This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Page | 1 G.R. No. 115814 May 26, 1995 PEDRO P. PECSON, petitioner, versus
COURT OF APPEALS, SPOUSES JUAN NUGUID and ERLINDA NUGUID, respondents. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- X DECISION
DAVIDE, JR., J.: This petition for review on certiorari seeks to set aside the decision 1 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. SP No. 32679 affirming in part the order 2 of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Quezon City, Branch 101, in Civil Case No. Q-41470. The factual and procedural antecedents of this case as gathered from the record are as follows: Petitioner Pedro P. Pecson was the owner of a commercial lot located in Kamias Street, Quezon City, on which he built a four-door two-storey apartment building. For his failure to pay realty taxes amounting to twelve thousand pesos (P12,000.00), the lot was sold at public auction by the city Treasurer of Quezon City to Mamerto Nepomuceno who in turn sold it on 12 October 1983 to the private respondents, the spouses Juan Nuguid and Erlinda Tan-Nuguid, for one hundred three thousand pesos (P103,000.00). The petitioner challenged the validity of the auction sale in Civil Case No. Q-41470 before the RTC of Quezon City. In its decision of 8 February 1989, the RTC dismissed the complaint, but as to the private respondents' claim that the sale included the apartment building, it held that the issue concerning it was "not a subject of the . . . litigation." In resolving the private respondents' motion to reconsider this issue, the trial court held that there was no legal basis for the contention that the apartment building was included in the sale. 3 Both parties then appealed the decision to the Court of Appeals. The case was docketed as CA-G.R. CV No. 2931. In its decision of 30 April 1992, 4 the Court of Appeals affirmed in toto the assailed decision. It also agreed with the trial court that the apartment building was not included in the auction sale of the commercial lot. Thus: Indeed, examining the record we are fully convinced that it was only the land — without the apartment building — which was sold at the auction sale, for plaintiff's failure to pay the taxes due thereon. Thus, in the Certificate of Sale of Delinquent Property To Purchaser (Exh. K, p. 352, Record) the property subject of the auction sale at which Mamerto Nepomuceno was the purchaser is referred to as Lot No. 21-A, Block No. K-34, at Kamias, Barangay Piñahan, with an area of 256.3 sq. m., with no mention whatsoever, of the building thereon. The same description of the subject property appears in the Final Notice To Exercise The Right of Redemption (over subject property) dated September 14, 1981 (Exh. L, p. 353, Record) and in the Final Bill of Sale over the same property dated April 19, 1982 (Exh. P, p. 357, Record). Needless to say, as it was only the land without any building which Nepomuceno had acquired at the auction sale, it was also only that land without any building which he could have legally sold to the Nuguids. Verily, in the Deed of Absolute Sale of Registered Land executed by Mamerto
Nepomuceno in favor of the Nuguids on October 25, 1983 (Exh. U, p. 366, Record) it clearly appears that the property subject of the sale for P103,000.00 was only the parcel of land, Lot 21-A, Blk. K-34 containing an area of 256.3 sq. meters, without any mention of any improvement, much less any building thereon. (emphases supplied) The petition to review the said decision was subsequently denied by this Court. 5 Entry of judgment was made on 23 June 1993. 6 Page | 2 On November 1993, the private respondents filed with the trial court a motion for delivery of possession of the lot and the apartment building, citing article 546 of the Civil Code. 7 Acting thereon, the trial court issued on 15 November 1993 the challenged order 8 which reads as follows: Submitted for resolution before this Court is an uncontroverted [sic] for the Delivery of Possession filed by defendants Erlinda Tan, Juan Nuguid, et al. considering that despite personal service of the Order for plaintiff to file within five (5) days his opposition to said motion, he did not file any. In support of defendant's motion, movant cites the law in point as Article 546 of the Civil Code . . . Movant agrees to comply with the provisions of the law considering that plaintiff is a builder in good faith and he has in fact, opted to pay the cost of the construction spent by plaintiff. From the complaint itself the plaintiff stated that the construction cost of the apartment is much more than the lot, which apartment he constructed at a cost of P53,000.00 in 1965 (par. 8 complaint). This amount of P53,000.00 is what the movant is supposed to pay under the law before a writ of possession placing him in possession of both the lot and apartment would be issued. However, the complaint alleges in paragraph 9 that three doors of the apartment are being leased. This is further confirmed by the affidavit of the movant presented in support of the motion that said three doors are being leased at a rental of P7,000.00 a month each. The movant further alleges in his said affidavit that the present commercial value of the lot is P10,000.00 per square meter or P2,500,000.00 and the reasonable rental value of said lot is no less than P21,000.00 per month. The decision having become final as per Entry of Judgment dated June 23, 1993 and from this date on, being the uncontested owner of the property, the rents should be paid to him instead of the plaintiff collecting them. From June 23, 1993, the rents collected by plaintiff amounting to more than P53,000.00 from tenants should be offset from the rents due to the lot which according to movant's affidavit is more than P21,000.00 a month. WHEREFORE, finding merit in the Motion, the Court hereby grants the following prayer that: 1. The movant shall reimburse plaintiff the construction cost of P53,000.00. 2. The payment of P53,000.00 as reimbursement for the construction cost, movant Juan Nuguid is hereby entitled to immediate issuance of a writ of possession over the Lot and improvements thereon. 3. The movant having been declared as the uncontested owner of the Lot in question as per Entry of Judgment of the Supreme Court dated June 23, 1993, the plaintiff should pay rent to the movant of no less than P21,000.00 per month from said date as this is the very same amount paid monthly by the tenants occupying the lot. 4. The amount of P53,000.00 due from the movant is hereby offset against the amount of rents collected by the plaintiff from June 23, 1993, to September 23, 1993. SO ORDERED. The petitioner moved for the reconsideration of the order but it was not acted upon by the trial court. Instead, on 18 November 1993, it issued a writ of possession directing the deputy sheriff "to place said movant Juan Nuguid in possession of subject property located at No. 79 Kamias Road, Quezon City, with
all the improvements thereon and to eject therefrom all occupants therein, their agents, assignees, heirs and representatives." 9 The petitioner then filed with the Court of Appeals a special civil action for certiorari and prohibition assailing the order of 15 November 1993, which was docketed as CA-G.R. SP No. 32679. 10 In its decision of 7 June 1994, the Court of Appeals affirmed in part the order of the trial court citing Article 448 of the Civil Code. In disposing of the issues, it stated: Page | 3 As earlier pointed out, private respondent opted to appropriate the improvement introduced by petitioner on the subject lot, giving rise to the right of petitioner to be reimbursed of the cost of constructing said apartment building, in accordance with Article 546 of the . . . Civil Code, and of the right to retain the improvements until he is reimbursed of the cost of the improvements, because, basically, the right to retain the improvement while the corresponding indemnity is not paid implies the tenancy or possession in fact of the land on which they are built . . . [2 TOLENTINO, CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES (1992) p. 112]. With the facts extant and the settled principle as guides, we agree with petitioner that respondent judge erred in ordering that "the movant having been declared as the uncontested owner of the lot in question as per Entry of Judgment of the Supreme Court dated June 23, 1993, the plaintiff should pay rent to the movant of no less than P21,000 per month from said date as this is the very same amount paid monthly by the tenants occupying the lot. We, however, agree with the finding of respondent judge that the amount of P53,000.00 earlier admitted as the cost of constructing the apartment building can be offset from the amount of rents collected by petitioner from June 23, 1993 up to September 23, 1993 which was fixed at P7,000.00 per month for each of the three doors. Our underlying reason is that during the period of retention, petitioner as such possessor and receiving the fruits from the property, is obliged to account for such fruits, so that the amount thereof may be deducted from the amount of indemnity to be paid to him by the owner of the land, in line with Mendoza vs. De Guzman, 52 Phil. 164 . . . . The Court of Appeals then ruled as follows: WHEREFORE, while it appears that private respondents have not yet indemnified petitioner with the cost of the improvements, since Annex I shows that the Deputy Sheriff has enforced the Writ of Possession and the premises have been turned over to the possession of private respondents, the quest of petitioner that he be restored in possession of the premises is rendered moot and academic, although it is but fair and just that private respondents pay petitioner the construction cost of P53,000.00; and that petitioner be ordered to account for any and all fruits of the improvements received by him starting on June 23, 1993, with the amount of P53,000.00 to be offset therefrom. IT IS SO ORDERED. 11 Aggrieved by the Court of Appeals' decision, the petitioner filed the instant petition. The parties agree that the petitioner was a builder in good faith of the apartment building on the theory that he constructed it at the time when he was still the owner of the lot, and that the key issue in this case is the application of Articles 448 and 456 of the Civil Code. The trial court and the Court of Appeals, as well as the parties, concerned themselves with the application of Articles 448 and 546 of the Civil Code. These articles read as follows: Art. 448. The owner of the land on which anything has been built, sown or planted in good faith, shall have the right to appropriate as his own the works, sowing or planting, after payment of the indemnity provided for in articles 546 and 548, or to oblige the one who built or planted to pay the price of the land, and the one who sowed, the proper rent. However, the builder or planter cannot be obliged to buy the land if its value is considerably more than that of the building or trees. In such case, he shall pay reasonable rent, if the owner of the land does not choose to appropriate the building or trees after proper indemnity. The parties shall agree upon the terms of the lease and in case of disagreement, the court shall fix the terms thereof. (361a) xxx xxx xxx Art. 546. Necessary expenses shall be refunded to every possessor; but only the possessor in good faith may retain the thing until he has been reimbursed therefor.
. (453a) By its clear language. Concepcion. is sufficient reimbursement for necessary and useful improvements made by the petitioner. the landowner was required to pay the "present value" of the house. Thus in strict point of law. where the true owner himself is the builder of works on his own land. but also in ordering the petitioner to account for the rentals of the apartment building from 23 June 1993 to 23 September 1993.000. the person who has defeated him in the possession having the option of refunding the amount of the expenses or of paying the increase in value which the thing may have acquired by reason thereof. one of whom has built some works. 14 this Court pegged the value of the useful improvements consisting of various fruits. a residential house.00). or planter who then later loses ownership of the land by sale or donation. to administer complete justice to both of them in such a way as neither one nor the other may enrich himself of that which does not belong to him. Elsewise stated.000. for Regalado constructed the house on his own land before he sold said land to Coleongco. This position is. sower or planter had acted in good faith.. a house and camarin made of strong material based on the market value of the said improvements. the value of the house at the time of the trial. In the same way. in the case of De Guzman vs. Regalado: 13 Article 361 of the old Civil Code is not applicable in this case. was built in 1967 at a cost of between eight thousand pesos (P8. not in consonance with previous rulings of this Court in similar cases.Useful expenses shall be refunded only to the possessor in good faith with the same right of retention.000. Consequently. Since the private respondents have opted to appropriate the apartment building. It does not apply to a case where a person constructs a building on his own land. 12 Article 448 does not apply to a case where the owner of the land is the builder. In Javier vs. the petitioner is thus entitled to the possession and enjoyment of the apartment building. De la Fuente.00) to ten thousand pesos(P10. Article 546 does not specifically state how the value of the useful improvements should be determined. 18 The petitioner not having been so paid. The respondent court and the private respondents espouse the belief that the cost of construction of the apartment building in 1965. however. The building. the landowner was ordered to reimburse the builder in the amount of forty thousand pesos (P40. A contrary ruling would unjustly enrich the private respondents who would otherwise be allowed to acquire a highly valued income-yielding four-unit apartment building for a measly amount. that the Court of Appeals erred not only in upholding the trial court's determination of the indemnity. Agana. planted or sown. we believe that the provision therein on indemnity may be applied by analogy considering that the primary intent of Article 448 is to avoid a state of forced co-ownership and that the parties. 16 cited by the petitioner. as well as of the portion of the lot where the building has been constructed.00). This is so because the right to retain the improvements while the corresponding indemnity is not paid implies the tenancy or possession in fact of the land on which it is built. Article 448 refers to a land whose ownership is claimed by two or more parties. it is therefore the current market value of the improvements which should be made the basis of reimbursement. too. Guided by this precept. Article 361 applies only in cases where a person constructs a building on the land of another in good or in bad faith. Article 448 is not apposite to the case at bar. Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila 17 that the said provision was formulated in trying to adjust the rights of the owner and possessor in good faith of a piece of land. or sown or planted something. including the two courts below. for then there can be no question as to good or bad faith on the part of the builder. In this regard. this Court had long ago stated in Rivera vs. This Court said so in Coleongco vs. In Sarmiento vs. he was entitled to retain ownership of the building and. the income therefrom. and not its current market value. Jr. the issue of good faith or bad faith is entirely irrelevant. a useful improvement. The rule on good faith laid down in Article 526 of the Civil Code shall be applied in determining whether a builder. sowing or planting may have Page | 4 been made in good faith or in bad faith. bamboos. It follows. The objective of Article 546 of the Civil Code is to administer justice between the parties involved. sower. the parties should therefore be allowed to adduce evidence on the present market value of the apartment building upon which the trial court should base its finding as to the amount of reimbursement to be paid by the landowner. as the case may be. 15 despite the finding that the useful improvement. Nevertheless. until he is paid the proper indemnity. necessarily. The trial court also erred in ordering the petitioner to pay monthly rentals equal to the aggregate rentals paid by the lessees of the apartment building. in the main agree that Articles 448 and 546 of the Civil Code are applicable and indemnity for the improvements may be paid although they differ as to the basis of the indemnity.
Branch 101. The case is hereby remanded to the trial court for it to determine the current market value of the apartment building on the lot. Quiason. No costs. SP No. 32679 and the Order of 15 November 1993 of the Regional Trial Court. Q-41470 are hereby SET ASIDE. the decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G. JJ. J. SO ORDERED. is on leave. Bellosillo and Kapunan. .R. concur. Quezon City in Civil Case No. The value so determined shall be forthwith paid by the Page | 5 private respondents to the petitioner otherwise the petitioner shall be restored to the possession of the apartment building until payment of the required indemnity. the parties shall be allowed to adduce evidence on the current market value of the apartment building.WHEREFORE... For this purpose. Padilla.
Manhit to construct the building of SBTC in Davao City for the price of P1. Ferrer was contracted by herein petitioners Security Bank and Trust Company (SBTC) and Rosito C.00. OWNER shall equitably make the appropriate adjustment on mutual agreement of both parties." dated 31 August 1994. Ferrer v. Private respondent Ysmael C. Respondent Ferrer was able to complete the construction of the building on 15 August 1980 (within the contracted period) but he was compelled by a drastic increase in the cost of construction materials to incur expenses of about P300. MANHIT.00 on top of the original cost. Security Bank and Trust Company. petitioners seek a review and reversal of the decision * of respondent Court of Appeals in CA-G.760. verified Ferrer's claims for additional cost.417.R. CV No. entitled "Ysmael C. al. increase in prices of construction materials and/or labor shall supervene through no fault on the part of the contractor whatsoever or any act of the government and its instrumentalities which directly or indirectly affects the increase of the cost of the project. The trial court ruled for Ferrer and ordered defendants SBTC and Rosito C. Ferrer then filed a complaint for breach of contract with damages. invoices.R.: In this petition for review under Rule 45 of the Rules of Court. Makati in Civil Case No.00. SBTC. Respondent Ferrer made timely demands for payment of the increased cost. denied ever authorizing payment of any amount beyond the original contract price. payrolls and other documents proving the additional expenses.000. No. instead of paying the recommended additional amount. 42712. The contract dated 4 February 1980 provided that Ferrer would finish the construction in two hundred (200) working days.000. which affirmed the decision ** of the Regional Trial Court. 40450.23 for the increase in price of labor and materials plus 12% interest thereon per annumfrom 15 August 1980 until fully paid. 117009 October 11. SBTC likewise denied any liability for the additional cost based on Article IX of the building contract which states: If at any time prior to the completion of the work to be performed hereunder. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. a complaint for breach of contract with damages. 1995 SECURITY BANK & TRUST COMPANY and ROSITO C. b) P24. FERRER. Manhit to pay: a) P259. Said demands were supported by receipts.00 as actual damages. The additional expenses were made known to petitioner SBTC thru its Vice-President Fely Sebastian and Supervising Architect Rudy de la Rama as early as March 1980.000.Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila FIRST DIVISION Page | 6 G. . Branch 63. J.000. versus COURT OF APPEALS and YSMAEL C. petitioners. SBTC thru Assistant Vice-President Susan Guanio and a representative of an architectural firm consulted by SBTC.X DECISION PADILLA. respondents. A recommendation was then made to settle Ferrer's claim but only for P200. et. Ysmael C. In March 1981.
IN HOLDING THAT PLAINTIFF-APPELLEE HAS. In the present petition for review. It is contended that since there was no mutual agreement between the parties. Respondent Ysmael C. The Court. . Despite this recommendation and several demands from private respondent. 22. petitioners assign the following errors to the appellate court: . devoid of adequate discussion of the merits of respondent's case. . petitioners' arguments to support absence of liability for the cost of construction beyond the original contract price are not persuasive. When private respondent demanded payment of P259. opposed the arguments raised by petitioners. It denied . Page | 7 On appeal. It is of note however that the pleadings filed with this Court by counsel for Ferrer hardly refute the arguments raised by petitioners. Ferrer.417. .00. IN DISREGARDING THE EXPRESS PROVISION OF THE CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT. Every person who through an act of performance by another. Petitioners in turn had the increased cost evaluated and audited. Manhit and the bank's architectural consultant were directed by the bank to verify and compute private respondent's claims of increased cost.000. the Court had to review the entire records of this case to evaluate the merits of the issues raised by the contending parties. SBTC failed to make payment. petitioners would make the appropriate adjustment to the contract price in case the cost of the project increases through no fault of the contractor (private respondent). . d) P20. BY PREPONDERANCE OF EVIDENCE SUFFICIENTLY PROVEN HIS CLAIM AGAINST THE DEFENDANTSAPPELLANTS. IN INTERPRETING AN OTHERWISE CLEAR AND UNAMBIGUOUS PROVISION OF THE CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT. as the contents of said pleadings are mostly quoted portions of the decision of the Court of Appeals. Article 22 of the Civil Code which embodies the maxim.c) P20. . designed to indicate certain norms that spring from the fountain of good conscience.000. expects more diligence and legal know-how from lawyers than what has been exhibited by counsel for respondent in the present case. Nemo ex alterius incommodo debet lecupletari (no man ought to be made rich out of another's injury) states: Art. any increase in the price of labor and/or materials resulting in an increase in construction cost above the stipulated contract price will not automatically make petitioners liable to pay for such increased cost.00 as exemplary damages. . 1 Petitioners argue that under the aforequoted Article IX of the building contract. acquires or comes into possession of something at the expense of the latter without just or legal ground. to be sure. A recommendation was then made to settle private respondent's claim for P200. Under these circumstances. petitioners' obligation to pay amounts above the original contract price never materialized. . . THE LOWER COURT VIOLATED DEFENDANTS-APPELLANTS' CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTY OF NON IMPAIRMENT OF THE OBLIGATION OF CONTRACT. shall return the same to him. Under the previously quoted Article IX of the construction contract. . or any other means. and f) costs of suit. The above-quoted article is part of the chapter of the Civil Code on Human Relations." 2 In the present case. . . Private respondent informed petitioners of the drastic increase in construction cost as early as March 1980.00 as moral damages. . . . on the other hand. petitioner bank's Vice-President Rosito C.23. the Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court decision. through counsel. guides for human conduct [that] should run as golden threads through society to the end that law may approach its supreme ideal which is the sway and dominance of justice. the provisions of which were formulated as "basic principles to be observed for the rightful relationship between human beings and for the stability of the social order.000. e) attorney's fees equivalent to 25% of the principal amount due. as any payment above the stipulated contract price has been made subject to the condition that the "appropriate adjustment" will be made "upon mutual agreement of both parties".
JJ.00. the diligence and legal know-how exhibited by counsel for private respondent hardly justify an award of 25% of the principal amount due. SO ORDERED.. Hence. since private respondent would naturally and logically give consent to such an agreement which would allow him recovery of the increased cost. the absence of which petitioner bank relies upon to support its non-liability for the increased construction cost. Under Article 1182 of the Civil Code. to allow petitioner bank to acquire the constructed building at a price far below its actual construction cost would undoubtedly constitute unjust enrichment for the bank to the prejudice of private respondent. is in effect a condition dependent on petitioner bank's sole will. . In fact." 3 As previously noted.000. The award of attorney's fees is thus reduced to P10. the court may nevertheless reduce attorney's fees though fixed in the contract when the amount thereof appears to be unconscionable or unreasonable. Private respondent's claim for the increased amount was adequately proven during the trial by receipts. Jr. is not allowed by law. the appealed decision of the Court of Appeals in CA G. with the above modification in respect of the amount of attorney's fees. it cannot be denied that petitioner bank derived benefits when private respondent completed the construction even at an increased cost. "even with the presence of an agreement between the parties. Bellosillo. a conditional obligation shall be void if its fulfillment depends upon the sole will of the debtor. contending that the absence of a mutual agreement made private respondent's demand premature and baseless. Further..R. petitioner bank admitted liability for increased cost when a recommendation was made to settle private respondent's claim for P200. as previously discussed.. Petitioners' arguments are specious. the mutual agreement.00. concur. the Court has previously held that. It is not denied that private respondent incurred additional expenses in constructing petitioner bank's Page | 8 building due to a drastic and unexpected increase in construction cost. Besides. the issues in this case are far from complex and intricate. 40450 is AFFIRMED. Davide.authorizing anyone to make a settlement of private respondent's claim and likewise denied any liability. Kapunan and Hermosisima.000.00. which would be at least P60. CV No. Finally. Such unjust enrichment. with respect to the award of attorney's fees to respondent. Jr. In the present case. invoices and other supporting documents.000. WHEREFORE.
and TRAVELLERS INSURANCE.). versus NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION (NLRC). we came to discover that it was only a plain case of misunderstanding on our part. 98273 October 28. On top of all this. 3. J. That I am no longer interested in further continuance of the above case against EMS Manpower & Placement Services either criminal. In its answer and position paper.000. 1988. Manuel T.00 instead of the legal maximum of only P5. head trauma and decreased sensation in the right portion of her body.X DECISION CRUZ. ABDUL KARIM AL YAHYA. she was back home in the Philippines with her dead dreams and an angry grievance. But her foreign adventure proved to be a bitter disappointment.00. In this document. and that we have already settled our differences.1988. 1991 Page | 9 CLARITA V. EMS MANPOWER & PLACEMENT SERVICE (PHIL. civil or administrative or whatever nature as I hereby desist now and hereafter. Thereafter going thoroughly over the facts of the case by reconciling our records. petitioner. Abdul Karim Al Yahya.) and its foreign principal. Cruz** went abroad pursuant to an employment contract that she hoped would improve her future. She alleged that her foreign employer treated her as a slave and required her to work 18 hours a day. for underpayment of her salary and non-payment of her vacation leave. On March 18. She also claimed that she was charged a placement fee of P7. respondents. she agreed to work as a domestic helper in Kuwait in consideration of an attractive salary and vacation leave benefits she could not expect to earn in this country.Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila FIRST DIVISION G. PHILIPPINE OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT ADMINISTRATION (POEA). On March 23. . Public Attorney's Office for petitioner.:p Clarita V. she declared inter alia that — xxx xxx xxx 2. CRUZ. she filed a complaint against EMS Manpower and Placement Services (Phil.1988. after completing her two-year engagement.R. she was paid only $120 per month and her total salaries were given to her only three hours before her flight back to Manila.000. the private respondent raised the principal defense of settlement as evidenced by the Affidavit of Desistance executed by the complainant on June 21. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. She was beaten up and suffered facial deformity. Although a high school graduate. No. Collado for private respondent. This was after the plane she was supposed to take had left and she had to stay in the airport for 24 hours before her employer finally heard her pleas and delivered her passport and ticket to her.
neither the private respondent nor the Solicitor General refuted the petitioner's submission that the person who allegedly assisted her in the execution of the Affidavit of Desistance and explained to her its content and meaning was not a lawyer but a mere employee in the OWWA. .000. which she freely and knowingly executed.00.) CLARITA V. itemized as follows: a) P84. Atty.00). the fact that the consideration given in exchange thereof was very much less than the amount petitioner is claiming renders the . CRUZ IN THE PRESENCE OF: (Sgd. The due execution of the instrument must also be sustained on the basis of the presumptions of regularity of official functions and of good faith.240. merely acknowledged the document. Significantly.00 from EMS Manpower & Placement Services in settlement of 1 month unpaid vacation leave. (Sgd. His status was merely assumed but not established by the respondents although it was directly questioned.400. . 1991. the private respondent argues that the petitioner is bound by her Affidavit of Desistance. On the basis of this affidavit.00 x P27. representing the salary differentials of $130 for 24 months (US $3.120.00.00 . representing her excess placement fee. representing the balance of her vacation leave pay.400. the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) dismissed her complaint in a decision dated May 16. 1990.00.G. she was under the impression when she was agreeing to settle only her claim for one month unpaid vacation leave." This clearly shows that she was not waiving the rest of her demands in exchange for that measly amount (which did not even really represent the commutable value of the 1 month vacation leave at the rate of $250. 1 this Court held: Even assuming for the sake of argument that the quitclaim had foreclosed petitioner's right over the death benefits of her husband. Philippine-Singapore Transport Service. Biolena. when she signed the affidavit. Moreover. in settlement of 1 month unpaid vacation. the total claim of the petitioner is for P88. Her contention is that she was inveigled into signing the Affidavit of Desistance without the assistance of counsel. The comments of the public and private respondents did not meet this challenge squarely.00). For its part. c) P2. Cruz rejects the settlement as having been obtained from her under duress and false pretenses and insists on her original claim for the balance of her salaries and vacationleave pay at the agreed rate of P250.. This was affirmed by the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) in its resolution dated December 28. ALVARADO OWWA Legal Dept.600. The "Attorney" Alvarado who assisted her was not really a lawyer but only a helper in the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration. she was not an ignorant and illiterate person but a high school graduate who understood what she was signing. In Principe v. b) P2.00. on the other hand.4. In fact. 1989. Inc. to wit: June 21. as the wording of the receipt she issued on the same date showed. It is no less noteworthy that the receipt the petitioner issued on the same day was only for "P2. reconsideration of which was denied on Page | 10 February 21.) O. After all. The petition now before us faults the POEA and the NLRC with grave abuse of discretion for having upheld the Affidavit of Desistance. 1988 Receipt This is to certify that I received the amount of P2.840.00 per month. That I am executing this affidavit of desistance to attest to the truth of the foregoing facts and circumstances and for the purpose of asking the dismissal of my said complaint against EMS Manpower & Placement Services.
The protection of our overseas workers is especially necessary because of the inconveniences and even risks they have to undergo in their quest for a better life in a foreign land away from their loved ones and their own government. we have held in a long line of cases that the local recruiter is solidarily liable with the foreign principal for all damages sustained by the overseas worker in connection with his contract of employment. and February 21. are SET ASIDE.quitclaim null and void for being contrary to public policy. Except for the disputable presumptions invoked by the private respondent. which we have consistently sustained. (Emphasis supplied. NLRC: 2 Page | 11 Not all waivers and quitclaims are invalid as against public policy. This decision demonstrates once again the tenderness of the Court toward the worker subjected to the lawless exploitation and impositions of his employer. it is binding on the parties and may not later be disowned simply because of a change of mind. the waiver would still be null and void as violative of public policy. even assuming that such assistance had been duly given. 88-03-255 is REMANDED to the POEA for further proceedings and expeditious resolution. JJ. that the law will step in to annul the questionable transaction. there is still the question of the intrinsic validity of the quitclaim in view of the gross disparity between the amount of the settlement and the petitioner's original claim. It is only where there is clear proof that the waiver was wangled from an unsuspecting or gullible person.) The following guidelines were likewise set in Periquet v. SO ORDERED. Such liability is provided for in Section 1. That is why we must carefully listen to her when she is finally able to complain against those who would rob her of her just rewards and even of her dignity as a human being. There is no one to turn to for help. (Emphasis supplied. of the POEA Rules and Regulations. Rule II. WHEREFORE. allegedly with the assistance of counsel. Book II. She has no companions in her misery. Griño-Aquino and Medialdea. contrary to the contention of the private respondent in the proceedings below that it has no privity of contract with the petitioner. .00 for the unseemly settlement of only P2. or the terms of settlement are unconscionable on its face.400. The domestic helper is particularly susceptible to abuse because she usually works only by herself in a private household unlike other workers employed in an open business concern who are able to share and discuss their problems and bear or solve them together. The quitclaim wherein the consideration is scandalously low and inequitable cannot be an obstacle to petitioner's pursuing her legitimate claim. the resolutions of the NLRC dated December 28. The domestic helper is denied that comfort.840. such assistance has not been established against the petitioner's allegation that the "Attorney" Alvarado who supposedly counseled her was not even a lawyer. POEA Case No. concur. If the agreement was voluntarily entered into and represents a reasonable settlement. It remains to state that. Narvasa. And even if she did. 1991.00. It is difficult to believe that the petitioner would agree to waive her total claim of P88. 1990. Equity dictates that the compromise agreement should be voided in this instance..) The Court is convinced that the petitioner was not fully aware of the import and consequences of the Affidavit of Desistance when she executed it. Indeed. and the Affidavit of Desistance is DECLARED null and void. The State must be firm in affording protection to labor. She usually broods alone.
1962. 1962. Detachment Commander of Balabac. defendants-appellees.000. dismissing the complaint of the plaintiffs and ordering them to pay each of the defendants jointly and severally the sum of P500. cannot prevent the court from taking custody of the same. Iñigo R. Fiscal Francisco Ponce de Leon in his capacity as Acting Provincial Fiscal of Palawan. Fiscal Ponce de Leon reiterated his request to the Provincial Commander to impound the motor launch. 2 So. seized the motor launch "SAN RAFAEL" from plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim and impounded it. wrote the Provincial Commander of Palawan requesting him to direct the detachment commander-in Balabac to impound and take custody of the motor launch. and P1.Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila FIRST DIVISION Page | 12 G. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.00 by way of attorney's fees. Manalilig for plaintiffs-appellants. A year later or on April 9. Francisco Ponce de Leon and Orlando Maddela". filed with the Court of First Instance of Palawan the corresponding information for Robbery the Force and Intimidation upon Persons against Jikil Taha. Fiscal Francisco Ponce de Leon. 1962 upon order of the Provincial Commander.X DECISION MARTIN. The case was docketed as Criminal Case No. Jikil Taha through his counsel made representations with Fiscal Ponce de Leon to return the seized property to plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim but Fiscal Ponce de Leon refused. on September 20. versus FRANCISCO PONCE DE LEON AND ORLANDO MADDELA. On June 15. 1961. plaintiff-appellant Jikil Taha sold to a certain Alberto Timbangcaya of Brooke's Point. Palawan. 1962 plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim pleaded with Orlando Maddela to return the motor launch but the latter refused. on July 6. L-22554 August 29. . Palawan a motor launch named M/L "SAN RAFAEL". No.R. Ricardo L. 416.00 by way of actual damages. defendant-appellee Orlando Maddela. 1975 DELFIN LIM and JIKIL TAHA.: Appeal on a question of law from the decision of the Court of First Instance of Palawan in Civil Case No. 1 On June 26. after conducting a preliminary investigation. P500. Likewise.00 by way of exemplary damages. On July 15. On April 29. 1962. Peña for defendants-appellees. on the ground that the same was the subject of a criminal offense. upon being informed that the motor launch was in Balabac. J. On May 14. plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim. entitled "Delfin Lim and Jikil Taha vs. Palawan. explaining that its subsequent sale to a third party. 1962 Alberto Timbangcaya filed a complaint with the Office of the Provincial Fiscal of Palawan alleging that after the sale Jikil Taha forcibly took away the motor launch from him. 2719. 1962. plaintiffs-appellants.
(2) the probable cause must be determined by the judge himself and not by the applicant or any other person. For the alleged violation of their constitutional rights. plaintiffs-appellants Delfin Lim and Jikil Taha.750.00 as attorney's fees. Palawan and because of exposure to the elements it had become worthless and beyond repair." Accordingly.00) of which has been given to Jikil Taha as advance payment. defendants-appellees denied the material allegations of the complaint and as affirmative defenses alleged that the motor launch in question which was sold by Jikil Taha to Alberto Timbangcaya on April 29. 3 A cursory reading of the above provision easily brings into focus the unreasonableness of the seizure of the aforementioned motor launch. under oath or affirmation. on November 19. By way of counterclaim. And for a search warrant to be valid: (1) it must be issued upon probable cause. They also prayed that each of them awarded exemplary damages in the amount of P1. defendants-appellees alleged that because of the malicious and groundless filing of the complaint by plaintiffs-appellants. forcibly taken with violence upon persons and with intent to gain by Jikil Taha from Alfredo Timbangcaya without the latter's knowledge and consent. 1962. Hence.00 for attorney's fees and P1. 4 Thus in a long line of decisions. this appeal. that Fiscal Ponce de Leon. upholding the validity of the seizure of the motor launch on the ground that "the authority to impound evidences or exhibits or corpus delicti in a case pending investigation is inherent in the Provincial Fiscal who controls the prosecution and who introduces those exhibits in the court. for being the corpus delicti of the robbery. filed with the Court of First Instance of Palawan a complaint for damages against defendants-appellees Fiscal Francisco Ponce de Leon and Orlando Maddela. 1961 was sometime in April 1962. and that they suffered moral damages in the amount of P5. alleging that on July 6. 1965. Two vital issues call for resolution by this Court.All efforts to recover the motor launch going to naught. and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause.00 as exemplary damages. 1962 Orlando Maddela entered the premises of Delfin Lim without a search warrant and then and there took away the hull of the motor launch without his consent. and (4) the warrant issued must particularly describe the place to be searched and persons or things to be seized.00 each. its sale did not materialize. the complainant and such witnesses as the latter may produce.000. and particularly describing the place to be searched.000. the trial court dismissed the complaint of plaintiffsappellants and ordered them to pay jointly and severally each of the defendants-appellees the amount of P500. that he effected the seizure upon order of Fiscal Ponce de Leon who knew fully well that his office was not vested with authority to order the seizure of a private property. In their answer.00. each of them paying P500. whether or not defendant-appellee Fiscal Ponce de Leon had the power to order the seizure of the motor launch in question without a warrant of search and seizure even if the same was admittedly the corpus delicti of the crime. plaintiffs-appellants prayed that defendants-appellees be ordered to pay jointly and severally each of them the sum of P5.00 each and actual damages in the amount of P500. papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated. thus giving rise to the filing of a criminal charge of robbery against Jikil Taha.000. On September 13.00). (3) in the determination of probable cause. and that since July 6.000. Second. 1962. A search and seizure to be reasonable. The pertinent provision of the Constitution then in force reads: 3) The right of the people to be secure in their persons. to be determined by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. the said motor launch had been moored at the Balabac Bay. the trial court rendered its decision.00 by way of actual damages another amount of P500. the judge must examine.000. must be effected by means of a valid search warrant. whether or not defendants-appellees are civilly liable to plaintiffs-appellants for damages allegedly suffered by them granting that the seizure of the motor launch was unlawful.00 representing actual. The gravamen of plaintiffs-appellants' argument is that the taking of the motor launch on July 6. First. 5 . 1962 by Orlando Maddela upon the order of Fiscal Ponce de Loon was in violation of the constitutional guarantee against unreasonable searches and seizures since it was done without a warrant. Two Thousand Pesos (P2. that as a consequence of the unlawful seizure of the motor launch. moral and exemplary damages and attorney's fees. they were constrained to engage the services of lawyers. houses. and the persons or things to be seized. in his capacity as Acting Provincial Fiscal of Palawan ordered Orlando Maddela to seize and impound the motor launch "SAN RAFAEL". that said motor launch was purchased by Delfin Lim from Jikil Taha in consideration of Page | 13 Three Thousand Pesos (P3. this Court has declared invalid search warrants which were issued in utter disregard of the constitutional injunction. and that Orlando Maddela merely obeyed the orders of his superior officer to impound said launch.
that he effected the seizure of the motor launch in the absence of and without the consent of Delfin Lim. 10 citing McClurg v. 12 The claim cannot be sustained. de los Reyes and Esguerra. xxx xxx xxx . he being a quasi judicial officer who has the control of the prosecution and the presentation of the evidence in the criminal case. where the motor launch was at the time. 732. As held in U. they have violated the constitutional right of plaintiffsappellants against unreasonable search and seizure. but he did not.S. Fiscal Ponce de Leon had all the time to procure a search warrant had he wanted to and which he could have taken in less than a day. who directly or indirectly obstructs. The seizure was not effected until July 6. He claimed that the motor launch had to be seized immediately in order to preserve it and to prevent its removal out of the locality. or any private individual. No amount of incriminating evidence whatever its source. Besides. bids it open. there is no basis for the apprehension that the motor launch might be moved out of Balabac because even prior to its seizure the motor launch was already without its engine. We cannot agree. 32. They argue that inasmuch as the motor launch in question was allegedly stolen by Jikil Taha from Timbangcaya.Defendants-appellees admitted that when Orlando Maddela entered the premises of Delfin Lim and impounded the motor launch he was not armed with a search warrant. and (2) that in issuing a search warrant the judge alone determines whether or not there is a probable cause. and on June 26. 16 As to whether or not they are entitled to damages. v. 1962. will supply the place of such warrant. 1962 14 another request was made. Palawan. 6 And since in the present case defendants-appellees seized the motor launch without a warrant. At the closed door of the home be it palace or hovel even bloodhounds must wait till the law. In short. 15 In sum. Page | 14 Defendants-appellees however would want to justify the seizure of the motor launch even without a warrant because of Fiscal Ponce de Leon's alleged inherent power to order the seizure of a personal property which is thecorpus delicti of a crime. The fact that a thing is a corpus delicti of a crime does not justify its seizure without a warrant. but said law did not divest the judge or magistrate of its power to determine. by authoritative process. At the time the act complained of was committed. Republic Act No. the fact that there was no time to secure a search warrant would not legally justify a search without one. (Emphasis supplied. no public official has the right to enter the premises of another without his consent for the purpose of search and seizure. house. much less to order without warrant the seizure of a personal property even if it is the corpus delicti of a crime. True. Brenton: 11 The mere fact that a man is an officer. Under the old Constitution 7 the power to issue a search warrant is vested in a judge or magistrate and in no other officer and no search and seizure can be made without a proper warrant. violates or in any manner impedes or impairs any of the following rights and liberties of another person shall be liable to the latter for damages. 8 Moreover. But there is nothing in said law which confers upon the provincial fiscal. without a legal warrant procured for that purpose. could only be reached after three to four days' travel by boat. In his vain attempt to justify the seizure of the motor launch in question without a warrant Fiscal Ponce de Leon invoked the provisions of Republic Act No. 732 has broadened the power of provincial fiscals to conduct preliminary investigations. whether of high or low degree. there was no law or rule that recognized the authority of Provincial Fiscals to issue a search warrant. under Sections 2 and 3 of Rule 122 of the Rules of Court 9 which complement the constitutional provision earlier cited. gives him no more right than is possessed by the ordinary private citizen to break in upon the privacy of a home and subject its occupant to the indignity of a search for the evidence of crime. which amended Sections 1674 and 1687 of the Revised Administrative Code. two principles are made clear. xxx xxx xxx (9) The rights to be secure in one's person. Fiscal Ponce de Leon could order its seizure even without a search warrant. namely: (1) that in the seizure of a stolen property search warrant is still necessary. 1962 13 Fiscal Ponce de Leon made the first request to the Provincial Commander for the impounding of the motor launch. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures. Any public officer or employee. since Balabac. papers. The records show that on June 15. before issuing the corresponding warrant. defeats. plaintiffs-appellants anchor their claim for damages on Articles 32 and 2219 of the New Civil Code which provide in part as follows: ART. the authority to issue warrants. whether or not probable cause exists therefor.) Defendant-appellee Fiscal Ponce de Leon would also invoke lack of time to procure a search warrant as an excuse for the seizure of the motor launch without one. There can be no question that without the proper search warrant.
regarding individual rights.00. Jikil Taha" 19when he ordered the seizure of the motor launch. the object of the Article is to put an end to official abuse by the plea of good faith. In the United States this remedy is in he nature of a tort. lessee. which is in most cases the plea of officials abusing individual rights. However. Delfin Lim the unpaid balance of P1. In addition. exemplary damages may also be awarded. Chairman of the Code Commission. why good faith on the part of the public officer or employee is immaterial. 1962 the motor launch had been moored at Balabac Bay and because of exposure to the elements it has become worthless at the time of the filing of the present action.000. It is not necessary therefore that there should be malice or bad faith.The indemnity shall include moral damages. with respect co plaintiff Jikil Taha.00 for attorney's fees.00 for attorney's fees. Defendant-appellee Fiscal Ponce de Leon wanted to wash his hands of the incident by claiming that "he was in good faith. P1. 17 Consequently. without malice and without the slightest intention of inflicting injury to plaintiffappellant. or lawful occupant of the premise searched cannot raise the question of validity of the search and seizure. Attorney Cirilo Paredes proposes that Article 32 be so amended as to make a public official liable for violation of another person's constitutional rights only if the public official acted maliciously or in bad faith. 34 and 35. The Code Commission opposes this suggestion for these reasons: The very nature of Article 32 is that the wrong may be civil or criminal. 20 . that official is liable. Thus: DEAN BOCOBO.000. And so. 27. if we should limit the scope of this article. Dr. and we made the article so strong and so comprehensive that it concludes an abuse of individual rights even if done in good faith.000. plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim claimed that he purchased the motor launch from Jikil Taha in consideration of P3. Public officials in the past have abused their powers on the pretext of justifiable motives or good faith in the performance of their duties. Moral damages may be recovered in the following and analogous cases: xxx xxx xxx Page | 15 (6) Illegal search. a person whose constitutional rights have been violated or impaired is entitled to actual and moral damages from the public officer or employee responsible therefor. that since or seizure on July 6. and that because of the violation of their constitutional rights they were constrained to engage the services of a lawyer whom they have paid P1.00 as moral damages and P750. To make such a requisite would defeat the main purpose of Article 32 which is the effective protection of individual rights. Precisely. 30. 28. the opening object of the article is to put an end to abuses which are justified by a plea of good faith. Mr.000. To be liable under Article 32 of the New Civil Code it is enough that there was a violation of the constitutional rights of the plaintiffs and it is not required that defendants should have acted with malice or bad faith. Chairman. 2219. We find these claims of Delfin Lim amply supported by the evidence and therefore should be awarded the sum of P3. There is no real democracy if a public official is abusing.000. 29. Jorge Bocobo. gave the following reasons during the public hearings of the Joint Senate and House Committees. xxx xxx xxx (1) Acts and action referred to in Articles 21. Article 32. ART. 18 Jikil Taha is not without recourse though. Pursuant to the foregoing provisions. one who is not the owner. Precisely. Exemplary damages may also be adjudicated. In most cases.000. this article is firmly one of the fundamental articles introduced in the New Civil Code to implement democracy. and that the objection to an unlawful search and seizure is purely personal and cannot be availed of by third parties.00 as advanced payment. he suffered moral damages in the sum of P1. In the instant case. the abuse is justified on a plea of desire to enforce the law to comply with one's duty. We are not prepared to sustain his defense of good faith. he has no legal standing to question the validity of the seizure. we know that there are very few public officials who openly and definitely abuse the individual rights of the citizens. 32. having given P2. Well settled is the rule that the legality of a seizure can be contested only by the party whose rights have been impaired thereby.00. that would practically nullify the object of the article. He can still collect from his co-plaintiff. he is not entitled to recover any damage which he alleged he had suffered from the unlawful seizure of the motor launch inasmuch as he had already transferred the ownership and possession of the motor launch to Delfin Lim at the time it was seized and therefore.500.00. that because of the illegality of the seizure of the motor launch. As a matter of fact.00 as actual damages. 26.
Makasiar and Esguerra. The records show that after Fiscal Ponce de Leon made his first request to the Provincial Commander on June 15. Teehankee. Maddela was led to believe that there was a legal basis and authority to impound the launch. Then came the order of his superior officer to explain for the delay in the seizure of the motor launch. justifying the subsequent sale of the launch to Delfin Page | 16 necessity of the seizure of the motor launch on the ground that the22 Lim could not prevent the court from taking custody of the same. . 1962. 21 It was only after he was furnished a copy of the reply of Fiscal Ponce de Leon.000. SO ORDERED. in addition. JJ. 23 Faced with a possible disciplinary action from his Commander. to the letter of the Provincial Commander. Castro (Chairman).. concur. We are not disposed to hold Maddela answerable for damages. Maddela was left with no alternative but to seize the vessel. While a subordinate officer may be held liable for executing unlawful orders of his superior officer. Muñoz Palma.000.00 moral damages. that he impounded the motor launch on July 6.00 as actual damages.00 for attorney's fees. IN VIEW OF THE FOREGOING. P750. and. With said letter coming from the legal officer of the province. there are certain circumstances which would warrant Maddela's exculpation from liability. plus P1. dated June 26.But defendant-appellee Orlando Maddela cannot be held accountable because he impounded the motor launch upon the order of his superior officer. 1962. 1962 Maddela was reluctant to impound the motor launch despite repeated orders from his superior officer. With costs against defendant-appellee Fiscal Ponce de Leon. J. In the light of the above circumstances. is on leave. the decision appealed from is hereby reversed and another one entered declaring the seizure illegal and ordering defendant-appellee Fiscal Francisco Ponce de Leon to pay to plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim the sum of P3.
petitioner corporation was given the authority to "undertake or cause to be undertaken the prosecution in court of all illegal sources of scout uniforms and other scouting supplies. Emmanuel O. 1984. and insignias. The seizure caused a commotion and embarrassed private respondents. the exclusive franchise to sell and distribute official Boy Scouts uniforms. 3 Private respondents had to go personally to petitioners' place of business to recover their goods. The items were then turned over by Captain Peñafiel to petitioner corporation for safekeeping. 86720 September 2. they seized the boy and girl scouts pants. The seized items were not immediately returned despite demands. Captain Renato M. Benjamin M. and GERTRUDES GONZALES. and suits on display at respondents' stalls. 4 In its Decision dated January 9.. Inc. On February 6. Petitioner de Guzman. 1983. Without any warrant. and two (2) other constabulary men of the Reaction Force Battalion. No.100. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. and Gertrudes Gonzales were selling Boy Scouts items and paraphernalia without any authority. The other items returned were of inferior quality. was tasked to undertake the necessary surveillance and to make a report to the Philippine Constabulary (PC). 51144 against the petitioners for sums of money and damages. Tansingco for private respondents. 1983. he also ordered the return of the seized items.: The constitutional protection of our people against unreasonable search and seizure is not merely a pleasing platitude. Mirasol Lugatiman.. A criminal complaint for unfair competition was then filed against private respondents. Sikatuna Village. Dacanay for petitioners." 1 Sometime in October 1983. badges.Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila SECOND DIVISION Page | 17 G. Peñafiel. petitioner MHP Garments. dresses. Receipts were issued for the seized items.M. Even then. On October 25. supplies. not all the seized items were returned. MIRASOL LUGATIMAN. Quezon City went to the stores of respondents at the Marikina Public Market. after a preliminary investigation. AGNES VILLA CRUZ.X DECISION PUNO. the trial court ruled for the private respondents. 1994 MHP GARMENTS. J. was awarded by the Boy Scouts of the Philippines. In their Memorandum Agreement. thus: . respondents. An infringement of this right justifies an award for damages. at about 10:30 A. On December 6. an employee of petitioner corporation. and LARRY C.R. INC. the Provincial Fiscal of Rizal dismissed the complaint against all the private respondents. petitioners. 1987. Diliman. It vouchsafes our right to privacy and dignity against undesirable intrusions committed by any public officer or private individual. 2 During its pendency.00) in order to be dropped from the complaint. Private respondents then filed Civil Case No. petitioner de Guzman exacted from private respondent Lugatiman the sum of THREE THOUSAND ONE HUNDRED PESOS (P3. 1983. petitioner corporation received information that private respondents Agnes Villa Cruz.. versus THE HONORABLE COURT OF APPEALS. On February 22. DE GUZMAN. petitioner de Guzman.
SO ORDERED. the dispositive portion thereof now reads as follows: Judgment is hereby rendered in favor of plaintiffs (private respondents) and against defendants (petitioners). or a total of P15. 1. the decision appealed from is AFFIRMED with MODIFICATION.000. the date of the last receipt issued.WHEREFORE. In this petition for certiorari. and. thus: WHEREFORE.100. The decision was appealed to the respondent court.000. judgment is hereby rendered in favor of plaintiffs and against defendants.00 for and as moral damages and P15. 3.00.00 for and as attorney's fees and litigation expenses. 5 affirmed the Decision with modification.000. To return the amount of P3.000. On January 18.00. THIRD ASSIGNMENT OF ERROR THE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED WHEN IT FOUND FOR THE PRIVATE RESPONDENTS AND AGAINST THE PETITIONERS.000. P5.00 each. ordering the latter jointly and severally. for and as moral damages. Page | 18 . until fully paid. To pay plaintiffs (respondents) P5.00 to plaintiff (respondent) Mirasol Lugatiman and cancel her application for distributor's license.00 for the 26 pieces of girl scout items not returned. To pay plaintiff Agnes Villa Cruz the sum of P2. and 4. 1984 (date the complaint was filed) until it is fully paid. Costs of the case a quo and the instant appeal are assessed jointly and severally against defendants-appellants (petitioners) MHP Garments. To return the amount of P3. for and as exemplary damages. 1984.000.000. or a total of P30. To pay plaintiffs the amount of P50. and Larry de Guzman. ordering the latter jointly and severally: 1. To pay plaintiff (respondent) Agnes Villa Cruz the sum of P2. To pay plaintiffs (respondents) the amount of P10.000.00 for and as exemplary damages.100. Costs against the defendants. and P5.00 to plaintiff Mirasol Lugatiman with interest at 12% per annum from January 12. 2. SECOND ASSIGNMENT OF ERROR THE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED WHEN IT MADE A FINDING THAT THE MANNER WITH WHICH THE CONFISCATION OF PRIVATE RESPONDENTS WAS TORTIOUS BUT PENALIZED INSTEAD THE PETITIONERS WHO DID NOT COMMIT THE ACT OF CONFISCATION. 3. SO ORDERED. 1989.000. and 4.00 each. 2. Inc. as modified.00 for the unreturned 26 pieces of girl scouts items with interest at 12% per annum from June 4.000. its Fifth Division. petitioners contend: FIRST ASSIGNMENT OF ERROR THE COURT OF APPEALS ERRED IN IMPUTING LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES TO THE PETITIONERS WHO DID NOT EFFECT THE SEIZURE OF THE SUBJECT MERCHANDISE.00 for and as attorney's fees and litigation expenses.
they did not apply for a warrant and seized the goods of private respondents. they took the risk of a suit for damages in case the seizure would be proved to violate the right of private respondents against unreasonable search and seizure. There was no probable cause for the seizure. xxx xxx xxx The indemnity shall include moral damages. Petitioners would deflect their liability with the argument that it was the Philippine Constabulary that conducted the raid and their participation was only to report the alleged illegal activity of private respondents. Any public officer or employee. Ponce de Leon. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures. This provision protects not only those who appear to be innocent but also those who appear to be guilty but are nevertheless to be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved. They reported to the Philippine Constabulary and on October 25. the Provincial Fiscal of Rizal dismissed their complaint for unfair competition and later ordered the return of the seized goods. xxx xxx xxx (9) The rights to be secure in one's person. 2219. Petitioner corporation received information that private respondents were illegally selling Boy Scouts items and paraphernalia in October 1983. houses. thus: Art. Probable cause for a search has been defined as "such facts and circumstances which would lead a reasonably discreet and prudent man to believe that an offense has been committed and that the objects sought in connection with the offense are in the place sought to be searched. 12. 1983. Indeed. It provides: The right of the people to be secure in their persons. The specific date and time are not established in the evidence adduced by the parties." 8 These facts and circumstances were not in any way shown by the petitioners to justify their warrantless search and seizure. Despite the sufficiency of time. house. who directly or indirectly obstructs. the members of the PC raiding team should have been included in the complaint for violation of the private respondents' constitutional rights. In doing so. section 2. Search incident to a lawful arrest. and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature for any purpose shall be inviolable. 32.We affirm. the raid was made on the stores of private respondents and the supposed illicit goods were seized. The progression of time between the receipt of the information and the raid of the stores of private respondents shows there was sufficient time for petitioners and the PC raiding party to apply for a judicial warrant. Article III. the seizure was made without any warrant. defeats. without a search warrant. While undoubtedly.A person lawfully arrested may be searched for dangerous weapons or anything which may be used as proof of the commission of an offense. after a preliminary investigation. the search and seizure were clearly illegal. or any private individual. the omission will not exculpate petitioners. violates or in any manner impedes or impairs any of the following rights and liberties of another person shall be liable to the latter for damages. still. Art. papers. . papers. of the Constitution protects our people from unreasonable search and seizure. Moral damages may be recovered in the following and analogous cases: xxx xxx xxx Page | 19 . and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce. and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Exemplary damages may also be adjudged. Under the Rules of Court. Petitioner de Guzman then made a surveillance of the stores of private respondents. In the case of Lim vs. In the case at bench. 6 In the case at bench. We hold that the evidence did not justify the warrantless search and seizure of private respondents' goods. 9 we ruled for the recovery of damages for violation of constitutional rights and liberties from public officer or private individual. 7 a warrantless search can only be undertaken under the following circumstance: Sec.
xxx xxx xxx While it would certainly be too naive to expect that violators of human rights would easily be deterred by the prospect of facing damages suits. it is not the actor alone (i. in our view. Thus. Public officials in the past have abused their powers on the pretext of justifiable motives or good faith in the performance of their duties. Such being the case. as well as indirectly. they instigated the raid pursuant to their covenant in the Memorandum Agreement to undertake the prosecution in court of all illegal sources of scouting supplies. the acts committed by the PC soldiers of unlawfully seizing appellees' (respondents') merchandise and of filing the criminal complaint for unfair competition against appellees (respondents) were for the protection and benefit of appellant (petitioner) corporation. as well as indirectly.(6) Illegal search. thus. the object of the Article is to put an end to official abuse by plea of the good faith.. (1) Acts and actions referred to in Articles 21. exemplary damages may also be awarded. is the language of Article 32. responsible for the transgression joint tortfeasors. the respondent court correctly granted damages to private respondents. 29. viz: [T]he decisive factor in this case. 30. a person whose constitutional rights have been violated or impaired is entitled to actual and moral damages from the public officer or employee responsible therefor. 32. 27. (emphasis supplied) In the subsequent case of Aberca vs. Precisely. To make such a requisite would defeat the main purpose of Article 32 which is the effective protection of individual rights. 10 the Court En Banc explained the liability of persons indirectly responsible. Article 32 of the Civil Code encompasses within the ambit of its provisions those directly. The law speaks of an officer or employee or person "directly or indirectly" responsible for the violation of the constitutional rights and liberties of another. Pursuant to the foregoing provisions. It is not necessary therefore that there should be malice or bad faith. the one directly responsible) who must answer for damages under Article 32. 13 So with the petitioner corporation which even received for safekeeping the goods unreasonably seized by the PC raiding team and de Guzman. reasonably fair to infer from those acts that it was upon appellant (petitioner) corporation's instance that the PC soldiers conducted the raid and effected the illegal seizure. it is. In addition. (emphasis supplied) Applying the aforecited provisions and leading cases. 12 The raid was conducted with the active participation of their employee. responsible for its violations. In the United States this remedy is in the nature of a tort. By standing by and apparently assenting thereto. and refused to surrender them for quite a time despite the dismissal of its complaint for unfair competition. Secondly. 28. Letter of Instruction No. he was liable to the same extent as the officers themselves. These circumstances should answer the trial court's query — posed in its decision now under consideration — as to why the PC soldiers immediately turned over the seized merchandise to appellant (petitioner) corporation. 34. and 35. 1299 was precisely crafted on March 9. Page | 20 xxx xxx xxx The very nature of Article 32 is that the wrong may be civil or criminal. Ver. Larry de Guzman did not lift a finger to stop the seizure of the boy and girl scouts items. it should nonetheless be made clear in no uncertain terms that Article 32 of the Civil Code makes the persons who are directly.e. to wit: . Firstly. the person indirectly responsible has also to answer for the damages or injury caused to the aggrieved party. Petitioners were indirectly involved in transgressing the right of private respondents against unreasonable search and seizure. 11 As correctly observed by respondent court: Indeed. 1983 to safeguard not only the privilege of franchise holder of scouting items but also the citizen's constitutional rights. 26. xxx xxx xxx [N]either can it be said that only those shown to have participated "directly" should be held liable.
JJ. I was crying and I was very much ashamed because many people have been watching the PC soldiers hauling my items. Respondent Cruz declared: I felt very nervous. moral damages can be awarded in the case at bench. cit. Regalado. in lieu of SIX PERCENT (6%). on the said amount upon finality of this Decision until the payment thereof. We impose a SIX PERCENT (6%) interest from January 9. IN VIEW WHEREOF. There can be no doubt that petitioners must have suffered sleepless nights. sir. the wantonness of the wrongful seizure justifies the award of exemplary damages. 17 Conformably with our ruling in Lim vs. 14 Under the above provision and as aforediscussed. 22 Costs against petitioners. upon proper application by the Boy Scouts of the Philippines and/or Girl Scouts of the Philippines for warrant of arrest and/or search warrant with a judge. or such other responsible officer as may be authorized by law. every clothes.00 for damages.. they should have filed a third-party complaint against the raiding team for contribution or any other relief. if petitioners did not have a hand in the raid. Narvasa. and Mendoza. op. and many/I (sic) heard say "nakaw pala ang mga iyan" for which I am claiming P25. Private respondents' avowals of embarrassment and humiliation during the seizure of their merchandise were supported by their testimonies. and wounded feelings due the tortious raid caused by petitioners. 16 in respect of respondents' claim for Recovery of Sum of Money with Damages.20 Needles to state. Private respondents' rights are immutable and cannot be sacrificed to transient needs. there was commotion created by the raiding team and they even stepped on some of the pants and dresses on display for sale. 15 Petitioners did not have the unbridled license to cause the seizure of respondents' goods without any warrant. petitioners miserably failed to report the unlawful peddling of scouting goods to the Boy Scouts of the Philippines for the proper application of a warrant.00) for the unreturned twenty-six (26) pieces of girl scouts items and a TWELVE PERCENT (12%) interest. Again. Ponce de Leon. they did not. ABSTRACT: Page | 21 Directs all law enforcement agencies of the Republic of the Philippines. SO ORDERED. Many people were around and the more the confiscation was made in a scandalous manner. And thirdly. I was trembling and terribly ashamed. 18 Respondent Lugatiman testified: I felt very nervous. Orders the immediate and strict compliance with the Instructions. the appealed decision is AFFIRMED WITH MODIFICATION. and to impound the said paraphernalia to be used as evidence in court or other appropriate administrative body. serious anxiety.. concur. T-shirts. I was terribly shamed in the presence of market goers that morning. pants and dresses even those not wrapped dropped to the ground. . All passersby stopped to watch and stared at me with accusing expressions. 21 It will also serve as a stern reminder to all and sundry that the constitutional protection against unreasonable search and seizure is a virile reality and not a mere burst of rhetoric.000.000. to apprehend immediately unauthorized manufacturers and distributors of Scout paraphernalia. The all encompassing protection extends against intrusions directly done both by government and indirectly by private entities. We have consistently ruled that moral damages are not awarded to penalize the defendant but to compensate the plaintiff for the injuries he may have suffered. Padilla. 1987 on the TWO THOUSAND PESOS (P2. I was crying to loss (sic) my goods and capital because I am doing business with borrowed money only. 19 While respondent Gonzalez stated thus: I do not like the way the raid was conducted by the team sir because it looked like that what I have been selling were stolen items that they should be confiscated by uniformed soldiers.TITLE: APPREHENSION OF UNAUTHORIZED MANUFACTURERS AND DISTRIBUTORS OF SCOUT PARAPHERNALIA AND IMPOUNDING OF SAID PARAPHERNALIA.
248 hectares of 452 hectares as stated in the contract. resident in the Province of Mindoro. plaintiff-appellant.100. in obtaining a decree for specific performance. Aitken for appellant. with its domicile in the city of Manila. an unmarried woman. This attitude of hers led to litigation in which Daywalt finally succeeded. Crossfield & O'Brien for appellee. a tract of land situated in the barrio of Mangarin.. upon appeal to the Supreme Court. No. superseding the old. and the area of the land enclosed in the boundaries defined in the contract was stated to be 452 hectares and a fraction. in said province. to be forwarded to the Crocker National Bank in San Francisco. which contract was declared to be in full force and effect. which was sold to the Government of the Philippine Islands in the year 1909. known as the San Jose Estate.X DECISION STREET. D.Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BANC G. 1906. ET AL. The second contract was not immediately carried into effect for the reason that the Torrens certificate was not yet obtainable and in fact said certificate was not issued until the period of performance contemplated in the contract had expired. Said corporation was formerly the owner of a large tract of land. The parties. executed a contract whereby she obligated herself to convey to Geo. Cohn and Thos. La Corporacion de los Padres Recoletos. by which Teodorica Endencia agreed upon receiving the Torrens title to the land in question. This new contract was executed in the form of a deed of conveyance and bears date of August 16. on the island of Mindoro. The same corporation was at this time also the owner of another estate on the same island . This decree appears to have become finally effective in the early part of the year 1914. asserting that she never intended to sell so large an amount of land and that she had been misinformed as to its area. it was found by official survey that the area of the tract inclosed in the boundaries stated in the contract was about 1. defendants-appellees. J. L-13505 Page | 22 GEO. Teodorica Endencia. is a religious corporation. In view of this development Teodorica Endencia became reluctant to transfer the whole tract to the purchaser. upon October 3. February 4. to deliver the same to the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank in Manila. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. but the Torrens certificate was not issued until later. W.1 The defendant. met immediately upon the entering of this decree and made a new contract with a view to carrying their original agreement into effect. DAYWALT.: In the year 1902. It was agreed that a deed should be executed as soon as the title to the land should be perfected by proceedings in the Court of Land Registration and a Torrens certificate should be produced therefore in the name of Teodorica Endencia. The stipulated price was fixed at P4. C. A decree recognizing the right of Teodorica as owner was entered in said court in August 1906. now San Jose. Daywalt. municipality of Bulalacao.R. Accordingly. 1908. 1908. however. 1919 versus LA CORPORACION DE LOS PADRES AGUSTINOS RECOLETOS. The Torrens certificate was in time issued to Teodorica Endencia. and Teodorica Endencia was ordered to convey the entire tract of land to Daywalt pursuant to the contract of October 3. but in the course of the proceedings relative to the registration of the land. C. the parties entered into still another agreement.000. where it was to be delivered to the plaintiff upon payment of a balance of P3. W.
As Teodorica still retained possession of said property Father Sanz entered into an arrangement with her whereby large numbers of cattle belonging to the defendant corporation were pastured upon said land during a period extending from June 1. until the deliver thereof to the plaintiff was made compulsory by reason of the decree of the Supreme Court in 1914. the plaintiff contends that the defendant corporation maintained at leas one thousand head of cattle on the land and that the pasturage was of the value of forty centavos per head monthly.497. is whether the damages allowed under this head should be increased. With reference to the rate of which compensation should be estimated the trial court came to the following conclusion: As to the rate of the compensation. When the Torrens certificate was finally issued in 1909 in favor of Teodorica Endencia. Under the first cause stated in the complaint in the present action the plaintiff seeks to recover from the defendant corporation the sum of P24. knew of the existence of the contract of October 3. The trial court came to the conclusion that the defendant corporation was liable for damages by reason of the use and occupation of the premises in the manner stated. W. The court can not accept this view. the tenant to pay the taxes on the land.000. the rate of forty centavos per head monthly seems too high. Father Sanz was fully aware of the existence of the contract of 1902 by which Teodorica Endencia agreed to sell her land to the plaintiff as well as of the later important developments connected with the history of that contract and the contract substituted successively for it. to May 1.800 annually. and was given.368 head were removed to the estate of the corporation immediately adjacent to the property which the plaintiff had purchased from Teodorica Endencia. in the first half of 1909. 1914. As the defendant did not appeal. There is no reason to suppose that the land was worth more for grazing purposes during the period from 1909 to 1913.248 hectares of wild Mindoro land would furnish sufficient pasturage for one thousand head of cattle during the entire year.497. she delivered it for safekeeping to the defendant corporation. which. When the defendant corporation sold the San Jose Estate. considering the locality. was father Isidoro Sanz. the property of allowing damages for the use and occupation of the land to the extent o P2. and. easily subject to influence. as well as other members of the defendant corporation. and in particular Father Sanz. Juan Labarga the procurador and chief official of the defendant corporation.000. and for many years the Recoletos Fathers had maintained large herds of cattle on the farms referred to. and is under no obligation to reimburse the defendants for the land taxes paid by either of them during the period the land was occupied by the defendant corporation. and upon all the important matters of business was accustomed to seek. the amount claimed in the complaint. It may be mentioned in this connection that the Lontok tract adjoining the land in question and containing over three thousand hectares appears to have been leased for only P1. inasmuch as the final decree of this court in the action for specific performance is conclusive against her right. It is rather improbable that 1. insisting that damages should have been awarded in a much larger sum and at least to the full extent of P24. The plaintiff appealed and has assigned error to this part of the judgment of the court below. or P4. From this it will be seen that the trial court estimated the rental value of the land for grazing purposes at 50 centavos per hectare per annum. plus the taxes. the advice of father Page | 23 Sanz and other members of his order with whom she came in contact. in connection with this branch of the case. as damages for the use and occupation of the land in question by reason of the pasturing of cattle thereon during the period stated. than it was at the later period. 1908. the amount awarded. and it was then taken to Manila where it remained in the custody and under the control of P. some 2. Their representative. it can not be permitted that the corporation should escape liability in this action by proving payment of rent to a person other than the true owner. is not now in question an the only thing here to be considered. it was necessary to bring the cattle off of that property. charged with management of these farms. and as the defendant corporation had notice of the rights of the plaintiff under this contract of purchase. as we have already seen finally fixed the rights of the parties to the property in question.immediately adjacent to the land which Teodorica Endencia had sold to Geo. Father Sanz had long been well acquainted with Teodorica Endencia and exerted over her an influence and ascendency due to his religious character as well as to the personal friendship which existed between them. Daywalt. The evidence shows that after having recovered possession of the land the plaintiff rented it to the defendant corporation for fifty centavos per hectares annually.497. Upon this basis the plaintiff is entitled to damages in the sum of p2. and.000 a year. The trial court rightly ignored the fact that the defendant corporation had paid Teodorica Endencia of ruse and occupation of the same land during the period in question at the rate of P425 per annum. Teodorica appears to be a woman of little personal force. himself a members of the order. and this appears to be a reasonable rent. for the whole tract. and fixed the amount to be recovered at P2. and roughly adopted the period of four years as the time for which . 1909.
B. the damages for four years and eleven months would be P3. 1914. Wakefield. It is not. as the owner of the land which he had bought from Teodorica Endencia entered into a contract (Exhibit C) with S.090. must inevitably have proved a great success. the successful launching of which depended on the ability of Daywalt to get possession of the land and the Torrens certificate of title. the fact that its officials may have advised her not to carry the contract into effect would not constitute actionable interference with such contract. as exhibited in the conduct of its procurador. Page | 24 Notwithstanding this circumstance. and it is not clear that the whole of the land was used for pasturage at any time. 1909. as it is manifest that at the rate of 50 centavos per hectare per annum. for its own selfish purposes. the plaintiff returned to the Philippine Islands. and other members of the order of the Recollect Fathers. incurred as a result of a combination of circumstances of the following nature: In 1911. if carried into effect. in advising and prompting Teodorica Endencia not to comply with the contract of sale. according to the proof submitted by the plaintiff. there seems some ground for the contention made in the appellant's first assignment of error that the court's computation was erroneous. maliciously and without reasonable cause. and further. communicated his arrangement to the defendant. Teodorica also was in the end contract with the plaintiff. Juan Labarga. To our mind a fair conclusion on this feature of the case is that father Juan Labarga and his associates believed in good faith that the contract cold not be enforced and that Teodorica would be wronged if it should be carried into effect. In the light of what has happened in recent years in the sugar industry. It may be added that when one considers the hardship that the ultimate performance of that contract entailed on the vendor. As the court had already found that the defendant was liable for these damages from June. in our opinion. we feel justified in saying that the project above referred to. prompted by no mean or improper motive.. we deem it well it dispose of the contention that the members of the defendants corporation. The first is whether a person who is not a party to a contract for the sale of land makes himself liable for damages to the vendee. observing that while it was true that the circumstances pointed to an entire sympathy on the part of the defendant corporation with the efforts of Teodorica Endencia to defeat the plaintiff's claim to the land. in the uncertainty of the record with reference to the number of the cattle grazed and the period when the land was used. beyond the value of the use and occupation. as damages. on the ground that said corporation. The determination of the issue presented in this second cause of action requires a consideration of two points. There is evidence in the record strongly tending to show that the wrongful use of the land by the defendant was not continuous throughout the year but was confined mostly to the reason when the forage obtainable on the land of the defendant corporation was not sufficient to maintain its cattle. As preliminary to a consideration of the first of these questions. it appears. for which reason it became necessary to allow them to go over to pasture on the land in question. In order to accomplish this end. and the doubt in which the issue was involved — to the extent that the decision of the Court of the First Instance was unfavorable to the plaintiff and the Supreme Court itself was divided — the attitude of the defendant corporation. The second is whether the damages which the plaintiff seeks to recover under this head are too remote and speculative to be the subject of recovery. Considerations of this character probably led the trial court to adopt four years as roughly being the period during which compensation should be allowed. for the sale and disposal of said lands to a sugar growing and milling enterprise.000. to be denied that Teodorica would have surrendered the documents of title and given possession of the land but for the influence and promptings of members of the defendants corporation. to May 1. But whether this was advertently done or not. and the large damages laid in the complaint were. The trial court found that this contention was not sustained. In the second cause of action stated in the complaint the plaintiff seeks to recover from the defendant corporation the sum of P500. Teodorica Endencia seems to have yielded her consent to the consummation of her contract. we are of the opinion that the damages assessed are sufficient to compensate the plaintiff for the use and occupation of the land during the whole time it was used. of San Francisco. 1. Any advice or assistance which they may have given was. by colluding with the vendor and maintaining him in the effort to resist an action for specific performance. the plaintiff. we see no sufficient reason. and made repeated efforts to secure the registered title for delivery in compliance with said agreement with Wakefield. but the Torrens title was then in the possession of Padre Juan Labarga in Manila. or a period of four years and eleven months. for substituting our guess for the estimate made by the trial court. The cause of action here stated is based on liability derived from the wrongful interference of the defendant in the performance of the contract between the plaintiff and Teodorica Endencia. with the result that the plaintiff was kept out of possession until the Wakefield project for the establishment of a large sugar growing and milling enterprise fell through.compensation at that rate should be made. who refused to deliver the document. unlawfully induced Teodorica Endencia to refrain from the performance of her contract for the sale of the land in question and to withhold delivery to the plaintiff of the Torrens title. were actuated by improper and malicious motives. is not difficult to understand. maintained her in her defense to the action of specific performance which was finally decided in favor of the plaintiff in this court. But we do not credit the idea that they were in any degree influenced to the . therefore. even accepting the rule upon which the damages were assessed.
B. of San Francisco. It was held that no sufficient justification was shown and that the federation was liable. if accepted at all. an opera singer. Russell (." enticed and produced Miss Wagner to leave the plaintiff's employment. 578. Wakefield. Whether his motive is to benefit himself or gratify his spite by working mischief to the employer is immaterial. Q. and in these jurisdictions the doctrine. in the complicated relations of modern industry. 715). 98 Cal. by an unjustifiable interference in the performance thereof. the question now arose whether it is illegal for one person to interfere with any contract relation subsisting between others.. & Bl. C. It was held that the plaintiff was entitled to recover damages. the defendant corporation made itself a co-participant with Teodorica Endencia in the breach of said contract... as a means of restraining the activities of labor unions and industrial societies when improperly engaged in the promotion of strikes. and a third person. The federation and council acted without any actual malice or ill-will towards the plaintiff. Malice in the sense of illwill or spite is not essential. Rep. apprentices. (). Prior to the decision of Lumley vs. The doctrine embodied in the cases just cited has sometimes been found useful. 216). violated their contract with the plaintiff by abstaining from work on certain days. at the time of said unlawful intervention between the contracting Page | 25 parties. it was held that the right of action for maliciously procuring a breach of contract is not confined to contracts for personal services. 542)." the intermedler is liable if his advice is taken and the contract broken. In this connection reliance is placed by the plaintiff upon certain American and English decisions in which it is held that a person who is a stranger to contract may. Malice in some form is generally supposed to be an essential ingredient in cases of interference with contract relations. 6 Q.. This doctrine was followed by the Court of Appeal in Bowen vs. A. having knowledge of the existence of the contract relations. An illustration of the application of the doctrine in question in a case of this kind is found in South Wales Miners Federation vs. knowing of the existence of this contract. had entered into a contract with Miss Johanna Wagner. In the United States. render himself liable for the damages consequent upon non-performance. It is said that the doctrine of these cases was recognized by this court in Gilchrist vs. Chambers & . Gye [supra] and subsequent cases is commonly accepted. The right which was here recognized had its origin in a rule.. and. a good illustration was put in the leading case. and in Temperton vs. dissuades him from the step. the rule established in England by Lumley vs. though in a few of the States the broad idea that a stranger to a contract can be held liable upon its is rejected. The master's interest in the service rendered by his employee is here considered as a distinct subject of juridical right. Cuddy (29 Phil. to the effect that any person who entices a servant from his employment is liable in damages to the master. It there appeared that certain miners employed in the plaintiff's collieries. as the declaration alleged. The leading case on this subject is Lumley vs. 333). B. But in the case cited the majority of the judges concurred in the opinion that the principle extended to all cases of hiring. it is insisted that the defendant corporation is liable for the loss consequent upon the failure of the project outlined in said contract. The attorney for the plaintiff maintains that. But upon the authorities it is enough if the wrong-doer. Thorn. It being thus accepted that it is a legal wrong to break up a relation of personal service. with a bona fide purpose of benefiting the one who is under contract to go. If a party enters into contract to go for another upon a journey to a remote and unhealthful climate. no action will lie.. but extends to contracts in general.. and others to whom the English Statutes of Laborers were applicable.giving of such advice by the desire to secure to themselves the paltry privilege of grazing their cattle upon the land in question to the prejudice of the just rights of the plaintiff. But if the advice is not disinterested and the persuasion is used for "the indirect purpose of benefiting the defendant at the expense of the plaintiff. acting under the order of the executive council of the defendant federation. and the only object of the order in question was that the price of coal might thereby be kept up. The defendant. 2 El. and inasmuch as father Juan Labarga. Hall (. and we have been earnestly pressed to extend the rule there enunciated to the situation here presente. (Boyson vs. Gye [supra] it had been supposed that the liability here under consideration was limited to the cases of the enticement of menial servants. Div. Glamorgan Coal Co. It there appeared that the plaintiff. "maliciously intending to injure the plaintiff. as manager of a theatre. Upon the question as to what constitutes legal justification. 239). long familiar to the courts of the common law. was fully aware of the existence of the contract (Exhibit C) which the plaintiff had made with S.. in bad faith sets about to break it up. Gye (. Somewhat more than half a century ago the English Court of the Queen's Bench saw its way clear to permit an action for damages to be maintained against a stranger to a contract wrongfully interfering in its performance. B. by interfering in the performance of the contract in question and obstructing the plaintiff in his efforts to secure the certificate of tittle to the land. is limited to the situation where the contract is strictly for personal service. whereby she bound herself for a period to sing in the plaintiff's theatre and nowhere else. a factor which affected the miner's wage scale. In that case the contract which the defendant had procured to be breached was a contract for the supply of building material.
That the defendant corporation is also liable in this action for the damage resulting to the plaintiff from the wrongful use and occupation of the property has also been already determined. 542). If the two antagonistic ideas which we have just brought into juxtaposition are capable of reconciliation. vs. we think. according to the English and American authorities. and by "culpable act" we mean any act which is blameworthy when judged by accepted legal standards.. it cannot be said that the doctrine of Lumley vs. Com. can be denominated an unlawful means. (Uy Tam and Uy Yet vs. No. Rep. for reasons presently to be stated. Rep. under known legal cannons. the process must be accomplished by distinguishing clearly between the right of action arising from the improper interference with the contract by a stranger thereto. it must be admitted that the codes and jurisprudence of the civil law furnish a somewhat uncongenial field in which to propagate the idea that a stranger to a contract may sued for the breach thereof. where it is said that the question of breach of contract by inducement was not really involved in the case. the decision in Gilchrist vs. and the right of action ex contractu against a party to the contract resulting from the breach thereof. 138 Mo. we do not propose here to pursue the matter further. indicates that the defendant corporation. Cuddy (29 Phil. it is authority for the proposition that one who buys something which he knows has been sold to some other person can be restrained from using that thing to the prejudice of the person having the prior and better right. Article 1902 of the Civil Code declares that any person who by an act or omission. Thus considered.. Hudson Bros. G. to the defendants Espejo and Zaldarriaga. we take the rule to be that a person is liable for damage done to another by any culpable act. under all the authorities. (See cases last above cited. In conformity with this it has been held that a stranger to a contract has no right of action for the nonfulfillment of the contract except in the case especially contemplated in the second paragraph of the same article. Gye [supra] and related cases is repugnant to the principles of the civil law. Nevertheless. 439.. Rep. Cuddy proceeded to turn over the film also under a rental contract. And in jurisdictions where the doctrine of Lumley vs. Thus. although the defendants did not. vs. 30 Phil. liable for the damage which ensues. coercion.) As observed by this court in Manila Railroad Co. when effectually entered into between certain parties. or threats. know the identity of the plaintiff as the person holding the prior contract but did know of the existence of a contract in favor of someone. The same idea should apparently be applicable with respect to the person against whom the obligation of the contract may be enforced. Cuddy (29 Phil. no question can be made as to the liability to one who interferes with a contract existing between others by means which. Article 1257 of the Civil Code declares that contracts are binding only between the parties and their privies.. we are of the opinion that neither the doctrine of Lumley vs. It there appeared that one Cuddy. inasmuch as. or by false or defamatory statements. It was also said arguendo. Leonard.Marshall vs. considered as an independent act generate of civil liability. intimidation. Translated into terms applicable to the case at bar. The force of the opinion is. 542). causes damage to another shall be liable for the damage so done. if the action had been brought by the plaintiff to recover damages.) This brings us to the decision made by this court in Gilchrist vs. determines not only the character and extent of the liability of the contracting parties but also the person or entity by whom the obligation is exigible. 135.. Rep. 875). 91 Ky. and if the stranger to a contract is not permitted to sue to enforce it. Macauley. Compañia Transatlantica. The idea thus expressed is undoubtedly broad enough to include any rational conception of liability for the tortious acts likely to be developed in any society. Glencoe Land & Gravel Co. Upon appeal to this court it was in effect held that the injunction was not improperly granted. that the defendants would have been liable in damages under article 1902 of the Civil Code. he cannot consistently be held liable upon it. In violation of the terms of this agreement. somewhat weakened by the criticism contain in the concurring opinion.. But it will be observed that in order to sustain this liability it is not necessary to resort to any subtle exegesis relative to the liability of a stranger to a contract for unlawful interference in the performance thereof. Taking the decision upon the point which was rally decided. for it is evident that there must be a certain mutuality in the obligation. the person using such unlawful means is. 121. no liability can arise from a meddlesome and malicious interference with a contract relation unless some such unlawful means as those just indicated are used... Bourlier vs. let it under a rental contract to the plaintiff Gilchrist for a specified period of time. However. if performance is prevented by force. at the time their contract was made. Rep. or by Page | 26 nuisance or riot. Gilchrist thereupon restored to the Court of First Instance and produced an injunction restraining the defendants from exhibiting the film in question in their theater during the period specified in the contract of Cuddy with Gilchrist. the owner of a cinematographic film. Gye [supra] is rejected. Baldwin 91 Ky.. having notice of the sale of the land in question to Daywalt. 11318 (38 Phil.) It should be observed in this connection that. Ignoring so much of this article as relates to liability for negligence. It is enough that defendant use the property with notice that the plaintiff had a prior and better right. Cuddy (29 Phil. affords any basis for the recovery of . Co. might have been enjoined by the latter from using the property for grazing its cattle thereon. 471. R. 542). a contract. characterized by fault or negligence. Gye [supra] nor the application made of it by this court in Gilchristvs.
damages have been held to be recoverable by the purchaser in excess of the normal value of use and occupation. The rule that the measure of damages for the wrongful detention of land is normally to be found in the value of use and occupation is. one of the things that may be considered certain in the law (39 cyc. a deduction may be made in respect to the interest on the money which constitutes the purchase price. . nothing was known to any to them about the San Francisco capitalist who would be willing to back the project portrayed in Exhibit C. from the possibility of incurring other damages than such as the incident to the normal value of the use and occupation. This leads us to consider at this point the extent of the liability of Teodorica Endencia to the plaintiff by reason of her failure to surrender the certificate of title and to place the plaintiff in possession.. The result was that the plaintiff was prevented during a period of several years from exerting that control over the property which he was entitled to exert and was meanwhile unable to dispose of the property advantageously. and the contract is made with the eyes of the vendor or lessor open to the possibility of the damage which may result to the other party from his own failure to give possession. that the stranger cannot become more extensively liable in damages for the nonperformance of the contract than the party in whose behalf he intermeddles. we proceed to consider the question of the liability of Teodorica Endencia for damages without refernce to this point. 185. and as the defendant corporation was not a party to that action. at the time of the creation of the contractual obligation. it is obvious that the liability of the defendant corporation. less the stipulated rent. We recognize the possibility that more extensive damages may be recovered where. even admitting that it has made itself coparticipant in the breach of the contract. what is the measure of damages for the wrongful detention of real property by the vender after the time has come for him to place the purchaser in possession? The damages ordinarily and normally recoverable against a vendor for failure to deliver land which he has contracted to deliver is the value of the use and occupation of the land for the time during which it is wrongfully withheld. and its is clear that if damages are not sought or recovered in the action to enforce performance they cannot be recovered in an independent action. where this has not been paid. The case before us is not this character. and not case has been called to our attention where. as Teodorica Endencia was the party directly bound by the contract. Whatever may be the character of the liability which a stranger to a contract may incur by advising or assisting one of the parties to evade performance. And of course where the purchaser has not paid the purchaser money. her attorneys have not seen fit to interpose the defense of res judicata in her behalf. Substantially the same rule holds with respect to the liability of a landlord who fails to put his tenant in possession pursuant to contract of lease. sec.. The most that can be said with refernce to the conduct of Teodorica Endencia is that she refused to carry out a contract for the sale of certain land and resisted to the last an action for specific performance in court.) — almost as wellsettled. therefore. and such defense could not in any event be of any avail to it. In the case at bar. but without obtaining any special adjudication with reference to damages. As to Teodorica Endencia. 24 Cyc. it should be considered that the right of action to recover damages for the breach of the contract in question was exhausted in the prior suit. However. Civil Code). can in no even exceed hers. This is. we believe. The extent of the liability for the breach of a contract must be determined in the light of the situation in existence at the time the contract is made. Now. Indemnification for damages resulting from the breach of a contract is a right inseparably annexed to every action for the fulfillment of the obligation (art. It should in the first place be noted that the liability of Teodorica Endencia for damages resulting from the breach of her contract with Daywalt was a proper subject for adjudication in the action for specific performance which Daywalt instituted against her in 1909 and which was litigated by him to a successful conclusion in this court. The measure of damages is the value of the leasehold interest. inasmuch as at the time when the rights of the parties under the contract were determined. indeed. as the rule that the measure of damages for the wrongful detention of money is to be found in the interest. To hold the stranger liable for damages in excess Page | 27 of those that could be recovered against the immediate party to the contract would lead to results at once grotesque and unjust.the damages which the plaintiff is supposed to have suffered by reason of his inability to comply with the terms of the Wakefield contract. he should cause to be inserted in the contract a clause providing for stipulated amount to the paid upon failure of the vendor to give possession. in the absence of such a stipulation. in the contingency of the failure of the vendor promptly to give possession. or lessor.. is aware of the use to which the purchaser or lessee desires to put the property which is the subject of the contract. 1630. and the damages ordinarily recoverable are in all events limited to such as might be reasonable are in all events limited to such as might be reasonably foreseen in the light of the facts then known to the contracting parties. Ninth ed. 1124. On the contrary. Where the purchaser desires to protect himself. or use and occupation. the vendor. 1052 Sedgewick on Damages. there is one proposition upon which all must agree. the most fundamental conceptions of the law relative to the assessment of damages are inconsistent with such idea.
The suit was brought to recover damages for the lost profits of the mill.. though not enunciated in Hadley vs. In the preceding discussion we have considered the plaintiff's right chiefly against Teodorica Endencia. to serve as a model for casting Page | 28 or manufacturing another that would fit into the machinery. Baxendale (9 Exch.. because the damages laid under the second cause of action in the complaint could not be recovered from her. and the recovery of such damage follows as a necessary legal consequence of the breach. apart from the actual terms to the contract exists or intervenes. Ordinary damages is found in all breaches of contract where the are no special circumstances to distinguish the case specially from other contracts." In case involving only ordinary damage no discussion is ever indulged as to whether that damage was contemplated or not. The decision in that case is considered a leading authority in the jurisprudence of the common law. (1) the ordinary. Horne vs. The defendants negligently failed to forward the good in due season. This is that where the damage which a plaintiff seeks to recover as special damage is so far speculative as to be in contemplation of law remote. The broken shaft could be delivered at Greenwich on the second day after its receipts by the carrier it. "according to the usual course of things. who were common carriers engaged in that business between these points. The consideration paid for an unperformed promise is an instance of this sort of damage. In all such cases the damages recoverable are such as naturally and generally would result from such a breach. (L. notification of the special conditions which make that damage possible cannot render the defendant liable therefor. and what has been said suffices in our opinion to demonstrate that the damages laid under the second cause of action in the complaint could not be recovered from her. But others proceeded on the idea that the notice given to the defendant was not sufficiently full and definite. Co. first. could not reasonably be expected to foresee.. and who had told plaintiffs it would be delivered at Greenwich on the second day after its delivery to them. and it became necessarily that the broken shaft be sent to an engineer or foundry man at Greenwich. It was delivered to the defendants. R. 131) is a case where the damage which was sought to be recovered as special damage was really remote. The shaft of the engine got broken. They were not told the mill would remain idle until the new shaft would be returned. and a corresponding delay in starting the mill. decided in the English Court of Exchequer in 1854. Midland R. and in a sense necessary damage. To bring damages which would ordinarily be treated as remote within the category of recoverable special damages. This is conclusively presumed from the immediateness and inevitableness of the damage.Baxendale (1854) [supra] lays down the definite and just rule that before such damage can be recovered the plaintiff must show that the particular condition which made the damage a possible and likely consequence of the breach was known to the defendant at the time the contract was made. Hadley vs. Concerning this sort of damage. cause by the delay in delivering the broken shaft. The facts in that case were as follows: The plaintiffs. without actual notice of that external condition. 341). 8 C. The discussion contained in the opinion of the court in that case leads to the conclusion that the damages recoverable in case of the breach of a contract are two sorts. or that the new shaft could not be manufactured at Greenwich until the broken one arrived to serve as a model. to give a turn to affairs and to increase damage in a way that the promisor. which was propelled by steam. natural. and which was engaged in grinding and supplying meal and flour to customers. as it were. The plaintiffs in that case were proprietors of a mill in Gloucester. and a few words relative to the principles governing will here be found instructive. on the other hand. and (2) special damages. were under contract to supply by a certain day shoes to a firm in London for the French government. but were not informed of the special purpose for which the broken shaft was desired to forwarded. and some of the judges rightly places the disallowance of the damage on the ground that to make such damage recoverable. The carriers were informed that the mill was stopped. P. the plaintiffs had to sell at a loss. The result was the same in either view. it must so far have been within the contemplation of the parties as to form at least an implied term of the contract. Baxendale. if delivered at a given hour. They delivered the shoes to a carrier in sufficient time for the goods to reach London at the time stipulated in the contract and informed the railroad agent that the shoes would be thrown back upon their hands if they did not reach the destination in time. The statement that special damages may be recovered where the likelihood of such damages flowing from the breach of the contract is contemplated and foreseen by the parties needs to be supplemented by a proposition which. is such as follows less directly from the breach than ordinary damage. Ordinary damage is assumed as a matter of law to be within the contemplation of the parties. shoe manufacturers at K. No explanation of the delay was offered by the carriers. There was delay beyond the two days in delivering the broken shaft at Greenwich.The principles governing this branch of the law were profoundly considered in the case Hadley vs. because the damages in question are special damages which were not within contemplation of the parties when the contract was . It is only found in case where some external condition. it is necessary that the condition should be made the subject of contract in such sense as to become an express or implied term of the engagement. and the market having fallen. first. Special damage. is yet clearly to be drawn from subsequent cases. namely. It was held that the plaintiff could not recover. The sale was therefore lost.
Malcolm. This conclusion is also necessarily fatal to the right of the plaintiff to recover such damages from the defendant corporation. Page | 29 Arellano. for. Carson. with costs against the appellant. and secondly. Avanceña and Moir. and it is so ordered. . Our conclusion is that the judgment of the trial court should be affirmed. because said damages are too remote to be the subject of recovery. C. Torres.J. as already suggested... by advising Teodorica not to perform the contract. Araullo. said corporation could in no event render itself more extensively liable than the principle in the contract.made. JJ. concur.
it must be. 1989 Page | 30 ATTY. respondents. and HON.00 by Judge Martin B.X RESOLUTION PER CURIAM: The petitioner was found guilty of direct contempt and sentenced to five (5) days imprisonment and a fine of P 200. the challenged decision is in accordance with law and jurisprudence. SEGUNDINO CHUA. petitioner. HON. LAPENA JR. But the matter does not end here. versus. Etc. all Court of Appeals Associate Justices. he accused Judge Badong of the crime of "FALSIFICATION for recognizing Eugenia Tabinas San Pablo as the legitimate wife of the decedent" and stressed that the judge was subject to the penalties imposed by the Revised Penal Code. Baclao for Dominga A. NICOLAS P." In this motion. Accordingly. Disagreeing with the choice of administrator made by Judge Badong in the estate proceedings. Rubio for and in his own behalf. in any case." In addition.Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BANC G. the petitioner filed a 16-page compliance in which he repeated substantially the same allegations in his motion in the same venomous language and without any sign of repentance or apology. There is still the questionable conduct of the petitioner in this case that has elicited the concern of the Court.. Badong Himself motu proprio Reconsider and Set Aside Immediately His Own Order Dated July 9." and was "doing falsehood in his own court and violating his lawyer's oath" for which he should be "DISBARRED. The judge therefore imposed upon him the above-mentioned penalty. MARTIN P. Nemesio R. affirmed. The petitioner has now come before us to protest this decision. We hold at the outset that the respondent Court of Appeals has committed no reversible error and that. X ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. T105.R. When asked to show cause why he should not be cited for contempt. ELADIO CH. the petitioner filed in the trial court what he captioned an "Urgent Ex-Parte Motion Praying that Judge Martin P. HON. the record showed that the respondent judge had immediately rectified the errors imputed to him in his earlier impugned order. Badong of the Regional Trial Court of Albay. FIDEL P. as it is hereby. 84032 August 29. . PURISIMA and HON. on the contrary. No. He averred that the judge was "engaged in gross misconduct and serious misbehavior and in violating his lawyer's oath. San Pablo and her nine children. Eladio Ch. Tabaco. HON. 1987 Appointing Oppositor Eugenia Tabinas as the Regular Administrator in this Case Special Proceeding No. he attached to his motion a copy of a petition for certiorari with a notation on the margin that it would be filed with the Court of Appeals unless the judge immediately rectified his order. Albay. He questioned this order in a petition forcertiorari with the Court of Appeals. which denied the same on the ground that certiorari was not the proper remedy and that. RUBIO. BADONG of RTC Branch 15. COURT OF APPEALS.
The petition is DENIED for lack of merit. Eladio Ch. Jr. (b) with their CRIME OF FALSIFICATION. JJ.J.. The petitioner has clearly shown by his arrogant conduct that he does not deserve to remain in the Philippine Bar. Sarmiento. While there is no doubt that counsel have every right to impute to judges honest mistakes in their decisions. Gancayco. Intimidating judges and accusing them of personal wrongdoing. The damning evidence of the petitioner's own verified pleadings has indubitably established is grossly improper conduct without need of further proof or proceedings. as such. Padilla. Cortes. ill becomes a member of the bar who. ascribing to them personal shortcomings and vices and even deliberate attempts to falsify the truth. feloniously. which he has threatened and abused "with impunity. SO ORDERED. This conduct and attitude of the petitioner cannot be simply disregarded by this Court or excused as a mere eccentricity. he must be excluded from the brotherhood he has dishonored until he has purged himself of his insolence. cannot be condoned under the Code of Professional Responsibility which every lawyer must observe.. concur. Narvasa. The same obvious malice and disdain reveal all too tellingly the petitioner's contemptuous attitude toward the said justices whom he also accuses of "THE CRIME of FALSIFICATION intentionally maliciously. While every lawyer is entitled to present his case before the courts of justice with vigor and courage. VERY SERIOUS MISCONDUCT. Cruz. Rubio is hereby SUSPENDED as a member of the Philippine Bar and is prohibited from engaging in the practice of law until otherwise ordered by this Court. 2. Paras. most of them capitalized to stress the petitioner's arguments and also (although this was not intended) his malice and boorishness. Feliciano. Gutierrez. as in the case before us. especially if such accusations are clearly unfounded. . Atty. Rubio has turned his bile on the three members of the Court of Appeals who dismissed his petition and in effect sustained Judge Badong's questioned decision. The petition is worded in scurrilous and offensive language that clearly manifests the petitioner's gross disrespect for the trial judge and the members of the Court of Appeals who rendered the challenged decision.In his present petition. This resolution shall be spread in his personal record and is immediately executory.). and OPENLY being committed" by them. Melencio-Herrera. which requires the highest standards of decorum and courtesy among its members. Capistrano who was recently dishonorably dismissed from the judiciary. owes a fitting courtesy and respect to those who sit on the bench and before whom he pleads.o-Aquino. he insists that the said Page | 31 justices are "ALL FULLY AWARE of THEIR OWN FALSEHOODS IN THEIR OWN DECISION and that "they are doing FALSEHOODS RIGHT IN THEIR OWN COURT AND VIOLATING WITH IMPUNITY THEIR LAWYERS' OATH " He stresses that the said justices "are now actively ENGAGED IN VERY SERIOUS MISCONDUCT IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THEIR JUDICIAL DUTIES and VERY MUCH WORSE than former Judge Dionisio N. Bidin. The insolence displayed by the petitioner all too clearly demonstrates not only his spiteful character but as well his lack of respect for the courts of justice. WHEREFORE. and with their VERY. the Court holds as follows: 1." There are similar statements found elsewhere in the records of this case. he is not permitted to manifest such enthusiasm through threatening and abusive language." to use his own words. He claims that they have made "untruthful statements" and that they 'ALL ARE FULLY AWARE of the UNTRUTHFUL STATEMENTS IN THEIR OWN DECISION and that they are openly committing the crime of FALSIFICATION. Atty. Medialdea and Regalado." He concludes that the said justices "deserve NOW to be DISHONORABLY DISMISSED from the judiciary which they have intentionally dishonored and continue to OPENLY dishonor until now (a) with their own FALSEHOOD in court. Fernan (C. Lacking the proper spirit of respect for the courts of justice. Griñ." Repeatedly.
For his failure to pay realty taxes amounting to P12. Petitioner move for MR but it was not acted upon. Issue: Whether or not the issue here is that the petitioner is a good faith? Held: It was ruled that the petitioner be reinstated to possession until after the respondent has indemnified the petitioner to the cost of the land and building to its market value. private respondent would like to include the building and praying that a writ of possession must be issued. he filed a petition to Supreme Court that he be restored in possession. Pedro Pecson filed a complaint on the validity of the auction sale before the Regional Trial Court of Quezon City but RTC dismissed the complaint.storey apartment building. the lot was sold to the Spouses Juan Nuguid and Erlinda TanNuguid.000. Hence. RTC ruled that petitioner is a builder in good faith and that a public auction of the building was not included as appealed tax payer. Pecson vs. Private respondent appealed to Court of Appeals and CA affirmed the decision of RTC in toto and ordered Nuguid to pay the construction cost. in order that respondent shall not unjustly enrich at the expense of the petitioner. Quezon City on which he built a four (4) door two. Court of Appeals Page | 32 244 SCRA 407 Facts: Pedro Pecson was the owner of a commercial lot located in Kamias Street.Submitted by: Tejano. Francis John L. however.00. Petitioner Pecson aggrieved by the decision of the CA hence. . it ordered the sheriff to place movant Juan Nuguid in possession of the subject property.
prompting SBTC to appeal. The trail court ruled in favor of Ferrer.000. Such unjust enrichment is not allowed by law. A complaint for breach of contract was filed by Ferrer. Ferrer made demands for reimbursement of the said expenses but was repeatedly denied by petitioner who reiterated the stipulated cost it the agreement. Court of Appeals 249 SCRA 206 Page | 33 Facts: Private respondent Ysmael Ferrer entered into a contract of building construction with petitioner Security Bank and Trust Company (SBTC) in Febrary 1980. To allow SBTC to acquire the constructed cost would undoubtedly constitute unjust payment for the bank to the prejudice of private respondent.Submitted by: Tejano. . Issue: Whether or not SBTC may be held liable for the payment of additional expenses incurred by Ferrer? Held: It cannot be denied that SBTC derived benefits when private respondent completed the construction even at an increase amount. The trail court ruled in favor of Ferrer. Francis John L Security Bank vs. So. therefore SBTC is liable for the additional expenses incurred by private respondent Ysmael Ferrer.00.760. It was stipulated therein that Ferrer would finish the said construction in Davao City within 200 working days for the price of P1.
he is not entitled to recover any damage which he alleged he had suffered from the unlawful seizure of the motor launch inasmuch as he had already transferred the ownership and possession of the motor launch to Delfin Lim at the time it was seized and therefore. 1962 a complaint for damages against defendants-appellees Fiscal Ponce de Leon and Orlando Maddela. Consequently. A year later Alberto Timbangcaya filed a complaint with the Office of the Provincial Fiscal of Palawan. . Ponce de Leon 66 SCRA 299 Facts: Page | 34 On April 29. Palawan. seized the motor launch from plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim and impounded it. on July 6. On June 26. However. alleging that on July 6. Maddela entered the premises of Lim without a search warrant and then and there took away the hull of the motor launch without his consent. Plaintiffs-appellants Lim and Jikil Taha filed with the CFI of Palawan on November 19. wrote the Provincial Commander of Palawan requesting him to direct the detachment commander in Balacbac to impound and take custody of the motor launch. To be liable under Article 32 of the New Civil Code it is enough that there was a violation of the constitutional rights of the plaintiffs. with respect to plaintiff Jikil Taha. exemplary damages may also be awarded. Delfin Lim’s claims were amply supported by evidence that he should be awarded damages. 1961. Fiscal Ponce de Leon reiterated his request to the Provincial Commander to impound the motor launch. filed with the CFI of Palawan the corresponding information for Robbery with Force and Intimidation upon Persons against Jikil Taha. cannot prevent the court from taking custody of the same. 1962.Submitted by: Agonoy. On June 15. he has no legal standing to question the validity of the seizure. 1962. In addition. 1962. upon being informed that the motor launch was in Balacbac. A person whose constitutional rights have been impaired is entitled to actual and moral damages from the public officer or employee responsible therefor. Palawan. 1962 upon the order of the Provincial Commander. plaintiff-appellant Jikil Taha sold to Alberto Timbangcaya of Palawan a motor launch. plaintiff-appellant Delfin Lim. Issue: Whether or not defendants-appellees are civilly liable to plaintiffs-appellants for damages allegedly suffered by them granting that the seizure of the motor launch was unlawful. defendant-appellee Orlando Maddela. In the instant case. Ciara Lim vs. Fiscal Francisco Ponce de Leon. explaining that its subsequent sale to a third party. Held: Defendants-appellees are civilly liable to plaintiff-appellants. Detachment Commander of Balacbac.
the trial court ruled for the private respondents. The latter affirmed the decision with modifications. and 2 other constabulary men of the Reaction Force Battalion. 1983. In its Decision. the Provincial Fiscal of Rizal dismissed the complaint against all private respondents. he also ordered the return of the seized items. petitioner de Guzman. On October 25. petitioner corporation was given the authority to “undertake or cause to be undertaken the prosecution in court of all illegal sources of scout uniforms and other scouting supplies. the exclusive franchise to sell and distribute official Boy scouts uniforms.. some of them were of inferior quality. and insignias. 1983. and suits on display at respondent’s stalls. Inc. The Decision was appealed to the respondent court. badges. Diliman. Receipts were issued for the seized items. Captain Peñafiel. Quezon city went to the stores of respondents at the Marikina Public Market. 1983. The seized items were not immediately returned despite demands. dresses. Held: . In their Memorandum Agreement. Inc. was awarded by the Boy Scouts of the Philippines. The items were then turned over by captain Peñafiel to petitioner corporation for safekeeping. and employee of petitioner corporation.” Sometime in October 25. supplies. petitioner MHP Garments. Private respondents then filed a civil suit against the petitioners for sums of money and damages. Upon return of the said items. Petitioner de Guzman. Sikatuna Village. was tasked to undertake the necessary surveillance and to make a report to the Philippine Constabulary. 1983. The seizure caused a commotion and embarrassed private respondents. Mirasol Lugatiman. they seize the boy and girl scouts pants. Issue: Whether or not the Court of Appeals’ is correct in finding that the manner with which the confiscation of the items from private respondents was tortious. Late on. On December 6. after a preliminary investigation. vs. and Gertrudes Gonzales were selling Boy Scouts items and paraphernalia without any authority. Without any warrant. A criminal complaint for unfair competition was then filed against private respondents.Submitted by: Ciara Agonoy MHP Garments. Court of Appeals 236 SCRA 227 Page | 35 Facts: On February 22. at about 10:30 AM. petitioner corporation received information that private respondents Agnes Villacruz.
the seizure was made without any warrant. So with the petitioner corporation which even received for safekeeping the goods unreasonably seized by the PC raiding team and de Guzman. . he was liable to the same extent as the officers themselves. Article III. The raid was conducted with active participation of their employee. Larry de Guzman did not lift a finger to stop the seizure of the bot and girl scouts items. In the case at bar. section 2. Firstly. By standing by and apparently assenting thereto. of the Constitution protects our people from unreasonable search and seizure. Petitioners Page | 36 were indirectly involved in transgressing the right of private respondents against unreasonable search and seizure. The respondent court correctly granted damages to private respondents. they instigate the raid pursuant to their covenant in the Memorandum Agreement to undertake the prosecution in court of all illegal sources of scouting supplies.Yes. and refused to surrender them for quite a time despite the dismissal of its complaint for unfair competition.
RECOLETOS. No. As preliminary to a consideration of the first of these questions. HELD: No. Later on. Litigation prospered due to Endencia’s change of mind and refusal to comply with her agreement with Daywalt despite order of the court for specific performance. the Torrens certificate was in time issued to Teodorica Endencia. Teodorica appears to be a woman of little personal force. asserting that she never intended to sell so large an amount of land and that she had been misinformed as to its area. ET AL. Daywalt. G. La Corporacion de los Padres Recoletos. the advice of father Sanz and other members of his order with whom she came in contact. Father Isidro Sanz had long been well acquainted with Teodorica Endencia and exerted over her an influence and ascendancy. we deem it well it dispose of the contention that the members of the defendants corporation. L-13505 February 4. The defendant. The stipulated price was fixed at P4. and was given.000. it was found by official survey that the area of the tract was about 1. The trial court found that this contention was not sustained. Noelle Ann E. easily subject to influence. Juan . and the area of the land enclosed in the boundaries defined in the contract was stated to be 452 hectares and a fraction. in advising and prompting Teodorica Endencia not to comply with the contract of sale. In 1908. the parties entered into still another agreement. 1919 ISSUE: Whether or not the inducement made by Father Sanz to Endencia constitutes actionable interference in the contract Whether or not the defendant corporation made itself a co-participant with Endencia in the breach of the contract due to the alleged unlawful intervention. were actuated by improper and malicious motives.248 hectares instead of 452 hectares. the fact that its officials may have advised her not to carry the contract into effect would not constitute actionable interference with such contract. but in the course of the proceedings.Submitted by: Barrios. It may be added that when one considers the hardship that the ultimate performance of that contract entailed on the vendor. As Teodorica still retained possession of said property Father Sanz entered into an arrangement with her whereby large numbers of cattle belonging to the defendant corporation were pastured upon said land. superseding the old. was accustomed to seek. In view of this development Teodorica Endencia became reluctant to transfer the whole tract to the purchaser. W. as exhibited in the conduct of its procurador. and the doubt in which the issue was involved to the extent that the decision of the Court of the First Instance was unfavorable to the plaintiff and the Supreme Court itself was divided the attitude of the defendant corporation. Teodorica Endencia executed a contract whereby she obligated herself to convey to Geo. a tract of land upon the issuance of a title to the land and a Torrens certificate. observing that while it was true that the circumstances pointed to an entire sympathy on the part of the defendant corporation with the efforts of Teodorica Endencia to defeat the plaintiff's claim to the land. Page | 37 FACTS: In 1902. A second contract was executed in the form of a deed of conveyance.R. is a religious corporation whose representative. and upon all the important matters of business including the tract in issue. DAYWALT vs.
in our opinion. and other members of the order of the Recollect Fathers. even admitting that it has made itself coparticipant in the breach of the contract. In the case at bar. therefore. Any advice or assistance which they may have given was. that the stranger cannot become more extensively liable in damages for the nonperformance of the contract than the party in whose behalf he intermeddles. This is. to be denied that Teodorica would have surrendered the documents of title and given possession of the land but for the influence and promptings of members of the defendants corporation. as Teodorica Endencia was the party directly bound by the contract. can in no even exceed hers. prompted by no mean or improper motive. . Whatever may be the character of the liability which a stranger to a contract may incur by advising or assisting one of the parties to evade performance. It is not. This leads us to consider at this point the extent of the liability of Teodorica Endencia to the plaintiff by reason of her failure to surrender the certificate of title and to place the plaintiff in possession. But Page | 38 we do not credit the idea that they were in any degree influenced to the giving of such advice by the desire to secure to themselves the paltry privilege of grazing their cattle upon the land in question to the prejudice of the just rights of the plaintiff. is not difficult to understand. it is obvious that the liability of the defendant corporation. To hold the stranger liable for damages in excess of those that could be recovered against the immediate party to the contract would lead to results at once grotesque and unjust.Labarga. there is one proposition upon which all must agree. To our mind a fair conclusion on this feature of the case is that father Juan Labarga and his associates believed in good faith that the contract cold not be enforced and that Teodorica would be wronged if it should be carried into effect.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.