P. 1
A 1984 Tm 34400001

A 1984 Tm 34400001

|Views: 0|Likes:
Published by Niki Miki

More info:

Published by: Niki Miki on Jul 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





r This Week’s Citation Ciassic~

Mehrablan A Nonverbal communication. Chicago, IL: Aldine’Atherton, 1972. 226 p. lDepartnsenl of Psychology. University of California, Los Angeles. CAl Nonverbal communication involves a large number of symbols (gestures, expressions) that are difficult to conceptualize. This volume presents a system for de5cription and integration of findings in this field based upon a succinct conceptualiza(ion of the referents in this communication process. The three fundamental dimensions of reference are positiveness, potency or status, and responsiveness (later described as pleasure-displeasure, dominance-submissiveness, and 5 level 5 of arousal). (The Science Citation Index ) and 5 (SC! 5 the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI ) indicate that this book has been cited in over 280 publications since 1972.)


feelings and attitudes. Thus, instead of focusing on the numerous behavioral cues, I analyzed the referents of nonverbal communication to try to achieve a system of organization. “Emotions were easily analyzed in terms of three basic and independent dimensions, pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness (although these were labeled differently in earlier studies). Attitudes (e.g., like-dislike, preference, approach-avoidance) were in turn analyzed in terms of emotions—once again, though, these relationships were clarified in our studies from the mid- to late 1970s. For example, a strong positive attitude entails pleasure plus arousal; a strong negative attiAlbert Mehrabian tude involves displeasure and arousal. Eye Department of Psychology contact generally implies liking and preferUniversity of California ence, although there are important excepLos Angeles, CA 90024 tions. When displeasure cues (e.g., words, bodily tension) accompany eye contact, August 6, 1984 they imply a strong negative attitude. So eye contact essentially implies communicator “When I began my studies on nonverbal arousal and, depending on its association communication, I was overwhelmed by the with pleasant and unpleasant verbal or nondiversity of bodily and vocal cues, each of verbal cues, serves to intensify the commuwhich could have a particular significance, nication of positive versus negative attiand possibly a different significance in dii. tudes. ferent contexts. Typical studies during the “Once this framework for conceptualizing referents of nonverbal communication 1960s tended to focus on a very few of these cues and attempted to detail the signifi- was in place, it was an easy matter to sumcance of each cue in terms of arbitrarily se- marize the existing literature and to lected concepts that suited the particular in- generate studies that would explore systemvestigator. Thus, integration of the available atically important phenomena in the field findings within a coherent framework was (e.g., status communication, deceit, persuaextremely difficult. sion) that had been neglected or studied on“Having come into psychology with an en- ly minimally. Nonverbal Communication gineering background, I tended to concep- summarized about 10 years of my studies tualize psychological phenomena in terms based on. the above framework, and perhaps of variables and their interrelationships. this emphasis on organization and concise Also, I appreciated the importance of con- description explains its value to other cise and systematic description as the foun- researchers and students. dation of any scientific activity. Factor “Almost 10 years later, I wrote 3 a new (secanalyses of some of the data from my studies ond) edition of Silent Messages that was in which numerous nonverbal behavioral written more informally and primarily as a variables had been scored and from other text, but that nevertheless updated the studies that had identified relationships be- framework in terms of many new findings tween groups of cues 1 2 and referents of those that had become available in the meantime. cues were helpful. . I was led to the idea The conceptual analysis of nonverbal comthat nonverbal communication essentially munication in Silent Messages also helps has a limited set of referent dimensions deal- clarify some puzzling and apparently inconing with expression and communication of sistent findings in the literature.”
I. Mehiiblan A & Kiloocky S. Categones of social behavior. Co,np. Groep S:~d.3:425-36. 1972. 2. Mehriblan A. Verbal and non’.erbal interaclion of strangers in a waiting situation. J. Erp. Re,. P,rs. 5:127-38. 1971. (Cited 30 tirnes.l 3. . Silent messages: implicit communication of emotions and attiwdes. Belmont. CA: Wadsworth. 1981. 196 p. 18



You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->