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Handout: Operational Amplifiers
Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126
2
nd
Sem AY 20122013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (opamps)
• DCcoupled highgain electronic
voltage amplifier with differential
inputs and a single output
• Can be used to perform arithmetic
operations
• Uses feedback system to control its
response
• Has high impedance input and low
impedance output
Complete opamp model
Vin – input to the amplifier terminals
Rin – internal resistance between inverting
and noninverting terminals
Cin – internal capacitance between inverting
and noninverting terminals
G – gain of the voltagedependent voltage
source
Ro – output resistance
Basic opamp circuits
Voltage follower
• Especially useful in retaining voltages
from previous output circuits
Inverting amplifier
Noninverting amplifier
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers
Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126
2
nd
Sem AY 20122013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT
Summing amplifier
Integrator
Summingintegrator
Differentiator
Differential/Subtractor
Instrumentation
• The amplifier consists of two voltage
followers and a differential amplifier.
• Output is the difference of the two
inputs multiplied by a scale factor.
}
÷ = dt t v
RC
t V
O
) (
1
) (
1


.

\

+ + + ÷ =
} } }
dt t v
C R
dt t v
C R
dt t v
C R
t V
n
n
O
) (
1
... ) (
1
) (
1
) (
2
2
1
1
dt
t dv
RC t V
O
) (
) (
1
÷ =
2
2
4
1
2
4 2
3 1
3
V
R
R
V
R
R R
R R
R
V
O
÷


.

\

+


.

\

+
=
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
2
1 V V k V V
R
R
V
P
O
÷ = ÷


.

\

+ =
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers
Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126
2
nd
Sem AY 20122013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT
Schematic diagram: Instrumentation OpAmp
Voltage comparator
• An opamp usage wherein the output
voltage simply indicates whether V1 or V2
is higher, and outputs either V(+) or V()
• Operated in openloop mode
Bridge sensor circuit
• The voltage inputs are tapped at the
R2 resistances; output can be
controlled by the voltage dividers
Voltagetocurrent converter
• Opamps are generally voltage
amplifiers; current output is small
• Transistor Q allows the amplification
of current as long the base current is
driven enough.
• V must be chosen such that it can also
supply the current desired.
2
R
V
I
in
=
Filters
Lowpass filter
• Allows lowfrequency signals to pass
while rejecting those above its cutoff
frequency (dictated by the RC
network)
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers
Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126
2
nd
Sem AY 20122013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT
Highpass filter
• Allows highfrequency signals to pass
while rejecting those below its cutoff
frequency
Bandpass filter
• Combines the low and highpass
filters to specify a certain range of
desired frequencies, known as the
bandwidth
Decibel
• A relative representation of the gain
of a particular amplifier
Active Filters
 Utilizes opampwithcapacitor
configurations
Integrator as lowpass filter
Time domain:
Frequency domain:
Resonant frequency:
Voltage gain (unitless):
Differentiator as Highpass filter
Time domain:
Frequency domain:
Resonant frequency:
Voltage gain (unitless):


.

\

=
i
o
db
P
P
A log 10


.

\

=
i
o
db
V
V
Av log 20
( ) ( )
}
÷
= dt t V
C R
t V
in O
2 1
1
( )
( )
2 1
1
C R j j V
j V
in
O
e e
e
=
2 1
) (
1
C R
H O
= e
2 1
1
C R V
V
in
O
e
=
( )
dt
dV
C R t V
in
O 1 2
÷ =
( )
( )
1 2
C R j
j V
j V
in
O
e
e
e
÷ =
1 2
) (
1
C R
L O
= e
1 2
C R
V
V
in
O
e =
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers
Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126
2
nd
Sem AY 20122013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT
Bandpass filter
 Combines integrator and differentiator
circuits
 Analysis is carried out using equivalent
circuits at particular frequencies of
interest
Input impedance, Zi
• Zi is the series impedance of R1 and C1:
• Define one critical frequency as:
Feedback impedance, Zf
• Zf is the parallel impedance of R2 and C2:
• Define another critical frequency as:
Bandpass filter analysis
• For ωo(L) < ω < ωc1, the effective circuit is
a differentiator, which acts as a highpass
filter.
• For ωc1 < ω < ωc2 , the effective circuit is
an inverting amplifier with constant gain,
known as the bandpass gain.
• For ωc2 < ω < ωo(H), the effective circuit is
an integrator, which acts as a lowpass
filter.
EXAMPLES: OPAMPS
1. Determine Vo(t) if the input to a
differentiator opamp circuit is the
function
2. Determine Vo(t) if the input to an
integrator opamp circuit is the function
For #s 1 and 2, use R = 1kΩ, C = 1mF.
3. Design (Draw) a twostage cascaded
amplifier using the practical opamp
circuits. The specifications are as follows:
 Input voltage at 1
st
stage: 1mV
 Output voltage: 10mV, 180
o
outof
phase
 1
st
stage: inverting amplifier, RF = 1kΩ
 2
nd
stage: noninverting amplifier,
R2 = 2kΩ , noninverting gain = 6
1
1 1 1
1
C
R jX R Z
C i
e
+ = ÷ =
1 1
1
1
C R
c
= e


.

\

=
2
2
1
//
C
R Z
f
e
2 2
2
1
C R
c
= e
t
e t t t t V
2
+ + = 2 3 ) (
2
1
) cos( ) (
1
t e t V
t
=
EE 126 – Industrial Electronics
Handout: Operational Amplifiers
Prepared by: Engr. Adrian Augusto M. Sumalde EE 126
2
nd
Sem AY 20122013
Instructor 4, DEE, CEAT
4. Cascaded opamps. Find V1, V2 and Vo if Vs is a 1mV sinusoidal source w/o internal resistance.
5. Sketch the output waveform of the opamp configuration given the input voltage waveforms.
6. Bridge sensor design. A bridge sensor circuit is used for overheat detection. Vcc = V = 5 volts,
R1 = 1kΩ, R2 = 2kΩ and R4 is a thermistor that varies from 100 ohms (at high temperature) and
250 ohms (at room temperature). A LED indicator at the output is turned on at high
temperature and turned off otherwise. If the opamp comparator is sensitive for any voltage
difference between its inputs, determine the range of R3 for the circuit to work properly.
7. Log plot example: LPF. Sketch the log plot (gain in dB vs. ω) of the active lowpass filter given
in the previous slide if the R1 = 1kΩ and C2 = 1000pF. Determine the resonant frequency and the
gain (unitless and dB) at a frequency of 10
3
rad/s.
8. Log plot example: HPF. Sketch the log plot (gain in dB vs. ω) of the active highpass filter given
in the previous slide if the R2 = 10kΩ and C1 = 1uF. Determine the resonant frequency and the
gain (unitless and dB) at a frequency of 500 rad/s.
9. Bandpass filter analysis. For the bandpass filter shown (in the previous page), R1=1kΩ,
R2=10kΩ, C1= 1uF, and C2 = 1000pF. Sketch the output of this active filter in a dB vs ω log plot.
Label all important points. What is the working bandwidth of this filter? What is the magnitude
of the bandpass gain?
4V 4V
2V
1V
2V
t
t
t
t
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5 1
1
1
1
V
1
8kΩ
+

V
O
V
2
4kΩ
V
3
2kΩ
2kΩ
V
4
1kΩ
V4
V3
V2
V1
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