Futurist architecture

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Perspective drawing from La Città Nuovaby Sant'Elia, 1914.

Futurist architecture is an early-20th century form of architecture born in Italy, characterized by anti-historicism, strong chromaticism, long dynamic lines, suggesting speed, motion, urgency and lyricism: it was part of the Futurism, an artistic movement founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who produced its first manifesto, the Manifesto of Futurism in 1909. The movement attracted not only poets, musicians, and artists (such as Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla,Fortunato Depero, and Enrico Prampolini) but also a number of architects. A cult of the machine age and even a glorification of war and violence were among the themes of the Futurists (several prominent futurists were killed after volunteering to fight in World War I). The latter group included the architect Antonio Sant'Elia, who, though building little, translated the futurist vision into an urban form.[1] Contents
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1 History of Italian Futurism 2 Art Deco 3 Futurism after World War II
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3.1 Googie architecture 3.2 Neo-Futurism 3.3 Post-modern futurism

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4 References 5 Sources 6 External references

[edit]History

of Italian Futurism

Lingotto factory in Turin. With its test track on the roof, was recognized in 1934 as the first futurist invention in architecture[2]

Heating plant and Main controls cabin atSanta Maria Novella railway station

In 1912, three years after Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Antonio Sant'Elia and Mario Chiattone take part to the Nuove Tendenze[3] exhibition in Milano. In 1914 the group presented their first exposition with a "Message" by Sant'Elia, that later, with the contribution of Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, became the Manifesto dell’Architettura Futurista ("Manifesto of Futurist Architecture").[2] Also Boccioni unofficially worked on a similar manifesto, but Marinetti preferred Sant'Elia's paper. Later in 1920, another manifesto was written by Virgilio Marchi, Manifesto dell’Architettura Futurista–Dinamica ("Manifesto of Dynamic Instinctive Dramatic Futurist Architecture").[2] Ottorino Aloisio worked in the style established by Marchi, one example being his Casa del Fascio in Asti.

Another futurist manifesto related to architecture is the Manifesto dell’Arte Sacra Futurista ("Manifesto of Sacred Futurist Art") by Fillia (Luigi Colombo)[2] and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, published in 1931. On 27 January 1934 it was the turn of the Manifesto of Aerial Architecture by Marinetti, Angiolo Mazzoni and Mino Somenzi.[2] Mazzoni had publicly adhered to futurism only the year before. In this paper the Lingotto factory by Giacomo Matté-Trucco is defined as the first Futurist constructive invention.[2] Mazzoni himself in those years worked on a building considered today a masterpiece[4] of futurist architecture, like the Heating plant and Main controls cabin at Santa Maria Novella railway station, in Florence.

[edit]Art

Deco

Main article: Art Deco The Art Deco style of architecture with its streamlined forms was regarded as futuristic when it was in style in the 1920s and 1930s. The original name for both early and late Art Deco was Art Moderne--the name "Art Deco" did not come into use until 1968 when the term was invented in a book by Bevis Hillier. The Chrysler Building is a notable example of Art Deco futurist architecture.

[edit]Futurism [edit]Googie

after World War II

architecture

Main article: Googie architecture After World War II, Futurism, considerably weakened, redefines itself thanks to the enthusiasm towards the Space Age, the Atomic Age, the car culture and the wide use of plastic. For example, we find this trend in the architecture of Googies in the 1950s in California. Futurism in this case is not a style but an architectural approach rather free and uninhibited, which is why it has been reinterpreted and transformed by generations of architects the following decades, but in general we find that amazing shapes with dynamic lines and sharp contrasts, and the use of technologically advanced materials.

[edit]Neo-Futurism
In the 1980s, French architect Denis Laming, was one of the members of this movement and founder of Neo-Futurism. He designed all of the buildings in Futuroscope, whose Kinemax is the flagship building.[5]

[edit]Post-modern

futurism

    Le Corbusier Denis Laming Cesar Pelli Santiago Calatrava .Civil Justice Centre. The San Francisco Marriott Marquis in San Francisco. Manchester (2008) byDenton Corker Marshall. It is topped with ajukebox-shaped glass tower. a notable example of postmodern futurism. the term futuristic is often used without much precision to describe an architecture that would have the appearance of the space age as described in works of science fiction or as drawn in science fiction comic strips or comic books. notable for its cantilevers and straight lines. The routine use of the term vague and futurism — which rarely has political implications — must be well differentiated from the Futurist movement of the years 1910–1920. The futurist architecture created since 1960 may be termed post-modern futurism. Lumsden (1989). In popular literature. Today it is sometimes confused with blob architecture. was designed by the architectAnthony J. California.

University of California. Paul Williams.Charles Luckman. 1961) . Los Angeles International Airport (William Pereira. Lumsden Virgilio Marchi Wayne McAllister Oscar Niemeyer William Pereira Tadao Ando Patricio Pouchulu Eero Saarinen  Library. 1965)  Theme Building.                Archigram Louis Armet Welton Becket Arthur Erickson Future Systems Michael Graves Zaha Hadid John Lautner Anthony J. Irvine (William Pereira.

1970)  Graduate Center (classroom building). near the Maison de la Radio  Ferrohouse in Zurich (Justus Dahinden. 1991)  Residential building in Paris. (Frank Wallace. 1963) . Irvine (Arthur Erickson. Cathedral of Brasilia(Oscar Niemeyer. University of California. Oral Roberts University. 1960)  McGaugh Hall.

4. Angiolo Mazzoni e l'Architettura Futurista p. the free encyclopedia . International Futurism in Arts and Literature. ^ http://laming. Angiolo Mazzoni e l'Architettura Futurista . Published in London 1978 .p. 1982) [edit]References 1. ^ a b c d e f Futurist architecture and Angiolo Mazzoni’s manifesto of aerial architecture.722 3.AA. ^ In 1978. Oregon (Michael Graves.AA.fr [edit]Sources  VV.An architecture thesis on Angiolo Mazzoni by Flavio Mangione and Barbara Weiss. ^ Günter Berghaus (2000). ^ Literally "New Trends". published in VV. architect Léon Krier described the heating plant as the greatest masterpiece of Futurist-Constructivist-Modernist architecture. p. Supple Organic architecture From Wikipedia. Walter de Gruyter. Angiolo Mazzoni e l'Architettura Futurista. ISBN 3-11-015681-4. Portland Building inPortland. 2. 364.45 5.

and to now serve the whole of life. interrelated composition. holding no traditions . and surroundings become part of a unified. though never well articulated by his cryptic style of writing: "So here I stand before you preaching organic architecture: declaring organic architecture to be the modern ideal and the teaching so much needed if we are to see the whole of life. furnishings.Fallingwater by Frank Lloyd Wright Organic architecture is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site that buildings. Contents [hide]      1 History 2 Notable organic architects 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links [edit]History The term organic architecture was coined by Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959).

included Louis Sullivanand Claude Bragdon. The idea of organic architecture refers not only to the buildings' literal relationship to the natural surroundings. but how the buildings' design is carefully thought about as if it were a unified organism. present or future.. and basic ordering principles continue to repeat themselves throughout the building as a whole.essential to the great TRADITION.Frank Lloyd Wright. written in 1954[1] Organic architecture is also translated into the all inclusive nature of Frank Lloyd Wright’s design process. to the individual chairs intended to fill the space. Architect and planner David Pearson proposed a list of rules towards the design of organic architecture. while among European modernists Hugo Häring and Hans Scharoun stand out. These rules are known as the Gaia Charter for organic architecture and design. Nor cherishing any preconceived form fixing upon us either past. as is reflected in the later work of futurist architect Buckminster Fuller.. motifs. Other modernist architects in the U. Everything relates to one another. reflecting the symbiotic ordering systems of nature. but instead exalting the simple laws of common sense or of super-sense if you prefer determining form by way of the nature of materials. Key figures in the U. Following World War II.." . to the floors. organic architecture often reflected cybernetic and informatic models of life. Geometries throughout Wright’s buildings build a central mood and theme. and elsewhere held complementary and often competing views of how architecture could best emulate nature. Europe.S. Materials. Essentially organic architecture is also the literal design of every element of a building: From the windows.S. It reads: "Let the design: .

yet noisy dialog with the rushing water and the steep site.be inspired by nature and be sustainable. physical. from the seed within. [edit]Notable    organic architects Alvar Aalto Anton Alberts Laurie Baker . the residence Frank Lloyd Wright designed for the Kaufman family in rural Pennsylvania. and spiritual needs. Nature grows from the idea of a seed and reaches out to its surroundings.  exist in the "continuous present" and "begin again and again". Wright had many choices to locate a home on this large site. The horizontal striations of stone masonry with daringcantilevers of colored beige concrete blend with native rock outcroppings and the wooded environment. from the inside out.  satisfy social.  follow the flows and be flexible and adaptable. is akin to an organism and mirrors the beauty and complexity of Nature.  "grow out of the site" and be unique.  unfold.  celebrate the spirit of youth. but chose to place the home directly over the waterfall and creek creating a close. a building or design must grow. healthy." Eric Corey Freed takes a more seminal approach in making his description:  "Using Nature as our basis for design. [2]  express the rhythm of music and the power of dance."[3] A well known example of organic architecture is Fallingwater. Most architects design their buildings as a shell and force their way inside. conserving. A building thus. play and surprise. as Nature grows. like an organism. and diverse.

(October 2012) .                  Claude Bragdon Nari Gandhi Antoni Gaudi Bruce Goff Neville Gruzman Hugo Häring Hundertwasser Kendrick Bangs Kellogg (born 1934) John Lautner Imre Makovecz Eero Saarinen Hans Scharoun Gustav Stickley Louis Sullivan Rudolf Steiner Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) Bruno Zevi Toyo Ito [edit] Novelty architecture From Wikipedia. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification.

Many examples of novelty architecture take the form of buildings that resemble the products sold inside to attract drive-by customers. Others are attractions all by themselves.Randy's Donuts in Inglewood. and vegetables. California. Some hotel casinos on the Las Vegas Strip can be considered novelty architecture. built in 1954. or replicas of famous buildings. And others are merely unusual shapes or made of unusual building materials. New York-New York Hotel & Casino Novelty architecture is a type of architecture in which buildings and other structures are given unusual shapes as a novelty. fruits. such as advertising. such as giant animals. notoriety as alandmark. or simple eccentricity of the owner or architect. including the pyramid-shaped Luxor .

Hotel and the New York-New York Hotel & Casino.1 Novelty statues    8 See also 9 External links 10 References [edit]Programmatic architecture .2 Storage tanks   2 Giant sculptures 3 Buildings styled after famous landmarks o o o 3. Since 2010. Georgia 3. a building designed to look like the New York City skyline.3 China     4 Other styles 5 Googie/populuxe architecture 6 Deconstructivism 7 Gallery o 7.2 Batumi. Novelty architecture is also used extensively in amusement parks such as Disneyland to fit their playful and sometimes retro theme.1 Casino architecture 3. Contents [hide]  1 Programmatic architecture o o 1.1 Water towers 1. the resort city of Batumi on Georgia's Black Sea coast has erected many novelty buildings and structures.

and many roadside coffee shops were built in the shape of giant coffee pots. or roadside attraction was to build the building in an unusual shape.7 metres (35 ft) tall apple near Highway 401 in Colborne. especially the shape of the things sold there. New Jersey  The Longaberger Company's head office in Newark. and fruit stands were built in the shape of oranges or other fruit. people or household objects. coffee shop. There may be an element of caricature or a cartoonish element associated with the architecture. "Mimic" architecture became a trend. a 10. a hot dog-shaped hot dog stand in Los Angeles Brown Derby. Ontario [edit]Water towers . an architectural folly in Margate City. such as characters.      Tail o' the Pup. a mortar-and-pestle pharmacy in Lexington. a derby-shaped restaurant also in Los Angeles Bondurant's Pharmacy. animals. Lucy the Elephant. July 2004 Programmatic (also known as mimetic or mimic) architecture is characterized by constructions in the forms of objects not normally associated with buildings. hot dog stands were built in the shape of giant hot dogs.Lucy the Elephant. one way of attracting motorists to a diner. as automobile travel became popular in the United States. Kentucky Big Apple Restaurant. Ohio which is in the form of a giant basket In the 1930s.

Georgia and Clanton. a peach-shaped water tower in Gaffney. South Carolina Water towers. Iowa Strawberry water tower in Poteet. now dilapidated) [edit]Storage tanks Several breweries and other businesses have designed holding tanks in the shape of giant cans of beer or other containers. California Wine bottle water tower in Rutherglen. Minnesota (see Gallery) Coffee pot water tower in Stanton. . Minnesota (see Gallery) Brooks Catsup Bottle Water Tower in Collinsville. Victoria (built in 1900. Alabama Coffee pot water tower in Lindstrom. often a prominent feature in a small town. There are other peach-shaped water towers in Byron. Minnesota (see Gallery) Corn cob water tower in Rochester. South Carolina. Texas Teapot water tower in Kingsburg.          Peachoid.Peachoid water tower in Gaffney. Illinois (see Gallery) Paul Bunyan's Fishing Bobber water tower in Pequot Lakes. have often been shaped or decorated to look like everyday objects.

such as bats and gloves. but the Seguin pecan is arguably more realistically rendered. since acquired (and redesigned) by Nestlé. which includes giant "paper" aircraft in one terminal. Gigantic baseball paraphernalia and other novelties. feature giant sculptures of Paul Bunyan and dinosaurs. San Antonio. Another aspect of novelty architecture is sculptures of ordinary items scaled to enormous size. Brunswick. Louisville Slugger Museum.S. Missouri and Seguin. and even . Texas Nut-shaped sculptures in at least two American cities.  "World's Largest Six-Pack" brewery holding tanks in La Crosse. Kentucky that features a giant baseball bat Cleveland Airport. reading "Curtiss Baby Ruth" on one side and "Curtis Butterfinger" on the other. team logos. A giant rotating candy bar. Wisconsin "World's Largest Hormel Chili Can" in Beloit. Texas are claimed to be "the world's largest pecan". Cowboy boots at North Star Mall. at the former Curtiss Candy Company factory in Franklin Park. [1] The Brunswick pecan is much larger and heavier. "big apples". Wisconsin [edit]Giant sculptures Cleveland Airport is known for its fanciful giant "paper" aircraft sculptures. Illinois. a building in Louisville.        Various roadside parks and attractions in the U.

located in Alliance. The world's largest tire is displayed along Interstate 94 in Allen Park. at various baseball parks including Yankee Stadium. and the Metrodome. Kauffman Stadium. AT&T Park. Giant Coca-Cola bottle atop the Green Monster outfield wall at Fenway Park. designed in they style of famous landmarks around the world. Angel Stadium. Comerica Park. These include: In Las Vegas: New York-New York Hotel and Casino (1997). Italy  Paris Las Vegas (1999): The front of the hotel suggests the Paris Opera House and the Louvre  Luxor Las Vegas (1993). featuring a replica of St Mark's Campanile and other buildings in Venice.    supersized Land O'Lakes milk bottles. the nowdemolished Shea Stadium and its successor Citi Field. its façade a stylized King Arthur's castle (Camelot) In Macau:  . A replica of Stonehenge made with junked cars. Carhenge. replicating the New York skyline and Statue of Liberty  The Venetian Las Vegas (2003). A giant bottle of Aji-no-moto is located next to NLEX (North Luzon Expressway) in Bulacan. Nebraska. Michigan. [edit]Buildings [edit]Casino styled after famous landmarks architecture Many casinos are built in a novelty architecture style. Philippines. with its main pyramid style tower and within twin 22-story ziggurat towers  Excalibur Hotel and Casino (1990).

and an upside-down White House [edit]China The New South China Mall in Dongguan. a mixed-used development in the form of an Italian piazza Buildings designed in the style of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. including:     Sheraton Hotel.3 mi) canal with gondolas. A couple of examples would be McDonald's original golden-arches design. [edit]Googie/populuxe architecture Main article: Googie architecture . like its counterpart in Las Vegas. China features a 25 metres (82 ft) replica of the Arc de Triomphe. Egypt[2] Alphabet Tower (145 metres (476 ft) high). the Acropolis.[3] and a 553-meter indoor-outdoor roller coaster. originating in California as many of the novelty designs have. celebrating Georgian script and writing Piazza.[5] [edit]Other styles Long-established firms whose features are well-known could still qualify as novelty architecture. featuring a replica of St Mark's Campanile and other buildings in Venice [edit]Batumi.[4] a 2.[3] a replica of Venice's St Mark's bell tower. and the selfreferencing design of the White Castle restaurants. the face of the city of Batumi on Georgia's Black Sea coast has been transformed by the construction of new highrise landmark buildings and the renovation of the Old Town. designed in the style of the Great Lighthouse at Alexandria.1 kilometres (1. Georgia Since 2010. The Venetian Macao.[1] Many of these constructions are novelty architecture.

tilted roofs. [edit]Deconstructivism Some critics claim that much of today's contemporary architecture under the guise of Deconstructivism is actually Novelty architecture. This came to be known as Googie Doo Wop or populuxearchitecture. starburst designs. Washington. [edit]Gallery  Coffeepot water tower inLindstrom. Practitioners include leading architects such as Frank Gehry. Minnesota. built in 1922  The original Brown Derbyin Los Angeles.Architecture popular in the 1950s-1960s in southern California and in Florida featured sharp corners. and fanciful shapes. built in 1926 . California. built in 1902  Teapot Dome Service Station in Zillah. Daniel Libeskind and Zaha Hadid.

built in 1935  World's Largest Catsup Bottle water tower inCollinsville. Illinois. Washington. built in 1931  Benewah Milk Bottle inSpokane. built in 1949 . The Big Duck in Flanders. Minnesota. built in 1931  Corn cob water tower inRochester. New York.

Ohio  The Big Chicken inMarietta. built in 1963  Coney Island Hot Dog Stand in Bailey. Wigwam Motel inHolbrook. Georgia. Colorado. Arizona. built in 1950  The Longaberger Company headquarters inNewark. built in 1966  .

Poland  Paul Bunyan's Fishing Bobber water tower inPequot Lakes.The Big Pineapple. opened in 1971  UFO-shaped bus station in Kielce.Nambour. California  A 64-foot-tall (20 m) Nehi Bottle located near Auburn. Minnesota  The Donut Hole in La Puente. Queensland.Alabama (In an area referred to as "The Bottle") was destroyed by fire in 1933. .Australia.

ND.  Mighty Og .  Large barrel shaped bistro and bar located inOkinawa City. Harold's Garage in Spring Hill. Japan  At Cabazon Dinosaurs in California. Florida.Gorilla torso near Harvey. Destroyed by windstorm sometime before June 2005.  . a formerSinclair gas station. this dinosaur's belly holds a souvenir shop.

South Dakota. [6][7] [edit]Novelty statues  Paul Bunyan and Babe the Blue Ox in Bemidji. erected in 1936  Dinosaur Park sculpture of a Tyrannosaurus rex inRapid City. erected in 1949 . opened in 1936  Ten meter tall statue of Babe the Blue Ox at Trees of Mystery in Klamath.Bono's Orange Stand inFontana. Minnesota. California was used from 1936 to sell California orange juice to hot drivers who all lacked air conditioning at that time. California.

Kansas. erected in 1953  Paul Bunyan statue inPortland. Oregon. erected in 1959  Johnny Kaw statue inManhattan. erected in 1967 . North Carolina. Golden Driller statue inTulsa. erected in 1966  Apatosaurus statue atNorth Carolina Museum of Life and Science inDurham. Oklahoma.

erected in the late 1960s  Paul Bunyan statue inAkeley. Oklahoma . South Dakota. The Wall Drug dinosaur statue in Wall. Minnesota  Harvey statue at Harvey Marine in Reedville. Oregon  Blue Whale of Catoosa inCatoosa. Aloha.

Florida [edit] Art Deco From Wikipedia. World's Largest Dinosaurin Drumheller. erected in 2000  World's Largest Muskellunge in Hayward.  Pink Brontosaurus statue on US 19 in Spring Hill. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Art Deco architecture) . Wisconsin at the national freshwater fishing hall of fame.Canada. Alberta.

built 1928–1930. designed by William Van Alen.Art Deco spire of the Chrysler Building in New York City. . built 1930. Terracotta sunburst designabove front doors of the Eastern Columbia Building in Los Angeles.

bold geometric shapes and lavish ornamentation. and to the rectilinear rather than the curvilinear. Contents [hide]    1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Attributes . Historian Bevis Hillier defined Art Deco as "an assertively modern style.Tamara de Lempicka. then waned in the post-World War II era.. One of its major attributes is an embrace of technology. exuberance.. flourished internationally during the 30s and 40s."[2] During its heyday Art Deco represented luxury. glamor.. Art Deco (/ˌɑrt ˈdɛkoʊ/). is an influential visual arts design style which first appeared in France during the 1920s. "The Musician".[that] ran to symmetry rather than asymmetry.[1] It is an eclectic style that combines traditional craft motifs with Machine Age imagery and materials. or Deco. and faith in social and technological progress. This distinguishes Deco from the organic motifs favored by its predecessor Art Nouveau.. Deco emerged from the Interwar period when rapid industrialization was transforming culture. 1929 (oil on canvas). it responded to the demands of the machine and of new material.[and] the requirements of mass production. The style is often characterized by rich colors.

5 Lithuania 6.3.[3] The term ‘Art Deco’ has since been .5.3.3.1 New Zealand 6.2 Australia o      6.6 Brussels o o 6.1 United States 6.5 Oceania   6.3.4 Asia 6.4 Romania 6. He was referring to the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts).[3] The term was used more generally in 1966 when a French exhibition celebrating the 1925 event was held under the title Les Années 25: Art Déco/Bauhaus/Stijl/Esprit Nouveau.[4] Here the phrase was used to distinguish French decorative crafts of the Belle Epoque from those of later periods.3 Europe       6.5.3.2 Spain 6.2 Latin America 6.   4 Influence 5 Streamline Moderne 6 Surviving examples o o o 6.3.6 Africa 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links [edit]Etymology The first use of the term Art Deco has been attributed to architect Le Corbusier who penned a series of articles in his journal L'Esprit nouveau under the headline 1925 Expo: Arts Déco.3 Germany 6.1 United Kingdom 6.

[15][19] . Functionalism. Paul Bellot. Exhibited Léonce Rosenberg. 1920. Maurice Dufrêne. There was also popular interest in archeology due to excavations at Pompeii.[2] Hillier noted that the term was already being used by art dealers and cites The Times (2 November 1966) and an essay on Les Arts Déco in Elle magazine (November 1967) as examples of prior usage.[13][14][15][16][17][18] Deco was also influenced by Cubism. Greece. Rome. During the 1920s affordable travel permitted in situ exposure to other cultures.[7] [edit]Origins Joseph Csaky. Holland Some historians trace Deco's roots to the Universal Exposition of 1900. Mesopotamia.[6] In 1971 Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts then published a book about it: The World of Art Deco. limestone.[9] The Art Deco era is often dated from 1925 when the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes was organized to showcase new ideas in applied arts. Raoul Lachenal. Artists and designers integrated motifs from ancient Egypt.[5] Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first book on the subject: Art Deco of the 20s and 30s. Otterlo. Constructivism. polychrome. the tomb of Tutankhamun etc. Modernism. Among them were Hector Guimard. Musée de l'Homme and the Musée national des Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie.[8] After this show a group of artists established an informal collective known as La Société des artistes décorateurs (Society of Decorator Artists) to promote French crafts. Asia. now at Kröller-Müller Museum.[3][10][11][12] Yet Deco was heavily influenced by pre-modern art from around the world. and Futurism. Mesoamerica. and observable at the Musée du Louvre. However Art Deco originated in France. Galerie de L'Effort Moderne (1920). and Emile Decoeur. Troy. Eugène Grasset. and even to those of the Bauhaus in Germany.applied to a wide variety of works produced during the Interwar period (L'Entre Deux Guerres). Deux figures. 80 cm. relief. and Oceania with Machine Age elements. It has been argued that the term should be applied to French works and those produced in countries directly influenced by France. These artists are said to have influenced the principles of Art Deco.

giving their works a Cubist sensibility. the triangle. Cézanne was interested in the simplification of forms to their geometric essentials: the cylinder. The Cubist vocabulary was poised to attract fashion designers. Between 1910 and 1913. the sphere. Eugène Grasset wrote and published Méthode de Composition Ornementale. so popular in Paris a few years earlier. Leading up to 1910 and culminating in 1912. The artists of the Section d'Or exhibited (in 1912) works considerably more accessible to the general public than the analytical cubism of Picasso and Braque. Paul Iribe created for the couturier Paul Poiret esthetic designs that shocked the Parisian milieu with its novelty. in accord with Pythagorean and Platonic traditions. as a tribute to the artist who died in 1906.[23][24] The building includes an exterior bas relief by Antoine Bourdelle. Grasset stresses the principle that various simple geometric shapes (e. published in 1908. Simultaneously. Several months later the Salon d'Automne saw the invitation of Munich artists who for several years had been working with simple geometric shapes. forms. Éléments Rectilignes[20] within which he systematically explores the decorative (ornamental) aspects of geometric elements.[21] At the 1907 Salon d'Automne (Paris) Georges Braque exhibited Viaduc à l'Estaque (a proto-Cubist work). These illustrations were compiled into an album. shown together in Room 18. a dome by Maurice Denis. Henri Le Fauconnier and Robert Delaunay. elaborated upon Cézannian syntax.In 1905. there was a retrospective exhibition of 56 works by Paul Cézanne. in contrast with (and as a departure from) the undulating Art Nouveaustyle of Hector Guimard. designed by Auguste Perret. 15 avenue Montaigne. the square) are the basis of all compositional arrangements.g. the French designers André Mare and Louis Sue turned towards the quasi-mystical Golden ratio. The rigorous composition of its facade. revealing to the general public for the first time a 'mobile perspective' in their art.[22] At the 1910 Salon des Indépendants Jean Metzinger. [25] . is a major example of early Art Deco. Les Robes de Paul Poiret racontée par Paul Iribe. and a stage curtain design by Ker-Xavier Roussel. before the onset of Cubism. motifs and their variations. another sign of the radical aesthetic change experienced by the Parisian milieu of the time. furniture and interior designers. the cone. paintings by Édouard Vuillard and Jacqueline Marval. soon to become known as Cubism. now at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts.. Paris saw the construction of the Théâtre des ChampsÉlysées.

fashion. Jacques Lipchitz. Modern materials such asaluminum. industrial design. Queen Mary. telephones. and plastics are frequently used. It also influenced architecture. themes that would eventually become ubiquitous within the context of Art Deco. stainless steel.[13][14][15][31][32][33] [edit]Influence Art Deco was a globally popular style and affected many areas of design. graphic arts. rue Saint-James. Louis Marcoussis.[34] ocean liners (including the Île de France. interior design. in 1927 the Cubists Joseph Csaky. and lacquer are also common. the sculptor Gustave Miklos and others collaborated in the decoration of a Studio House. jewelry. and amusement parks. textiles. Elements are often arranged in symmetrical patterns. It was used widely in consumer products such as automobiles.These revolutionary changes occurring at the outset of the 20th century are summarized in the 1912 writings of André Vera. Le Nouveau style. china. designed by the architect Paul Ruaud. clocks. cookware. Laurens designed the fountain. Marcoussis made a Cubist rug. Bakelite. movie palaces. and cinema. Normandie). and electronic items such as radios. symétrie manifeste. and owned by the French fashion designer Jacques Doucet: also a collector of Post-Impressionist and Cubist paintings (including Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. which he bought directly from Picasso's studio). During the 1930s Art Deco was used extensively for public works projects. published in the journal L'Art décoratif expressed the rejection of Art Nouveau forms (asymmetric. color and geometry: the essence of Art Deco vocabulary was made manifest before 1914. Csaky designed Doucet's staircase.[26] Order. chrome. chevrons. Stained glass. inlays. . Colors tend to be vivid and high-contrast. jukeboxes. furniture. l'ordre et l'harmonie. Neuilly-sur-Seine. zigzags. polygons. trapezoids. Henri Laurens. and called for simplicité volontaire. polychrome and picturesque). and sunburst motifs. Several years after World War I.[27][28][29][30] [edit]Attributes Deco emphasizes geometric forms: spheres. railway stations. Lipchitz made the fireplace mantel. rectangles.

[37] Streamlining quickly influenced automotive design and evolved the rectangular "horseless carriage" into sleek vehicles with aerodynamic lines. [edit]Streamline Moderne Main article: Streamline Moderne A style related to Art Deco is Streamline Moderne (or Streamline) which emerged during the 1930s.[11][15][35] Deco continues to inspire designers and is often used in contemporary fashion. It was unsuccessful commercially but the beauty and functionality of its design set a precedent.[38][39][40] .[36] Chrysler Airflow sedan. symmetry. gas pumps. ships. and V-shapes. These designs continued to be popular after World War II. Designers applied these principles to cars. trains. designed by Carl Breer. jewelry. Streamline was influenced by modern aerodynamic principles developed for aviation and ballistics to reduce air friction at high velocities. and buildings.The austerities imposed by World War II caused Art Deco to decline in popularity: it was perceived by some as gaudy and inappropriately luxurious. and even objects not intended to move such as refrigerators. and toiletries.[14] One of the first production vehicles in this style was the Chrysler Airflow of 1933. 1934.[citation needed] A resurgence of interest began during the 1960s.

but notable art deco buildings can be found in various neighborhoods. a main thoroughfare that experienced a period of intense construction activity during the 1920s. in particular along Wilshire Boulevard. 1929 Cochise County Courthouse doors.Bullocks Wilshire. Los Angeles. Los Angeles. also has much art-deco architecture. Place [edit]Surviving [edit]United examples States The U. Architect: Roy W. California. 1931. Notable . Bisbee.John and Donald Parkinson. has many examples of art-deco architecture. Chicago. Arizona.S. Detroit's many examples of art-deco architecture include the Fisher and Guardian Buildings both of which are now National Historic Landmarks. and Detroit have many art deco buildings: The famous skyscrapers are the best-known. New York.

Original plans were for a twin tower to be built next to it on its west side.examples include the Bullocks Wilshire building and the Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre. is a large collection of art deco structures. an example of modern art deco architecture. Paul has the First National Bank Building and the Saint Paul City Hall. and 909 Walnut. Nearly all the buildings have been restored and painted in their original pastel colors. Neighboring St. Texas. The city of Rochester.[44] Art deco was popular during the later years of the movie palace era of theatre construction. the JPMorgan Chase Building. the Jackson County Courthouse (Kansas City. built in 1929 and 1931 respectively. Fair Park. such as the Fargo Theatre in Fargo. In 1979. the Jefferson County Courthouse. including the installation of gargoyles with water shooting out of their mouths. therefore. Florida. Kansas City City Hall.[46] In Beaumont. if not the only obelisk shaped office building in the world. Kyle Building and the First National Bank Building are some of the few art deco buildings still in the city. the 476-foot (145 m) tower has a bare west side. Kansas City is home to the Kansas City Power and Light Building. theMiami Beach Architectural District[43] was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. has a large collection of art-deco buildings.[41][42] Miami Beach. such as the Houston City Hall. As a result. Missouri). which was finished in 1929. with no windows. Both buildings experienced recent restoration. Ezekiel W. Oklahoma remains from that city's oil boom days. with some thirty blocks of hotels and apartment houses dating from the 1920s to the 1940s. it was never built due to financial constraints. Other examples of art deco buildings in Kansas City include Municipal Auditorium (Kansas City). Minneapolis has the Foshay Tower. The building was built right before the Great Depression and is one of. However. and the 1940 Air Terminal Museum. Many dam guides state that the design was to be Gothic Revival. Minnesota houses . This building is a good example of the Great Depression and its effect on art deco construction. Hoover Dam is a somewhat unusual example of art deco design. Minneapolis also has the Rand Tower and the Wells Fargo Center.[45]Houston. Excellent examples of art deco theatres. North Dakota still exist throughout the United States. which was completed in 1931. located in Dallas. is a contemporary example of the use of art deco design elements. Cullen Building.[citation needed] The recently opened Smith Center in Downtown Las Vegas incorporates many design elements from Hoover Dam and. Texas has some buildings surviving. Much of the art deco heritage of Tulsa.

houses the Cincinnati Union Terminal. Flint. Ohio. the original building for the world-famous Mayo Clinic.the Plummer Building. After the decline of railroad travel. a 49story art deco skyscraper built in 1931.000 m2) site of the former Jersey City Medical Center. Michigan is also home to The Paterson Building. In 2005. The conversion of the national historic site to a residential enclave had as of 2009 been completed on three of the several buildings on the site. an art-deco-style passenger railroad station that began operation in 1933. most of the building was converted to other uses. the largest residential restoration project in the country and the largest collection of art deco buildings in New Jersey began at the 14-acre (57. which serves more than one million visitors per year and is the 17th most visited museum in the United States. More pictures of the Paterson Building can be found at [1]. which was built in 1927.[47][48] Cincinnati is also home to the Carew Tower. The Paterson Building has extensive art deco throughout the interior and exterior. It now serves as the Cincinnati Museum Center. [edit]Latin America . Cincinnati.

hotels. 1934 design by Gregorio Sánchez. especially in Havana. Buenos Aires.[2] Another country with many examples of art deco architecture is Brazil. Ernesto Lagos. and utensils in public buildings. The Bacardi Building is noted for its particular art deco style.Kavanagh building. 1945 design by Manuel Ortiz Monasterio. Art deco buildings are also numerous in Montevideo. the Hotel Carrera (no longer a hotel) is a very fine example of art deco architecture. Mexico City. furniture. Goiânia and cities like Cipó (Bahia). Bernardo Calderón. especially in Copacabana. including the Palacio Salvo. which was South America's tallest building when it was built in the late 1920s. Luis Ávila and José Antonio Cuevas . Another example of art deco in Latin America is the Edificio El Moro in Mexico which has the Loteria Nacional nowadays.[49] The style is expressed by the architecture of residences.[50] The reason for the style being so widespread in Brazil is its coincidence with the fast growth and radical economic changes of the country during the 1930s. Chile. Also in the Brazil's north-east – notably in cities such as Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba – there are art deco buildings which have been termed "Sertanejo Art Deco" because of their peculiar architectural features. Iraí (Rio Grande do Sul) and Rio de Janeiro. it was also the biggest building of Mexico City at the time it was completed Edificio El Moro. In Santiago. Uruguay. businesses. as well as in private homes. Luis María de la Torre Some of the finest surviving examples of art deco art and architecture are found in Cuba. and many pieces of decorative art. especially in Porto Alegre.

and a notable example of late art deco style. London Borough of Islington. the structure now has Grade II listed status and has been converted into apartments. William Bennie. architect Francisco Salamone designed cemetery portals. white-rendered house frontages rising to flat roofs. with the Banco El Hogar Argentino and the Casa del Teatro (both in Buenos Aires) being his most important works. is a good example of the art deco style.[11] Straight. The Kavanagh building (1934). It remains at the Arsenal football club's old home at Highbury. the former Arsenal Stadium has the famous East Stand facade. During the 1930s. Lagos and de la Torre. south-west London. Santa Fe. were all characteristic of that period. in Balham. which was vacated in the summer of 2006.In Argentina. It was . city halls and slaughterhouses commissioned by the provincial government in the 1930s. Opened in October 1936. [edit]Europe [edit]United Kingdom Former Express Building (1939) in Manchester.[35][51][52] In London. designed by Sir Owen Williams. the organizer of the project. architect Alejandro Virasoro introduced art deco in 1926 and developed the use of reinforced concrete. famously used the art deco style in the final design which was considered one of the most opulent and impressive stands of world football. as well as convex-curved metal corner windows. was the tallest reinforced concrete structure at its time. his designs combined art deco with futurism. In the Buenos Aires Province.[15] as well as the design of various public buildings. the Palacio Minetti is the most representative art deco piece. In Rosario. TheLondon Underground is also famous for many examples of art deco architecture. sharply geometric door surrounds and tall windows.[53] Du Cane Court. art deco had a noticeable effect on house design in the United Kingdom. by Sánchez.

Art deco architecture . partly reinterpreting shapes from the Germany and Baltic Brick Gothic style. Particularly remarkable are the famous bath house Las Arenas. the Anzeiger Tower in Hannover and the Borsig Tower in Berlin. It has a grand reception area and is surrounded by Japanese-style gardens.reckoned to be possibly the largest block of privately owned apartments under one roof in Britain at the time it was built. [edit]Spain Valencia was built profusely in art deco style during the period of economic bounty between wars in which Spain remained neutral. Berlin In Germany two variations of art deco flourished in the 1920s and 30s: The Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) employed the same curving horizontal lines and nautical motifs that are known as Streamline Moderne in the Anglophone world. the building hosting the rectorship of the University of Valencia and the cinemas Rialto (currently the Filmoteca de la Generalitat Valenciana).Expressionist architecture came up with a more emotional use of shapes. Jerusalemer St. and it has had many famous residents. and the first to employ pre-stressed concrete. [edit]Germany The "Rudolf Mosse Publishing House" altered by Erich Mendelsohn in 1923. While Neue Sachlichkeit was rather austere and reduced (eventually merging with the Bauhaus style). Capitol (reconverted into an office building) and Metropol. colours and textures.. Fritz Höger's Chilehaus in Hamburg and his Kirche am Hohenzollernplatz in Berlin. Notable examples are Erich Mendelsohn's Mossehaus and Schaubühne theater in Berlin. especially from the performing arts.

and private houses. [edit]Brussels One of the largest art deco buildings in Western Europe is the Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Koekelberg. cities in Romania have numerous art deco buildings.was revived in the late-20th century by architects like Hans Kollhoff (see his tower onPotsdamer Platz). apartment complexes and large government buildings alike survive from this time. still has many art deco examples. [edit]Romania As a result of the inter-war period of rapid development.[58] [edit]Asia .[54][55][56] Ploieşti also has many art deco houses. This resulted in the rapid modernization of the city. Brussels. Bucharest.[57] [edit]Lithuania Like Romania. In 1925. architect Albert van Huffel won the Grand Prize for Architecture with his scale model of the basilica at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris. At this time it became the temporary capital of Lithuania. Many buildings around the city were built in the Bauhaus style. Today many of theses buildings still stand. Kaunas. built in 1936. both on its main boulevards and in the lesser known parts of the city. which. including government buildings. Lithuania too had a booming Inter-War industrial boom. One city in particular. even through the Nazi and Soviet occupations of Kaunas. along with the Central Post Building and the Pienocentras HQ Building (1934) are the three most prominent art deco structures in the city. despite the widespread destruction of its architecture during Communist times. primarily grew. The best representative in this regard is the capital. Vytautas the Great War Museum. Jan Kleihues and Tobias Nöfer. is a large museum located downtown in Kaunas. hotels.

W. and Sariaya. J Gerber and C.G. which are both in Manila. India: Master.[60] including those by several Dutch architects and planners. the 1933 residence of Prince Asaka in Tokyo is an art-deco house turned museum. notably Albert Aalbers's DENIS bank (1936) in Braga Street and the renovated Savoy Homann Hotel (1939). with N. the largest stock of Dutch East Indies-era buildings is found in the large cities of Java. In Jakarta. Sarhe and Bhuta. de Bryun. The Sociëteit Concordia (now Merdeka Building) is a historic building in Bandung designed by Van Galen Last and C. Smiths. Van de Linde.P. Parsare. Bandung has one of the largest remaining collections of 1920s art deco buildings in the world. Others were Thomas Karsten. Iloilo City.[59] In Indonesia. art deco buildings are found mostly in Manila.Mumbai. In China. now the Museum Bank Mandiri. Schoemaker. at least sixty buildings designed by Hungarian architect Laszlo Hudec survive in downtown Shanghai of which many are art deco.P. In the Philippines. 1936 Mumbai has the second largest number of art deco buildings after Miami.New India Assurance Building. by J. . P. surviving art deco buildings include the Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij building (1929). and the Metropole Cinema in Menteng. the Jakarta Kota Station (1929) designed by Frans Johan Louwrens Ghijsels. Wolff Schoemaker.[61] In Japan. The best examples of these are the older buildings of the Far Eastern University and the Manila Metropolitan Theater. A. and C. Henri Maclaine Pont.

Wellington has retained a sizeable number of art deco buildings.. 1970s and 1980s.[62][63] According to the World Heritage Trust. New Zealand. and Asmara inEritrea (built by the Italians as a model colonial city). Although a few art deco buildings were replaced with contemporary structures during the 1960s. "none. Penang. and many fine art deco buildings survive. [edit]Oceania [edit]New Zealand The town of Napier. Bandung in Indonesia (planned originally as the future capital of Java). and the Standard Chartered Building and the OCBC Bank Building in George Town. As of 2007. surpass Napier in style and coherence.[65] Former Russell Street Police Headquarters. Australia [edit]Australia . in spite of constant post-World War II development. most of the centre remained intact long enough to become recognized as architecturally unique. the first cultural site in New Zealand to be nominated. and from the 1990s onwards had been protected and restored.Examples of art deco architecture in Malaysia include the Central Market and the Coliseum Cinema in Kuala Lumpur. 1940-43. was rebuilt in the art deco style after being largely razed by the Hawke's Bay earthquake of 3 February 1931 and is the world's most consistently art deco city. Napier has been nominated for UNESCO World Heritage Site status.[64] Hastings was also rebuilt in art deco style after the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake. such as Miami Beach. when Napier is compared to the other cites noted for their art deco architecture.. Santa Barbara. Melbourne.

Also there are many buildings in downtown Casablanca. inBenoni.See also: List of Art Deco buildings in Sydney. a large number of buildings were erected especially in the capital cities of Luanda and Maputo. Cities in South Africa also contain examples of art-deco design such as the City Hall. theAWA Tower in Sydney. such as theGrace Building (Sydney) and the Manchester Unity Building (Melbourne) featuring purely decorative towers to circumvent the height restriction laws of the time. Among the most notable are Sydney's ANZAC War Memorial. Gauteng. List of Art Deco buildings in Tasmania. Victoria. and List of Art Deco buildings in Perth Australia also has many surviving examples of art deco architecture. the Palais and the Astor theatres are considered some of the finest surviving art deco buildings in Australia. built in 1937. and elsewhere. Albury and Griffith also have significant amounts of art deco buildings and homes. 'mini-skyscrapers'. with its main multi-storey brick building designed by architect Percy Edgar Everett. List of Art Deco buildings in Melbourne. Many buildings survive in Asmara. There are a few art deco buildings in Egypt. and the former Russell Street Police Headquarters in Melbourne. consists of a radio transmission tower atop a 15-story building. During Portuguese colonial rule in Angola and Mozambique. constructed in 1937. Asmara. the capital. Cinema Impero. Morocco's economic capital. reminiscent of the design of the Empire State Building. one of the .Eritrea [edit]Africa Africa's most celebrated examples of art deco were built in Eritrea during Italian rule. while many rural towns such asWagga Wagga. In St Kilda.

most famous being the former Cadillac dealership in downtown Cairoand Casa d'Italia in Port Said (1936)— designed by the famous Italian architect Clemente Busiri Vici. 1930)  Pennsylvania RR's S-1locomotive. designed byRaymond Loewy. now GE Building. (Timothy L. under construction. Pflueger. at the1939 New York World's Fair . model 930A  Ralph Stackpole's sculpture group over the door of the San Francisco Stock Exchange. 30 Rockefeller Center. 1933  1931 Philips radio. [edit]Gallery  RCA.

Works Progress Administration poster. Portugal: Cassiano Branco and Carlo Florencio Dias. artist. ca. now Aparthotel Vip Eden inLisbon.Walter Dorwin Teague1930 design for Eastman Kodak  Former Teatro Eden. Missouri: Hoit Price & Barnes. and Gentry. 1940  "Beau Brownie" camera. 1931 . Municipal Auditorium ofKansas City. 1935  U. Voskamp & Neville. John Wagner.S.

Mexico City.Miami Beach  Palacio de Bellas Artes. 1937 Cord automobilemodel 812. Nix Federal Building. 1940 (Roy F. byEdmond Amateis. Buehrig and staff  Delano Hotel. Philadelphia. Collins Ave. Federico Mariscal. completed 1934  Wall sculpture. France). 1937 . 1947 (Robert Swartburg) and National Hotel.. designed in 1935 by Gordon M.

1998  U. 1931  Century Theatre. Ventura. modern building in historic downtown. Pflueger.S. Wisdom. NYC: Lee Lawrie. with Light and Sound. Timothy L. 1939 . Oakland. California. 30 Rockefeller Center. architect. postage stamp commemorating the 1939 New York World's Fair. 1933  Women's Smoking Room at the Paramount Theatre.

1925  Disused Snowdon Theatre. Paul Philippe Cret. Lamb. closed 1984. Montreal. Steward Wagner. Opened 1937. "Rytm" (Rhythm). Fellheimer. New York City. Poland.William F. Crighton. byHenryk Kuna in Skaryszewski Park. 1933  Lobby. Canada.Warsaw. Ohio. opened 1 May 1931 . Empire State Building. Roland Wank. architect  Union Terminal inCincinnati. Alfred T. Daniel J.

Ohio. Canada  Niagara Mohawk Building. 1940  Bas-relief from the Polish Parliament building inWarsaw. (December 2007) . New York Fantastic architecture From Wikipedia. Federal Art Project poster promoting milk drinking in Cleveland.Syracuse. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Toronto. the free encyclopedia This article does not cite any references or sources. Poland  Interior drawing. Eaton's College Street department store. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

attention-grabbing designs. servers no other purpose than the personal amusement of its builder.Fantastic architecture is an architectural style featuring attention grabbing buildings. (December 2009) Contemporary architecture is. Such buildings can be considered as works of art. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. novelty architecture is meant to be an advertisement for the business inside. While both styles have unusual. in broad terms. Fantastic architecture. such as buildings with a giant donut on the roof. The term contemporary architecture is also applied to a range of styles of recently built structures and space which are optimized for current use. and are normally built purely for the amusement of its owner. [edit]Examples    of Fantastic-style structures  Martin Castle Neuschwanstein Castle Sauer Buildings Historic District by Frederick C. the architecture of the present day. California [edit] Contemporary architecture From Wikipedia. Aspinwall. the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. on the other hand. [edit]Topics in contemporary architecture . Sauer. Pennsylvania Watts Towers by Simon Rodia. Watts district of Los Angeles. Fantastic architecture should not be confused with Novelty architecture.

Australia  National Grand Theatre byPaul Andreu. Sydney.                Blobitecture Computer aided design Critical Regionalism Digital architecture Digital morphogenesis Deconstructivism Sustainable design Futurist architecture High-tech architecture Modern architecture Neomodern architecture Novelty architecture Postmodernism Conceptual architecture Neoclassicism Nanoarchitecture [edit]Gallery  Sydney Opera House byJørn Utzon. Beijing.China  .

United Kingdom  MIT Simmons Hall bySteven Holl. London.Bilbao.Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry. Chicago. Spain  Auditorio de Tenerife bySantiago Calatrava.United States  Ratner Athletic Center byCésar Pelli.United States [edit] . Spain  30 St Mary Axe by Norman Foster.Canary Islands. Cambridge.

who designed the CN Tower in Montreal. and Jean Nouvel. Modern Architecture Although people sometimes use the terms "contemporary" and "modern" architectureinterchangeably. it connects indoor and outdoor spaces. and the use of "green" and repurposed components. Digital only edition $49.Contemporary architecture is definable broadly as the building style of the present day. who designed the Quai Branly Museum in Paris.com Architecture designers Design. oversized windows. Art. Contemporary vs. Examples do not necessarily have similar or easily recognizable features. Fashion and Style. who designed the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao.com . however. Prominent contemporary architects include Frank Gehry. they technically are not synonymous. John Andrews. The use of natural light also plays a big role. Such homes also often have an organic design.mcgraw-hill-sales. fitting into the surrounding space and meeting an immediate need in the area. Some people viewed the elements that characterized modern architecture as too cold and impersonal. so large and expansive windows are a common and easily recognized feature of such homes. Find all the latest trends! LanciaTrendVisions. Like the modern style. because the "style" is really quite varied and has a number of different influences. This belief lead to the creation of the contemporary style as is recognized today. AdChoices Architectural Save up to 60% on print sub. an open floor plan. Even though a precise definition of the term is difficult to articulate. but it adds some personal touches and warmth throughout the living space. contemporary homes typically include an irregular or unusually shaped frame. Record www. It featured clean lines with an emphasis on function. Modern architecture refers to the building style of the early to mid-20th century.

local plants may be used to decorate the surroundings.zeitlosberlin. Reusing Materials Contemporary architecture often seeks to take old buildings and structures and reuse them in innovative and fresh ways. or function of the space. People sometimes refer to this practice as organic architecture. Outside. Architects place more emphasis on energy efficiency and use sustainable.Aspen Interior Design J Mar General Contractors Design Gallery ZEITLOS Mountain Elegance to Contemporary Interiors for Your Luxury Lifestyle www.JMarGC.com Green Architecture Green building is also a strong component of the contemporary style. in which plants are used as roofing materials to increase energy efficiency. natural. It's not unusual for builders to thoughtfully integrate these homes into their natural surroundings. natural materials like bamboo flooring and granite countertops are common. The connection extends from the outdoor landscape to the indoor environment. the style often ties easily to work by previous architects and . and recycled materials to create eco-friendly houses. or it might entail extensive renovations that dramatically change the look. This might mean a simple redesigning of interior furnishings.com Original vintage furniture from the Mid Century era www. For this reason. Living roofs.com/pro/paxtonlockwood Commercial-Industrial-Residential Construction Ahead? 305-517-3450 www.houzz. are also becoming popular. Inside. layout. or the house may be designed around a prominent natural feature.

The size or use of a given structure by itself does not determine whether an architectural design accurately can fall under the contemporary classification. Another major benefit is that they shorten the time it takes to create a structure. Skyscrapers in cities are known for leaning toward this style. clothing and accessories. artistic. Computers also play a role in ensuring the designs are safe and preventing injuries during the construction process.designers. Residential homes can also have a contemporary appearance and feel. need is the primary driving element behind contemporary architecture. The style appears in both rural and urban neighborhoods. and efficient. This allows professionals to produce results that are incredibly precise. therefore. however. for example. Need as a Driving Force Whereas desire for particular aesthetic elements typically drove previous styles. are forcing communities to explore different means of building and organizing space. Computer Aided Design Architects and designers often rely heavily on computers as they create their finished product. this idea relates to things that are fashionable yet still highly comfortable and functional. and may cover dozens of floors and a huge amount of space. Increases in population. Architecture in this style is both useful and artistic enough to set trends. Better known in relation to personal appearance. Related Styles . such as steel and concrete. along with a reduction of funds and some resources. especially since it often uses fairly traditional materials. particularly hair. is by identifying the structures or designs that meet some pressing need in the immediate surrounding area. One way of defining the style. Contemporary Chic A closely related concept is contemporary chic. durable.

where the work is set out to expose the essence or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms. AdChoices Design / Build Modern Masters Art Let us help you with every phase of your home design.com Original Fine Art. contemporary architecture has developed several offshoots. hydroponic mold control. .Chagall. each with its own characteristics. fast and experienced Company construction company. Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design. especially visual art and music.Over time. Deconstructivism developed from postmodernism and is characterized by ideas of fragmentation. atacconstruction. among others.com Puroxi (OP) Oxy Pal Peroxide based.com Construction Work with a reliable. Postmodern and neomodern architecture returned to the use of ornaments on the facade of building. including postmodernism. For other uses. neomodernism. the free encyclopedia This article is about the concept in the arts. and deconstructivism. flower solutions. see Minimalism (disambiguation). jrwdesign. Picasso. plant. crop. Miro and more clarkfineart. Minimalism From Wikipedia.

(May 2011) . Dan Flavin. It has also been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett.1 Concepts and design elements 2. Minimalism is any design or style in which the simplest and fewest elements are used to create the maximum effect. and even the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. The terms have expanded to encompass a movement in music which features repetition and iteration.3 Minimalist architects and their works 3 Minimal art. most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. The word was first used in English in the early 20th century to describe the Mensheviks. Minimalist compositions are sometimes known as systems music. As a specific movement in the arts it is identified with developments in post–World War II Western Art.features or concepts. Robert Morris. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. and John Adams. the stories of Raymond Carver. Steve Reich. minimalism in visual art 4 Literary minimalism 5 Minimal music 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links [edit]Minimalist design This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. and Frank Stella. Prominent artists associated with this movement include Donald Judd. It is rooted in the reductive aspects of Modernism.2 Influences from Japanese tradition 2.The term "minimalist" is often applied colloquially to designate anything which is spare or stripped to its essentials. as in the compositions of La Monte Young. the films of Robert Bresson. and is often interpreted as a reaction against Abstract expressionism and a bridge to Postminimal art practices. John McCracken. Agnes Martin. Terry Riley.[1][vague] Contents [hide]   1 Minimalist design 2 Minimalist architecture and space o o o        2. Philip Glass. Anne Truitt.

In addition. "Less but better" adapted from Mies. usually natural textures and colors. . etc. using only a single shape or a small number of like shapes for components for design unity. and modern home decor. May use color brightness balance and contrast between surface colors to improve visual aesthetics.The reconstruction of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's German Pavilion in Barcelona The term minimalism is also used to describe a trend in design and architecture where in the subject is reduced to its necessary elements. and large windows to let in lots of sunlight.). Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe adopted the motto "Less is more" to describe his aesthetic tactic of arranging the numerous necessary components of a building to create an impression of extreme simplicity. Using sometimes the beauty of natural patterns on stone cladding and real wood encapsulated within ordered simplified structures. stoves. or a massive fireplace to also house the bathroom). De Stijl expanded the ideas that could be expressed by using basic elements such as lines and planes organized in very particular manners. Minimalist design has been highly influenced by Japanese traditional design and architecture. using tasteful non-fussy bright color combinations. The structure's beauty is also determined by playing with lighting. the work of De Stijl artists is a major source of reference for this kind of work. This and science fiction may have contributed to the late twentieth century futuristic architecture design. The structure would usually have industrial and space age style utilities (lamps. and clean and fine finishes. Modern minimalist home architecture with its unnecessary internal walls removed probably have led to the popularity of the open plan kitchen and living room style. stairs. by enlisting every element and detail to serve multiple visual and functional purposes (such as designing a floor to also serve as the radiator. and real metal producing a simplified but prestigious architecture and interior design. pleasing negative spaces. ornamentations are quality rather than quantity[dubious – discuss]. using the basic geometric shapes as outlines. but his concerns were oriented towards technology and engineering rather than aesthetics. A similar sentiment was industrial designer Dieter Rams' motto. Designer Buckminster Fuller adopted the engineer's goal of "Doing more with less". neat and straight components (like walls or stairs) that appear to be machined with equipment. flat or nearly flat roofs. technology. The structure uses relatively simple elegant designs.

they look deeply into the spiritual dimension and the invisible. Hugh Newell Jacobsen. space. Contemporary architects working in this tradition include John Pawson.[8] Which reveals the abstract quality of something that is invisible and search for the essence from those invisible qualities.[5] In minimalist architecture. because these use more expensive building materials and finishes. using white elements. The basic geometric forms. and careful consideration of the void spaces left by the removal of three-dimensional shapes from an architectural design. sky.[citation needed] [edit]Concepts and design elements The concept of minimalist architecture is to strip everything down to its essential quality and achieve simplicity. In minimalism. large space with minimum objects and furniture.[2] [edit]Minimalist architecture and space The term ‘minimalism’ is a trend from early 19th century and gradually became an important movement in response to the over decorated design of the previous period.[4] The idea is not completely without ornamentation.[3] where architects and fashion designers worked together in the boutiques to achieve simplicity. design elements convey the message of simplicity.[6] The considerations for ‘essences’ are light. detail of material. [10] Minimalist architects humbly .Another modern master who exemplifies reductivist ideas is Luis Barragán. people valued the attitude of ‘truth to materials’. Tadao Ando. Michael Gabellini. Vincent Van Duysen. Minimalist architecture became popular in the late 1980s in London and New York. nature and materials. Alberto Campo Baeza. form. by listening to the figure and paying attention to the details. Álvaro Siza Vieira. It is highly inspired from the Japanese traditional design and the concept of Zen philosophy. people.[7] In late 19th century as the arts and crafts movement began to be popular in Britain. Moreover. they open up dialogue with the surrounding environment to decide the most essential materials for the construction and create relationships between buildings and sites. In addition. with respect to the profound and innate characteristics of materials. place and human condition. earth and air. and are relatively larger. the architectural designers pay special attention to the connection between perfect planes.[9]The movement of natural light in buildings reveals simple and clean spaces. Such as natural light. elements without decoration. cold lighting.[7] Minimalist architects not only consider the physical qualities of the building. space. Claudio Silvestrin. elegant lighting. Eduardo Souto de Moura. Minimalist architecture simplifies living space to reveal the essential quality of buildings and conveys simplicity in attitudes toward life. details and joinery are considered as reduced to a stage where no one can remove anything further to improve the design. and Richard Gluckman. The more attractive looking minimalist home designs are not truly minimalist. simple materials and the repetitions of structures represent a sense of order and essential quality. Peter Zumthor.[5] but that all parts. Yoshio Taniguchi.

it inspired the minimalist architecture in the 19th century. [16] The Japanese aesthetic of Wabi-sabi values the quality of simple and plain objects. the sand garden in Ryoanji temple demonstrates the concepts of simplicity and the essentiality from the considered setting of a few stones and a huge empty space. the Japanese flora art.[6] Zen concepts of simplicity transmit the ideas of freedom and essence of living. it has a moral perception that looks into the nature of truth and reveals the inner qualities of materials and objects for the essence. Which conveys the idea of essential quality and innate character in nature. Frank Lloyd Wright was influenced by the design element of Japanese sliding door that allows to bring the exterior to the interior. leaves and blossoms from the plants and only retain the essential part from the plant. [12] Moreover. there is a large landscape window that . Japanese manipulate the Zen culture into aesthetic and design elements for their buildings. especially in America since the mid 18th century. especially the Japanese traditional culture of Zen Philosophy.[11]This idea of architecture has influenced Western Society. pure geometry and nature. [19] [edit]Minimalist architects and their works The Japanese minimalist architect. also known as Ikebana has the meaning of let flower express itself. human movement. site and nature. Which as one main point of minimalism ideology that establish dialogue between the building and site. [21] In Vitra Conference Pavilion. Tadao Ando conveys the Japanese traditional spirit and his own perception of nature in his works.[6] Simplicity is not only aesthetic value. His design concepts are materials. People cut off the branches.[17] It appreciates the absence of unnecessary features to view life in quietness and reveals the most innate character of materials. In the foyer.[18] For example.[8] [edit]Influences from Japanese tradition See also: Japanese architecture The idea of simplicity appears in many cultures. That removes all the unnecessary internal walls and opens up the space between interior and the exterior. The building uses the simple forms of circle and rectangle to contrast the filled and void space of the interior and nature. 1993. the concepts are to bring together the relationships between building.[15] The emptiness of spatial arrangement is another idea that reduces everything down to the most essential quality.[13] For example. [14] The Japanese aesthetic principle of Ma refers to empty or open space. He also sets up dialogue between the site and nature to create relationship and order with the buildings. [20] Ando’s works and the translation of Japanese aesthetic principles are highly influential on Japanese architecture. Weil am Rhein. He normally uses concrete or natural wood and basic structural form to achieve austerity and rays of light in space.' seeking essence and simplicity by rediscovering the valuable qualities in simple and common materials.'listen to figure.

Zahora. such as the air conditioning and lamps to achieve a sense of purity for interior. High walls create the enclosed space and the stone floors used in house and courtyard show the continuality of interior and exterior. his design concepts are soul. He used stone floors and white walls to achieve simplicity and harmony for space. therefore natural light projects horizontally through the building.[25] Gasper House.[22] John Pawson is a British minimalist architect. He believes that though reduced clutter and simplification of the interior to a point that gets beyond the idea of essential quality. sense of depth and quality of individual. light and order.[24] Alberto Campo Baeza is a Spanish architect and describes his work as essential architecture.[26] .looks out to the exterior. he likes to use natural materials because of their aliveness. Space is shaped by the minimal geometric forms to avoid decoration that is not essential. This achieves the simple and silence of architecture and enhances the light. He also emphasises reduction and eliminates the visual distortions. surface and volume. Light is essential and achieves the relationship between inhabitants and the building. John Pawson’s interior design concepts for this project are to create simple. is a boutique that conveys Calvin Klein’s ideas of fashion. there is a sense of clarity and richness of simplicity instead of emptiness. The feature of the structure make lines to form the continuously horizontal house. 1995-96. forms and construction. The materials in his design reveal the perception toward space. He is also attracted by the important influences from Japanese Zen Philosophy. time and nature in space. peaceful and orderly spatial arrangements. New York. He values the concepts of light. Moreover.[23] Calvin Klein Madison Avenue. Ideas are to meet the function and context of space. idea and space. The white colour of the walls reveals the simplicity and unity of the building. wind. 1992 is a residence that client requested to be independent.

minimalism in visual art Main article: Minimalism (visual arts) . 1967. National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa Tony Smith.Barnett Newman. 6'8 x 6'8 x 6'8 [edit]Minimal art. 1962. Free Ride. Voice of Fire.

Minimalism in visual art. Ellsworth Kelly. private collection. St. 1915. 10. Kenneth Noland.Petersburg Piet Mondrian. generally referred to as "minimal art".Kazimir Malevich. Black Square. exploring via painting in the cases of Frank Stella. 80 x 73 cm. and sculpture in the works of various artists including David Smith.Donald Judd and others. Carl Andre. Dan Flavin. Tony Smith. while other leading Manhattan galleries like the Leo Castelli Gallery and the Pace Gallery also began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction. Al Held. State Russian Museum. 1939-42. Composition No. Oil on Canvas. In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture' shown from April 27 . Anthony Caro. Sol LeWitt. Robert Ryman and others. oil on canvas. 1966 .June 12. Judd's sculpture was showcased in 1964 at the Green Gallery in Manhattan as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works. Initially minimal art appeared in New York in the 60s as new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction. literalist art [27] and ABC Art[28] emerged in New York in the early 1960s.

at the Jewish Museum in New York, organized by the museum's Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine [29] [30] and Systemic Painting, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway also in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, and Hard-edge painting. [31] [32]In the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called minimal art emerged. In a more broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, and the Russian Constructivist movement, and in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuşi. [33] [34] Minimal art is also inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, and the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, and others. Minimalism was also a reaction against the painterly subjectivity ofAbstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. [35] Artist and critic Thomas Lawson noted in his 1977 catalog essay Last Exit: Painting, minimalism did not reject Clement Greenberg's claims about modernist painting's
[36]

reduction to surface and materials so much

as take his claims literally. According to Lawson minimalism was the result, even though the term "minimalism" was not generally embraced by the artists associated with it, and many practitioners of art designated minimalist by critics did not identify it as a movement as such. Also taking exception to this claim was Clement Greenberg himself; in his 1978 postscript to his essay Modernist Painting he disavowed this incorrect interpretation of what he said; Greenberg wrote: There have been some further constructions of what I wrote that go over into preposterousness: That I regard flatness and the inclosing of flatness not just as the limiting conditions of pictorial art, but as criteria of aesthetic quality in pictorial art; that the further a work advances the self-definition of an art, the better that work is bound to be. The philosopher or art historian who can envision me -- or anyone at all -- arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article. [36] In contrast to the previous decade's more subjective Abstract Expressionists, with the exceptions of Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt; minimalists were also influenced by composers John Cage and LaMonte Young, poet William Carlos Williams, and the landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. They very explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, unlike the previous decade's more subjective philosophy about art making theirs was 'objective'. In general, Minimalism's features included geometric, often cubic forms purged of much metaphor, equality of parts, repetition, neutral surfaces, and industrial materials. Robert Morris, an influential theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1-3", originally published across three issues of Artforum in 1966. In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries. These essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt - "parts... bound together in such a way that they

create a maximum resistance to perceptual separation." Morris later described an art represented by a "marked lateral spread and no regularized units or symmetrical intervals..." in "Notes on Sculpture 4: Beyond Objects", originally published in Artforum, 1969, continuing to say that "indeterminacy of arrangement of parts is a literal aspect of the physical existence of the thing." The general shift in theory of which this essay is an expression suggests the transitions into what would later be referred to as postminimalism. One of the first artists specifically associated with minimalism was the painter, Frank Stella, four of whose early "black paintings" were included in the 1959 show, 16 Americans, organized by Dorothy Miller at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The width of the stripes in Frank Stellas's black paintings were often determined by the dimensions of the lumber used for stretchers, visible as the depth of the painting when viewed from the side, used to construct the supportive chassis upon which the canvas was stretched. The decisions about structures on the front surface of the canvas were therefore not entirely subjective, but pre-conditioned by a "given" feature of the physical construction of the support. In the show catalog, Carl Andre noted, "Art excludes the unnecessary. Frank Stella has found it necessary to paint stripes. There is nothing else in his painting." These reductive works were in sharp contrast to the energy-filled and apparently highly subjective and emotionally-charged paintings of Willem de Kooning or Franz Kline and, in terms of precedent among the previous generation of abstract expressionists, leaned more toward the less gestural, often somber, color field paintings of Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko. Although Stella received immediate attention from the MoMA show, artists including Kenneth Noland, Gene Davis,Robert Motherwell and Robert Ryman had also begun to explore stripes, monochromatic and Hard-edge formats from the late 50s through the 1960s.[37] Because of a tendency in minimal art to exclude the pictorial, illusionistic and fictive in favor of the literal, there was a movement away from painterly and toward sculptural concerns. Donald Judd had started as a painter, and ended as a creator of objects. His seminal essay, "Specific Objects" (published in Arts Yearbook 8, 1965), was a touchstone of theory for the formation of minimalist aesthetics. In this essay, Judd found a starting point for a new territory for American art, and a simultaneous rejection of residual inherited European artistic values. He pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including Jasper Johns, Dan Flavin and Lee Bontecou. Of "preliminary" importance for Judd was the work of George Earl Ortman,[38] who had concretized and distilled painting's forms into blunt, tough, philosophically charged geometries. These Specific Objects inhabited a space not then comfortably classifiable as either painting or sculpture. That the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, and that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd. This movement was heavily criticised by modernist formalist art critics and historians. Some critics thought minimal art represented a misunderstanding of the modern dialectic of painting and sculpture as defined by critic Clement Greenberg, arguably the dominant American critic of painting in the period leading up to the 1960s. The most notable critique of minimalism was produced by Michael Fried, a formalist critic, who objected to the work on the basis of its "theatricality". In Art and Objecthood (published in Artforum in June 1967) he

declared that the minimal work of art, particularly minimal sculpture, was based on an engagement with the physicality of the spectator. He argued that work like Robert Morris's transformed the act of viewing into a type of spectacle, in which the artifice of the act observationand the viewer's participation in the work were unveiled. Fried saw this displacement of the viewer's experience from an aesthetic engagement within, to an event outside of the artwork as a failure of minimal art. Fried's essay was immediately challenged by postminimalist and earth artist Robert Smithson in a letter to the editor in the October issue of Artforum. Smithson stated the following: "What Fried fears most is the consciousness of what he is doing--namely being himself theatrical." In addition to the already mentioned Robert Morris, Frank Stella, Carl Andre, Robert Ryman and Donald Judd other minimal artists include: Robert Mangold, Larry Bell, Dan Flavin, Sol LeWitt, Brice Marden,Agnes Martin, Jo Baer, John McCracken, Ad Reinhardt, Fred Sandback, Richard Serra, Tony Smith, Patricia Johanson, Blinky Palermo and Anne Truitt. Ad Reinhardt, actually an artist of the Abstract Expressionist generation, but one whose reductive nearly allblack paintings seemed to anticipate minimalism, had this to say about the value of a reductive approach to art: The more stuff in it, the busier the work of art, the worse it is. More is less. Less is more. The eye is a menace to clear sight. The laying bare of oneself is obscene. Art begins with the getting rid of nature.[39] Reinhardt's remark directly addresses and contradicts Hans Hofmann's regard for nature as the source of his own abstract expressionist paintings. In a famous exchange between Hofmann and Jackson Pollock as told by Lee Krasner in an interview with Dorothy Strickler (1964-11-02) for the Smithsonian Institution Archives of American Art. [40] In Krasner's words, "When I brought Hofmann up to meet Pollock and see his work which was before we moved here, Hofmann’s reaction was — one of the questions he asked Jackson was, do you work from nature? There were no still lifes around or models around and Jackson’s answer was, I am nature. And Hofmann’s reply was, Ah, but if you work by heart, you will repeat yourself. To which Jackson did not reply at all." The meeting between Pollock and Hofmann took place in 1942. [40]

[edit]Literary

minimalism

Literary minimalism is characterized by an economy with words and a focus on surface description. Minimalist authors eschew adverbs and prefer allowing context to dictate meaning. Readers are expected to take an active role in the creation of a story, to "choose sides" based on oblique hints and innuendo, rather than reacting to directions from the author. The characters in minimalist stories and novels tend to be unexceptional.[citation needed] Some 1940s-era crime fiction of writers such as James M. Cain and Jim Thompson adopted a stripped-down, matter-of-fact prose style to considerable effect; some classify this prose style as minimalism. [weasel words]

Ernest Hemingway. Bret Easton Ellis. and William H. K. which originated in Japan but has been domesticated in English literature by poets such as Nick Virgilio. author Evan Dara includes a 60-page section written in the style of musical minimalism. Mary Robison. or those who are identified with minimalism during certain periods of their writing careers. haiku. in particular inspired by composer Steve Reich. Chihuahua / Chihuahua. These writers were also spare with prose and kept a psychological distance from their subject matter. Frederick Barthelme. The term "minimalism" is also sometimes associated with the briefest of poetic genres. Mexico WAF Entry2008 . as is the Norwegian writer Jon Fosse. Robert Creeley. early Ezra Pound.Another strand of literary minimalism arose in response to the Metafiction trend of the 1960s and early 1970s (John Barth. Richard Ford. Robert Coover. Amy Hempel. Charles Bukowski. Gass). J. Grace Paley.[citation needed] Minimalist authors. Stevens. Robert Grenier.[citation needed] American poets such as Stephen Crane.[citation needed] The Irish author Samuel Beckett is also known for his minimalist plays and prose.[citation needed] Project in Detail Edificio Corporativo Darcons CategoryOffice LocationDelicias / Chihuahua. Raymond Roseliep. Patrick Holland and Alicia Erian. and Aram Saroyan are sometimes identified with their minimalist style.[citation needed] In his novel The Easy Chain. Bobbie Ann Mason. Tobias Wolff. Mexico ArchitectArquitectura en Proceso. and George Swede. Ann Beattie. the section's successive lines of text are built on repetitive and developing phrases. Sandra Cisneros. include the following: Raymond Carver. Intending to represent the psychological state (agitation) of the novel's main character. William Carlos Williams.

40 Photograph by        .CaptionFirst floor plan level +10.

. the building appears aligned with the road as an arched gate of a medieval town: looking through it one gets the scenery of the rural fields that surround the city.             The site is located at a suburban lot of a middle size city in northern Mexico. As one drives towards it and away from de city.

The operation space is contained within the envelope and flows throughout the building in a three dimensional open plan that honors the hierarchical organization of the company. it is the opaque continuous skin that defines the shape of the frame and protects the interior from solar irradiance. This was primarily done in an effort to recreate the space complexity produced by a urban grid designed in the style of the 18th century. each presenting an intentionally different profile and two of them defining the geometry of the north and south elevations. The west elevation also benefits from the rotated planes by casting shades onto itself and minimizing direct sun exposure. This skin was manipulated in order to differentiate the public space from the internal activities of the company: the main reception and the costumer rooms are outside the envelope raised above the ground as a Piano Nobile and organized as self defined entities. and on the other hand. The skin of the building plays a dual role: on one hand it is the transparent material that allows the view through it. The sequential juncture of all the slices creates deviations and convergences between the internal operational route and the external costumer route.The building was conceived as a frame that captures part of the landscape and at the same time defines a plane that divides the intercity from the suburbs. The rule was meant to be broken at the main entrance where the opaque skin suddenly sifts direction to frame a cantilevered volume that flies above the portico. This creates a gesture of urban scale to emphasize the hierarchy of the entrance and contain the atrium of the building prior to the stair flight. Lead Architect Arquitectura en Proceso Chihuahua / Chihuahua Mexico . The geometry of the volume is shaped according to a juxtaposition of three rotated orthogonal axis structures. In order to solve the continuity of the circulation the mass of the building was divided in various transversal slices.

melbourne. 2012 first image 'music conservatorium' by safdie architects.moshe safdie: music conservatorium at monash university. australia image © safdie architects . australia 3 oct 29.

restaurant. support spaces.marking their first project in australia. curved shell of the theater image © safdie architects . the 500-seat recital hall boasts a more vertical language. composed of curved solid forms that control the levels of light in the performing areas and multipurpose auditorium. forty individual practice rooms and recording studios. department offices. the project can be considered in two parts: the reception and lobby space between two mirrored concave precast concrete walls with a large full-height atrium. the exterior contains a green landscape with an amphitheater connected to monash walk. houses the jazz club. large steel trusses and glass surfaces create an elevated transparent space that invites visitors inside in a semi-public area. american firm safdie architect's 'music conservatorium' on monash university's campus will add a vivacious new center of music and culture extending to the greater melbourne area. a large promenade where most pedestrians circulate. cafe.

transparent lobby and reception facing monash walk image © safdie architects .

central atrium image © safdie architects .

recital room image © safdie architects .

jazz club/cafe image © safdie architects .

recording studio image © safdie architects .

500-seat recital hall image © safdie architect .

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