

40. 40. 45. 7. 35. 165. 3. 40. 160. 8. 30. 46. 40. 6. 148. 10.Information and Data 151 Develop a frequency distribution table taking 5 as class interval. 6. 155. 145. 180. 6. The statistics of colleted runs and fall of wickets of a team in an international T-20 cricket game are as follows. 45. 8. 3. 4. 50. 9. 20. 20. 45. 9. 50. 40. 9. 30. 50. 35. 145. 45. 40. 175. 155. 165. 25. 6. 4 . 42. 25. 40. 40. 8. 4. 4. 175. 43. 40. 50. 25. 5. The weights (in kg) of 30 students of class VIII of your school are as follows: 40. 160. 5. 50. (a) Arrange data in ascending order. 165. 53. The numbers of members of 35 families of an area are: 6. 25. The wages per-hour (in taka) of 30 labours are as follows : 20. 170. 5. 35. 55. 3. 40.2 8. 28. Draw the histogram from the following frequency table and find the mode: Class interval Frequency 11-20 10 21-30 20 31-40 35 41-50 20 51-60 15 61-70 10 71-80 8 81-90 5 91-100 3 11. Draw histogram : Over Collected Runs Fall of Wickets 1 6 0 2 8 0 3 10 0 4 8 0 5 12 0 6 8 1 7 6 0 8 12 0 9 7 0 10 15 0 11 10 1 12 12 0 13 14 0 14 10 1 15 8 1 16 12 1 17 8 2 18 14 0 19 8 0 20 6 0 [Hints: Draw histogram taking the overs along the x -axis and the runs along y axis. 45. 56. 44. 9. 4. 5. The heights (in cm) of 30 students of your class are given below. 160. 8. 30. 45. Make a frequency distribution table with 2 as class interval. 175. 47. 42. . 8. 50. The fall of wickets may made understood by placing the sign ‘•’ on the run of the corresponding over] 12. 35. 10. 22. 50. 3. 40. 170. 170. 43. Draw the histogram of the heights and find the mode from the histogram. 43. 152. 2. 7. 165. 165. 5. 6. 170. 3. 35. 150. 145. 7. 160. 150. 165. (b) Make a frequency table of the data. Make frequency distribution table with 5 as class interval. 35. 5. 9. 44. 45. 7. 42. 160. 180. 175. 42. 50.

188 14. (c) 48. Maimuna Tk. 6.700. 12. Tk. Dalim gets Tk. (e) 0⋅024. (b) 6. (d) 25⋅32. (c) 2⋅774 . (d) 5 18 12 11 8 84. (c) 0⋅07. 10. 200 . (e) 1⋅5 : 4. (c) 14. 8. 9. 13. 3850 . 1200 . Tk. (b) 55. 4. 720 and Kakoli Tk. (b) 7 . Tk. (a) 15. (d) . 1400 and Students of class VIII Tk. Sara gets Tk. 4. 25 . Labib Tk. 1080 . Sami Tk. Jesmin gets Tk. (a) ⋅6. 5. 3. (c) 7 : 28 :: 15 : 60 (d) 12 : 15 :: 20 : 25. Yousuf’s income Tk. Exercise 2⋅2 5 10 % 13 1. 3. (a) 22. (a) 0⋅926. 16. 14. (c) 7 . Profit Tk. (c) 30. 11. (a) 3. 7. 10. (a) 14.5 ::4. 3. 18. . The number of Chocolets 50 . 14. 225 . 2. 1500 11. 2. (d) 105 . 10 0⋅19 . Sabuj get Tk. 4. (a) 13. 17. (f) 12⋅035 . (a) 1 . (a) 3. 1200. 1)(d). (a) 2⋅65. 1000. (b) 9 : 18 :: 10 : 20. 13. Tk. Tk. (b) 23. 2) (a) 3) (a) . 8. (e) 125 : 25 :: 2500 : 500 2. Profit Tk. (a) 6 : 12 :: 12 : 24. 15. 1400. (c) 63 (d) 102 . (d) (e) 6⋅30 4 5. 40 : 70 : 49 . Students of class VII Tk. 2. (e) 2.761. 6 (b) 10 (c) 10 Exercise 2⋅1 1. 15 . (c) 3 . 13. 4. 52 . 19 8. 393 .5 : 13⋅5 7 5 3. 1800 . (d) 5 . (b) 31. 12. (b) . 3. Tk. 3600. 360. 150 . 2. 6. 16. 5 . 8. (c) 13 5 . Loss 7 3 17 . (c) . Exercise 1⋅2 1. 20. (a) 1. Profit Tk. Loss 20% . 5. 763 8 . 26 : 19 . 1000 . Loss Tk. 210. (d) 7 . Rumi gets Tk. 80 m 7.1 1. (c) 39. 11. 15. (b) 1⋅5. 9. 18. 6. Profit 33 1 % . and Raisa Tk.90 15. (c) 16 : 28 :: 28 : 49 (d) 5 : 1 :: 1 : 7 . (b) 25 : 45 :: 45 : 81. 1600 . Tk. Profit 20% 9 9. 10 gm 12. 7. (a) 3 : 6 :: 5 : 10. 125 .152 Mathematics Answer Exercise 1. 4800. 3000 and Anar gets Tk. (a) 7140 (b) 19 (c) 16 . 42 . 360 . 4. (b) 4⋅82. (b) 1⋅683. (b) 56. 420 . (b) 6. 450. Students of Class VI gets Tk. 32 . 5. 19.5 6 17 4. 1800. 6.

54 second. x 3 + 3 x 2 y + 3 xy 2 + y 3 19. x y − x y + 3 x y z 13. 18 p 7 q 7 4 3 7 2 3 4 3 7. 3a − 2b 8. The 16. 2. 11. a 3 + 2a 2 + a − 4. 6666 2 M. 4 4 hours. x 2 + xy + y 2 35. a − b 15. m 17. 10. 5507 metric ton. (a) 0. x − 1 16. 45 person . − 20ab x yz 6. The speed of in still water is 8 km/h. Length 21 m and breadth 7 m 9. abc 31. a + 2 xyz 19. 300 m. tons 6666 kg 666 gm 11. 145 kg 950 gm 13. a 4 + a 2 b 2 + b 4 22. 4. m. 17. 10 x y + 15 xy 2 7 4 4 2 5 10. 2a b − 3a b + a b c 3 4 3 4 2 2 12. 4 x 3 y 2 + x 4 y 9. m . 1 + x − x 3 − x 4 28. 5a 2 2. 10 10 days . 9 3 days . 8 minutes . a 3 + b 3 4 2 Exercise 4⋅2 1. x − 4 y 22.4039 km (b) 0. 8 p 3 − 12 p 2 q + 18 pq 2 − 27 q 3 20. x 2 − xy + y 2 18. 6 km/h 14. 12. Length 125 sq. − a 2 − 4a − 16 21. 1950 16. (b) 175 sq. x + x y + y 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 24. 3 x 6 y 4 − 2 x 2 yz + z 13. 18. 12a b 2. − 5a 2 x 2 4. a + b 3 2 2 3 3 2 18. 8. − 21a b x y 5 3 10 5 9. 3 days . a + a b + ab + b 17. x + 5 x + 3 x − 9 21. 24m a x 5 2 2 2 3 4 5 8. 6a − 5ab − 6b 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 14. 12 1 days . a + b + c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca 23. − 8a 3 3. 2000 sq. xy 30. a 2 − b 2 25. 549 kg rice and 172 kg 500 gm 15. Tk. m 7. 15a x y 4. x − 3 y 17. 2a 3b − 3ab 2 11. 9a 2 yz 2 6. 4 a 2 + 1 34. 5 xy + 4 x − 4 x 3 12. 10. 9 x 2 − 2 xy − y 2 33. Tk. 1 5 47 15. ton 750 kg .0775 km . 11x 2 y 7. 20. 30axyz 3. x 2 y 2 − 1 27. − 7 x 3 yz 5. − 16a b 5. x 2 + 3 23. 30000 . 537 decimetre 3. 53. − 8ac + 5a 3b 2 c 4 + 3ab 4 c 2 14. 3 x + 2 16. 700 kg . a 2b 2 15.7 mi. y + y + 1 26. 2 km/h speed of is at with current 4 km/h 19. 84 hectors. x 2 + x + 1 24. 9. 8. . 13. 384 sq. 7 5 2 hours . ax 32. 2 ab + 3d 26. centimetre . breadth 375 m 5. − b + 3a 4b 4 10. 64 sq. x − 3 x y + 3 xy − y 20. 180 mough 14.Information and Data 153 Exercise 2⋅3 7. (a) 30 sq m. x − 5ab 29. 45 x y − 36 x y 4 2 3 2 3 11. 6. 612 kg 3 12. 9 Exercise 3 1. 1 3 Mtric 4 Exercise 4⋅1 1.

( ax + by )(bp + aq ) 4. 3a − 6b 23. (a) 6. 7b − 2a 16. 38b − 6a 24. 6 x − 3 y − 4 z + 2 (c) − 3 y − 2 z − 1 (d) 2 x 2 − 7 xy − 6 xz − 3 yz + 4 x + 2 y − 4 y 2 Exercise 5⋅1 1. (3 x − 5 y + 8 z )( x − y + 2 z ) 10. 12 33. ( y + 7)( y − 13) 13| ( p − 8)( p − 7) 14. − 10 x + 14 y − 18 z 19. a 2b 2 − 9 4. 2a + 2b − 2c 15. − 21 10. 16a 2 25. a − (b − c + d ) 25.154 Mathematics Exercise 4⋅3 1. 2( a + 8)( a − 5) 12. a 8 + 81x 8 + 9 a 4 x 4 11. ( ab + 7 y )(ab − 7 y ) 7. 14 − a − 5b 22. 3025 6. 25 x 2 − 70 x + 49 3. 81a 2 19. 1 18. x 2 − 3ax + 10. 9a 2 − 66axy + 121x 2 y 2 4. 5a − b + 11c 17. 16 x 4 − 9 y 4 6. ( a + 8)( a − 5) 16. a − (b + c − d ) − m + ( n − x ) + y 26. 169 − 144 p 2 3. 9 x 2 + 4 y 2 + z 2 − 12 xy + 6 xz − 4 yz 15. 37 12. ( a + b)( a + c ) 3. b 2 c 2 + c 2 a 2 + a 2b 2 + 2abc 2 + 2ab 2 c + 2 a 2bc 16. 9 x 2 24. 100 26. 3 x + 4 y − z + b + 2c 14. (3a + 2b)(3a − 2b) 6. ( x + y )( x − y )( x 2 + y 2 + 2) . 3 x + 2 20. 9409 10. 79 Exercise 5⋅2 1. x − y − a + b 13. ( 2 x + y )(2 x − y ) 5. x 4 + x 2 + 1 8. (1)(d) (2)(c) (3)(d) 9. a 2 + 10a + 25 2. (c) 5. − 9 11. 16 x 2 − 9 2. 4 16 9 Exercise 5⋅3 1. 25a 4 + 90a 2 m 2 + 81m 4 5. x( x + y + z + yz ) 2. 980100 7. (d) 2. 81 22. x 4 + y 4 + z 4 + 2 x 2 y 2 − 2 x 2 z 2 − 2 y 2 z 2 13. 16 32. 2a + 3b + 28c 18. 100 27. 16 x 2 21. 4a 4 + 4b 2 + c 4 + 8a 2b − 4a 2 c 2 − 4bc 2 17. 100 − x 2 y 2 5. (a + x + y )(a − x − y ) 9. 1 28. x 2 y 2 − 12 xy 2 + 36 y 2 8. 5a 4 (3a 2 + x 2 )(3a 2 − x 2 ) 15. (c) 3. a 2 − b 2 − c 2 − 2bc 7. a 2 + 4b 2 + c 2 − 4ab − 2ac + 4bc 14. 7 x + {−5 y − ( −8 z + 9)} 27. x 4 − 1 12. 81a 4 − b 4 5 2 x2 y2 − a 9. 4b 2 20. 2 y − 9 z 21. (b) 7. 4c 2 d 2 23. (a) 5 x + y − z (b) − x + 4 y + 3 z − 2. a 2 x 2 − 2abxy + b 2 y 2 9. ( 2 x + 3 y )( 2 x − 3 y )( 4 x 2 + 9 y 2 ) 8. (d) 4. (a) 15 x 2 + 2 x − 1 (b) 75 x 3 + 20 x 2 − 17 x + 2 (c) 3x + 2 28. (a) 8. 4 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + 4 xy − 4 xz − 2 yz 11. (3a 2 + 2 a + 2)(3a 2 − 2 a + 2) 11. 4a 2 + b 2 + 9c 2 − 4ab + 12ac − 6bc 12.

( x − y ) 19. (a) 9. 9 34. x x− y b a 2 2a 1 a+2 2. 16. (b − c )(b + c ) 2 27. ( a + 5)( a 2 − 7 a + 12) 31. (c) 7. 6. 12. (a) 13. ( a + b − c )( a − b + c ) 19. ( x − 3)( x 2 − 25) 32. a (2 . 18a 4b 2 cd 2 24. 10. 16. (c) 5. K 4. L 3. (1) N 6. 3a 16. 5a(9 x 2 − 25 y 2 ) 29. 30 x 2 y 3 z 4 25.Information and Data 17. a ( a + b ) b( a − b ) . 10. (d) 2. . 2 a ( a − 4 ) a ( a 2 − 4) a b(a − 3) a ( a − b)( a − c ) b( a + b)( a − c ) c( a + b)( a − b) 18. x( x + 2)( x + 5) 33. 5. (2) K 6. 11. . a( a 2 − 4b 2 ) a( a 2 − 4b 2 ) 3a 2( a − 2) . 2 . M 2. 7 5a 8 xy ( x + 1)( x − 5) ( x + 2)( x + 3) . 2 ( a + 2b ) x a ( a − 2b) y 2 . 4nx 9my . (b) 3. b 3a 1 + 2b 2a − 3b a−2 ac y x+ y x−3 x+4 11. 5 5x ( x + 1)( x − 2) 6ab a2 − 4 2a − 4b ay − 2bx 4 x − 17 x 2x − 4 y 13. ( a + 4) 22. a2 − b2 a2 − b2 17. 12. x( x 2 + 3 x + 2) 28. N 5. ( x + 2)( x − 5) 2 30. ( 2 x + 3 y + 4a )( 2 x + 3 y − 4a ) 155 Exercise 5⋅4 1. abc abc 15. 19. 3ab 2 c 14. a( a + b) 21. pqr pqr 13. x 3 (12 x 2 + 5a 2 )(12 x 2 − 5a 2 ) 20. 3| xyz 4. 15. L 6. ( a + b) 18. (3) L 7. rx qy . a 2 ab . 2 ( a − b 2 )( a − c ) ( a 2 − b 2 )( a − c ) ( a 2 − b 2 )( a − c ) a −9 a −9 2 2( x + 3) 3( x + 1) a + b) ab(a − b) c(a − b) 20. ( x − 1) 23. 6mn 6mn 14. 4 ax 17. . (a) 2 2 2 2 2( 2 x + 1) (b) 4 x − 12 x + 9 (c) 4 x + 4 x − 15. 9. ( x + 4) 20. 2 2 2 2 2 ( x + 1)( x − 2)( x + 3) ( x + 1)( x − 2)( x + 3) a( a − b ) a ( a − b ) a ( a − b ) Exercise 6⋅2 1. 2a(2 x − 1) 3bx + 2ay a2 + 4 3a + 2b 3 8. 7. 9. . (a) 6. 5ab 15. (a) 4. ( x + 5)( x + 6) 18. 8. (b) 10. 14. (a) a − b = ( a + b)(a − b) (b) ( x + 5)( x − 2) (c) ( x + 5) (d) ( x − 625)( x − 2) 4 Exercise 6⋅1 1. 6 p 2 q 2 x 2 y 2 26. (d) 8.

2 2 y( x − 4 y ) pqr a − 6a + 5 x −4 8 6b xyz 2 2 2 23. a. Pen Tk. c 4. a 3. Dhaka to Aricha : 2 hours 34 minutes. 20. 22 10. 53 . 2 x − 3 xy + y 25. a Exercise 9⋅2 1. Mita Tk. 12. 3 1. Shika’s age 18 years 13. c 4. d 5. c 8. b 2. a 5. (a) 4 (b) − 2 (c) 5 (d) − 4 (e) 2 10. (3) (b) 5. x − y + z 24. c 4. 36 6. a. 6 12. 10 2.30 8. − 2 20. − 6 15. 3 6. 22. − 7 17. 3 2. 5 11. 8. Liza’s age 12 years. 12 4. 7. a2 + 9 a(a + 2)(a 2 − 9) Exercise 7⋅1 1 2 8 4 4. 9 5. (3) (b) 9. 18. − 1 19. 52 .21. − 12 10. a 5. (2) (a) 6. q( r − p ) a a a x−3 x( 4 y − x ) . 2 21. (2) (d) 4. 5. b . c 3. 2 3. 1 2 3 15 3 19 16. 6 3. 8 13.. a 7. Breadth 5 m. ( x + y )( x − 4 y ) ( x + y )( x − 4 y ) c. c Exercise 9⋅3 1. (a + 2)(a − 3) ( x + y )( x − 4 y ) 2 a−3 a+3 . b. Gita Tk.22 7. (77 − x) km. a. 70 9. 4 9. 240 11. 2 20. (1) c 6. 2 18. b 2. 58 . − 1 14. 25 km. a 4.156 Mathematics 17. 25. x( x − 4 y ) x( x + y ) . Khata Tk. Aricha to Dhaka : 1 hour 55 minutes 30 second. b. a 2. 15. Lengths 15 m. b. b 3. c 2. ( x + y )( x − 4 y ) b. Exercise 8 1. ( a + 2)( a + 3)( a − 3) ( a + 2)( a + 3)( a − 3) c. 19. c 3. Exercise 7⋅3 1. Son’s age 5 years. Exercise 7⋅2 1. Father’s age 30 years. 37 run 14. 33 c. b 6. 2 11. b 6. Rita Tk.(1) b 4. 0 25.