# Injection Molding

2.810 Fall 2008 Professor Tim Gutowski

Short history of plastics
1862 first synthetic plastic 1866 Celluloid 1891 Rayon 1907 Bakelite 1913 Cellophane 1926 PVC 1933 Polyethylene 1938 Teflon 1939 Nylon stockings 1957 velcro 1967 “The Graduate”

Outline
• Basic operation • Cycle time and heat transfer • Flow and solidification • Part design • Tooling • New developments • Environment

• Tadmore and Gogos
– Molding and Casting pp584 -610

• Boothroyd Dewhurst
– Design for Injection Molding pp 319 - 359

• Kalpakjian (5th ed) see Ch 19 • Injection molding case study;Washing machine augers; see on web page

30 ton, 1.5 oz (45 cm3) Engel

Injection Molding Machine for wheel fabrication

htm .Process & machine schematics * * Schematic of thermoplastic Injection molding machine * Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.

tool.Process Operation • • • • Temperature: barrel zones. hold Times: injection. hold. tool opening Shot size: screw travel Processing window Temp. Thermal degradation Flash Shortshot Melt Pressure . die zone Pressures: injection max.

edu/trp/inj/inj_time.cps.Typical pressure/temperature cycle * * Time(sec) Time(sec) Cooling time generally dominates cycle time tcool * Source: http://islnotes.msu.html 2 ( half thickness ) = α α = 10 −3 cm 2 sec for polymers .

8 lbs = 2245 cm3 =75 oz Actual . & shot size F=P X A = 420 tons 3. 2 cavity 800 ton .Calculate clamp force.

Clamp force and machine cost .

Heat transfer Note. α 1-dimensional heat conduction equation : qx qx + Δqx Tool > αpolymer Fourier’s law ∂q ∂ ( ρ ⋅ c p ⋅ T )ΔxΔy = − x ΔxΔy ∂t ∂x ∂T q x = −k ∂x ∂T ∂ 2T ∂T ∂ 2T ρ ⋅ cp = k 2 or =α 2 ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂x 1st kind 2nd kind 3rd kind T ( x = x' ) = constant ∂T ( x = x' ) = constant −k ∂x ∂T −k ( x = x' ) = h (T − T∞ ) ∂x Boundary Conditions: The boundary condition of 1st kind applies to injection molding since the tool is often maintained at a constant temperature .

Heat transfer Tii t TW x Let Lch = H/2 (half thickness) = L . ΔTch = Ti – TW (initial temp. matching I. matching B.C. θ (ξ . FO = 2 Non-dimensionalize: θ = Ti − TW L L Dimensionless equation: Initial condition Boundary condition ∂ 2θ ∂θ = 2 ∂FO ∂ξ FO = 0 θ =1 θ =0 θ =0 ξ =0 ξ =2 Separation of variables . – wall temp.C. FO ) = ∑ f ( FO ) g (ξ ) . tch = L2/α .. ξ = + 1.) -L +L T − TW α ⋅t x .

Temperature in a slab Centerline.1. θ = 0. Fo = αt/L2 = 1 Bi-1 =k/hL .

Fill time 1s For Die casting −1 μ = 103 N ⋅ s m 2 Re = 10 −4 3 ⋅103 × 10 −1 × 10 −3 Re ≈ = 300 −3 10 * Source: http://www.htm .org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.Reynolds Number Reynolds Number: V2 inertia ρ ρVL L = Re = V μ μ 2 viscous L For typical injection molding ρ = 1 g cm3 = 103 N m 4 s 2 .idsa-mp. LZ = 10 −3 m thickness Part length 10 V≈ = .

Viscous Shearing of Fluids F h 1 v F/A μ F v ∝ A h Generalization: v τ =μ h v/h Newtonian Viscosity τ = μγ& γ& : shear rate Injection molding τ = η (γ& ) γ& Typical shear rate for Polymer processes (sec)-1 Extrusion Calendering Injection molding Comp. Molding 102~103 10~102 103~104 1~10 “Shear Thinning” ~ 1 sec-1 for PE γ& .

1 to 10 .Viscous Heating Rate of Heating = Rate of Viscous Work Rate of Temperature rise P F ⋅v F v ⎛v⎞ = = ⋅ = μ⎜ ⎟ Vol Vol A h ⎝h⎠ 2 ρ ⋅ cp dT ⎛v⎞ = μ⎜ ⎟ dt ⎝h⎠ 2 or dT μ ⎛v⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ dt ρ ⋅ c p ⎝ h ⎠ 2 Rate of Conduction out dT k d 2T k ΔT ~ = dt ρ ⋅ c p dx 2 ρ ⋅ c p h 2 Viscous heating μv 2 = Conduction kΔT Brinkman number For injection molding. order of magnitude ~ 0.

1cm 0.3cm 2 / s 10cm * Very small. therefore it requires thick runners .1cm −2 ~ ⋅ ≅ 10 Heat xfer rate 4 0.1cm ~ ⋅ = 2.1cm 0.Non-Isothermal Flow v Flow rate: 1/t ~V/Lx Heat transfer rate: 1/t ~a/(Lz/2)2 Flow rate V ⋅ L2 1 VLz Lz z ~ = ⋅ Heat xfer rate 4α ⋅ Lx 4 α Lx For injection molding Small value => Short shot Flow rate 1 10cm / s × 0.5 −3 2 Heat xfer rate 4 10 cm / s 10cm For Die casting of aluminum Flow rate 1 10cm / s × 0.

Injection mold die cast mold .

edu/trp/inj/flw_froz. Gogos. Tadmore and C.Fountain Flow * ** * Source: http://islnotes. ** Z.html .msu.cps. “Principles of Polymer Processing” .

Wubken.5cm/s V=8cm/s * Source: G. “Influence of processing conditions on Molecular Orientation in Injection Molds” .Shrinkage distributions sample Transverse direction V=3. Menges and W.

air entrapment Diagonal gate: radial flow – twisting End gates: linear flow – minimum warping .96 60.012 2.976 Before shrinkage After shrinkage Air entrapment Gate Center gate: radial flow – severe distortion Edge gate: warp free.Gate Location and Warping Sprue 2.32° Shrinkage Direction of flow – 0.0 60° 1.0 1.020 in/in Perpendicular to flow – 0.

010 0.025 LDPE PP Acetal Shrinkage Nylon 6/6 0.020 LDPE Acetal PP with flow PP across flow Shrinkage 0.000 6000 PMMA 10000 8000 12000 14000 16000 18000 Mold Temperature (F) Pressure on injection plunger (psi) .005 Nylon 6/6 0.030 0.Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage 0.015 0.030 0.025 0.015 0.005 PMMA 0.000 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0.010 0.020 0.

Where would you gate this part? .

org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_7. Sink mark Gate Weld line Mold Filling Solidified part Sink mark * Source: http://www.Weld line.idsa-mp.htm Basic rules in designing ribs to minimize sink marks .

org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_2.idsa-mp.Injection Molding * * * Source: http://www.htm .

Where is injection molding? .

020 Shrinkage 0.015 PP across flow Nylon 6/6 0.030 LDPE Acetal PP with flow 0.010 0.005 PMMA 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 0.025 0.000 Pressure on injection plunger (psi) .Effects of mold pressure on shrinkage 0.

Tooling Basics Sprue Nozzle Cavity Plate Core Plate Moulding Cavity Core Cavity Basic mould consisting of cavity and core plate Gate Runner Melt Delivery .

Tooling for a plastic cup Nozzle Knob Runner Cavity Part Stripper plate Core .

Tooling for a plastic cup Nozzle Nozzle Runner Cavity Runner Part Cavity Cavity Knob Part Part Stripper plate .

jp/english/products/e_trainer/mold/basic/basic.Ltd.Tooling * * * * * ** * * Source: http://www.idsa-mp.hzs.org/proc/plastic/injection/.. ** http://www.co.) .htm (E-trainer by HZS Co.

Part design rules • Simple shapes to reduce tooling cost – No undercuts. small angles (1/4°) will do – Problem for gears • • • • Even wall thickness Minimum wall thickness ~ 0. etc.025 in Avoid sharp corners Hide weld lines – Holes may be molded 2/3 of the way through the wall only. with final drilling to eliminate weld lines . • Draft angle to remove part – In some cases.

New developments.Gas assisted injection molding .

New developments . injection molding with cores Injection Molded Housing Cores used in Injection Molding Cores and Part Molded in Clear Plastic .

Environmental issues • System boundaries • Polymer production • Compounding • Machine types • Out gassing & energy during processing .

) Packaging Note to Reader: = Focus of this Analysis = Also included in the Paper FACTORY GATE 1 kg of Injection Molded Polymer Service Period Waste Management . & land Scrap Anciliary Raw Materials Building (lights.. ect. Oil. & land Polymer Delivery Injection Molder Energy Production Industry Internal Transport Drying Emissions to air. water & land Thermoplastic Production (Boustead) Polymer Delivery Extrusion Building (lights. ect. water. Natural Gas Ancilliary Raw Materials Additives Compounder Internal Transport Drying Pelletizing Emissions to air. water & land Injection Molding Emissions to air.) Emissions to air.heating. water..CRADLE Naphtha.heating.

55 92.50 ------------------126.80 136.20 ------------------81.00 PP 72.40 33.00 PET 77.00 PC 115.00 PS 86.80 81.50 53. Thiriez ‘06 .65 80.00 82.00 64.00 LLDPE 77. [Patel 1999] 3 E Handbook [OIT 1997] Energieweb HDPE 76.00 52.14 ------59.07 64.41 79.46 118.70 ------84.45 ------80.00 78.30 107.Polymer Production Largest Player in the Injection Molding LCI What is a polymer: How much energy does it take to make 1 kg of polymer = a lot !!! Sources Boustead Ashby Patel Kindler/Nickles [Patel 1999] Worrell et al.49 111.56 111.18 ------LDPE 73.00 Values are in MJ per kg of polymer produced.50 ------------------131.00 PVC 58.40 96.00 67.07 68.20 53.60 71.79 ------------------------121.00 70.24 57.

Compounding . Thus it has a similar energy consumption profile. Environmentally Unfriendly Additives: •Fluorinated blowing agents (GHG’s) •Phalates (some toxic to human liver. but without a mold and continuous production. to bestow the polymer with the required characteristics. kidney and testicles) •Organotin stabilizers (toxic and damage marine wildlife) . Similar to an injection molding machine.extrusion • • • An extruder is used to mix additives with a polymer base.

pdf Machine types: Hydraulic.Injection Molding Process Source: http://cache.husky. hydro-electric . electric.ca/pdf/br ochures/br-hylectric03a.

SEC ≈ pv 9 8 7 All-Electric . SEC is constant as throughput increases.85 tons SEC (MJ/kg) 6 Hydraulic .85 tons 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 Throughput (kg/hr) 15 20 Material: PP Source: [Thiriez] .All-electrics have very low fixed energy costs (small idling power).

1 to 0.Raise Resin to Inj. 8 7 6 SEC (MJ/kg) 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 Throughput (kg/hr) 150 200 Variable Pump Hydraulic Injection Molding Machines.PVC High Enthalpy .For Hydraulics and Hybrids as throughput increases. HP 25 HP 50 HP 60 HP 75 HP 100 Low Enthalpy . SEC Æ k. Temp . Source: [Thiriez] Enthalpy value to melt plastics is just 0.7 MJ/kg !!! .Raise Resin to Inj. Temp .HDPE Does not account for the electric grid.

All-electric vs. hybrid 120 Cool Ton Buildup Clamp open-close Inject high Power Required (kW) 100 Plasticize 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 Time (seconds) MM 550 Hybrid NT 440 All-Electric 5 12 13 14 t Inject low Source: [Thiriez] The hydraulic plot would be even higher than the hybrid curve .

6 1.8 Specific Power Consumption (MJ/kg) 1.2 1 0.Driers • • Used to dry internal moisture in hygroscopic polymers and external moisture in non-hygroscopic ones. 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.4 1.8225 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Throughput (kg/hr) Source: [Thiriez] Same as P0 P E = = SEC = +k & m & m m .2 0 0 500 1000 W600 W800 W1000 W2400 W1600 W3200 W5000 W150 W300 W400 W200 Power Trendline R2 = 0. It is done before extruding and injection molding.

LCI Summarized Results ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY STAGE in MJ/kg of shot Thermoplastic Production HDPE LLDPE LDPE 89.62 Extrusion 3.7 62. heating.8 78.7 92.01 Polymer Delivery avg low high 0.8 69.25 8.6 95.8 118. Molded PC 81.0 111.82 5.0 Extras Generic by Amount PET Consumed Inj.12 0.2 70.00 Pelletizing 0.7 64.6 111.12 0.4 96.7 78.51 3.31 Building (lights.09 --------avg low high 5.2 59.6 117.0 PP 83.8 79.57 1.7 73.5 79.) 0.24 Drying 0.16 0.19 0.24 avg low high Polymer Delivery Compounder Internal Transport 0. ect.70 0.1 77.7 97.5 PVC 59.4 102.5 PS 87..4 79.9 79.06 0.2 52.19 0.30 1.2 74.0 avg low high 0.99 --------- avg low high Subtotal .0 64.

.56 4.30 1.34 13.52 MJ/kg in the case of PET) Pelletizing .08 5.12 Building (lights.60 71. they are averages between hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic values.96 19.17 18.35 4.84 81.65 178.) 0.57 Hydraulic 93.54 Injection Molding (look below) Scrap (Granulating) 0. In order words.87 70.04 7.Injection Molder Internal Transport 0.99 --------- avg low high avg low high Subtotal avg low high TOTAL w/ Generic Inj.46 124.18 12.35 72.03 0.29 3.65 MJ/kg in the case of PC and 0.79 8.89 11.22 Hybrid 87.68 18. For hygroscopic materials such as PC and PET additional drying energy is needed (0. ect.62 Injection Molding .05 0.57 6.06 All-Electric 87. heating.45 15.66 26.29 13.04 --------Drying 0.70 6.Choose One Hydraulic Hybrid All-Electric 5.24 7.77 117.47 11.3 MJ/kg is needed for PP Granulating .70 0.97 8.68 3.a scarp rate of 10 % is assumed Source: [Thiriez] .in the case of pelletizing an extra 0.11 1.the values presented assume no knowledge of the materials' hygroscopia.80 69.99 3. Molded Polymer TOTAL w/o Polymer Prod Notes avg low high avg low high Drying .20 69.

2% The Grid is about 30% efficient For every MJ of electricity we also get: Æ171.6% Other 0.24 g of CH4 Æ 0.1% Gas 16.94 g of CO2 Æ0.1% Nuclear 19.0% Coal 50.0032 mg of Hg .7% Waste/ Renewable 2.7% Oil 3.Energy Production Industry United States Electricity Composition by Source Hydro 7.31 g of NOx Æ 6.76 g of SO2 Æ 0.

PP. PVC Compounder and Injection Molder 6 Main Thermoplastics All Plastics U.68E+08 The Injection Molding Industry in the U.S. In such a scale imagine what a 0.S. consumes 6. GJ/year 9.01E+08 6. This is larger than the entire electric production of some small countries.1 % energy savings mean !!! .19 x 107 GJ of electricity (or 2. LLDPE.Scale HDPE.06 x 108 GJ in total energy).34E+07 2.06E+08 Global GJ/year 4. LDPE. PS.

The printer goes in the hopper… .

.And comes out….

360 S. 4.319 . "Single Minute Exchange of Dies“ Thiriez et al. 584 . "Design for Injection Molding“ p. 5. Tadmore et al..610 G. 3. Shingo. Z. 2. "An Environmental Analysis of Injection Molding“ "Injection Molding Case Study“ Kalpakjian Chapter 19 (Chapter 18) . Boothroyd et al. "Molding and Casting" p.Readings 1.. 6.

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