History of Education

by Hj Ahmad Zawawi bin Abdullah

FOUR STAGES Before the coming of the British During the British colonial government Era before Independence After Independence


and cookery and weaving for girls Al-Quran and Islamic Studies at the Suraus. Mosques or Pondok Schools DURING BRITISH COLONIZATION No clear policy on education Four types of vernacular schools – English-Medium. and Victoria Institution (1893) Most in the urban areas 2 . Chinese-Medium. like fishing and farming for boys. and Tamil-Medium English-medium schools were run by missionaries and the British government The oldest school in Malaysia is the Penang Free School (1816). Singapore Free School (1834). Next Malacca High School (1826).BEFORE THE COMING OF THE BRITISH Informal education – limited to acquiring skills for survival. Malay-Medium.

509 (Source: Malaysian Development Experiance. vegetable gardening.891 32.940 TOTAL 693 38.034 14.034 The Federated Malay States 365 18. of Schools Enrolment Attendance The Straits Settlements 191 12. 1994) 3 . poultry farming.923 6. basket making and handicrafts To the Malays the Pondok Schools still form a very important means of education NUMBER OF MALAY SCHOOLS NUMBER OF MALAY SCHOOLS IN THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. FEDERATED MALAY STATES AND UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES IN 1916 States Nos. Changes and Challenges.535 The Unfederated Malay States 137 7.g.934 11. Writing. Kuala Lumpur.MALAY-MEDIUM SCHOOL Malay vernacular schools – Malay as a medium of instruction Emphasis on 3 Rs – Reading. e. and aRithmetic Focus on Living Skills. INTAN.

Chinese.CHINESE-MEDIUM SCHOOLS Mostly run by the Chinese community Chinese is the medium of instruction The School Registration Enactment was passed in 1919 to control political activities in the school DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR Education was used as a tool for propaganda to inculcate loyalty to the Japanese emperor The Japanese language. or Tamil schools The English and Mandarin languages were banned in schools Secondary schools were used as army operation centres and school hostels as detention camps It is compulsory for students to sing the Japanese national song every morning 4 . Nippon-Go. be they Malay. become the official medium of instruction for all subjects in schools.

Malay and English Secondary schools was to maintained English as medium of instruction 5 .BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1949 THE HOLGATE REPORT A standardized educational system English as the only medium of instruction in all schools The Federal Legislative Council rejected the proposal BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1951 THE BARNES REPORT All primary vernacular schools maintain one single standard national schools Use the same syllabus Bilingual languages.

WU REPORT Support one national educational system Maintained the Chinese-medium schools BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1952 THE EDUCATIONAL ORDINANCE Based on the Barnes Report No support from the Chinese and Indians Not fully implemented 6 .BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1952 THE FENN.

BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1956 THE RAZAK REPORT The Education system should compromise of two types of primary schools – standard primary schools – Malay as a medium of instruction. and standard-type primary schools – Kuo-Yu or Tamil or English as the medium of instructions Use common syllabus Malay as a compulsory subject BEFORE INDEPENDENCE 1956 THE RAZAK REPORT All National Secondary Schools should use a common syllabus and examination And enforce Malay and English as compulsory subjects All teachers should be trained with a common syllabus in teacher’s training colleges 7 .

the National Education System was implemented 8 .AFTER INDEPENDENCE 1961 THE RAHMAN TALIB REPORT Emphasize the use of Malay as the medium of instruction THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM THE EDUCATION ACT 1961 1961 the Parliament passed the Education Act based on the Razak Report and the Rahman Talib Report After the Education Act was passed.

SMK Alam Shah 1968 – First batch of Malay-medium students graduated from UM THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM 1968 – Malay-medium classes introduced at secondary vocational schools 1968 – Conversion from English to Malay as the medium of instruction for Standard I to III in nationaltype (English) primary schools 1973 – All subjects in the Arts stream. in national-type secondary schools were taught in Malay 1975 – The conversion programme from English to Malay as a medium of instruction in all national-type (English) primary schools was completed 9 . Form 1.THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM 1957 – Malay was made compulsory in all government-aided primary and secondary schools 1958 – Introduction of Malay-medium classes attached to selected English-medium secondary schools 1963 – First Malay-medium fully-residential secondary.

THE NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM 1980 – University first-year Arts courses were conducted in Malay 1982 – Conversion program from English to Malay as the medium in national-type (English) secondary schools was completed 1983 – All university courses in arts. based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. engineering. emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic. spiritually. so as to produce individuals who are intellectually. the society and the nation at large" 10 . Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent. medicine and etc. who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family. science. were conducted in Malay 1989 – The National Philosophy of Education was released THE NATIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION "Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner.

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