EE 126 – Industrial Electronics

Handout: Operational Amplifiers

Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126

2
nd
Sem AY 2012-2013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (op-amps)

• DC-coupled high-gain electronic
voltage amplifier with differential
inputs and a single output
• Can be used to perform arithmetic
operations
• Uses feedback system to control its
response
• Has high impedance input and low
impedance output



Complete op-amp model


Vin – input to the amplifier terminals
Rin – internal resistance between inverting
and non-inverting terminals
Cin – internal capacitance between inverting
and non-inverting terminals
G – gain of the voltage-dependent voltage
source
Ro – output resistance


Basic op-amp circuits

Voltage follower

• Especially useful in retaining voltages
from previous output circuits

Inverting amplifier

Non-inverting amplifier





EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers

Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126

2
nd
Sem AY 2012-2013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT

Summing amplifier





Integrator






Summing-integrator









Differentiator




Differential/Subtractor







Instrumentation

• The amplifier consists of two voltage
followers and a differential amplifier.

• Output is the difference of the two
inputs multiplied by a scale factor.






}
÷ = dt t v
RC
t V
O
) (
1
) (
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + ÷ =
} } }
dt t v
C R
dt t v
C R
dt t v
C R
t V
n
n
O
) (
1
... ) (
1
) (
1
) (
2
2
1
1
dt
t dv
RC t V
O
) (
) (
1
÷ =
2
2
4
1
2
4 2
3 1
3
V
R
R
V
R
R R
R R
R
V
O
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
2
1 V V k V V
R
R
V
P
O
÷ = ÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers

Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126

2
nd
Sem AY 2012-2013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT

Schematic diagram: Instrumentation Op-Amp

Voltage comparator










• An op-amp usage wherein the output
voltage simply indicates whether V1 or V2
is higher, and outputs either V(+) or V(-)
• Operated in open-loop mode

Bridge sensor circuit

• The voltage inputs are tapped at the
R2 resistances; output can be
controlled by the voltage dividers

Voltage-to-current converter


• Op-amps are generally voltage
amplifiers; current output is small
• Transistor Q allows the amplification
of current as long the base current is
driven enough.
• V must be chosen such that it can also
supply the current desired.
2
R
V
I
in
=
Filters

Low-pass filter


• Allows low-frequency signals to pass
while rejecting those above its cutoff
frequency (dictated by the RC
network)





EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers

Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126

2
nd
Sem AY 2012-2013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT

High-pass filter


• Allows high-frequency signals to pass
while rejecting those below its cutoff
frequency

Band-pass filter

• Combines the low- and high-pass
filters to specify a certain range of
desired frequencies, known as the
bandwidth

Decibel
• A relative representation of the gain
of a particular amplifier



Active Filters
- Utilizes op-amp-with-capacitor
configurations
Integrator as low-pass filter

Time domain:

Frequency domain:

Resonant frequency:

Voltage gain (unitless):

Differentiator as High-pass filter

Time domain:

Frequency domain:

Resonant frequency:

Voltage gain (unitless):

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
i
o
db
P
P
A log 10
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
i
o
db
V
V
Av log 20
( ) ( )
}
÷
= dt t V
C R
t V
in O
2 1
1
( )
( )
2 1
1
C R j j V
j V
in
O
e e
e
=
2 1
) (
1
C R
H O
= e
2 1
1
C R V
V
in
O
e
=
( )
dt
dV
C R t V
in
O 1 2
÷ =
( )
( )
1 2
C R j
j V
j V
in
O
e
e
e
÷ =
1 2
) (
1
C R
L O
= e
1 2
C R
V
V
in
O
e =
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers

Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126

2
nd
Sem AY 2012-2013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT

Bandpass filter

- Combines integrator and differentiator
circuits
- Analysis is carried out using equivalent
circuits at particular frequencies of
interest
Input impedance, Zi

• Zi is the series impedance of R1 and C1:


• Define one critical frequency as:


Feedback impedance, Zf

• Zf is the parallel impedance of R2 and C2:


• Define another critical frequency as:


Bandpass filter analysis
• For ωo(L) < ω < ωc1, the effective circuit is
a differentiator, which acts as a high-pass
filter.
• For ωc1 < ω < ωc2 , the effective circuit is
an inverting amplifier with constant gain,
known as the bandpass gain.
• For ωc2 < ω < ωo(H), the effective circuit is
an integrator, which acts as a low-pass
filter.
EXAMPLES: OP-AMPS
1. Determine Vo(t) if the input to a
differentiator op-amp circuit is the
function

2. Determine Vo(t) if the input to an
integrator op-amp circuit is the function

For #s 1 and 2, use R = 1kΩ, C = 1mF.
3. Design (Draw) a two-stage cascaded
amplifier using the practical op-amp
circuits. The specifications are as follows:
- Input voltage at 1
st
stage: 1mV
- Output voltage: 10mV, 180
o
out-of-
phase


- 1
st
stage: inverting amplifier, RF = 1kΩ
- 2
nd
stage: non-inverting amplifier,
R2 = 2kΩ , non-inverting gain = 6


1
1 1 1
1
C
R jX R Z
C i
e
+ = ÷ =
1 1
1
1
C R
c
= e
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
1
//
C
R Z
f
e
2 2
2
1
C R
c
= e
t
e t t t t V
2
+ + = 2 3 ) (
2
1
) cos( ) (
1
t e t V
t
=
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers

Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126

2
nd
Sem AY 2012-2013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT

4. Cascaded op-amps. Find V1, V2 and Vo if Vs is a 1mV sinusoidal source w/o internal resistance.

5. Sketch the output waveform of the op-amp configuration given the input voltage waveforms.










6. Bridge sensor design. A bridge sensor circuit is used for overheat detection. Vcc = V = 5 volts,
R1 = 1kΩ, R2 = 2kΩ and R4 is a thermistor that varies from 100 ohms (at high temperature) and
250 ohms (at room temperature). A LED indicator at the output is turned on at high
temperature and turned off otherwise. If the op-amp comparator is sensitive for any voltage
difference between its inputs, determine the range of R3 for the circuit to work properly.

7. Log plot example: LPF. Sketch the log plot (gain in dB vs. ω) of the active low-pass filter given
in the previous slide if the R1 = 1kΩ and C2 = 1000pF. Determine the resonant frequency and the
gain (unitless and dB) at a frequency of 10
3
rad/s.

8. Log plot example: HPF. Sketch the log plot (gain in dB vs. ω) of the active high-pass filter given
in the previous slide if the R2 = 10kΩ and C1 = 1uF. Determine the resonant frequency and the
gain (unitless and dB) at a frequency of 500 rad/s.

9. Bandpass filter analysis. For the bandpass filter shown (in the previous page), R1=1kΩ,
R2=10kΩ, C1= 1uF, and C2 = 1000pF. Sketch the output of this active filter in a dB vs ω log plot.
Label all important points. What is the working bandwidth of this filter? What is the magnitude
of the bandpass gain?
4V 4V
-2V
-1V
2V
t
t
t
t
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5 1
1
1
1
V
1
8kΩ
+
-
V
O
V
2
4kΩ
V
3
2kΩ
2kΩ
V
4
1kΩ
V4
V3
V2
V1

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