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CCTV HANDBOOK 2013
Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: When you want to see everything ......... 76 Fisheye/Panoramic Cameras: CatVision does panoramic views ............ 77 Intelligent Storage: IP surveillance and storage ....................... 78 Technology: Compression: Understanding compression technologies .................................................. 80 Hybrid Technologies: Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP benefits? ...................................................... 86 Hybrid Technologies: Best of both worlds? ............................................................. 88 Management Platforms: PSIM: Why should I be interested? ..................... 89 Management Platforms: The platform must fit the business................. 91 Analytics: Video synopsis versus video analysis ............................................................. 94 Analytics: Product Overview: Intelligence management framework .. 95 Analytics: Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance ..................................... 96 Connectivity: Don’t ignore wireless ....... 99 Thermal: The expanding role of thermals ....................................................102 Analogue: Still going strong...................105
Editor’s comment .................................... 2 Technology trends Video surveillance trends for 2013.... 4 CCTV Round-table 2013........................ 6 Local CCTV guidelines revised..........14 The future of video: Use your eyes ..16 Syndicate foiled by cooperation ......18 Open platform video set to grow .....20 Surveillance trends for 2013 .............22 System Integrator Profile: Integrated central monitoring .........24 Line of sight and angle of view .......26 Understand the solution.....................28 Integrated proactive security solutions ...................................................30 Low-light cameras: Coming out of the dark .......................32 Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions ...................34 HD CCTV – hype or reality? ................38 High-definition/Megapixel: High-definition vs megapixel ...........40 High-definition/Megapixel: Define your definition..........................42 Remote Monitoring: Keeping tabs from a distance ...........66 Remote Monitoring: Remotely reactive .................................68 Remote Monitoring: Process and technology combined ................74
Storage technologies for video surveillance...................................................106 Camera Selection Guide An option for every requirement.....44–65 Case Studies......................................109–112
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co. We reserve the right to edit all letters. recording or otherwise. orders. Articles submitted are deemed to have been cleared for publication. the publisher and its agents cannot be held responsible for any errors contained. and none at night. 9 Grix Road.za Laura Dorrington: laura@technews. on the other hand.za Subscription Services For address changes. The IP installation has been going on for months with dismal results and poor visibility throughout the day.za. If you have any comments or criticisms. so he decided IP was the route to take. you will find information on a variety of issues pertinent to your surveillance installations. things didn’t work out all that well. the success of your project depends on the skills and integrity of the people doing the installation work. inserts and company contact details are printed as provided by the advertiser. How many people get a client like that? Of course. It’s a How-To put together by a group of people leading the field in the South African CCTV industry. co. Make sure you get yours if you want your surveillance system to deliver results. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.EDITOR’S COMMENT All about skills and experience Welcome to the 2013 CCTV Handbook. In the pages that follow. 2005/034598/07 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters to the Editor should be addressed to Andrew Seldon at andrew@technews. mechanical. a document that will be invaluable to installers as well as those people responsible for their organisation’s surveillance projects. Andrew Seldon.technews.co. Get the right people on board and you can get an analogue system to shine. Your choice of installer or integrator can be the make or break factor of your entire project.za Angie Beaumont: email@example.com Contributors Allyson Koekhoven Craig Donald Business Manager Vivienne Dorrington: firstname.lastname@example.org Design and layout: Technique Design Printed by: Intrepid Printers (Pty) Ltd. Editor All rights reserved.securitysa.co. and cost a fortune. I hope you enjoy the handbook and get value from it in whatever field you operate in. All he really wants is a low-light system that will allow him to perform LPR and visually identify visitors in any light conditions. without the prior written permission of Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd. renewal status or missing issues. adapted. Be sure to include your name. Reg No. is running perfectly. One of the interesting things I heard repeatedly while talking to people and putting this handbook together was that. The editor reserves the right to alter or cut copy. Pinegowrie 2123 Tel: 011 543 5800 Fax: 011 787 8052 ISSN 1562-952X Editor Andrew Seldon: email@example.com. Sending material to this publication will be considered automatic permission to use in full or in part in our Letters column. Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd cannot be held responsible for the accuracy or veracity of supplied material. And I guess it wouldn’t hurt to do your own research beforehand to ensure you can separate marketing fact and fiction. or any loss incurred as a result. electronic. please let me know at firstname.lastname@example.org . No part of this publication may be reproduced. We’ve put together an interesting collection of articles from some of the leading minds in the surveillance world for your enjoyment. Willowton. Randburg Box 385. Advertisements. Disclaimer While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein. Get the wrong people and the most impressive IP systems will fail. For the other project.co.co.co. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. The analogue system.co. The lesson here is that technology is only one part of a surveillance project. In one he hired an installer who knows his analogue systems backwards and the installation is going smoothly. 265 Kent Avenue. their ability to offer good advice and to deliver. The great thing about the IP installation is that the client was prepared to pay whatever it cost to get what he wanted. 2 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Pietermaritzburg Good news for locals The Consumer Goods Council has just released its updated CCTV Guidelines. A case in point comes from someone busy with two smallish projects. while there is an almost endless selection of technology to choose from (don’t miss the Selection Guide on page 46 onwards). Articles published do not necessarily reflect the views of the publishers. photocopying.za Subscribe online: www. the individual wanted a few bells and whistles. The crucial part is retaining people who know what they’re doing and have a track record to verify their skills. city and postal code. e-mail address. Published by Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd 1st Floor Stabilitas.za Advertising sales Tracy Wolter: tracy@technews.
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3. IMS Conferences ran an intelligent video conference in Los Angeles and the Embedded Vision Alliance has regularly been bringing together engineers from leading companies to discuss the industry.securitysa. it expects to see new technology developments and camera features that improve image quality become the key battleground as manufacturers try to establish their own USPs. In the coming year. For the police. this brings a number of advantages. particularly for those responsible for smaller installations. However.com . In 2011. What is more. The unique characteristics of the Indian market make it an exciting place to do business.TRENDS Video surveillance trends for 2013 What can we expect to see in the coming year in the surveillance market? IMS Research has released its fourth annual video surveillance trends for the year ahead. recorded video on an on-board device is downloaded wirelessly when the vehicle returns to the station or depot. However. Ten trends to look out for are listed below. down from 6. Network video surveillance can be an overly complex topic. barriers to entry for foreign-owned suppliers are much lower. world shipments of megapixel resolution network security cameras are predicted to out-sell standard resolution network security cameras in 2012 for the first time. Instead. easy to operate. compared to other high growth markets. 2. Recently. India to remain a high growth market Economic growth in India has slowed. with the explosion of interest in intelligent video and the success of products such as Microsoft’s Kinect. 5. in the mobile video surveillance market. despite this background. spending on video surveillance equipment has remained resilient with the Indian market forecast to enjoy healthy double-digit growth in 2012. Intelligent video surveillance Forums discussing this concept are not new. will 2013 be the year of intelligent video? 4 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.6 percent in 2010. the ability for a control room to view an incident live allows for an instantaneous assessment of the situation and more effective guidance for officers on the ground. 1. However. For a control room operative. IMS Research does not expect higher megapixel resolutions to be a mass-market trend. IMS expects that GDP in Asia’s third-largest economy will grow by just 5. New battle ground in image quality The increased popularity of HD and megapixel resolution security cameras has been a hot topic in the video surveillance industry over recent years. there has been increased buzz around the capability to wirelessly stream video from a mobile video surveillance camera back to a control centre. Mobile video streaming – the next gear of mobile video surveillance Traditionally. It could also provide assistance for lone workers on buses and trains. And quite rightly so. These predictions for 2013 and beyond serve to provide insight into key trends and opportunities in the video surveillance industry.1 percent in 2012.9 percent in 2011 and 9. IMS Research predicts that there will be renewed emphasis on this type of solution. 2013 will be all about manufacturers making it more straightforward. IMS Research therefore predicts 2013 to be the year where suppliers focus on developing products that are easy to install. and easy to maintain. Keeping it simple in 2013 Many suppliers of network video surveillance are now targeting smaller installations to grow their businesses. 4.
To date. IMS Research predicts that the use and aggregation of analytics and video feed metadata as Big Data will continue to grow. Video surveillance goes vertical System integrators and installers have been specialising in specific end-user industries for decades. IMS Research predicts that 2013 will be the year that video surveillance vendors and PSIM platform providers follow suit. much of the narrative on this topic has centered on estimating the market opportunity. niall. which includes: remote access to data.com. Additionally.6. Video surveillance as a service (VSaaS).com CCTV Handbook 2013 5 . Both of these examples relate to physical security. Chinese companies looking west It has been well documented that China is one of the largest and fastest growing markets for video surveillance equipment. Video content analysis and video meta-data as ‘Big Data’ ‘Big Data’ has been a hot topic for businesses in 2012. identifying the leading local vendors and discussing how western companies can take advantage of this high growth opportunity.securitysa. There has been little debate on the potential for Chinese video surveillance vendors to take advantage of the growth opportunities in other regional markets. providing there is an Internet connection. Private cloud offers the same advantages as public cloud. with installation. www.com www. 8. Private cloud – the future for enterprise video surveillance systems? IMS Research forecasts that private cloud being used for the infrastructure of enterprise video surveillance systems will become a trend over the coming years. Remote video applications ‘Remote’ has been a bit of a buzz word for video surveillance in 2012. however. However. and shared use of data processing and storage resources. the prevalence of enterprise video surveillance systems using private cloud is starting to gain some traction as IT managers increasingly take responsibility for the management of video surveillance systems. and that businesses looking to utilise Big Data will increasingly look at the potential to incorporate video feed meta-data streams into their data sets. While Big Data is not going to be a mainstream concept for video surveillance in 2013.jenkins@imsresearch. this is beginning to change with the emergence of key Chinese vendors on the world stage. and its ability to provide remote access. service and maintenance offerings targeted to the unique requirements of customers in that industry. design. For more information contact IMS Research. 9. has been keenly debated with opinion divided on whether it will be successful. +44 1933 402 255. there are a number of applications that can leverage remote video surveillance in non-security applications. remote video monitoring has become an increasingly important recurring monthly revenue (RMR) generator for many alarm receiving centres. Video surveillance service providers have used aspects of cloud computing in their solutions for more than ten years. 7. However.imsresearch. 10. IMS Research predicts a number of exciting new applications will enter the market in 2013.
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Gordon Moore from ADI Global. He also thinks this year is going to be tougher for business than before. Alves agrees. Hi-Tech Security Solutions invited a few people to join us in a surveillance round-table. this leads to problems as these installers don’t know enough about large-scale integration projects to deliver the quality desired. as will people-counting. One of the most exciting things about the surveillance industry is the technology changes we see on a regular basis that create the potential for awesome advances in image quality and analysis. This is a very exciting time for camera technology.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Challenges in store for surveillance By Andrew Seldon. they want to see returns. past few years they’ve being inundated by salesmen selling the latest trick. This will put more pressure on manufacturers and distributors to step in and provide on-site assistance – something they already do as a free value-added service. noting that SDXC cards already hold 256 gigabytes (GB). What follows is a brief insight into the interesting discussion that followed. If they lay out the money.” From a distributor’s perspective. not to mention what challenges are in store for the surveillance industry in general. We started the debate by asking each attendee to tell us what they thought the key trend or technology would be in the surveillance market over the next year. Malan sees this as a way that many people are finding their way into the world of IP surveillance. On a positive note. it is only when these solutions get to the maturity level that adds value to the end user that they really show their worth. Unfortunately. “Facial recognition is going to be tried and tested in the upcoming year. which will make a significance impact – and there’s already talk of two terabytes being available within the next twelve to eighteen months. Now they are starting to become a more aware of what they’re really getting and what they really need. Rob Anderson from Rob Anderson Consulting. however. To get an update on which technologies are at the value-adding stage and what users are demanding from their surveillance solutions. but notes that even with great prices and improved quality.” Anderson agrees with the above. They are also looking at the whole solution and not simply the latest camera technology. which is a good move. even to the point of counteracting the move to cloud-based storage to an extent. “In www.securitysa. but clients still have problems as far as warranties and support are concerned. such as usability in LPR (licence plate recognition) and movement detection. Analytics solutions will also mature and Malan expects to see different aspects taking centre stage. I think image quality is definitely going to be the focus. such as high definition (HD).” While there are still quality issues. the cameras still fail to deliver when it comes to reliability and support. these devices are cheaper. Trends to watch Malan notes that there are many trends in the surveillance market at the moment. but he is also seeing clients demanding more from their surveillance solutions. “but we’ve seen the more mature markets staying away from that. which appeals to many people. “I also think vendors are coming under pricing pressure as manufacturers in the East increase the pressure in terms of quality and price.com CCTV Handbook 2013 7 . “For the Cheap and nasty turns to cheap and quality Malan says Camsecure has also seen the impact of the entry-level ‘bakkie brigade’ getting into the market and punting the cheaper products from the East. He also expects to see more VMS systems using edge storage to protect corporate networks. However. “We’ll also be seeing cameras in the near future that are able to ‘see’ better than the human eye. What’s up in the world of surveillance in 2013? Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked the experts. More often than not. megapixel. the race for the highest resolution is going to slow down and we’re going to focus more on the image quality and storage.” Le Roux expects to see edge storage have an impact. He has also seen a leap in the quality of products from the East. I don’t think many other solutions will really make an impact this year. Alves agrees that edge storage will be important in the coming year. Roy Alves from Axis Communications and Ernst le Roux from CCTV in Focus. but has also seen that the client base is starting to become a lot better educated than they ever have been. widedynamic range and so forth. “On the higher end. Due to the economic conditions.”We’re already seeing that happening in the low-light field. but we could see more of them changing their focus and charging for this in future. no matter how fast technology moves. Our attendees were Francois Malan from Camsecure. Moore thinks we’re going to see a lot of Asian products starting to make an impact in higher levels of the CCTV market instead of mainly at the lower levels. he sees edge storage as something that is going to be important over the coming year. We asked our attendees what they thought would be the key issues in surveillance in the coming year or two. Le Roux has even seen some larger users cutting costs by buying equipment for themselves and then making use of the ‘bakkie brigade’ for installation.
he also insists that the IT decision maker joins the initial planning meetings to ensure the technical side of things is covered. reliability and support they can count on. The way companies deal with this is job and produce a solution that meets the company’s expectations. “Where we’re seeing the challenge for the system integrator is in the menus. they’re putting out products that have proper guarantees and but they need to understand what goes into selecting and installing an IP so on. the cost of the hardware is only a portion of the cost of a camera. or there are bandwidth issues. Customers are going to find they’ve got a far larger bill to pay when their installations are handled in an amateur manner and parts of it have to be redone. or it needs to be rebooted every day. Le Roux adds that implementing standards such as those that are common in the IT world will also help the security managers to do a better The question on skills While all the participants agree on the need for more education of the security managers and others involved in the market on the customer’s side.securitysa. for example. they don’t employ on the relevant technology as well. Malan and Le Roux note that the industry is going to have to look at some form of skills development programme in the next couple of years if it wants to avoid paying exorbitant salaries for good technical skills or be branded as a bad service industry. As Alves notes. They don’t need to be technical experts. Moore notes that many distributors are moving to the provision of added value services. Not only are top-notch skills in short supply. As mentioned above. “We also to only do business with companies that produce an annual due diligence or need to move out of the traditional practice of appointing physical security sustainability report to certify they follow the appropriate procedures. as not only do installers rely on them for advice and technical assistance.” A significant change he expects to see is more customers adopting a standard brand as they do in IT. but the end customer often comes to the distributor for help when frustrated with its implementation partner. Distributors are also finding themselves in the middle of the skills shortage.” “As a consulting practice. These courses are part of the manufacturers’ branding attempts as the brand with the most and best-trained technicians have an advantage in a market where skills are in short supply. but problems still crop up far too often. they also note the training opportunities offered to installers and integrators are crucial in ensuring a good implementation. “They will accept a price premium for the certainty that they’re getting quality. These experts into security manager roles without ensuring they are up to speed reports show that the company is sustainable financially.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 many instances you’re pushing HD video out of the unit and you want to stream it across the network. He says that image quality is easy to copy since they’re all using the same chips and processors. slave labour. “We’re finding Continued on Page 10 Francois Malan 8 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.” Common sense standards The issue of standards is one that the UK light fitting industry has dealt with. camera. Anderson says that the question of unqualified installers and cheap products is as much an issue there as it is Gordon Moore on our surveillance market.” Moore adds that there is definitely a significant increase in Asian products. the leading companies are in a constant battle to attract and retain personnel.com . specifying that all cameras (or even all surveillance kit) on site will come from a specific vendor. such as the device losing its IP address. The other issue is that we don’t have anything in place in South Africa to police standards and specifications. we’re going to go the route and say no product will be supplied on our sites unless the manufacture has produced a regular sustainability report.” Anderson also adds that to ensure projects are handled correctly and installations are done to the appropriate standards. Many of the manufacturers are actively pushing their training and certification courses in an effort to ensure that their installers have the knowledge of the product as well as other skills necessary to ensure the end customer gets a good deal. the software and the viability of the software side of the products.
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Anderson notes that we need to see more control rooms using HD monitors to make better use of the images available. For example. many of the larger. the cameras are seeing things in pitch blackness that you can’t see with the human eye. While you can obtain high megapixel cameras that provide excellent images.” And the challenge is that as companies start skilling up their technicians and develop them. there may yet be room for more HD analogue systems. H. instead of buying more hard drive space for footage that isn’t needed in court or for specific reasons. maybe a lower frame rate. lower light than your human eye. H. take a high quality stream and make it a lower quality stream. the fact that HD-SDR (or HDcctv) transmits images uncompressed with distances that are touted to reach 300 metres soon. but the company will save on the hard drive capacity it needs. “The sensor manufacturers are doing some amazing things. as you start going to bigger sensors to do 5 and 8 and 10 megapixels. Anderson expects to see more intelligence in the storage arena.securitysa. Moreover. with most people expecting good growth in this market. someone else poaches them and offers them a little more money. adds Alves. There are also standards in HD so you know there’s colour fidelity. Additionally. We’ve seen sensors now that are very low light.com . And on the other side of the coin. Malan says the HD sweet spot at the moment seems to be in the 720p or 1080 sensor. the importance of Web interfaces and mobile access will become more important as extensions to high quality streams in control rooms. Roy Alves and Ernst le Roux Continued on Page 12 10 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. taking some of the processing strain off the servers and management platforms. changing such a broadly used standard will take time. Effective VMSes are also going to provide users with added intelligence to assist in implementing event-based surveillance. Something the standards like ONVIF have not been able to accomplish.” Rob Anderson that as a distributor we’re having to provide more and more on site support. Moore adds that VMSes provide the ability integrate an installation made up of cameras from diverse brands and with different capabilities.264 seems to be the standard of choice for most systems. If the high quality footage is not needed within that timeframe. management. broadcast quality and there’s going to be full frame rate when you adopt this technology. Of course.265 promises even better performance and should start appearing in the coming year. wide dynamic managing. Yet. “The trick is really to get a good VMS that can down-sample the video to those different devices on request or per user requirement. and only transmit when there’s something happening at the camera in order to utilise your existing bandwidth as efficiently as possible. Alves says that since most of the top manufacturers use the sensors from a limited number of companies. where the cameras raise the alarm when something happens. One of the trends they mention is an increase in image quality rather than simply adding megapixels. So you could. We should also expect to see more panorama cameras hitting the market in the coming year. Looking at technology One of the articles running in the CCTV Handbook 2013 is from IMS. like noise reduction. Intelligent platforms And while intelligence in the camera is definitely going to increase. in fact. while HD (and megapixel in the 2 MP range) seems to be accepted. for instance. We need to support installers by providing them with the necessary training and knowledge to help them with their customers and on-site installations. the video can be stored at a lower frame rate to save space. The details will still be there in sufficient quality for analysis should it be needed. “What’s going to count is the processing power on the chipsets behind those sensors that enable the camera to do the necessary things. you pay the price in terms of frame rate and low light capabilities.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 8 While there are other compression options available. Another critical area for Malan is the VMS (video management system) with many devices linking onto them and being able to rebroadcast at different requested streams. some companies are implementing strategies that sees high quality video recorded for seven days – since you will know if there was an incident you need footage from within seven days. Cathexis). low-light capabilities are diminished. giving more opportunity for ‘bakkie brigade’ services.” Interestingly enough. Already many management companies are including dewarping software in their platforms to cater for these systems (such as local platform developer. wellstaffed integrators are downsizing and reducing their training and marketing budgets. These technologies are getting very interesting. low light cameras offering colour images in near total darkness and so forth. The pixels are a lot smaller and there’s less ability to get light onto that sensor It seems that defining the role for the camera is more important than ever. and manage it from a single console. megapixels is not where the competition really is. which examines the research company’s top trends for the coming year.
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KISS your camera One final trend worth noting is the move to simplicity. This will not only expand the intelligence capabilities tremendously. The same can be said of surveillance cameras and the complexity in setting them up and getting them to perform as one wants. He says that in the Western Cape. distributors and vendors handling the lack of high-level skills when it comes to IP surveillance installations? Mel Labuschagne: The IP surveillance market is in the early adopter phase so qualified manpower is still a scarce resource. although guards are not going to disappear any time soon. numerous manufacturers. Hopefully we will see both the simplification of the technology to make it easier to install. as more systems are integrated with other components of a complete security installation.” A tough. but create a new market for applications. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How are customers. installers. but you pay per use. However. including cost-effective producers from the East. Alves notes that we could also see a situation similar to the mobile phone market at the moment where users pay a small amount to download the analytical or performance apps they want to use. the best price / performance (most bang for their buck). One has to look at the different market tiers to identify what is taking place. given the overall conversation. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do clients want from their surveillance systems? Mel Labuschagne: Clients want what they have wanted.com . I would say the market split is around 50/50 where customers are aware of IP surveillance solutions but are loathe to spend the extra money. the printed report only scratches the surface of what was actually discussed. Advanced analytics has become more prevalent and at much better prices which has seen more clients implementing this technology. we won’t see any decline in the need for management platforms. In fact. it tends to become complex and unwieldy to use. However. his teams found that. As technology advances. in the main. this coming year should see some incredible improvements in image quality as well as some stiff competition in price in the lower and mid-level markets. but it will also speed the time and reduce the cost of installation. Astute integrators. both in terms of storage and intelligent analytics. and even less was usable in court. They. “Basically we’ll be making the products more user friendly for the specific type of person on the other end. exciting year As always happens in round-tables. only about 15% of recorded footage was of any use after an event. The largest manufacturer of video surveillance equipment is a Chinese company. However. more companies are likely to opt for more technology with a lower onsite guarding presence. This benefits both the installer and client in ensuring the proposed system is successfully implemented. I don’t see that manufacturers looking at increasing the megapixel rating of cameras. but the high end as well. Regal comments While the company was not able to attend the round-table. have the majority of the market in the East and are now targeting other regions. expectations are that the PSIM market will eventually find more traction. meaning that they can work on any brand or product. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you see a significant impact on the local market from quality Asian products? Mel Labuschagne: The Chinese products are having an impact on the traditional suppliers. they could encourage software developers to produce specific apps that are camera manufacturer independent. surveillance solutions but are put off by the price differential. This is also the case locally where price / performance and the aggressive sales strategy of the Chinese suppliers is increasing their market share. Given the continued economic uncertainty. In the low end of the market.securitysa.” says Alves. The edge (on camera) is where we should see some action during the year. One has to simply do a search on the Internet to find marketing releases from these Chinese surveillance equipment providers on large sites implemented with their products where this would have traditionally been done by Western suppliers. the same as high definition TV. In the high-end tier of the market. are now offering plug and play IP solutions (in the up-to 16 camera system range) where the system offers near analogue ease of use. Le Roux notes it’s important to note that quality is still the key issue when wanting to use surveillance footage for prosecution or even internal investigations.CCTV ROUND-TABLE 2013 Continued from Page 10 As a sidebar. clients are aware of IP surveillance solutions and most are implementing the superior technology. “One of the initiatives that we’ve got going at the moment is to ask the question “Who’s installing it?” and based on that we will show the appropriate Web page. The market is satisfied with the 1 to 2 megapixel range which gives up to 1080p resolution. The low tier of the market is probably still in a 90% analogue to 10% IP scenario. an increase in edge analytics is to be expected to relieve processing stress on central servers. distributors and vendors will be looking at the IT sector to attain these skills. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think are the trends/technologies to look out for in 2013? Mel Labuschagne: The price of IP cameras and VMs platforms will continue to drop in 2013. If the camera manufacturers get it right. integrators. many clients may be aware of IP 12 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Although analytics is still quite difficult to implement and is very reliant on accurate set up which can be very time consuming. The ability to accurately identify people and objects requires decent quality. There will be a continued trend to plug-andplay IP (or easy to use) solutions in not only the low end of the market. and other Chinese suppliers. Apps for your surveillance camera? When considering the increased processing power within cameras. In the mid tier of the market. as well as a bigger push on skills development in the security industry as a whole. Not only will this enable companies to set up their surveillance systems with people who are somewhat less technically skilled. Mel Labuschagne from Regal Distributors added his comments to some of the issues raised at the round-table via e-mail. However. There will naturally be some resistance from VMS vendors as this concept would take away some of their core functionality. Manufacturers across the board are working on making things as simple as possible to use their products. Perhaps the integration project of the year will be integrating technology and human security services effectively.
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• General risk considerations. that will enable users to spec their needs at the right pitch. CCTV Staffing and Development in Chapter 6 elaborates on: • Recruitment selection techniques • Training aspects of system operators • Requirements for training courses and training manuals. thus implying that they will be aware of the fact that their actions are recorded. The purpose of including the Legal and Evidentiary Aspects in Chapter 7 of this document is to guide the standardisation of protocols in the handling of video/DVD or other material that has evidential value that is in the possession of private persons employed by the industries. • Power management.securitysa. • Industry Bodies and NGOs. • How to handle incidents are observed. • The Justice System. the latter can only be accomplished if CCTV systems are accepted as a reliable source of evidence. • Training programmes. BACWC. NPA (National Prosecuting Authority). the visual footage. For further information or to order a copy of the Recommended CCTV Industry Guidelines contact Selma Visser on (T) 0861 101 726 or email sv@cgcsa. The guidelines in this section include: • The selection of a suitable service provider. captured on CCTV equipment is of crucial importance during the investigation and procedures that could follow. Although Technical Aspects are addressed in Chapter 4. This document also includes recommended checklists for operational requirements of the camera. black and white systems are insufficient for identification of clothing and vehicle colour. Chapter 3 explores the operational requirements (OR) that are fundamental to the design. CCTV industry participants. recognition and identification with the specific purpose of generating video footage that will support investigations and successful prosecution. The Role Players and Responsibilities are guided by Chapter 2 and expand on the following roles: • The End User. training and system manuals and • Guidelines on the maintenance and management of the system. • Required result of a successful response to activities. A classic example of this is the use of CCTV as deterrence to all potential perpetrators. • Existing infrastructure and layout of premises. The experts who shared their expertise in compiling this document included representatives from the CGCSA. Installation and Management Aspects are addressed in Chapter 5 and consists of: • Restrictions of installed cameras. SAPS. • System Provider. • How to identify target activities to be observed. • Site layout. The reviewed and updated third edition will be published in March 2013. This document provides guidelines for optimisation of CCTV that will ensure appropriate/sufficient quality images under different physical and environmental circumstances in and around businesses for monitoring. This empowered business owners with knowledge to make informed business decisions before investing large amounts of money in a business solution. • Camera selection. the aim was to limit specifications that might lead to the Recommended Guidelines being outdated in the near future due to technology developments. CCTV can assist the police in identifying the perpetrators and can also be utilised in various criminal justice procedures as evidence in a court to ensure fair and legal prosecution to all parties involved.CCTV GUIDELINES Local CCTV guidelines revised Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa. Through the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa in partnership with Business Against Crime Western Cape (BACWC) working groups were formed to determine: A Recommended Industry Guideline for CCTV surveillance systems in South Africa. However. placement and picture quality. including staff. • How to determine the standard of picture quality. testing and operation of an effective CCTV system. as this may include the detection of movement rather than identification. As the importance of competent operators and system users cannot be underestimated. recommended basic formats for basic affidavits and a recommended general checklist for the CCTV system.com .co. detection. • Software and other system related requirements. retailers and other business owners. On the reactive side. the use of compression techniques may result in low-resolution images. • Quality and routing of cabling. During the investigation of offences committed and incidents in chain stores. This includes: • Generic Operational Requirements.za 14 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) plays a valuable role in combating crime through a combination of both proactive and reactive crime prevention measures. • Why these activities should be observed. The first version of this document was compiled in 2004.
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improving focus will be the manufacturer focus for the coming years. there is the ability to see with absolutely no light at all – which no human can do. While there’s no perfect calculation. and are no longer just for military usage. the comparisons stopped at seeing. The eye has a field of view of approximately 75-95° and a pan-tilt speed of roughly 900°/second. For this we now have professional-grade. the camera is better than the human eye without even the need to wear sunglasses. Now that we’ve covered resolution and light sensitivity of the camera vs. yet neither analogue nor IP could produce colour images in the dark. but also qualities where a surveillance system will never replace human intelligence or intuition. 16 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. While the eye wins outright for overall resolution. Also. it’s a dead heat tie. Yet in the analog CCTV world. cameras are computers that can see. the eye. Cameras in surveillance were created to see what we. Wide dynamic range is another hot issue related to the sensor and image processing. iris. the eyes will get very tired and a headache is likely on the horizon. and especially when fighting direct sunlight. lens. Unlike the IT components inside a camera. as CMOS sensor technologies evolve we now have the ability to be almost as light sensitive in 5 MP cameras as the human eye. Still. Analogue held one final advantage over IP regarding light sensitivity. There’s one main reason that lenses are not keeping pace with IP camera and sensor development. and where will we fall behind in the future? Many of us suffer with poor night vision. one can argue that the usable resolution of the cornea or what the brain computes at a given time can vary greatly. Then of course. In the world of IP video. and therefore the human eye: Moore’s Law. and aperture are all terms used to describe both. light sensitivity.securitysa. Axis Communications. Since the invention of the first analogue video camera. Focus. There are some areas today where the IP camera beats even our own human abilities. The human eye is said to have a contrast range to 120 dB. If we compare this with current PTZ cameras. Thermal cameras can detect humans and objects in complete darkness as well as poor visibility conditions. cameras have the ability to leverage IR wavelengths and produce a black and white image at night. When we talk of computers.com . IP camera developers are using the evergrowing processing power in the cameras to look beyond pure resolution and improve overall image clarity with better light sensitivity. it was natural to compare these devices to the human eye. Both of these cornerstones were passed during the last year with the introduction of colour-at-night Lightfinder technology. but this is hardly usable for surveillance and it’s not the actual resolution that our brain (the VMS) computes. So in the long run. the human eye is faster than the majority and still beats the autofocus algorithms of most cameras. However. the next comparison is with field of view and mechanical speed. and much more light sensitive than the eye in HTDV and VGA resolutions. Today we can compare an IP video system to the human eye and the brain. we talk of artificial intelligence. the whole eye is said to have a total resolution of more than 100 megapixels.OPINION The future of video: use your eyes By Martin Gren. Moore’s Law is really kicking in with sensor development and we can expect a lot of progress in low light video. IP security Seeing is believing Let’s start with the obvious comparison: the IP camera and the human eye. Humans and technology make a good combination. How do we stack up today with our IP video devices. We talk of memory. all-digital thermal network cameras that can be integrated into an IP-based surveillance system. it is a clear win for the human eye. as humans couldn’t. So while lenses are taking longer to evolve. but be roughly estimated between 5-10 megapixels depending on the person’s eyesight. focal length. given that lens Martin Gren technology is not on par with the higher resolutions in security cameras – maxing out around 5 megapixels for professional surveillance – and that most 10-20 MP cameras lack frame rate and image quality around the edges of the scene. However. since the human eye lacks optical zoom. But unlike our eyes. when humans try to see during constant contrast change. Here. Thus. If compared to the best wide dynamic range network cameras on the market. optical components like the lens do not follow Moore’s Law.
Moore is much faster than Mr. advanced analytics are working really well. Humans are said to have short-term and long-term memories. movie streaming. When it comes to detecting strange behaviour and forensics. even the most advanced computers completely lag humans. Our long-term memories are unrivalled in the animal world. We continue to see improvements in the evolution of optics and motors in PTZ cameras that Darwin can’t keep up with. when talking about analytics and software. Here. so do security cameras. Guards and officers in the field can scan quickly for signs of trouble. so it’s astonishing how our brains can analyse the pictures/videos from our past and have the ability to record for many years. cross-line detection and licence plate recognition (LPR). but the IP camera is there to help with repetitive tasks without getting bored or falling asleep at the wheel. edge-based recording is then short-term memory – which is improving in the camera not through memory exercises. while the latest human evolution seems to be that we are growing larger. IP video will continue to improve. Consider long-term memories as the server-based and NVR systems with the ability to download and store video for long periods. hosted video has seen success where the end-user has multiple dispersed sites to monitor. Humans have higher pixel vision. we can easily store weeks of high quality video inside the camera or encoder in the coming years. Local. So while humans can remember even our earliest memories. Yet a question I often get when speaking about the growth of edge-based and hosted video storage is if these technology trends mean the end of the VMS. After all. in a footrace.axis.com . monotonous tasks like people counting. The real game changer will be in the smaller camera count market where we will see edge storage replace the DVR rather soon. but through Moore’s Law. installation environment and housings are increasingly important and will see further development. The retail market will be the biggest winner in the future. the one certainty is that we need to work together for maximum efficiency today and into the future. but in more unique applications like retail customer reward programmes. and humans must adapt to get the most out of the technology. machine in the surveillance world. but the camera never lies or misremembers. This will leave us free to innovate and drive business. wider – just like our old analogue TVs. in the same way the human eye can contract infections and obstructions. while their colleagues in the command post use cameras to zoom in for a closer – and safer – look. Without the ability to brush debris away from their lenses. the human element will be important for many years to come – even if CSI and other TV shows would like you to believe otherwise. Using analytics with increased edge storage capacities will be attractive because this solution does not require continuous Internet bandwidth. So too do surveillance systems. anywhere video access and offsite storage has led to the emergence of hosted video. www. With the evolution of SD-cards. Unlike our eyes. Darwin. taller and. roy.com How’s your long and short-term memory? We all have personal memories that we can look back on in an instant. Until then. While edge recording is perfect for single site deployments. the user will never miss a single frame. Moore’s Law keeps on working to give us more processing power and usable resolution. While advanced behavioural analytics are improving. the biggest leg up for the camera is that it never needs to sleep! From detection to analysis The no-need-for-rest feature of cameras means that video analytics is superior in the ability to perform around-the-clock.alves@axis. however. file sharing and other cloud-based services. Dirt. This intelligent feature will not only play a big future role in access control. One solution could be to pool patent fees amongst the patent holders in order to share these innovations with the world while keeping overall costs down for the end-user. Face detection by a video surveillance camera in a crowd is something we all can dream of. And as edge-based storage grows. For more information contact Axis Communications. Analytics will continue to improve – especially as software developers from all walks of life are attracted to the surveillance industry with the goal to develop applications to run inside the camera itself – but a human will nearly always be required for this aspect of the industry to thrive. it’s clear that Mr. Just as our own human behaviour has dictated the rising use of Gmail. an IP surveillance system has the most reliable long-term memory and its short-term memory growth is far outpacing our own. but face detection in a controlled environment can be deployed successfully. yes. When in controlled environments. there is the rising issue of potential patent lawsuits attempting to block the use of a specific algorithm. including the mobile phone market. there is nothing like a guard or operator. machine When we compare man vs. dust and even spider webs affect the camera as much as they do our own eyes. if configured properly. That’s good news for police officers interviewing folks about a crime – even if eyewitness testimony is sometimes proven shaky. However.com CCTV Handbook 2013 17 . we as people will have an advantage over surveillance systems for many years because it’s not possible to patent humans (fortunately!). and what does this the best is a good VMS. +27 (0)11 548 6780. the human brain and intuition wins over a security camera in most aspects. Today’s standard for a modern surveillance system is HDTV and.securitysa. but the IP camera helps us see in difficult light and pure darkness.cameras have a major leg up. personal storage. I’m not a neurology specialist. But remember. A third layer is when we combine edge recording with hosted video. fog. which are now available in 64 and 128 GB with more storage to come. Think about the patience you would have to have to sit on the side of a highway and make a note of all the licence plates that drive by. Our brains can analyse a scene and predict behaviour thanks to human intuition. online banking. Edge-based storage in a small camera system environment has many benefits and it will continue to get better. The answer is simple: These cameras still need to be managed. But when it comes to more advanced analytics. a similar need for anytime. The key to the future is mining all the high-quality video data that IP cameras capture and consider new and novel uses for this information. Man vs. This trend may be even more disruptive when we combine good camera-edge-recording and analytics. so too does Internet bandwidth and availability. www. This is happening in our industry as well as many others.
for the gangs to remove all the Brett Botten. community. Gauteng Cluster money every month. 18 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. General Norman drawers in retailers – apparently Taioe. This brazen approach Excellence from Spar to various to their crime shows how well attendees in appreciation of their trained and confident these continued service to the retail criminals were of getting away industry. It also highlighted the the human shields involved in the operation. even cashiers at work in the fact that when people cooperate. the key perpetrators involved. cashiers were on a break. Awards presented The Consumer Goods Council (CGC) of South Africa hosted an awards The CGC’s manager of the crime prevention programme. noting that the success of this case was a direct result of this While this operation did not involve guns. before CEO. to continue to be alert and sometimes find the supervisor praised the cooperation between the various departments and the business on duty and other staff and distract them with questions. Vorna Valley was particular assistance in sealing on hand to pay tribute to one of the fate of this syndicate.com . Commander. MD of Spar high-value notes from a till. in North Rand was on hand to the middle of the day. it did hit multiple stores in cooperation and the sterling efforts of Mashiane and Nkathingi. however. and slick. Moses Tsomele. General supplying footage to identify Masiye and Maj. the criminals. his staff members. The help of a Peet van der Walt. Due to thing in a tough and normally thankless environment. specifically in the crime with their theft. There were no guns. Gauteng detective head an easy task for this syndicate then received a Certificate of – and stealing money while Appreciation from the CGC. with one informant claiming the prosecutor’s office. The criminals’ operation involved obtaining a skeleton key to the cash Maj. The two officers to receive Exceptional Service Awards were Warrant As explained by Spar’s Keith Alexander. General Motsikile. while others would L to R: Warrant Officer Mashiane. no deaths Chief prosecutor. fighting arena. Tsomele then also received an This footage showed how it Exceptional Service award from would take less than 10 seconds Mangozhe. He presented Their modus operandi was certificates to James Oosthuizen to use numerous members of as well as Juan Kotze. Sergeant Nkathingi and Moses Tsomele.CO-OPERATION GETS RESULTS Syndicate foiled by cooperation By Andrew Seldon. Gauteng Provincial Commissioner Central to the case was the Lt Gen Mzwandile Petros CCTV footage taken at the Vorna also received a Certificate of Valley Spar. along with various towns and cities on a regular basis. in front of present additional Certificates of everyone.securitysa. the gang as shields to prevent In her acceptance speech people from seeing what was Masiye encouraged all concerned happening. which led directly to the arrest the process underway to identify of certain syndicate members. Rassie Erasmus was next up to receive an Exceptional and no trauma. It did. crime can be beaten. and a little help from tills next to the targeted one were oblivious to the crime – it was that fast technology seals the prosecution. which was received stores were also involved in on his behalf by Maj. simply a slick operation that netted millions in stolen Service Award. At the ceremony. these people returned to their tills to some of the people who have made the effort to fight crime and do the right find thousands missing with no explanation of how it happened. per month. cate were streamlined and professional. The efforts of Tsomele were also key to the success of the leader of the syndicate’s cut was between R400 000 and R800 000 the case and Masiye encouraged him to continue his efforts. followed by Brigadier Gina Palko. owner of high-level informant was also of the Super Spar. Retail syndicate foiled through cooperation between NPA. Gwarega Mangozhe made the awards involved in thwarting the long-term operations of a crime syndicate to two police officers who have been key to the success of the investigation. SAPS and Spar. lead to some cashiers losing their jobs since The awards were a way for the CGC and Spar to thank and pay tribute to in stores without CCTV coverage. the operations of the syndiOfficer Mashiane and Sergeant Nkathingi from the Midrand SAPS. Advocate the manager of the Super Spar Juan Kotze played some of the for his quick and decisive action video shots taken and explained All the award recipients. targeting retailers. James Oosthuizen ceremony in February to pay tribute to a few people who had been opened the proceedings. although other Spar Appreciation.
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from monitoring and tracking severe storms. Milestone continually evolves our XProtect Smart Client to be the umbrella client interface for operational visibility in a security environment. and Milestone Federated Architecture make XProtect Corporate an ideal hosted video solution platform. high-resolution cameras. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked Milestone’s Peter Biltsted to answer four questions on what to look out for in 2013. When considering the trends in the surveillance market. Video as a service (VaaS). 2. These will come in the future but until then. These product offerings are built for ease of use. from the perspective of Milestone and the industry in general. The economy: With budget cuts across the board. we see three trends today affecting Milestone and our marketplace in general: 1. Milestone’s low and mid-market products are designed to address this trend from XProtect Go through XProtect Professional. We hear a lot about cloud technology and VaaS these days.TRENDS Open platform video set to grow By Andrew Seldon. including the fast growing area of video management systems. Features like Axis one-click connectivity. Instead. Budgets are scrutinised as demands for a safer environment and affordable security constantly battle for priority. affecting the balance of power and the focus on physical. Milestone does not want to be a hosting company ourselves – that is not our core competency. But the bandwidth services have to be in place first and at reasonable prices. 20 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Technology: Technical advances are influencing new degrees of necessity for surveillance and monitoring: biometrics. to improving protection of energy supplies and natural resources. We work hard to provide a more flexible. powerful and relevant client for the operators by XProtect Smart Client. but using new technology. Even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change. talking about it is getting too much hype. Consolidated operational user interface (UI). receiving feature updates that make it well suited as the technology foundation of a hosted video solution. Offering video via the cloud is really like offering a traditional IT managed service. hurricanes. easy to deploy and easy to use. Basically. flooding and drought. customers are under pressure. Ease of use. 3. Changing requirements can also be driven by large public events like the Olympics. and if war or terrorism threatens.com . integrators and end-users alike are demanding ‘easy’ – easy to procure. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What do you think will be the biggest trend or influencer in the coming year in the surveillance market sector? Peter Biltsted: Countless circumstances around the globe contribute to growth and innovation – even the smallest upgrade in technology or thinking can become a catalyst for change. In the low to mid-market. data and other security improvements as countries reach election days. setup and use) with ease.securitysa. This can be addressed by the open platform approach from Milestone Systems to allow endless upgrades and integrated solutions that can be added over time. and we are working hard to continually improve on these products (installation. cloud computing and video analytics require the most upto-date hardware and software.of-use in mind. our Web client and remote clients. Politics: Political changes can influence degrees of regulatory requirements. Our XProtect Corporate product continues to be future-ready. Traffic control and management has become part of this trend. we want to make the software tools to enable others to address this type of business model whenever it does become viable. or impromptu ones like demonstrations or natural disasters. The environment: Another perspective deals with the increased emphasis on climate change. too.
com CCTV Handbook 2013 21 . Access control or licence plate recognition. Open platform IP video is enabling business optimisations on a larger scale. These solutions are becoming more commonplace today.incorporating single client visibility to the video for live viewing. and prove that open architecture is absolutely the best way to go for sustainable value in customer installations. There is also increased use of video content analytics. IP video is still driving the convergence of digital systems across multiple areas. For more information contact Milestone Systems. a strong toolset for investigations. The result of all of this is that the value of video is increased both in real-time and when viewing recorded video. These solutions are now affordable and on the cutting edge of the industry. such as access control. HR. adding real value to the industry rather than just hope. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What technologies/technical implementations do you think will stand out in the coming year? Biltsted: In South Africa. Video analytics have come of age.securitysa. Such opportunities underline the fact that an IP VMS with an open platform is more than security. and larger installations and larger corporate entities are setting a surveillance policy for deployment of unified systems with increasing integration of multiple systems into one platform. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: If there is one piece of advice you could give customers and potential customers as the year starts. improved algorithms (both at the edge and server levels) and data libraries are reducing false alarms and improving reliability across the board. It has improved the speed of innovation for diverse applications. for example. and coupling this with integration of third-party alarm or other data (access control for example). handling more than just security matters – adding measurable long-term returns on investments (ROI) and lowering total costs of ownership (TCO). Milestone sees a growing acceptance for open platform video. finance.com.com www.milestonesys. The technology adds more value than customers initially expect before installation because no one is locked into one set solution for the future. It can deliver ongoing flexibility to respond to changing needs. Today the ease of use. effectively growing solutions parallel to the necessities of our world as they happen. Milestone XProtect Smart Client continues to progress in this direction providing the operators additional visibility and interaction with multiple disparate data that when correlated with video provides the best levels of operational overview. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Do you expect to see your products integrated into third-party solutions or will customers opt for singlebrand solutions in 2013? Biltsted: Value-adding integrations continue to be a huge growth factor to offer efficiency advantages for customers. with interoperability to the video interface show people or vehicles on the move. cdp@milestonesys.+45 88 300 300. production and logistics. challenges and innovations. what would it be? Biltsted: Adapting to change through openness – both today and with the future in mind – will have more positive results. benefiting customers’ bottom line as they are able to lift their implementations to new levels of professionalism and sophistication. www. Single-brand solutions lock customers out of future options to build on their initial investments.
The strong demand for megapixel IP cameras has set the increase to almost 35%. With growing concerns in retail security on asset control. resulting in clear crisp video pictures. with easier integration and intelligent video analytics. POS (point of sale) integration solutions are now being used by retail giants like Woolworths to aid security with till transaction pilferage. cashier performance predicting customer flow patterns.co. Thermal cameras have been around for many years. Abie Ali discusses changes he noticed in the CCTV industry in 2012 and looks at what’s coming? How did the CCTV industry change in 2012? A very strong growth in IP video surveillance was the trend. I’m not too sure if security managers will be in favour of vital video data sitting in the cloud. In the camera market. The growth in IP surveillance will come from small to medium market size deployments. HD-SDI made very little progress. Edge recording on SD cards will become common for users that need basic functionality and act as redundancy for larger VMS systems. helping to lower costs. In this regard. Edge recording onto SD cards is a great technology handling recordings directly onto the IP camera. Yet another trend will see video being recorded in the cloud. This trend of super megapixel cameras will evolve as VMS servers will have faster processing power. The industry is taking to megapixel IP cameras because of many VMS (video management systems) available. 22 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. A single panoramic camera offers a 360-degree view providing a greater situational awareness than a single camera normally provides.za. we will see development in the HD camera segment. +27 (0)11 496 2300. also reducing licensing costs by requiring only one licence instead of multiple cameras and licences to cover the same area.com . This year will see the demand increase as prices get lower. Security managers that have recently installed analogue cameras and want to expand are demanding hybrid solutions. In conclusion. Thermal cameras will never replace IR or low light cameras in the foreseeable future due to price. Frank Street has been developing its own video analytics called ROM (Retail Operations Management). For more information contact Frank Street. buddy transactions and preventing suspicious transactions like dubious credits. however. due to price being high and limited recorder support compared to megapixel IP cameras.frankstreet. VMS will have a significant growth due to the migration from analogue to IP cameras. for effective management of sales. Added to that is the fact that costs are too high. The other trend in the next five years will see video analytics take on a new dimension in surveillance. low light and WDR (wide-dynamic range) optimisations. Trends in the next five years I expect to see include 10 or more megapixel IP super-resolution cameras entering the market.securitysa. but still giving the flexibility to expand into IP technology. Panoramic cameras have gained attention of the CCTV market and will grow over the years. Frank Street.co. Video analytics will certainly be a game changer in the surveillance market. Many VMS software packages have the functionality for dewarping and dividing the 360-degree panoramic camera into quad and dual 180-degree video pictures. mostly deployed by the military. and is sure to prove itself successful in the years to come. at the moment. ROM is an effective business management tool. sales@frankstreet. Hybrid systems have made a great impact in the CCTV market offering both analogue and IP connectivity. government installations and high-level security companies.SURVEILLANCE TRENDS FOR 2013 Surveillance trends By Abie Ali. by integrating software and high megapixel IP cameras into a business management system. operational management. queue management and retail security monitoring. www. The ROM software uses CCTV cameras for POS interfacing and video analytics for shrinkage control. These super resolution cameras will cover a larger viewing area.za. the future for the surveillance market looks strong with the fast-paced evolution of technology and the market adapting to it.
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za 24 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. For more information contact SmartProtect. The system allows centralisation of data from multiple security systems into a database and is then displayed in the video management interface. info@smartprotect. Once the operator has acknowledged these procedures a full audit trail is also in place. By thinking out of the box there is great value in combining data and linking video to data transactions. After a request from clients to be better able to manage multiple systems on a common platform. SmartProtect. www. There is a growing need to add business intelligence to systems. The integration component centralises all events and transactions with relevant video feeds.com . Other examples include weighbridge information or licence plates. In addition. Video can be searched for any event or transaction. This gives the operator optimised situational awareness. All this data adds value to the video system. a software development company.smartprotect. the name of an employee who is listed in the access control system database can be used as a search item to view the relevant video footage pertaining to his movement throughout the facilities. Because there is a great need for customised or client-specific solutions. allowing him to make the best decision in a fast expeditious manner.co.securitysa. a third component – custom integration – has recently been added. Initially there were two components – Integration and Reports. This is facilitated through SmartProtect.SYSTEM INTEGRATOR PROFILE Integrated central monitoring SmartProtect enables monitoring of multiple system events with video. but also about user activity. The integration module allows for post-event investigations. For instance. The SmartProtect system is currently a generic plug-in system for the Milestone video management platform. An added benefit of the integration is the ability to prompt the decision-making process with standard operating procedures (SOP). thus reducing the need to separately view multiple systems.za. The report module was initially developed as a data mining tool to present data in a more refined manner.co. Systems can be administrated remotely and can provide predefined automatic reports. last year publicly launched its product offering. the system adds superior business intelligence not only by providing pertinent information about the hardware health status of the systems that are linked. Many end-users have preferred historical systems that they would like to link with video and this facility will effectively cater for this requirement.
Bidvest Magnum Technology does not have off-the-shelf security solutions. national key points. repair and maintain your existing system. comfortable and cost-efficient.jasco.co. and is responsible for sales. along with a true understanding of the security challenges faced by organisations of all sizes.bidvestmagnum. The business possesses great depth of skill and experience. Tel: 0861 867 8867 (TVMS) sales@tvms. Skilled. commercial-industrial and infrastructure markets.co. we analyse the client’s needs.za UTM Group UTM Group is a provider of end-to-end total security management services with integrated solutions.co. We pride ourselves on quality. fire detection: audio evacuation and public address. Tel: +27 (0)11 781 1341 email@example.com www. Hi-Tech Security Solutions provides a list of system integrators end users can contact to discuss theirintegrated security solution requirements. universities. including government.com www.co. Tel: 086 022 2266 info@utmgroup. engineering and maintenance services. CCTV.co.cardcontrolsystems.co.co. transportation. Tel: +27 (0)11 695 8000 firstname.lastname@example.org Basix Group The Basix Group. For details on how to include your company in this listing contact email@example.com. Tel: +27 (0)11 210 3500 Head Office firstname.lastname@example.org. building management. shopping malls.securitysa. It specialises in fully integrated fire and security systems both nationally and internationally.za www. And we can evaluate. Tel: +27 (0)11 907 3192 cardcon@mweb. communications and time management solutions. Tel: +27 (0)11 894 7127 kleroux@multivid. serves government and private sector customers in the financial.tvms.co. Global experience across diverse markets positions Honeywell as a technology leader renowned for delivering value.eohii.co.za Bidvest Magnum We design. From design. installation and maintenance to monitoring.za www. profits and assets and deliver business benefits. upgrade.utmgroup.za Honeywell Building Solutions Honeywell Building Solutions is a leading provider of integrated technology solutions that support innovative ways of working. install and maintain integrated security solutions. access control. priority alarms and embedding standard operating procedures to quickly prompt the operator to make the correct response.basixtech.za EOH Intelligent Infrastructure EOH Intelligent Infrastructure is a wholly owned subsidiary of EOH. time and attendance. and a strong presence throughout RSA.co. a global provider of intelligent IP video solutions. CCS can design and install systems to suit your needs and budget.za Jasco Security Solutions Jasco Security Solutions (incorporating Scafell and Multivid) designs. advise on optimum solutions.co. Specialise in surveillance: access control and T&A. installation and support of products on the African continent. installs and maintains security technology solutions. As a service to our readers. Designing event-driven systems and centralising information through maps. expertise and experience.za TVMS Our solutions protect and enhance your investments and profits as well as reduce risk.honeywell.za www.za www. we provide turnkey solutions.co.co. install and maintain critical building systems that help keep customer workplaces safe. Basix is the agent for March Networks.camsecure. design the required system and then install it based on clearly defined project guidelines as well as a detailed scope-of-work document. as well as parking control systems.SYSTEM INTEGRATORS’ PROFILES System integrators It takes appropriate knowledge and experience to create solutions that protect people. TVMS offers peace of mind with value for money solutions and exceptional service delivery. Tel: +27 (0)11 555 4949 email@example.com www. security system integrators and solution providers with over 20 years’ experience. access control.za Firetech Projects Firetech Projects provides project solutions to many sectors of the market. fire detection and offer a range of leasing solutions.co. UTM delivers security management services by taking your entire risk value chain into consideration.za www. As client requirements are unique. These include managed surveillance. financial institutions and the private sector.com CCTV Handbook 2013 25 . EOH Intelligent Infrastructure supplies and installs security.co. data mining and meaningful business intelligence. secure.za www. experienced system integrators are the link between technology and solutions that work. We develop.co. Tel: 0861 500 500 Fax: +27 (0)11 844 3500 www. hospitals. We pride ourselves on quality expertise and experience in building asset protection.za Card Control Systems We provide total project solutions based on specialist design. We provide holistic security technology solutions that enable you to concentrate on your core business. Tel: +27 (0)12 667 2338 firetech@firetech. Instead.co. video analytics.za Camsecure A network surveillance and electronic security company that has completed many large and prestigious projects throughout the continent.co.za www. Together with the Jasco Group’s expertise in the ICT and Energy sectors.
they are often neglected in the technical installation of the control room.securitysa. One can even find that monitors on desks would benefit from slight tilting or height adjustments up or down to make for more ergonomic viewing. the increasing use of big 40-inch and large TV type screens has suddenly brought things in too close.OPINION Line of sight and angle of view By Dr Craig Donald. Good control room chairs are difficult to come by and the standard issues often have hydraulic functions that fail fairly quickly.com . leads to people dozing or ‘tuning out’. Ensuring line of sight and angle of view – basic essentials of control room viewing. Leaning back creates the conditions for people to become too relaxed and together with tiredness. a number of monitors mounted high on a console became unviewable Yet operators hadn’t commented on it and a number of screen views were being disregarded on a constant basis over a period of a couple of years because of the viewing angle. and this can affect the colour intensity and the display contrast on screen. While one may think of monitors being too far away. When mounting such displays. In one control room I visited recently. As camera viewing light conditions change. I find that darker images create more difficulty in viewing as soon as one changes the viewing angle from directly in front of the screen. Physical issues Physical issues relate to where and how monitor screens are placed on desks. The other alternative for operators is just to disregard the monitors positioned too high and they cease to be a source of information. this needs to be checked from typical seating and standing positions. Yet despite the importance of these. as soon as one sat down in the seat. The monitors and their angle of view effectively determines the usability of the interface for the operator in order to accomplish surveillance objectives. Besides the actual positioning. Even on my notebook. One can often find monitors placed high up and facing directly away from the wall – this creates a double problem as will be discussed in the section on LCD screens. I’ve divided these up into a few different areas to facilitate looking at the related issues more easily. but the colour range displayed can change as the viewing angle becomes more extreme. The problem with tilting monitors appropriately is further complicated by the fact that the mounting fittings are not standardised and just the process of attaching them to the console or wall is a complicated process that allows little flexibility or ongoing adjustment. A further part of the physical environment that is a common issue is the chairs upon which the operators sit. Distance is also a complicating factor. 26 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. light intensity changes are a common issue beside the daily shift from light into darkness. Where desktop monitors are used in conjunction with wall mounted monitors. the angle at which monitors are attached is also an issue. leaning to the side of their control screens in order to see what kind of effect changes or adjustments may have on the monitor wall. The quality of lighting can change as it gets darker. or monitors fixed to allow a tilting downwards allow an operator to have a more direct view of the scene displayed on screen and facilitate natural viewing. and one almost has to physically lean back in order to view some areas of the screen. Consoles that are inclined slightly forward. consoles or walls within the control room. or lean back in their chairs to avoid muscle strain. At this point with no hydraulic pressure. operators are sitting in the lowest position relative to the ground compared to what is expected. One of the most common issues is placing monitors too high so operators either have to tilt their heads uncomfortably upwards. One of the most critical design issues in any control room design featuring CCTV should be the line of sight and angle of view of monitors to operators. it also presents potential problems for monitors. a simple aspect of ensuring that you can see past the desktop monitor clearly is often neglected. Not only this. and viewing angles of the wall and desk monitors often change as a result. In situations where CCTV is viewing. with visual discomfort and eye strain an additional possible outcome. Operators are looking around or even The screens themselves LCD/LED and plasma screens have their own limitations built in with their possible angles of view. Side views and those from the top and bottom reach points where the quality and contrasts of image deteriorate so much that it becomes difficult to see what is on the screen properly. There are a number of issues relating to how the angle of view affects the quality of surveillance.
Organisation One ideally wants the best line of sight to the most important monitor displays. supervisors and managers internationally. indirect lighting should be used. He is a director of Leaderware which provides instruments for the selection of CCTV operators. resulting in key aspects of incidents being missed. and Advanced Surveillance Body Language courses for CCTV operators. this is most likely to happen when an incident occurs and the operator has to look away in order to make selections or adjustments to screen or to obtain information. He can be contacted on +27 (0)11 787 7811 or craig.com CCTV Handbook 2013 27 . line of sight from the supervisor workstation is also an important element to bear in mind. he or she runs the risk of missing important surveillance information. X-ray screeners and other security personnel in major operations around the world.securitysa. How the available workstation space is occupied by monitors should be based on a usability analysis and what the critical viewing needs are to do surveillance properly. and consults on CCTV management. The line of sight and the angle of view issues also relates to use of communications equipment. never mind sunlight in the control room. There is no need for expert advice for the most part – simply sit in a control room chair at the workstation and see if the setup works for you. This is especially the case with some monitors which have a more reflective surface. yet they are the simplest to prevent and the most common sense one to get right. Yet all too often the monitors are mounted more in line with the fact that technicians want to place as many views as possible in one area. Dr Craig Donald is a human factors specialist in security and CCTV. While I am a fan of natural lighting. Another important part of this is that the control screens that are often used to manage camera selection and things like alarm screens should be in line of sight as much as possible. Where supervisors are also involved in monitoring what is going on. that it was the first time that the client who was a major national installation company had even done such a thing. Direct lighting and fluorescent lighting are also the primary problems in that respect and wherever possible. Ironically.donald@ leaderware. It amazed me at one stage where I sat down with a client and did a mock up on the proposed CCTV workstations to test line of sight and viewing angles. Line of sight and angle of view issues are one of the most common problems in control rooms.com www. which should be positioned so operators can maintain a clear view of the CCTV monitors while handling an incident.Lighting Lighting reflections have one of the most potential disruptive influences on screen displays. Ensuring the design works well in the beginning will solve a lot of problems later. this needs to be channelled or provision needs to be made to adjust the effect of direct light. Where the operator has to look away repeatedly every time something is changed. He also runs CCTV Surveillance Skills and Body Language.
INSTALLATIONS Understand the solution By Joel White. A well-designed indoor mini-dome will allow for surface mounting by simply screwing the back plate onto the surface. and accessories to make the entire installation and commissioning process faster and more efficient. potentially making your operation more cost competitive and profitable. batch assign IP addresses. Configuration software will scan and find the connected cameras on the network. Managing network connectivity Configuring each IP camera on the network is much different to configuring analogue cameras. firstname.lastname@example.org). Installers not only have to physically mount. 50 cameras connected to a single network means the video streams from all the cameras are moving on the same wires simultaneously.com.3af) and PoE+ (802. software. In cases where building codes require plenum-rated flush mount installations. senior product manager. +27 (0)82 566 5274. a camera can include the adaptor necessary to connect into the wiring conduit to meet the code requirements. Joel White Integrators who use these manufacturers’ cameras realise the benefit through higher profitability and a competitive edge in time saved and fewer accessories to purchase. When comparing camera features. Integrators and installers of video surveillance systems face tasks that are common across both analogue and IP video camera systems. setup and configuration must be completed for each deployed device in order for the system to recognise and connect to the camera’s video stream. batch update camera firmware. all cameras are given the same default IP address and a unique MAC address. A well thought-out and designed camera can reduce the man-hours necessary for installation.securitysa. look beyond the high-level specs to understand the whole camera solution. A smarter design has the hole pattern in the back plate positioned to match common electrical gang boxes so the camera can be screwed directly onto the wiring box. outdoor cameras that are warmed by heaters as well as most newer indoor HD PTZ cameras that require additional power to run the pan and tilt motors. Power supply All cameras need electrical power and connectivity to the recording system. Cameras that focus on “installability” will pay dividends in the long run.com Physical installation Cameras that incorporate multiple installation options into the design of the core product save time and money by enabling faster and easier installation and by reducing or often eliminating the need to purchase mounting accessories or adaptors. so the installation environment and camera power/temperature ratings should be carefully considered before deciding on the power supply. Camera installation. and configuration of the cameras on the IP network. Ideally each camera should be named with a common identifier so that it is easy to understand the camera type and location of the camera within the system. For example. www.com . In order for the network to distinguish one camera’s video stream data from another. For IP cameras both these needs can be fulfilled using a PoE (Power over Ethernet) network where only a single RJ-45 cable connection to the camera is necessary. the same camera can be flush mounted to a surface using integrated swing out clamps to secure it on locations such as a drop ceiling. Tyco Security Products. Imagine you are installing 50 cameras. In certain cases. each of which must be named and assigned a unique IP address. To aid integrators in these new challenges. The growing deployment of IP video systems has added new layers of complexity that the installer must master to be successful. Welldesigned camera configuration software is an indispensable installation and configuration tool. Understand the whole camera solution. allow for individual camera naming and. power considerations. but must also understand the configuration and load balancing of IP networks. The task can be accomplished by opening each camera’s Web user interface and assigning a new IP address. PoE power has two standards – PoE (802. as multiple IP cameras are capable of running on the same physical network wire.tycosecurityproducts. each camera is assigned a unique IP address. setup and connect the cameras to the recorder. The best camera manufacturers listen to the voice of customer and the integrators’ perspective to improve on physical installation. It is important to note that the power supply used will directly affect the low temperature ratings of heated outdoor cameras. wiring. When manufactured. Time is money so consider using cameras that incorporate features and technology that allow for easier installation and configuration. PoE+ is inadequate and an AC power supply must be used to achieve the lowest operating temperature rating of the camera. Camera installability. the best camera manufacturers look beyond simply delivering high quality video capture functionalities. if necessary. These vendors are also devoted to employing significant resources on product design. With its back plate removed. A more efficient way is to use the smart configuration software provided by the manufacturer to manage configuration of multiple cameras automatically. PoE+ delivers higher power and is often used with 28 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. For more information contact Tyco Security Products.
com CCTV Handbook 2013 29 .www.securitysa.
Recording these feeds enables personnel to discover exactly what occurred in case of any type of incident. CCTV is important. often forms the bulk of modern security solutions. consistent set of rules can be applied across the board. as they have the ability to deliver all-important visuals across all areas of operations to ensure health and safety regulations are adhered to. newer solutions built using a standards-based approach incorporate greater levels of integration capability. offering greater value in an area which is often a grudge purchase. and acts as a deterrent against unlawful or unethical behaviour within the workplace. Jasco Security Solutions. greater value can be derived for improved ROI. However. Without the right partner with the necessary integration skills. in order to leverage maximum value from CCTV solutions. or building management solution. This then alerts security to potential problems. there may be an overlap in their functionality or the independent running and variety of different rules may in fact leave vulnerabilities and loopholes in the security system. to the right people. fire detection and suppression. to ensure that alerts are sent out according to the correct parameters. and that optimal security can be maintained at all times. CCTV delivers the benefit of having eyes on the ground. that they are using dangerous equipment in a Kobus le Roux safe manner. alarms and access control. Regardless of the mix of technology however it is advisable to obtain the services of a security and integration specialist. If each of these systems is run independently. This master platform will ensure that a single. This allows for both proactive and reactive action to be taken. something which in the case of security can be detrimental as issues are typically only discovered when something goes wrong. For more information contact Jasco Security Solutions. it can assist with closing loopholes in security and can help organisations to derive operational as well as security benefits from their solutions. all solutions may be installed correctly and may seem to be functioning in tandem. using a central platform or building management system. Upgrades may be necessary in order to ensure interoperability and a seamless solution. by integrating this solution into other areas of security. using a central platform or building management system. In order to effectively manage these integrated solutions. productivity is maintained and crimes can be prevented or more effectively prosecuted. such as alarms.INTEGRATION Integrated proactive security solutions By Kobus le Roux. CCTV. in order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. helping to identify perpetrators and backup other findings for swifter prosecution of offenders. www. with multiple reference sites across various industries to illustrate a track record of success. or visual access to all areas at all times. but they may not be correctly integrated. they should also all be incorporated into a master management platform. This not only enables security personnel to see what is happening. +27 (0)11 894 7127. the process can become more complex as a result of legacy software and firmware issues. including access control. CCTV solutions offer a number of benefits by providing a visual reference and evidence of incidents. as a result. Integrated CCTV also ensures that loopholes and vulnerabilities can be eliminated. When it comes to integration. to ensure swift action to be taken.com . kleroux@multivid. not only from a security perspective. appropriate action can be taken in the event of fire or theft and disasters can be prevented in many cases. which can be corrected. alarms and access control. and alarms.co. When dealing with a mixture of old technologies and a newer management platform. recorded CCTV footage can be used to augment evidence in a court of law. which those with malicious intent can exploit. In order to derive maximum value and return on investment (ROI) from CCTV. it is important to integrate CCTV into other security solutions. these solutions should be integrated with other security systems including fire. The knowledge that they are being watched also helps to incentivise workers to be more productive and efficient.jasco. it also records this footage. By integrating these solutions and incorporating proactive monitoring of the entire security system. While CCTV is often a grudge purchase. Crime is an unfortunate reality in South Africa and. however. Control rooms can monitor that employees are doing their jobs.za 30 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. This not only helps to ensure that all systems work together in harmony. In the case of criminal activity. enabling remedial action to be taken and processes to be improved to prevent similar problems from occurring in future. CCTV solutions are part and parcel of modern security systems. fire and access control. but also in terms of operations and even health and safety. However.za. that all solutions follow a single set of rules. that they are not accessing hazardous areas and more. assuming that the CCTV feed is monitored by a control room. Solutions operating independently of each other can fail to deliver on the expected benefits.securitysa. along with access control solutions. both in terms of security and operational benefits. CCTV solutions have become an important part of any corporate or enterprise security solution. it should be integrated with other security systems including fire. to all technologies.co. An integration partner and security specialist should have proven skills.
securitysa.www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 31 .
but they still share some basic limitations. in fact more than what the human eye is capable of capturing.” added Nyingeni. but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important.” said Alex Bantjes. “Sony’s View-DR utilises wide dynamic range technology to compensate for strong backlight. “Low light cameras need to provide a high level of detail. IP surveillance at Miro Distribution. and Visibility Enhancer (VE). but do they actually produce the goods at the end of the day? “In addition to the common camera offering low light technologies.com . the high-speed Exmor CMOS sensor. He needs to ensure that the selected cameras can reduce false alarms and be integrated into existing systems. while the opposite is true of outdoor applications. This is especially useful where users require colour information in the video to enhance recognition and identification of objects. but their customisation to the application needs to be considered for optimum results. Lightfinder technology offers the perfect solution for indoor and outdoor surveillance. Some cameras have their own built-in LEDs but this has a limited range and images are rarely usable for identification past 15 metres. Unfortunately cameras with specialised sensors used to enhance their low light abilities (EMCCD for example). Independent lighting (white or infrared) is essential to supplement the cameras in the provision of a clear and bright image under low light conditions” said Charles Volschenk. business development manager – MEA at Axis Communications. View-DR is a combination of Sony’s full capture Wide-D technology. “This new technology compensates for strong backlight and performs in an identical manner to the human eye in terms of being able to simultaneously see dark and bright scenes. “The system integrator determines the quality and end results.” Volschenk said that most low light cameras are reliable. “There are some good low light cameras on the market. It is therefore critical to ensure a scene in which camera images can be recorded. product manager. are still quite costly.” Volschenk continued. Alves concurred with this view adding Charles Volschenk. product manager. Thermal cameras have definite advantages because they do not rely on visible light for imaging. The Exmor CMOS sensor captures images at four times the speed of previous DynaView and some other Wide-D technologies in the industry. most people prefer a low lux rating. In contrast to conventional day and night cameras that switch to black and white in darkness. cameras incorporating the Lightfinder technology can maintain colour in very dark conditions. Broadcast & Professional Division at Sony.securitysa. which include day/night with infrared and thermal imaging. There is no doubt that the need for low light cameras is important. Video Security (IP and Analogue). Sony’s View-DR delivers a much clearer picture. Geutebrück Southern Africa Roy Alves 32 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. “There is a broad range of low light cameras available on the market. “Users need to remember that the low light capabilities typically decrease with megapixel cameras.” said Edward Nyingeni. For indoor use. External light sources work very well in conjunction with a low light camera and infrared can be used when the lighting needs to be unobtrusive. especially in low light or at night. viewed and be subjected to later analysis. This is especially important when the colour of a suspect’s clothing or accessories could lead to apprehension and arrest. cannot be recorded and therefore it cannot be used for later analysis or evidence. Alex Bantjes Question of reliability Reliability depends on the implementation of the camera.LOW LIGHT CAMERAS Coming out of the dark By Allyson Koekhoven. “What the camera cannot see.” said Roy Alves. and can easily be integrated with numerous application software solutions. MD of Geutebrück South Africa. Thermal cameras function well in low light but are unfortunately not of much use as an identification tool. where built-in illuminators are preferred. according to Bantjes. Cameras with Lightfinder technology have all the advantages of other network cameras such as progressive scan.” he added.
CMOS chips will get bigger to compensate for more of a commodity. so users need to and the bandwidth required under back light circumstances where intensity request an on-site test before will reduce for high-quality of illumination can vary excessively.” added Alves. Prices will also start to reduce so that it becomes built-in IR LEDs. camera. although at an increased price. I believe that thermal cameras will not only become more affordable. geous in terms of its ability to one will be able to revert view a scene clearly.” Bantjes acknowledged this and added that as the technology Bantjes concluded. On-site analytics will within the scene. irrespecto the stored image in the tive of variances in brightness camera.”– Wikipedia.com CCTV Handbook 2013 33 . with greater compensation and gain control.securitysa. WDR is advantagoes offline for any reason. Do images.” becomes more mainstream. not all WDR cameras camera is intended to provide clear images even “The storage requirements are equal. One will be able to when there are both very bright and very dark not simply accept technical store images on the camera areas simultaneously in the field of view of the datasheet stipulated lux levels so that if a DVR is used and or WDR claims.that not only can the footage be used as forensic evidence. but that low light cameras are playing a bigger role in proactive surveillance Bantjes said that low light cameras are typically used for intrusion detection and perimeter security. pixel cameras to be competitive. www. “The wide dynamic range (WDR) function of a However. but that their image quality will improve” said Volschenk.” said Volschenk. namely making any final decisions. be very little image noise. also improve so the need to stream data will be reduced. we will likely see more accurate representation of colour and shading. “In-camera lighting capabilities are advancing but these will probably never be sufficient in extreme low light situations.” “WDR technology will continue to improve as the goalposts “There will be a move away from pure low lux ratings to constantly move. with the playing field between suppliers being lower light and ¾ or ½ inch sensors will allow the higher megalevelled. Alves said that imaging in low light cameras will improve to a What about WDR? stage where it is superior to “Wide dynamic range is the human eye and there will now almost standard issue. “Thermal cameras are useful in situations where smoke or fog is a problem as they allow the operator to see the outlines of people in visibility conditions that would not be suitable for other low light technologies.
Figures 3 and 4 have insets showing data from the short exposure image in the long exposure image and vice versa. clearly show details both in the well-lit entrance. called the exposure time. This white paper explains why standard cameras struggle with WDR scenes and how good WDR performance can be achieved in a video surveillance camera. there is a need for security cameras that are capable of detecting items in both dark and extremely bright areas. very common in retail and office applications. transportation. where parts of the scene are in direct sunlight and other parts are in deep shadows. it is possible to extract some information from the dark areas (Figure 5). for example. In principle.com . Typical situations include: • Surveillance of entrance doors with daylight outside and a darker indoor environment. • In city surveillance. Challenges Light. objects. indoor. This is. Bit depth The bit depth depicts the number of bits used to ‘capture’ the information in one pixel. it is shorter for pixels located in brighter parts of the image than for pixels in darker regions. the image is underexposed. • Vehicles with strong headlights. or makes the bright part visible. WDR techniques facilitate the ability to assimilate information from all light levels in the scene at the same time. Below we can see an example of such a scene taken with two different exposures using a standard camera. The more intense the light. the image is overexposed the dark areas. and the dark shadows inside the parking garage. Expressed differently. This maximum exposure time might be both too long and too short simultaneously for the same image. The image to the left shows details that were A good WDR surveillance lost in the dark zone. and therefore. Cameras usually accumulate photons for a limited time. To the thereby losing details in right.securitysa. but we can clearly see the limitations of the modest dynamic range image of a standard camera when compared with details provided by using the brighter image or a camera with WDR capability (Figure 6). referred to as wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes. for example 12 bits instead of 10 bits. Axis takes us on a journey into the intricacies of wide dynamic range. One particularly challenging situation is when there is a lot of variation in light levels simultaneously within a scene. Figures 3 and 4. image – capture both these two extremes. thereby burning out the bright areas. Thus a camera image is just an estimation of a scene. • Environments with lots of reflected light. It is obviously a user requirement to be able to reliably identify persons. the higher the number of photons per second are illuminating a scene. A camera can detect reflected photons from a scene. Typically. driving directly towards the camera. The pixel size in a digital camera affects the dynamic range of the camera. vehicles and activities in situations where there is a wide range of lighting conditions. ie. also with daylight outside and low light levels indoors. The correct exposure time for a pixel is one that maximises the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). pixels and dynamic range Light is made up of discrete bundles of energy called photons. Wide dynamic range imaging is a method used to produce images that try to recreate the full scene content in scenes that have a dynamic range that cannot be captured by standard cameras in one image. The image to the right shows the details that were lost in the camera can – in one bright zone 34 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The maximum length of the exposure time is limited by the frame rate – if the camera is a video camera. but it cannot detect all the available photons. Dynamic range is defined at pixel level to be the maximum signal divided by the noise floor. perimeter surveillance and other outdoor applications. One limitation is that a camera can only cope with a limited number of photons per exposure interval. Clearly both images lack information from the full scene. in office buildings with many windows or in shopping malls. Parking garage. as shown to the right. but in reality it will increase the image quality only if the sensor data is good enough. • Vehicles entering a parking garage or tunnel. If the sensor data is noisy. Hence. would theoretically increase the number of levels that can be detected. security cameras will have a bit depth of 10 bits. for example. A higher bit depth. Parking garage. The noise floor is a combination of many noise sources within the sensor. as shown to the left. indoor. there is not Background Standard surveillance cameras (without WDR) encounter difficulties in scenes with great variation in light levels. since both bright and dark areas might be present in the image.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Wide dynamic range: Challenges and solutions Axis Communications white paper. The analogue-to-digital converter is another component that may limit the dynamic range. There are many surveillance situations that offer difficult lighting conditions. Figures 1 and 2. Each of them is captured in a way that either makes the dark part visible. To the left.
which is an expensive task as described above.securitysa. Even with a perfect camera. Detail from the parking garage scene. Increasing meaningful bit depth above 12 bits is generally a very costly exercise both from a component cost perspective and from a complexity perspective. It is also important to keep in mind that the display in front of the security manager normally only has a bit depth of 8 bits/colour channel to show the video images. depending on how the image is created. One way is simply to combine two or more full frame images obtained with different exposure times. One way to achieve WDR is to use different exposure times for different pixels. Digital images are subject to a wide variety of noise types. extracted from the darker image Figure 6. Noise When designing WDR cameras – or for that matter. This is because photon shot noise is due to the nature of light itself. resulting in increased noise www. So this means sacrificing something else. or from a WDR camera much to win by increasing the number of bits. There are several different kinds of noise that might be present in an image. Extending the dynamic range to achieve WDR There are a number of ways to improve the dynamic range of a camera without improving the bit depth of the pixels. there will be noise. The same detail taken from the brighter image. A camera can compensate for the noise in the image. Multiple exposure times. This means that the algorithm to translate from 10 bits in the sensor to the 8 bits in the display is critical in achieving good WDR performance.com CCTV Handbook 2013 35 . and the noise results in pixel values that do not reflect the true intensities of the real scene. This can be implemented in various ways. but doing so can result in different types of artifacts (see below).Figure 5. introducing more electrical and advanced components and functions. i. as they are often implemented. any camera – noise is a major challenge.e. Subject taken from a standard camera with unchanged settings. This means combining signal in shadows from one image with signal from highlights in another. will however affect imaging of moving Figure 7. Subject is moved into darker and darker shade.
Ghosting Multiple exposure times will affect imaging of moving targets since the motion blur will be different for objects with different brightness. This gives you an indication of when WDR technology must be used. A number of different artifacts may exist in a WDR image. It is only an indication since standard cameras may.securitysa. Such light is a challenge for all cameras since the camera is normally assuming a constant illumination. as various image artifacts are introduced. Using a low dynamic range camera that is configured to avoid clipping the highlights. This might be that this is not the same aesthetically unpleasing. artifacts like stripes and visible pulsing might be present. some more common than others. Parking garage. Note noise. Applications and needs Not all applications require WDR. incorporates the WDR-dynamic capture technology 36 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. which dramatically limit the potential of the solution. The goal is to show as much detail in all shadows and highlights as possible and thus mimic what the human visual system is doing when the focus is moved from one object to another object. extended dynamic the dB value is 60 dB. The range. Image from camera with high dB targets since the motion blur and object location will be different for objects with different brightness. of course. Measuring dynamic range In many cases. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter areas and thereby generate ghosting. for example. Motion Motion blur can occur when the image being recorded changes during the recording of a single frame. be more smeared in its darker parts than in its brighter parts and will appear to be at two different locations. the following image examples show what happens when a person is moved into darker and darker shade. either due to rapid movement or if the exposure time is too long versus the movement in the scene. If your scene is closest to type B and you answered image 9 or higher. This is one example of artifacts in the image. The pected places. Which image is still acceptable? If your scene is closest to the type A in Table 1. In WDR cameras. See the next section for more information about artifacts. then a standard camera should be able to cover your needs. there will be a price to pay. One dB unit is a measure of a typical example is that a ratio. and you answered image 6 or higher to the question. This is sometimes also referred to as ‘cartooning’. or in terms of image quality. If the ratio is 1000:1. but is generally a small which was used in Table price to pay for a much 1. as the illumination ratio. Figure 8(b). If your scene is closest to the very difficult type C. namely the ratio of smooth area like a wall the radiance of the brightwith only slight illuminaest and the dimmest tion differences might object that can be caphave areas with visible tured by the camera. A moving black and white football will. then a standard camera is still OK to use. indoor. you must be able to accept image 12 or higher to be able to use a standard camera. It is a way to describe how well the camera can cope with Another visible artifact that might occur is that noise may appear in unexdifficult scenes containing both very bright and very dark objects. for example. Artifacts When using information from WDR images. the dynamic range capability of a camera is presented Visualisation in dB units. vary in quality. the slightest change in the scene can generate artifacts. value is calculated as the Image capture logarithm of the ratio (in Figure 9. whether in terms of money since sensors or processors become prohibitively expensive. Image from camera with low dB also look different due to the fact that the image is now so rich in reproduced tones that it is difficult to display it on a standard screen. 3) times 20. Regardless of how the dynamic range is extended. The image is taken from an Axis camera that A WDR image might this case.WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE Figure 8(a). these artifacts might look somewhat different due to the utilised capturing techniques. A moving object will.com . Artificial illumination A related artifact comes from certain modulated light sources like fluorescent lighting. Depending on the camera type.
Some modern surveillance cameras use sensors with extended dynamic range. The camera has captured the very high dynamic range of the scene. To fully appreciate the new capabilities of the cameras.alves@axis. roy.com/files/whitepaper/ wp_light_sensitivity_41137_en_1011_lo. and which is available in AXIS Q1604 Network Cameras. see the following links: • Axis Communications – ‘In the best of light – The challenges of minimum illumination’. Axis is normally modest in the given ratios since a high quality WDR image also depends on the level of artifacts and the quality of the processing. which allow them to better handle difficult scenes. how do you want to present the captured image? Conclusion There are many surveillance situations where there is great variation in light levels within the scene. www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 37 . Therefore. WDR-dynamic capture uses the latest developments in sensor technology. The dB number cannot. and using advanced image processing. Axis’ latest solution is Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture. image processing and Axis’ unique competence to build network cameras with WDR performance optimised for security and surveillance requirements. The first picture was taken with a camera with a high dB value.Table 1. 1:2000 The dimmest detectable level can be defined as the noise floor of the sensor pixel. www. +27 (0)11 548 6780. C: Dark indoor scene with opening. This presents a technical challenge for security cameras. it is best to test them. and it is difficult to achieve good WDR performance without introducing image artifacts. Image results from a WDR camera will differ depending on such aspects as the complexity of the scene and amount of movement. fully describe the WDR capacity. When comparing product datasheets from different camera manufacturers. Measuring how well a camera handles dynamic ranges in a scene www. With this definition.axis. since they can increase the upper detection limit using techniques such as multi-frame exposures. As with any video surveillance situation. Useful links For more information.com.axis. Axis recommends testing the cameras in the real environment before making a decision. Axis introduced its improved WDR technology.com/files/whitepaper/ wp_lighting_for_netvid_41222_en_1012_lo. Which one is the best from a video surveillance perspective? is difficult. Lobby with large windows. it is important to know that the decibel unit is just an approximation of the dynamical capabilities of the camera. which is a technology optimised for surveillance applications. do not be surprised if an Axis camera outperforms a competing camera even if the given ratio is slightly lower.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘Lighting for network video – Lighting design guide’. and the units typically used on product datasheets (such as dB) are not a reliable indication of actual WDR performance. Figure 9 is an image of a parking garage scene taken with an Axis camera that incorporates WDR-dynamic capture technology. since any signal below this level is drowned in noise. but that will not necessarily always be the best solution to achieve WDR. Some special sensors can extend this to readings above 100 dB. however.pdf • Axis Communications – ‘CCD and CMOS sensor technology’. a good image sensor can reach a dynamic range of about 70 dB. Typical warehouse scene with door or opening to the sunlight outside.axis. Example A typical example is a sunlit train station with a part of the platform shielded from the sun. and the second picture was taken with a camera with a low dB value. Type of scene and matching illumination ratio Type of scene A: Sunlight/shadow.axis. the most important question is: what do you want to see? And.securitysa. the camera has further adapted the image to the modest dynamic range of a standard display screen. called Wide Dynamic Range-dynamic capture. This will extend the dynamic range of the sensor.pdf For more information contact Axis Communications. As always. Illumination ratio 1:20 1:200 B: Window illumination indoor.com Axis’ solution for wide dynamic range In 2011. com/files/whitepaper/wp_ccd_cmos_40722_en_1010_lo. www. Figure 8 shows two other examples of pictures taken from a scene with wide dynamic range. www.
” According to MJ Oosthuizen. as both camera and recording device need to be changed. This is because HD SDI (serial digital interface) is uncompressed video data that requires expanded amounts of storage. I do. with less than 12 cameras and within a range of 200 m. “Until recently. Is the positive buzz around HD CCTV cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Is the positive buzz around high-definition CCTV (HDcctv or HD CCTV) cameras justified? Are they really the next best thing or just a passing craze? Tristram Borgmann. “When you replace the existing camera with an HD solution. sales manager at Reditron. The problem is that HD over coax is not a cost-effective solution. believe however. In addition.” said Oosthuizen. He continued: “An HD CCTV system does not have onboard analytics or storage and uncompressed video is sent in HD format to recorder to be captured and compressed. uncompressed high definition picture. This makes the system more expensive than analogue or even IP solutions where modular migration is possible. In this arena. but that there is still a long road for these systems to travel. There are two main. overriding issues with HD CCTV: storage and lack of intelligence.securitysa. Bearing these factors in mind.” Borgmann said that an increasing number of installers are becoming aware of the advantages of HD CCTV. that HD CCTV systems will become more intelligent and cost effective as the technology matures. there is huge potential for HD CCTV. believes that HD CCTV does offer definite advantages for the end-user. and the technology on both ends of the solution needs to be compatible. you get a realtime.com . were analogue. combined with the lack of the majority of features of analogue or IP solutions. “HD CCTV is highdefinition over a coax cable. “Analogue is not yet dead. account manager for Grundig. where users are 38 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. it’s a good idea to look at the client’s total solution rather than costing HD-SDI products individually. HD CCTV system installations require no training and no IT knowledge since anyone who can install an analogue system can readily install an HD CCTV system.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL HD CCTV – hype or reality? By Allyson Koekhoven. you will need to change the recording platform. 80% of installations.
an 18x. Later. or each analogue channel can be displayed individually.” Grundig’s full HD-SDI range includes a box camera. The resulting video is of similar resolution to D1. on the other hand. it forms part of a hybrid solution. GTH-C0041C. HD-SDI channel. within a single camera view of the HD-SDI DVR. streams four analogue D1 video channels into one. if they replace an existing camera. “Each analogue channel is recorded as one quarter of the Full HD. product manager at Grundig. The four analogue video channels can be displayed in quad format. analogue to single channel HD-SDI converter to its HD-SDI product range. “The four channel. Our larger system integrators. 8 and 16 channel DVRs. The CVBS composite video converter.com CCTV Handbook 2013 39 . fixed dome and vandal-resistant fixed dome. then IP is the route to go. perhaps in less critical positions on-site. it will communicate with an HD-SDI system and assess the clients’ true requirement and budget. Oosthuizen added that installer education plays a large role in the system selection. thus placing it in a firm position to overtake the HD-SDI CCTV offering to the traditional market. outdoor bullet. “Many installers do not understand the new technology. Andreas Kronwald. Simple analogue upgrades Grundig has added a four channel. Users should be cautioned that they need to establish whether. We have found that even in instances where there are requests for HD-SDI. 1920 x 1080p HD-SDI video channel. require a flexible solution that can be integrated into a feature-rich IP platform. This is especially true where it is critical to receive live pictures in areas like petrol stations. external.” Oosthuizen said. PTZ dome. It allows installers to consider re-using existing analogue cameras and coaxial cabling within a new CCTV system. “The new 960H technology is fractionally more expensive than current standard 4CIF/D1 solutions but is higher-end analogue with built-in prediction capabilities. simple and cost effective. retail shops. “HD CCTV is ideal where you need HD with awesome picture quality. The demand for HD-SDI solutions are minor. is currently still popular and drives sales strongly. Full HD. the highest available for analogue video.” “At least 65% of all analogue sales are for cameras that can record on a standard higher resolution DVR. with IR LED options and true day/night functionality. rather than a best-fit solution. www.implementing HD CCTV into their existing analogue system. if budgets permit.securitysa. but the offering on 960H platform or even D1. explains. if you need analytics or the installation is large. the analogue cameras can be upgraded. For more information on Grundig Security products contact +49 2191 374 9883 or visit www.grundig-security. cashier zones and banks. reducing costs. they are more focused on finding the most cost-effective solution. analogue to HD-SDI converter makes upgrading existing analogue systems to HD-SDI quick.” said Oosthuizen.com. over long distances.” Borgmann concluded. However. and 4.
high-end megapixel cameras can be up to around 8 megapixel. With HD televisions also conforming to the standard. of an IP camera – frame rate. type of Megapixel camera manufacturers have often camera.securitysa. megapixel cameras. Until recently. This is more expensive MJ Oosthuizen – Reditron better systems are a direct result of the superior but provides a much clearer and crisper image. Since each type of business varies. 5. etc. also weighed in on the 40 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. applications. There’s a wide range of megapixel cameras 2. it The HD standard requires footage to be is important to determine what requirements are created at 25 or 30 frames per second dependneeded to sustain certain defined performance ing on location. 4. if you reduce the frame rate. such as frame rate. per second. they caprunning through the cable (UTP). 6. Miro’s brand manager for Vivotek. 3. 7. and vice versa. Frame rates For video. provides a powerful palette of imaging tools The HD standard requires that frames are for industry professionals. sometimes offering as low as four width.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL High-deﬁnition vs megapixel Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? Is there really a difference between high-definition (HD) cameras and megapixel devices? We asked two technically-oriented people active in the CCTV camera industry to give us their opinion of the HD vs megapixel debate – if indeed there really is a debate. ture lines 1. Why does the HD format exist? HD format was created to try and standardise the video transmissions of Miro comments Alex Bantjes. Conventional megapixel available today with selectable resolution and cameras often have a number of megapixel frame rates that are ideal for general surveillance resolutions to choose from. 720p (1280×720. Sub streams for Similar to the image size. there are three main fluctuating This is the biggest advantage to HD cameras factors that contribute to bandwidth hogging over megapixel cameras. At present. etc with the second frame Whether you prefer megapixel cameras or capture lines 2. Considerations when selecting the Progressive scan cable media include number of cameras. his response on some of the differences between traditional HD and megapixel cameras. frames per second while the UK runs at 25. just less present will be lost. resolution and Alex Bantjes – Miro megapixel cameras have offered very low compression. For example. the aspect ratio of viewing across multiple stations allows flexible HD cameras is 16:9 whereas other megapixel designs. Below. location of the cameras (environment). for example the US runs at 30 parameters. If IP camera manufacturers begin to adopt the HD format for their cameras. the format will need Image sizes to be updated to include higher and higher There are two main resolutions for the HD resolutions otherwise the extra detail possible at specification.com . one second. the factured cheaply but often causes blurred wide range of high resolution cameras today images when fast-moving objects are in view. This can be manuits subset HD based on your specific needs. imaging possible with these high-resolution camera technologies. used interlaced images to create megapixel distance to the server rooms. Cable selection and bandwidth go handin-hand. These options provide system designers with a high degree of flexibility and Picture aspect ratios confidence in their designs. type of terminafootage. Any one of these factors can be frame rates compared to low-resolution throttled back to reduce the network bandcameras. ing can be utilised through a distributed storage architecture. This has largely been due to Frames per second (FPS) describes the number processing power available on IP cameras as of full video frames displayed or recorded within well as network restraints. while the highest resolution for reviewcameras offer a variety of formats such as 4:3. than 1 megapixel) and 1080p (1920×1080. In the first frame. frames per second compared to 30 frames you can increase the resolution.1 megapixel). and whether power will be create the image. video output can be made to any HDTV without cropping or resizing. The HD format has worked well in forcing camera manufacturers to increase processing power and the potential of their IP cameras but conversely it may also begin to limit the development of megapixel cameras. It’s crystal clear that progressively scanned. Reditron’s MJ Oosthuizen commented that HD cameras are just a different form of megapixel cameras. This essentially uses two frames to tion equipment.
An image stream is defined as megapixel once the image exceeds a million pixels. • Flexible image formats: 4:3. Although both terms are closely related. • Progressive scanning: all lines in each frame are drawn in sequence. aspect ratio. Definitions High-definition • Conforms better to multimedia systems. etc.HD/megapixel debate. Modern surveillance systems are not exclusively used to display images on monitors or television screens. In short.1 megapixel. • Frame rate: 25/30. • Two resolutions: HD (720p) and full HD (1080p). where the frame rate is lowered when there is no motion in the image and then sped up to capture details of moving objects. Reditron www.securitysa. It should also be noted that the term 720P is not in fact the same as one megapixel. • Frame rate: 3-15 frames per second – can run up to 30fps on lower MP rated cameras. since 720P (1280x720) actually has an image of nine hundred thousand pixels or 0.com CCTV Handbook 2013 41 . frame rate and scan type. 5:4. is actually a result of the analogue broadcasting/CCTV camera industry.3 megapixel) or higher. HD on the other hand is often too restrictive to meet the requirements of today’s surveillance systems.” High definition. will by definition not be available in an HD stream but only in megapixel. • 16:9 image format. • Flexible resolutions: 1 to 10 megapixels (or more).9 megapixels. Megapixel • One million or more pixels of resolution. but resolution and image format choices are more limited. For example. Bantjes says. measured by pixels of vertical resolution. • Maximum resolution: 2. frame rates etc. megapixel based system design allows for more flexible surveillance systems that can be viewed on many different types of devices at varying frame rates and resolutions. “High definition and megapixel are often mistakenly thought to be the same and the terms are used interchangeably. The term refers to any camera with a resolution of 1280x1024 (1. there is in fact a distinct difference. the description 720P refers to the horizontal resolution of the image (16:9) and the letter P indicates progressive scan. MJ Oosthuizen. image resolutions. The latest advanced technologies such as adaptive streaming. These standards include image size. • Maximum resolution: 20 megapixels. Megapixel technology is much more flexible than HD in that each output stream can be defined to optimise video for slow transmission (such as the Internet) or smaller screens (table to cellphone). HD simply refers to a set of standards that are used to describe the image quality of a camera as displayed on a monitor. or HD. output streams are required in any number of aspect ratios.
much less identify a impressively. other dimensions besides only represents a person at a disresolution are important. “With conventional One of the main arguments advanced by the defenders of high definicameras. the multifocal sensor the desired information. the resolution drops off as distance increases. so the infrastructure costs and subselong distances. past multiple cameras had to be With multifocal sensor systems all PTZ functions like panning and zooming are even available subsequently in the recording. each of which has a different focal installed at different locations. In this and the question arose: Which are more suitable for professional video case. mulcompletely impossible to even tifocal sensor technology. without being locked to given formats as 16:9 or 4:3. In order to be able to use the if there is no additional image With multifocal sensor systems the aspect ratio can be adapted to the images from surveillance cameras information present. Thanks to this new sensor this in turn involves higher costs: concept. the only way it stands apart from conventional cameras. But length. person. which are equipped with system. such as the sky. megapixel cameras very soon reach “So you are aware that somethe limits of their capabilities in thing is happening here. they were clearly superior to the predecessor SD cameras. but it is these areas. locked into specific aspect ratios such as 16:9 or 4:3. so you are able to make out corresponds more closely to the human field of vision.com . with much higher resolutions. since the resolution it offers is currently equivalent to about 32 times greater than a conventional HD camera. but they quickly reach their limits precisely when it is important megapixel technology are in the to be able to recognise details field of static photography. “Movies though they can reach higher or television series like CSI often pixel values than are possible with suggest to viewers that even HD cameras. market a few years ago. so details are still clearly visible. in order to cover all areas of interest. HD cameras or megapixel cameras? wasted needlessly. Or to put it tion cameras is that HD uses the widescreen format with an aspect ratio another way: The farther a person or object is away from the camera of 16:9 compared with the 4:3 format of the megapixel cameras. the roots of options. sible to record yet more information laterally as well. and makes it posfewer details. 42 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. pixels and the recording and storage capacity they take up are all surveillance. this information ing of the overall image or analysis also cannot be conjured out of in the past. that is not quent maintenance costs for multiple camera sites are enormous. However. even even at long distances.HIGH-DEFINITION/MEGAPIXEL Deﬁne your deﬁnition Which surveillance option is best suited to today’s surveillance needs? The technological advances that have been made in the field of But real scenes seldom correspond to either of these two formats. team leader. Whereas both HD and thin air after the fact. recordof coarse blocks. in the systems work with several lenses. They adapt the pixel for a whole range of hitherto inconceivable surveillance and analysis ratio to the situation at hand. preset aspect ratios. And that is precisely the Unlike HD and megapixel objective of a professional video cameras. The image is split efficiently without being capabilities. Panomera Multifocal one point must be considered: Sensor Systems at Dallmeier. This location. such as tance of 50 m with a collection effective image breakdown. It can be used from just a single instalEfficient image breakdown lation point to provide surveillance of a huge area. even that discussion is already outdated: A new ing a scene for surveillance into a given format. it is often accepted that definition and megapixel cameras were introduced onto the market unimportant expanses. High However. and individuals can be recognised. explains Roland Meier. efficiently and analyse them sucbecause an HD or MP camera cessfully. not only close up but also at very at every individual installation site. will be captured as well. with multifocal sensor technology. known as multifocal sensor technology is paving the way systems there are no rigid. On the other hand. Thus for example When the first HD and megapixel cameras were launched onto the aspect ratios like 5:1. 10:1 or 3:4 can be used without any difficulty. for example situation at hand. HD cameras are impressive Constant resolution over the entire object space because of a technology that is derived from the field of video – that It is true that HD and megapixel cameras use progressive resolution is to say relating to moving images.securitysa. the camera can be adapted optimally to the area for surveilThe appropriate cabling for power supply and data transmission is needed lance. This is where the new multifocal sensor technology can help. But there is a more elegant solution: instead of forcBut since then. blurry pictures can be transBut before any discussions formed into high-quality police begin as to whether HD or megawanted posters with just a few pixel cameras are more suitable clicks”. performs recognise. network-based surveillance in the last few years are astounding. Resolution on its own is not every“But pixels are still just pixels: thing. the poorer the resolution is there.” So in order to obtain a single lens. for modern surveillance tasks. a new technology.
can use PTZ cameras. And there is another advantage: Whereas with PTZ cameras only one operator can have control over the camera at a time.com CCTV Handbook 2013 43 . “Even with PTZ cameras. these cameras can Pan. “Those are three important points straight away: the whole picture is recorded.com . “Moreover. the entire incident will not be seen on the video images. which were simply not possible with the prior technology. most analyses take place in the past.com. so constant resolution can be guaranteed over the entire area under surveillance. This makes it possible to recognise people for example even from 160 m. as described previously. And finally: the recording takes place in the highest resolution. And if the operator is concentrating live on another area in the surveillance scene at the precise time. So if the user zooms in on a certain scene. it is only this scene that will be recorded.” states Meier. For example. in the recording. even if the operator is currently concentrating on a smaller inset. Tilt and Zoom. since the whole picture (permanent and overall) is constantly recorded in the highest resolution. Any additional incidents in the viewing range of the PTZ camera are lost and cannot be analysed or proven subsequently. Accordingly.” For more information contact Dallmeier Southern Africa Office. if you want to identify a car thief in a car park with a PTZ camera you would have had to zoom onto the car in question before the theft took place. it is an essential requirement of modern surveillance systems that they are also able to zoom or pan even in the recordings. Permanent recording of the total picture in highest resolution Those who have no desire to install multiple conventional cameras over the area in question. it is also possible to move within the image and to zoom in on pertinent details. Analysis in the past Seeing live images from the surveillance cameras is one thing – but with professional video security systems. With conventional HD or MP equipment. a multifocal sensor system always delivers total performance. not subsequently. the surveillance system is only as good as the user who is operating it. +27 (0)11 979 4540. dallmeiersa@dallmeier. But PTZ cameras do have one critical disadvantage: They only ever record what the operator is currently seeing live. with the multifocal sensor system any number of users can connect to the camera and select their entirely individual views. which extends the equipment’s operating life significantly. www. Consequently. so no areas are lost. This opens up a wide range of analysis options. Meier explains: “Since the overall image was recorded at the highest possible resolution. “So video surveillance becomes a game of chance in the truest sense of the word.“In contrast. so no details are lost in the recording. so there is no wear. these functions are only possible in live mode. the recordings are searched later in order to reconstruct the course of events and identify the individuals responsible. www. This means: The video system runs.dallmeier.” he adds. this is not possible.” says Meier. so there are no gaps in time. the solution is available with multifocal sensor systems. So the resolution at 100 m is exactly as good as it is at 20 m. and if an incident should occur at a given time. a multifocal sensor system uses different lenses.securitysa. This total picture is recorded all the time. So how likely is it that you would just happen to catch someone in the act like that?” Here too. unlike PTZ cameras multifocal sensor systems do not have any mechanical parts. in order to record the crime in adequate resolution. because all PTZ functions are fully available even in the past – even as the system continues recording images live. So in theory it would be possible to use these cameras to watch over a relatively large area and to pan or zoom to a location of interest if the need arises. As their name suggests. In contrast.” says Meier.
Put them all together and you’re away.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE An option for every requirement The Surveillance Selection Guide 2013 is your one-stop shop for cameras. but also the right advice. If you want to gain the value and returns possible from a good surveillance system. South Africa has an almost endless al array of local and international options to choose from when it comes to surveillance products.com . but for 2013 we have moved it to the CCTV Handbook to ensure the products highlighted have year-round visibility. and the chain is broken. As is always the case. installer or integrator. 44 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. When this happens it’s usually the camera that gets the blame.securitysa. you need to ensure you have the right camera. We have also included the contact details of the various suppliers in case you want to find out more. we have also opened the door to software and services to provide insight into other critical areas of a surveillance solution. One thing is sure. Welcome to the Surveillance Selection Guide 2013. This is the second time Hi-Tech Security Solutions is running this guide. One of the issues highlighted in many places in this year’s handbook is that a surveillance solution requires more than a good camera. management system and so on. plan. but we’ve tried to highlight the main areas buyers will focus on. but most often it’s a problem in one of the other areas. the surveillance market would be a shining light in the security industry as a whole. we already have 20 pages of options to choose from. One bad link. Now if we could get all our installers and integrators skilled up and registered. however. Instead of only highlighting different cameras (although these are by far the majority of the entries). network. software and services. This guide has also been slightly expanded. we couldn’t tell you everything about each camera or system listed.
securitysa.www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 45 .
The basic version with 4 IP based video channels can be expanded by up to 20 further IP channels using a licence code. waterproof IP66.6mm lens. ECLPS function.securitysa. language. +27 (0)11 830 2688. 3D DNR. HD (720p. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara. The motor-driven megapixel vari-focal lens (F1. Special (motion detection. Effects (digital zoom.com Category: Analogue WDR 700 TV line bullet camera mera Brand/Range name: KEEPER CCTV V Supplier: Vision Consulting lting Camera name: VCIR3160WDR R Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. WDR. megapixel (up to 8 MP) • Recording of RTSP cameras optional • Compatible with management system SeMSy III • Configuration and recording of ONVIF compliant cameras in preparation • Connection to Active Directory via LDAP supported • Motion detection and SmartFinder for Dallmeier IP cameras • PRemote-HD in real-time Availability: Standalone: SMAVIA Recording Server (for Windows 7) Package: Preinstalled on SMAVIA Appliances (DMS 2400. e-mail and FTP image upload.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: proof IP.za Name of software: SMAVIA Recording Server Description: VideoIP server software for the d audio and video streams. Day/Night switching. all having the same functionality. low-light. a removable IR cut filter and an integrated homogeneous IR illumination (semi-covert 850 nm high power LEDs). It has a single LED array. with 600 TVL DIS Chipset. DLS 1600.) Standards supported: CE. MJPEG Contact: Riaan Kruger. dallmeier. Standards supported: H. Alarm notification via DaVid protocol.264.0 / 2.). +27 (0)83 460 8015. 1080p. image freeze etc.264 standard. high quality IR cut filter. lens control. 40M IR range. FC & ROHS Description: This is a wide dynamic range 700 TV line infrared bullet camera.co. automatic. dallmeiersa@dallmeier. integrated IR illumination IP Network Box Camera Brand/Range name: Dallmeier Supplier: DF4910HD-DN/IR Camera name: Resolution: SD (up to D1).za 46 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. MPEG-4. day night setting.264. L L sync. +27 (0)11 830 2688.com email@example.com – 11 mm) is adjustable via Web browser. stabiliser. +27 (0)83 460 8015. camera name.FC & ROHS Description: The DIS range has a new design.com . 1pc third generation LED array. also supports OSD menu and has an 8 x digital zoom capability. monitor type. 2MP. Features/functionality: • Up to 24 video channels (SD-IP / HD-IP) • Simultaneous real-time recording and real-time streaming • Simultaneous remote access.com C Category: A Analogue 600 TV line D Camera DIS B Brand/Range name: K Keeper CCTV S Supplier: Vision Consulting Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: 5 VCDi 3155 nes 600 TV lines ocus Manual focus No Yes. Standards supported: CE. sales@viscon. exposure. privacy masking. MJPEG Description: Real-time Full HD video (1080p/30) using the H. 3MP) Auto/Manual focus: Motor-driven (controllable via Web browser) Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Motion detection with selectable sensitivity. weatherproof Night 3MP. The camera comes with an LED array which has the smart IR function. HD (up to 1080p). excellent day & night picture. indoor dome and outdoor vari-focal dome as well. MJPEG • Resolution SD (up to D1). OSD menu containing. Contact: Ebrahim Choonara. 3. Variations in range: None Contact: Riaan Kruger. IPS 2400) Cost: On request Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Standards the software adheres to: H. streams designed designed i d for f the recording of IP-based installation on systems with Windows 7 operating system and suitable hardware equipment. indoor box IR and indoor dome IR as well. Features automatic Day/Night operation supported by integrated ambient light sensing. BLC . which supports smart IR technology ( at night if a person approaches the camera the light will lessen so the face can be detected). MPEG-4. Comprehensive set of automatic image optimisation functions. Variations in range: The WDR series comes in a box type. firstname.lastname@example.org. Variations in range : The DIS range comes in a bullet IR. white balance. live display and playback with SMAVIA Viewing Client or via Ethernet (LAN / WAN) • One access licence for SMAVIA Viewing Client included (basic licence) • Video compression H.264.
3af). AWB.com IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH. Day/Night.com www. 2DNR. • Favourite group • Relay out function • Device & channel configuration setting Availability: iOS v4.0 Description: • 1/3-inch 1. 6mm.8mm.2. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.6mm fixed lens • White LEDs length 10m • PIR sensor range 6m • Micro SD memory Wi-Fi Variations in range: Micro SD memory.6mm fixed lens (2.Digital Mobile Surveillance Software(DMSS) f Dahua Surveillance Software DMSS. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: IP Brand/Range name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200S 2 megapixel Auto/manual focus No No ONVIF Ver. Windows Phone and BlackBerry.0 Cost: Free/charged Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application Contact: overseas@dahuatech. AWB. PoE (802. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.com CCTV Handbook 2013 47 . IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. CMS(DSS/PSS) & DMSS email@example.com fixed lens (2.IPC-K100/ K100A / K100W Resolution: 1.6mm.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max firstname.lastname@example.org megapixel Aptina CMOS • H. speed up. Max 32GB Onboard intelligence : No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver. Auto iris.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. AGC. AGC. single frame play function in the playback panel • Emap view • Colour setting • Image playback function. iOS. 6mm. 8mm optional) • Max. symbian. DC12V. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. PoE Variations in range: 3. 2DNR.securitysa. supports Android.com Name of f software: f Description/purpose: Category: IP Brand/Range ge name: Dahua Technology Supplier: Dahua Technology nology Camera name: DH-IPC-HDW2100 W2100 Resolution: 1. 8mm optional).264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.3MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: ONVIF Ver.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. AGC. AWB. PoE Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. 2DNR. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 6mm fixed lens (3.3M (1280×960)/25/ 30fps@720P (1280×720) • DWDR. Android v3. Day/Night (ICR). Features/functionality: • Individual menu selection • Add devices through DDNS • Alarm push function • Recording locally in Live preview and playback • Implement slow down. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: email@example.com Description: • 1/3-inch 1.3 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto/manual focus Onboard storage: Yes.2. support remote control Dahua devices. Wi-Fi.8mm. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. 2. 8mm optional) • Max.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.3.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS Contact: overseas@dahuatech.
co. 6mm. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. DNS. AGC. 8mm optional) • Max. Bonjour Description: • 4. RTP. Bonjour Description: • 1/3-inch 1. HTTP. QoS. DHCP. Day/Night (ICR). 2DNR. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • 25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. SSL. IP66. +27 (0)11 553 3300.8mm. UPnP. max 32GB Micro SD. SNMP.Auto iris.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps @720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). UPnP.3af). 5 auto scan. QoS.za C Category: B Brand/Range name: Su Supplier: IP Dahua ty IP Security s Solutions C hua Camera name: CC434 Dahua IP camera Re pixel Resolution: 1.7mm ~ 94. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Built-in 1/1 alarm in/out • PoE (not for –W series).com tegory: Category: and/Range name: Brand/Range Supplier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC471 Dahua IP camera 1/2. SMTP. IGMP.8-inch 2. AGC. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. DDNS. UDP. FTP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • Max 240°/s pan speed. +27 (0)11 553 3300.264 Dome Contact: Mel Labuschagne.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Resolution: 3. AWB. 8 tour. MP. TCP/IP.0 • 1/3-inch 2 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H.za 48 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. 2DNR. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS uatech. SMTP.8-inch 3. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No P. 720p Contact: Mel Labuschagne. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. NTP.za IP Dahua IP Security Solutions P Camera Camera name: CC465 Dahua IP Resolution: 2. ICMP. AWB. HTTP. P.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Micro SD. TCP/IP.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. IP Filter.com . SSL. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD.co.2.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding and JPEG image capture • Max 25/30fps@1080p resolution • WDR (DWDR). Wi-F i (-W only) • SD memory Variations in range: CC470 Dahua IP camera 1/2.0M (2048×1536) & 25/30fps @1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. Day/Night (ICR).264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. DDNS. Day/Night (ICR).6mm Mini Indoor Dome. UDP.3 megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. TCP/IP. IGMP. RTP. ICMP.co. PoE Variations in range: CC432 Dahua IP camera 1/3-inch 1. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS Professional 1080 Contact: Mel Labuschagne. max 32GB ONVIF Ver. SNMP. ICMP.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: IP Dahua Technology Dahua Technology Model: DH-IPC-HFW3200C 2 megapixel Manual Yes. QoS. RTSP. +27 (0)11 553 3300. PPPOE. HTTPS.BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. DNR (2D&3D). 5 pattern • IR LEDs up to 100m Variations in range: CC464 Dahua IP Camera PTZ 20x 2 MP Full HD H. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. DNS. DNS. RTSP. DHCP. info@ipsecuritysolutions. Bonjour Description: • 1/2. . HTTP. PPPOE. Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. NTP. DDNS. RTSP. SNMP. IP Filter.0mm (20x) optical zoom • H. DHCP. info@ipsecuritysolutions. IP Filter. PoE PoE (802.3 megapixel A ocus Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus O Onboard storage: No O Onboard intelligence: No St Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6.com overseas@dahuatech. info@ipsecuritysolutions. IR LEDs Length 20m • IP66. UPnP. AGC. 360° endless pan rotation • Up to 255 presets. AWB. HTTPS. Auto focus. SSL. NTP. PPPOE.3 megapixel CMOS 3. FTP. UDP. FTP. Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. AWB. IGMP.6mm fixed lens (2. AGC. 2DNR.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3. Auto iris. HTTPS.3–12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • Max. SMTP.securitysa. RTP.
Weatherproof IP66 housing with bracket. AWB. SSL. +27 (0)11 553 3300. IP66. IP Filter. PPPOE. UPnP.3 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6.za IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC417 DAHUA IP CAMERA 1/3” 1. 8mm optional) • Max. ATW and BLC.co. 2DNR. HTTPS. +27 (0)11 553 3300. info@regalsecurity. ATW and BLC.6mm fixed Lens (6mm. ATW. FTP.8-inch 2. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer. RTP. BLC PAL video standard 50 metre infrared HDIS camera with 6mm lens. +27 (0)11 553 3300. IGMP.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Contact: Mel Labuschagne. max 32GB Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: IPv4/IPv6. info@ipsecuritysolutions. DHCP. RTSP. QoS.6mm fixed lens with 600TVL HDIS chip and DSP that supports AGC.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 15fps@1. DHCP.0M (2048×1536) &25/30fps@1080P (1920×1080) • DWDR. QoS. Bonjour Description: • 1/2. PoE Variations in range: None Contact: Mel Labuschagne. IR LEDs length 20m • IP66. UDP.0 megapixel Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Micro SD.3Megapixel progressive scan Aptina CMOS • H. Auto iris. ATW. UPnP. IGMP. AGC. info@ipsecuritysolutions. IR LEDs length 20m • Micro SD memory.3~12mm vari-focal lens • Built-in 2/1 alarm in/out • Max.za Category: ory: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue nalogue Dahua ahua Regal gal Security CC280 280 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC.Category: egory: Brand/Range nd/Range name: Supplier: plier: Camera name: IP Dahua IP Security Solutions CC418-1 Dahua IP camera 1/2. AGC. TCP/IP. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3. HTTP.264 & MJPEG dual-stream encoding • Max 20fps@3. NTP.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue Dahua Regal Security CC270 600TVL Fixed focus No Standard DSP with AGC. DDNS.securitysa.co. FTP. UDP. 3. TCP/IP.3M (1280×960) & 25/30fps@ 720P (1280×720) • Day/Night (ICR). N/A Mel Labuschagne. DNS. AWB. SMTP. RTP. ICMP. ICMP. SMTP.8-inch 3.za www. DNS. 2DNR. info@regalsecurity. BLC PAL video standard Indoor dome camera. PPPOE. NTP. Bonjour Description: • 1/3” 1.3 megapixel Aptina CMOS 20m IR Bullet 720p Resolution: 1.0 megapixel Sony Exmor CMOS IR 30M vari-focal Resolution: 3. HTTP. Day/Night (ICR). RTSP. PoE Variations in range: CC418 Dahua IP camera 1/2. +27 (0)11 553 3300.com CCTV Handbook 2013 49 . SNMP.co. SSL. DDNS. SNMP. AGC. CMS (DSS/PSS) & DMSS • 3.8-inch 3 megapixel progressive scan Exmor CMOS • H. BLC • Multiple network monitoring: Web viewer.co. HTTPS. N/A Mel Labuschagne. IP Filter.
HTTPS (SIP. PPPoE. DDNS. PSIA. SMTP. RTP/RTSP. IPv6 optional) A small discreet vandal proof mini dome camera with fixed lens. FTP. PSIA. Maximum IR distance is over 60m.802. DNS. Very cost effective and perfect for retail surveillance and similar well lit conditions. NTP(SNMP. true Day/Night Infra-red. AGC. 600 Ω) Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 e. DDNS. tampering alarm. 802. SNMP. DDNS. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 firstname.lastname@example.org MP – HD720p Manual No Motion. IPv6 optional) Description: An all-purpose outdoor cylindrical camera with IR illumination and a vari-focal lens.1x. auto recognition of general protocols Description: SD6436-H is based on 600TVL. WDR. HTTP. TCP/IP. The SD6436-H can also be controlled remotely via RS-485. SIP. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith.0 megapixel vandal dome camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Motion detection. Variations in range: Standard on this model: 2 alarm in. HTTPS. NTP. DHCP.2 Onboard storage: Built-in SD/SDHC slot. built-in Web server.za t Category: Analogue Dahua Elvey Security y Technologies Camera name: DH-SD6436 network IR PTZ dome camera Resolution: 600TVL 25/ 30fps@D1 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Advance DSP. This camera is versatile with its adjustable lens and would fit into a professional setup because of the onboard storage and supported protocols.smith@elvey. 2 alarm out. HTTPS. DNR. 8 tours. Up to 24 different sized privacy zones. DHCP. The SD6436-H feature ¼-inch Super HAD CCD II. ICR. SRTP. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF. Qos (SIP. Surprisingly good image quality and unrivalled in its price range. SRTP. PPPoE.CAMERA SELECTION GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: mi ini i Dome Dome camera with 4mm 4m lens Indoor mini DS-2CD7164-E Hikvision Mini dome 1. Integrated day-and-night with 36X optical zoom.5 mm audio MIC IN / LINE IN 1-ch 3. vari-focal cylindrical camera Brand/Range name: DS-2CD8253F-EI Supplier: Hikvision Camera name: IR Bullet Camera Resolution: 2 MP – 1600x1200 Auto/Manual focus: Auto iris 2.7-9mm @F1. DS-2CD7153-E (2 MP option) DS-2CD7133-E (VGA option) Rudie Opperman PinnSec / Devtrade Distribution +27 (0)21 550 0247 rudieo@pinnacle. 255 presents. DNS.2 Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Motion detection.co. 5 auto scan. 2.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: O td t D /Ni ht I f d Outdoor.co. RTSP. Continuous pan rotation to 360º and tilt movement to 90º. FTP. SNMP. Pelco-P/D. AWB.securitysa. SRTP. CGI.1x. CGI. HTTP.7-9mm @F1.co. 5 patterns Standards supported: DH-SD. storage exception Standards supported: ONVIF.5mm audio out (line level. network disconnect ONVIF. tampering alarm. NTP. PSIA. IPv6 optional) Description: A well balanced mini dome HD camera for multi-purpose indoor surveillance. 1-ch 3.com . to provide the reliable video surveillance that’s needed in large outdoor sites. DNS. TCP/IP.1x.za rudieo@pinnacle. RTP. SMTP. B.co. QoS.za Indoor 2 megapixel vari-focal me infra-red mini dome Brand/Range name: DS-2CD753F-EI Supplier: Hikvision d l Infra-red f d network k Camera name: 2. RTP. RTSP. network disconnect. IP address conflict.za 50 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. DHCP. This model includes a cable managed bracket and sun shield for all weather conditions.co. CR. HTTP. Support a one cabled solution with POE. Support 1 cabled installation with POE. BLC. network disconnect. 802. SMTP. CGI. IP address conflict. TCP/IP. FTP. PPPoE.
smith@elvey. motion adaptive digital noise reduction (3DNR) technology. Mechanical D/N Filter. NVR. NTSC: 510(H) X 492(V). Advanced motion detection function.2 (LED OFF). anti-headlight. flickerless On/Off. SBLC (super backlight compensation).8~9. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha.za Category: Analogue Dual CCD with 600TVL Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT-65 Resolution: 600 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard Intelligence: N/A Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD (Colour). Onboard intelligence: Yes. water resistance: IP66 Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology.smith@elvey. D1 (704x576 / 704x480) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes Onboard intelligence: Built-in Web server. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. Tasha Smith. Digital Noise Reduction. privacy zone selectable. 16mm Lens IR Distance = 60m.co.5 Lux/F1. DNR (digital noise reduction). High Light Compensation. Maximum pan range of 360°/s and prepositioned pan speed of 360°/s and offers up to 210 presets. Flickerless On/Off. 1. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld. no need to run a separate power wire. Variations in range: Lens Option: Default: 6mm (3. 1/3-inch Sony (B/W). This camera also features PoE to allow for single cable connection. 2D/3D noise reduction.6mm /8mm optional) PoE Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. mechanical IR cut filter. 680TVL.securitysa. Standards supported: N/A Description: 1/3-inch car licence plate pro camera (Sony Effio WDR). digital image stabiliser. high resolution 600TV lines. Super Back Light Compensation.co. CMS (PSS/DSS) and DMSS. 0 Lux (LED on).5mm/f9~22mm).za Category: IP Camera Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Shany Supplier: lo ogies Elvey Security Technologies M MTC-WDL713EF-C Camera name: C Resolution: Colour: 680TVL.3 MP (1280×960).Dahua Elvey Security Technologies IPC-HFW2100P 720p (1280x720). PAL: 500(H) X 582(V). 360-degrees of rotation. 8 tours and 8 pattern modes. IEC 60529 (2002). Effio WDR.0001Lux (IR LEDs on at 2 Lux).za Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Bosch Supplier: Elvey Security Technologies es Camera name: VEZ-413-EWCS Resolution: 600 TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Mechanical D/N filter. Automatic Gain Control WDR. Powerful 512X WDR (54dB. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. BLC. quadrangle mosaic privacy mask.za www. 600 TVL. Sense Up. Sense Up (512x). Description: With a 6mm lens this high-definition IP camera with a 1/3-inch 1. IP66 rated for outdoor and indoor use.com CCTV Handbook 2013 51 . E-zoom function (1~256x). privacy zone selectable. Range. Digital image stabiliser. The camera’s 26X optical zoom and 15 privacy zones. B B/W:700TVL A Auto/Manual focus: Auto N No Onboard storage: Y Sony S WDR Wide Wid Dynamic D i Range R e.co. B/W:700TVL. 600 TVL (television lines). Variations in range: N/A Contact: Elvey Security Technology Tasha Smith. Standards supported: IP66.co. Colour. Description: 26X optical zoom. Built-in aspherical D/N Lens (f3. 0.3 MP (1280x960). high light compensation. including 8 auto scan modes. Standards supported: Conforms to the ONVIF standard.3 Megapixel Aptina CMOS image sensor is capable of HD Resolution up to 1.smith@elvey. 0. and WDR. +27 (0)11 401 6700 tasha. IEC 60529 (2001).
30m @ 0. privacy masking. wide dynamic range. dynamic face zoom. wide dynamic range. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. white balance and mirror function.za Category: gory: y: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera Name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue a ogue ZK-SMD222 ZKTeco IR dome 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No PAL 3. dynamic noise reduction 2D.001 LUX. IP66. auto gain. RS-485. RS-485.1LUX.6mm / 6mm Lens. privacy masking. DNR3D. auto iris control. OSD. on screen display. 3. backlight compensation. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. auto white balancing. face list. IP66. 4-9mm Brand/Range name: Trend Tech Supplier: Crown Hyper Camera name: TT_VD230 Resolution: 700TVL Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PAL Description: 1/3-inch Sony CCD 700TVL.co. PAL Wide dynamic range. vandal-proof casing. IP66. auto white balancing. auto face detection. backlight compensation. +27 (0)11 830 1452 sales@crownhyperworld. 25m night vision @ 0.za 52 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.co. DNR.com . Variations in range: N/A Contact: Crown Hyperworld. on screen display. backlight compensation. face detection. PAL 4mm / 6mm / 8mm. 4-9mm Manual VF Lens.za Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range : Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283F ZKTeco Dot Matrix Face 650TVL / 752x582 Auto No Yes.6/6mm lens option. auto gain control. HDNR.securitysa. auto gain control. LED array and 25M IR distance. vandal proof dome.co. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK – SIR222 ZKTeco IR bullet 420TVL / 752x582 Manual No No IP66.co. motion detection. OSD operation function.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Analogue A l 700TVL. 30m night vision @ 0 LUX.
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR288 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 4 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. RS-485. IP66. RS-485. privacy masking. auto white balancing. on screen display. 10 – 20m @ 0 LUX.co.za : Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SIR283 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 1 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66.com CCTV Handbook 2013 53 . Pelco-D. privacy masking.co. backlight compensation. wide dynamic range. PAL 6mm / 8mm / 12mm.co. dynamic noise reduction 2D. auto white balancing. backlight compensation. 80m night vision @ 0. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 firstname.lastname@example.org ory: Category: Rang ge name: Brand/Range er: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: Analogue ZK-SSD ZKTeco IR PTZ 650TVL / 1020x596 Auto No No PAL. RS-485. PAL 12mm/16mm. BLC. auto white balancing. auto gain control. dynamic noise reduction 2D. on screen display. wide dynamic range. auto gain control. RS-485 N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. on screen display. IP66. dynamic noise reduction 2D.za www.co. auto gain control N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com C Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: A l Analogue ZK-SIR285 ZKTeco Dot Matrix 2 700TVL / 1020x596 (Effio-E) Manual No No IP66. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. privacy masking.5mm – 55mm Lens. 10x optical zoom. 50m night vision @ 0. wide dynamic range. Pelco-P 5.securitysa. IP66. 30m night vision @ 0. 360° Infinity Pan.001 LUX.001 LUX.001 LUX. bac light compensation. 255 presets. 12V DC power. PAL 4mm / 8mm / 16mm. auto white balancing.
za Category: Cat Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IP 3 ZKTeco Box IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – SD. USB for backup and mouse control.264. RJ45 Input (10/100). wide dynamic range.za 54 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. PoE. onboard bi-directional audio.711. H. PoE.264 MPL3.co. auto redundancy recording. H. H. RS485. 20m night vision @ 0LUX.co. RS-485 for PTZ control. motion detection. eSATA. DDNS.co. Pelco-D H. wide dynamic range. dual stream. auto IR cut filter.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK-NVR ZKTecoSA NV 720P @ 25fps Yes – 10TB N PAL. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. dual stream.za C egory: gory: Category: B d/R Brand/Range name: S Supplier: C Camera name: R Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP ZK – IR 3 ZKTeco IR Bullet IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF.securitysa.264 MPL3. HDMI. motion detection. IP66 6mm /12mm fixed lens. dual stream.za Category: : Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP P4 ZK – IP o ZKTeco P Cube IP 720P / 1280x720 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens. BiDi audio. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 andrew@zkteco. IP66. G. PoE. motion detection. BNC Spot. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 firstname.lastname@example.org .co.za w@zkteco. wide dynamic range. VGA. auto redundancy recording.co. auto IR cut filter. 32 GB No ONVIF 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens. auto redundancy recording. alarm input and output. 4 channel / 8 channel Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 59 1047 0 andrew@zkteco. alarm input + output.264 MPL3. bi-directional audio. Pelco-P. CVBS. 15 ~ 30m night vision @ 0 LUX.
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range : Contact:
IP P ZK K – MD 3 ZKTeco ZK KTeco IR R Dome IP 720P 20P / 1280x720 Auto Au uto Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF, IP66 4 – 9mm vari-focal lens, H.264 MPL3, dual stream, wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, 15 ~ 20m night vision @ 9LUX, auto redundancy recording, auto IR cut filter, IP66, RS-485, alarm input + output. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com
Category: Ca C Brand/Range name: Bra B Supplier: Su S Camera name: Ca C Resolution: Re R Auto/Manual focus: Au A Onboard storage: On O Onboard intelligence: On O Standards supported: Sta S Description: De D
Variations in range : Contact:
IP ZK – MD4 ZKTeco Mini Dome IP 720P / 1280x720 0 Manual Yes – TF 32 GB No ONVIF 6mm fixed lens, H.264 H 264 MPL3, MPL3 dual d l stream, t wide dynamic range, bi-directional audio, PoE, motion detection, auto redundancy recording. N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 firstname.lastname@example.org
Name of software: ZKiVision Description/purpose: IVision Software is used to view all ZK cameras, DVRs and NVRs in an easy to use, one seat software. Features/functionality: iVision brings great functionality to the market. The key feature of iVision is the facial recognition analytics. Paired with this is the ability to compare these recognised faces to a black list. Another key feature is the linkage ZKTeco have introduced which allows it to combine access control features like granting access to a facility based on their face as the credential. With the blacklist active, alarms and/or events can be generated. Some other features regarded as industry standard are also present, like Emap, independent 4-zone motion detection, backup scheduling, full camera control including PTZ control, footage history searching and camera setting manipulation. Footage history can also be searched by facial events using the relevant search filters. Availability: Available with any ZK surveillance product Cost: No per channel fee, but there is a charge for advanced analytics functionality such a facial recognition. Runs in browser or as an independent application? This software is a standalone application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard Intelligence:
IP 3 IP. 3.1 1 megapixel/high definition/digital definition/digital Pelco Sarix Pelco Sarix IX30 IP Camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution (2048 x 1536) Auto back focus Local storage (micro SD) for alarm capture Yes, camera sabotage detects contrast changes in the field of view. Adaptive motion detection tracks objects that enter the field of view. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP (unicast, multicast IGMP), UPnP, DNS, DHCP, RTP, RTSP, NTP, IPv4, SNMPþv2c/v3, QoS, HTTP, HTTPS, LDAP (client), SSH, SSL, SMTP, FTP, and 802.1x (EAP) Description: The Sarix IX30 is a 3.1 megapixel, day/night camera with advanced lowlight technology and a mechanical IR cut filter for increased sensitivity in low-light installations. Sarix technology defines the next generation of video security imaging performance, delivering high definition (HD) resolution, advanced low light capabilities, consistent colour science, and fast processing power. The H.264 compression video files are considerably smaller, making HD video more affordable. Variations in range: The IX30 support two simultaneous video streams. The two streams can be compressed in MJPEG and H.264 formats across several resolution configurations. The IX30 features built-in Power over Ethernet (PoE) IEEE 802.3af, which supplies power to the camera over the network, eliminating the need for a separate power supply. If PoE is not available, 24 VAC can be used to power the camera. Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, firstname.lastname@example.org
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range: Contact:
Analogue ZK-DV ZKTeco DVR CIF @ 400fps / DI @ 50fps N/A Yes, 5 TB No PAL H.264, G711, RCA audio output, audio input, VGA + BNC video out, video backup, RJ45 Out, USB mouse + backup ports, mobile preview support, DDNS support, RS-485 for PTZ control, 4ch, 8ch, 16ch N/A Andrew Levell-Smith +27 (0)12 259 1047 email@example.com
Category: IP. 3.1 megapixel/ high definition Brand/Range name: X-Gen IP Supplier: Gen Security Camera name: Resolution:
GEN HD IP 3 megapixel i l IR outdoor d camera Up to 3.1 megapixel resolution, 2144(H) x1588(V) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes, this latest line includes the latest WDR (Wide Dynamic Range). These cameras are progressivescanning to handle moving objects. Standards supported: TCP/IP, UDP/IP, RTP, RTSP, RTCP, NTP, HTTP, DHCP, FTP, SMTP, DNS, DDNS. Streaming RTP over RTSP, Unicast RTP, Multicast RTP, ONVIF ver2.0 support, DDNS A&T DDNS support (iplinker.net) Description: GEN HD IP camera has a resolution of 2144 x 1588 and is almost 10X better than an image of D1(704 x 480i) which is the max resolution of an analogue camera recorded DVR. It has the best sensitivity in the world with 0.0002lux. Sens-up 60X in B/W with an HD image sensor and various streaming. Variations in range: Various streaming: H.264 /MPEG4 /MJPEG triplex streaming (Individual streaming simultaneously). Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, firstname.lastname@example.org
Name of software: ROM – Retail Operations Management Description/purpose: ROM is a software package designed for Retail Operations Management. It uses existing cameras, traditionally used for loss control, for the dual purpose of operational management. This is done by using video analytics to monitor queues and customer flow through the retail operation. Features/functionality: ROM consists of three function modules. CPM is the Cashier Performance Monitoring module which monitors the performance of the cashiers and scores them relative to a performance index. QM is the Queue Management module which monitors queue lengths and customer progress through the queue. CFM is the Customer Flow Monitoring module which monitors customer flow patterns through the establishment. These modules combined provide an effective management tool which enables the retailer to plan and monitor cashier staff, customer service staff and store layout for maximum effectiveness. An advanced graphical reporting system provides an automated report service which allows the retailer to measure store performance automatically and at a glance. Availability: Standalone/network based software package. Operates as an added feature on Nuuo or Pelco CCTV systems. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent Application Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Abie Ali, +27 (0)11 496 2300, email@example.com
IP Dynacolor W2 Dynacolor Dynacolor W2 2MP IP Dome Resolution: 1920X1080 (Full HD). Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus, P-Iris allows for better depth of field. Onboard storage: Yes, removable SD Card (up to SD card max capacity). Onboard intelligence: Yes, motion detection, network failure, smart IR detect (auto). Standards supported: ONVIF compliant, H.264 and MJPEG encoding. Description: A versatile IP66 rated PoE dome with audio channel fit for service in any condition. The high quality 2MP image sensor with motorised zoom gives great detail while wide dynamic range compensates for changing light conditions. ONVIF support allows for easy integration and quad streams allow for multiple resolutions to be broadcasted. An SD card can be used for on-board recording. Variations in range: Available in 3.6mm fixed lens with no IR, 3.3-9mm vari-focal with no IR, and 3.3-9mm vari-focal lens with 25m onboard IR LEDs. Vandal proof also available Contact: Security Warehouse Tel: +27 (0)12 653 1005 firstname.lastname@example.org
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name:
CCTV Handbook 2013 www.securitysa.com
Name of software: Digi-IT NVR/DVR software Description/purpose: Digi-IT’s recording software is suitable for both analogue, IP and hybrid systems. The software runs on the Windows operating system, with easy installation and an easy–to-understand interface. Analogue decoding is done through Digi-IT’s analogue cards. As an open platform NVR a wide range of IP cameras are supported by default. Features/functionality: The software comes standard with recording (video, audio, POS and limited VCA), event (motion, audio, POS etc.), search, point of sales, and scheduling (for recording) functionality. Remote login and viewing is possible via Web browser or free bundled RMS software for Windows or smart phone (for all the popular OSs including Android, Symbian, Windows Mobile and iOS). The software can further be expanded with licences for full VCA (video content analytics), LPR (licence plate recognition) and CMS (central monitoring system). Multiple resolutions are supported, with multi-streaming available for IP cameras. PTZ control is integrated in the software allowing the user to control the PTZ as well as set up multiple touring sequences. Availability: The software is free bundled with Digi-IT analogue cards, IP cameras require a licence per video channel (available in 4,8,16,32 and 64 channel packages or a combination thereof). Digi-iT IP cameras do not require any licence keys and have the full NVR capability. Cost: For IP systems: 4 Channel: R3600 (Retail excl. VAT) 8 Channel: R5600 (Retail excl. VAT) 16 Channel: R9800 (Retail excl. VAT) 32 Channel: R18000 (Retail excl. VAT) 64 Channel: R34000 (Retail excl. VAT) Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent software Standards the software adheres to: Software adheres to: FCC rules: Class A digital device. Contact: Security Warehouse +27 (0)12 653 1005 email@example.com Name of software: Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit Description/purpose: It provides 3D camera models to illustrate what the camera set-up will look like in real life and which areas the surveillance system will cover once installed. Features/functionality: The software allows them to see exactly how the cameras fit into the building layout and to easily detect if views are obstructed by columns or walls, to help reduce unexpected blind spots. This means security system planning can now be completed as an integrated part of the building design, integrating into the same tool flow that is used for the rest of the building design. Users of the CAD system can also access information about each camera such as the model number, mounting accessories, power consumption and resolution. Availability: The Axis Camera Families for Autodesk Revit are available free of charge for existing Axis Partners. The vast majority of Axis Network Cameras are included. Cost: N/A Runs in browser or as an independent application? N/A Standards the software adheres to: N/A Contact: Roy Alves, Axis Communications +27 (0)11 548 6780, firstname.lastname@example.org
IP. Maximum 1.3 IP 1 3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024), multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm, motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2.1 Description: This cost effective 1.3 MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions, and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer , 12V DC, PoE (IEEE802.3af, Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution email@example.com
IP, SD PTZ, TZ, y/night true day/night Brand/Range name: equIP Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: HDZ30X Resolution: 720 x 576 Auto/Manual focus: N/A Onboard storage: N/A Onboard intelligence: N/A Standards supported: IPv4/v6, TCP/IP, UDP, RTP, RTSP, HTTP, HTTPS, ICMP, FTP, SMTP, DHCP, PPPoE, UPnP, IGMP, SNMP, IEEE 802.1x, QoS, ONVIF. Description: Camera tamper detection. Video motion detection. Digital Noise Reduction. PSIA Support Progressive scan. Variations in range: 0,08 lux (colour) 0,005 lux (B/W) @F1.6, 30IRE. 24 VAC ± 10%, en PoE+, (IEEE 802.3at-2009). Contact: ADI Global Distribution firstname.lastname@example.org
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
Variations in range: Analogue and IP versions Contact: Edward Seaborne.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP equIP ADI Global Distribution HDZ20HDX 1920 x 1080 N/A N/A N/A IPv4/v6. Variations in range: Central management software NET-i viewer . PPPoE. and the ability to record video on a network-attached RAID iSCSI storage device or locally on a user-supplied SD or SDHC card (32 GB maximum).com . motion detection Standards supported: ONVIF 2. RTSP.1 Description: This cost effective 1. Camera tamper detection. Digital Noise Reduction.email@example.com Category: Thermal analogue PTZ camera Brand/Range name: Bosch Thermal Supplier: Bosch Security Systems P Camera name: MIC-612TIALG36P Resolution: PAL: 320 x 256 PAL: 640 x 512 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No ce Onboard intelligence: High-performance ultancamera with simultantical eous thermal/optical video output. Maximum 1. edward.com 58 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. SNMP.” and Pelco “P” and “D. 75 Ohm Description: • Static analogue mini outdoor dome camera (720TVL sensor) • Day/Night camera (VDN) 0.seaborne@za. the MIC camera becomes an IP-enabled device with extra features such as intelligent video analysis (IVA).05 lux (colour)/firstname.lastname@example.org MP high definition network camera is a great fit for applications which require high resolution video.bosch. IGMP. PSIA Support Progressive scan 0. and is equipped with high-end functionalities such as tampering detection and motion detection. ADI Global Distribution gordon. HTTPS. off (4 programmable zones) Variations in range: 976 x 582 (PAL). The optional hybrid operation provides video and control of the MIC camera over both analogue and IP.bosch. 976 x 494 (NTSC) Contact: Edward Seaborne. ONVIF. Standards supported: Composite: 1 Vpp. off (4 programmable zones) • Privacy on.3af. UDP. multiple streaming Brand/Range name: Samsung LiteNet Supplier: ADI Global Distribution Camera name: SND-7011 Resolution: Maximum 3 MP resolution (2048 X 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Tampering alarm. 30 IRE. 24 VAC ± 10%.securitysa. ICMP.6.” “Bilinx. Standards supported: Multiple protocols.1x. RTP.3 MP resolution (1280 x 1024). QoS. IEEE 802. Class2) Lens Type: Manual / DC Auto Iris Contact: ADI Global Distribution gordon.07 lx (B/W) • Motion detection on. edward.seaborne@za. @F1.com IP.12 lx (colour) 0. DHCP. The SNB-5001 features contrast enhancement and day/night capabilities for challenging lighting conditions. FTP. UPnP. TCP/IP.01 lux (B/W).3at-2009).com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard iIntelligence: Analogue mini dome Bosch outdoor mini dome advantage line Bosch Security Systems VDC-242V03-1 650TVL Manual focus No Privacy zones and motion detection functions can be set up in the camera menu system. PoE (IEEE802. and PoE+ (IEEE 802. +27 (0)11 651 9898. including Bosch “Biphase (OSRD). Video motion detection. s. +27 (0)11 651 9898. 12V DC. HTTP.” Description: When powered by a MIC IP power supply. SMTP.
not only in the area of security but also in production. access control. iSCSI.co. but not limited to CCTV.com CCTV Handbook 2013 59 . Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. fire detection and alarm systems.264 (ISO/IEC 14496-10). and the systems are serviced quarterly. but not limited to.com Category: nge name: Brand/Range Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company.co. CCTV. IP.1x. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs.za www. access control. They include installation fees. Each client is seen as an individual. RTSP. productivity and reviewing. productivity and reviewing. with specific requirements. SNMP. CCTV offers an offsite reviewing service whereby the client is able to download footage which can be independently reviewed. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are able to carry a maintenance contract. fire detection and alarm systems. Each client is seen as an individual. with specific requirements. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs.IP Autodome HD Bosch IP HD Autodome 800 Series B h Security S it Systems S t Supplier: Bosch Camera name: VG5-836-ECEV Resolution: 1920x1080 Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: The AutoDome utilises the built-in Intelligent Video Analytics (IVA) to continuously follow an individual or an object. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV reviews client’s footage. loan equipment for while your equipment is in for repairs and quarterly servicing of your system. servicing the markets nationally. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. configurable frame rate and bandwidth. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. servicing the markets nationally. Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers full replacement and repair rental contracts on all new electronic security systems installed by CCTV Security Surveillance. +27 (0)11 651 9898.securitysa. offsite. productivity and reviewing. Contracts are offered over 36. not only in the area of security but also in production. JPEG Description: Individually configurable streams in H. the rental fee of the equipment. not only in the area of security but also in production. In addition. 48 or 60 months.seaborne@za. IGMP V2/V3. edward. M-JPEG. fire detection and alarm systems. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market. DynDNS. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. Products supported/promoted: All electronic security systems are available on a full replacement and repair rental option. 086 100 2288 email@example.com Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company.co. and as such each system is developed around the client’s needs. and after consultation the client would then determine what search criteria is to be concentrated on. In addition to the above. CCTV offers full maintenance and repair rental contracts on all electronic security equipment. all call out and labour fees. RTP. UPnP. Advanced Networking IPv6. This includes all call out and labour fees. but not limited to. UDP. A random selection is downloaded by CCTV and the footage is reviewed. H. SMTP. 086 100 2288 cctv@cctvsa. Special skills/features/functionality available to customers: CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. with specific requirements. ICMP. The company specialises in electronic security systems including. Market size addressed: SME/mid-size companies/ large companies/ enterprise. Case studies / references available: • Minimise shrinkage • Additional security • Assistance with human resources • Monitors health and safety regulations Contact: CCTV Security Surveillance. and provides a detailed report on activities.264 and M-JPEG. access control. Intelligent Tracking feature and Wide Dynamic Range Standards supported: Bosch (OSRD). The company specialises in electronic security systems including. CCTV offers maintenance contracts on all electronic security equipment. Loan equipment is provided while repairs are being undertaken. ONVIF. ARP. The client can pinpoint which positions / areas need more care. SNTP. FTP.za Name of company: CCTV Security Surveillance Description of services provided: CCTV Security Surveillance is a South African company. Each client is seen as an individual. TCP. DHCP. CCTV. HTTP. HTTPS. Telnet. In addition to the above.bosch. Variations in range: Indoor/outdoor Contact: Edward Seaborne. 802. servicing the markets nationally. CCTV services the commercial and industrial market.
Software: (inclusive) MxEasy. white balance. Automatic: mouse click focusing.264CCTV. MJPEG (multiple compression levels). speaker and PIR motion detector Variations in range: Lenses: 22 to 135 mm format. 1.securitysa.4mm Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: RS-485 Description: The BZ-472CSX22 is a professional zoom camera from Provision ISR.8-inch CCD. temperature sensor.Control room software MxControlCenter. without need for heating (IP65) • Digital continuous zoom. privacy masking. video motion analytics. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors. horizontal angle 90° to 15°. It Features 22X optical zoom. Including: text overlay. low-maintenance and with concealed cable duct • Weatherproof from -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F). mirror-function.net Category: IP. back light compensation. FPGA.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE IP. pan and tilt • Integrated microphone. electronic PTZ function. High resolution IP65 camera for day and night operation Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-M12D-SEC-DNIGHT-D43N43 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) 36) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Au Onboard storage: Yes. auto focus.9. I4-390HDVF features 2. Motion detection Standards supported: HD SDI Description: The DI-390HDVF is a dome HD SDI camera with 1080P resolution and a vari-focal lens of 2.1 MP Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus 2. EN61000-6-2.3.264 (in combination with third party systems). FCC St part15B. 2D DNR. Class 0 IP65 (DIN EN 60529). HLC and OSD. Standard H.firstname.lastname@example.org mm to 10 mm and dual-streaming in H. +27 (0)12 657 3600. 2.1 MP if we compare it to an IP camera.AS/NZS3548).co. 256 MB RAM Standards supported: H. internal DVR O R (up to 64 GB). recording without network load. Onboard intelligence: Yes. It also comes with a 3-year swap out guarantee.za Category: Analogue Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: utors Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: BZ-472CSX22 Resolution: 650TVL Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus X22 zoom 3. SIP. Variations in range : This range of German-made cameras includes box and dome formats with the following options • colour only / day/night cameras • with AF / without AF • with housings for different environments • 1/1.8-10mm Mega Pixel lens and IR range of 25m. VoIP.812mm. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. I2-390HDVF features 2. EN55024. onboard microO phone. y email@example.com .264CCTV (Geutebrück). The DI-390HDVF belongs to the analogue HD technology which is equivalent to a 2. 1/3-inch CCD. +49 26 45 137 0 carmen. firstname.lastname@example.org g Category: Category: Analogue HD SDI Brand/Range name: Provision ISR Supplier: Hitek Security Distributors Camera name: DI-390HDVF Resolution: 1080P or 2. Variations in range: In the analogue HD we have another 3 models: 1. Full-HD. PIR Standards supported: EMC (EN55022. Vandal proof 1/3”CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome me Brand/Range name: TopLine cameras Supplier: Geutebruck GmbH H Camera name: TopFD-2233 Resolution: 160 x 120 up to 1920 x 1440 pixels Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus (One push AF function) Onboard storage : 32 MB Flash Onboard intelligence: Multimedia video processor.8-100mm lens Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. FTP. BX-390HD – Box camera with 1080P resolution.3af.net 60 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. info@hiteksecurity. 087 625 0810. -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description: • Two separate image sensors for day and D night-time operation • Integrated DVR with HiRes video recording • Permanently fixed lenses at factory for extremely simple installation • Robust. 3.0. POE. 2 & 5 megapixel resolutions Contact: Carmen Lahr. speaker. flickerless and automatic gain control. MJPEG and MPEG4 for Geutebrück systems.7-81. electronic shutter. IEEE 802. Full-HDplus. ONVIF compatible with firmware version 3. motion detection. Description: Vandal proof 1/3-inch CMOS full HDplus Day/ Night IP fixed dome with AF vario-focal lens 2. 1/3-inch CMOS and ½-inch CMOS sensors • 720p. External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie.8-12mm Mega Pixel lens with IR range of over 40m. exposure. Contact: Hitek Security Distributors 087 625 0810. water proof and with 1080P Resolution. Variations in range : In the zoom camera range we also have the BZ-371CSX22 which has a 1/3-inch Sony Effio 650TVL sensor with a True ICR.
IP round view fo IP. Hemispheric 360° all all-round for complete room monitoring Brand/Range name: Mobotix Supplier: Industrial Automation And Control Camera name: MX-Q24M-SEC-D11 Resolution: 3 MP (2048 x 1536) Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes, Internal DVR (up to 64 GB), recording without network load. Onboard intelligence: Yes, video motion analytics, on board microphone, speaker, VoIP, SIP, FTP, Temperature Sensor Standards supported: EMC (EN50121-4, EN55022, EN55024, EN61000-6-2,FCC part15B, AS/NZS3548) IEEE 802.3af; Class 0,IP65 (DIN EN 60529), -30 to +60 °C (-22 to +140 °F) Description • Complete panorama view, ideal for access control • Quad view to show images from four different angles simultaneously • Digital, continuous zooming and panning • Robust and maintenance-free, without mechanically moving parts • MxAnalytics: heatmap, people counting and fully automatic reports • Alarm function, speaker and microphone integrated Variations in range : Lenses: L11 (hemispherical), L22 (90° x 67°) Software: (inclusive) MxEasy, Control room software MxControlCenter External storage: Directly on NAS and PC/ Server without additional recording software Contact: Raine Sadie, +27 (0)12 657 3600, email@example.com Name of software: Vivotek VAST Description/purpose: Vivotek provides a feature-rich central management software platform that has been developed specifically for Vivotek products. VAST allows for centralised management of multiple cameras on one central platform. Additionally Vivotek VAST provides a fully featured user interface that is easy to use. Features/functionality: Vivotek VAST utilises a client/server structure which allows for multiple servers and clients to be combined into a single platform. Vivotek VAST is the ideal cost effective surveillance solution that has been designed to scale up to any requirement while still remaining user friendly and flexible. Utilising features that would normally only be available on very costly VMS platforms, VAST is the ideal solution for any surveillance application. Availability: Vivotek VAST is a software-based platform primarily, but is also available on Vivotek’s ND range of NVRs. Cost: VAST has a once off price structure that does not require any annual fees or upgrade costs. Runs in browser or as an independent application? VAST operates as a Windows application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org
Category: 2 MP Full HD P-iris focus a assist WDR network camera Brand/Range name: 8000 Series fixed camera ek Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: IP8162P Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection. Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description : The Vivotek IP8162P camera offers 2-megapixel resolution (1080p full HD @ 30fps). The camera can capture a much more comprehensive area than a standard VGA camera, significantly reducing the number of cameras required. It is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor spaces such as building entrances, airports, or applications requiring accurate identification. With a P-iris lens, which controls the iris with extreme precision with its built-in stepping motor, it maintains the iris opening at an optimal level at all times, resulting in superior image clarity and depth of field as well as image quality. Variations in range: IP8172P, IP8162P, IP8151P, IP8152, IP8133 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, email@example.com Name of software: Milestone Software Description/purpose: Milestone Software has been developed to be a complete surveillance platform that supports a large variety IP cameras and devices. Milestone also provides a complete management platform that allows for the integration of hundreds of different devices while using a flexible and easy to use user interface. Features/functionality: Milestone is an IP video management software platform that has been designed to allow for maximum flexibility and integration. With an open platform design, Milestone software allows for hundreds of different devices from multiple vendors to be integrated into a single platform. A flexible rule-based system combined with powerful video motion detection allows for a vast number actions to be taken based on user-selected conditions. Milestone has been developed specifically to scale up to any size and in hundreds of different layouts. From home based solutions to enterprise environments, Milestone is the VMS to use. Availability: Milestone Software is a complete software package that relies on a Windows platform for operation. Cost: Milestone has a broad pricing structure that stretches across a wide range of products and which will meet any demand. Runs in browser or as an independent application? Milestone can be used in a Web-based environment but the core software has been developed to function as an independent application. Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF, PSIA and a broad range of standards that make integration possible. Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE
20x zoom, 2 MP full HD WDR, 60 fps PoE Plus camera a
Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Speed Dome Supplier: Vivotek Camera name: SD8362E Resolution: 2 megapixel (1920x1080) Auto/Manual focus: Auto & manual focus ocus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: The SD8362E is part of the Supreme series product line offering 2 megapixel or 1080p resolution with superb image quality (up to 60 fps @ 720p and 30 fps @ 1080p). Integrated WDR technology, the SD8362E can also cope with challenging lighting conditions. Adopting a 20x optical zoom lens, the SD8362E is able to capture details at top-notch quality. The camera is especially suitable for monitoring wide-open indoor/outdoor spaces such as airports, high ways and parking lots where high-level reliability and precision are always required. Variations in range: SD8323E, SD8322E, SD8321E Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, email@example.com
Category: Ca 5 MP 360° surround view, vandal proof Fisheye fixed va dome camera do Brand/Range name: Br 8000 80 Series FishEye Supplier: Vivotek Su ot tek Camera name: FE8172V Ca 72V Resolution: 5 megapixel Progressive Sensor (1920x1920) Re Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FE8172V is the latest fisheye fixed dome network camera, featuring a detailed 5 megapixel resolution sensor with superb image quality. Equipped with a fisheye lens for 180° panoramic view (wall mount) or 360° surround view (ceiling/floor/table mount) without blind spots, the camera is able to provide coverage of wide, open areas, such as airports, shopping malls, parking lots, retail stores, offices and more. Variations in range: FE8171V, CC8130 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org o.co.za Category: C 5 MP full HD, Smart Focus System, fixed dome S network camera n Brand/Range name: B 8000 Series Dome 8 Supplier: Vivotek S Camera name: FD8372 C Resolution: 5 megapixel R pixel (2560x1920) 92 20) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto A ( t focus) f ) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max O Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek FD8372 is an IP67 rated indoor/outdoor dome camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free installation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: FD8362E, FD8162, FD8335H, FD8134V, FD8134, FD8151V, FD8136 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, email@example.com
Category: 5 MP bullet network camera, a, a , 30m IR, Smart Focus System, m m, WDR, IP67 Brand/Range name: 8000 Series Bullet Supplier: Vivotek tek Camera name: IP8372 72 2 Resolution: 5 megapixel g gapixel (2560x1920) 0x1920) 1920) Auto/Manual focus: Remote focus (auto focus) Onboard storage: Yes (MicroSD/SDHC/SDXC card slot) 2 TB max. Onboard intelligence: Video motion detection, camera tampering detection Standards supported: H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4, ONVIF, 802.3af, IPv4, IPv6, TCP/IP, HTTP, HTTPS, UPnP, RTSP/RTP/ RTCP, IGMP, SMTP, FTP, DHCP, NTP, DNS, DDNS, PPPoE, CoS, QoS, SNMP, 802.1X Description: Vivotek IP8372 is an IP67 rated outdoor bullet camera offering 5 megapixel resolution with up to 30 fps (1080P) and built-in IR illuminators. The Smart Focus System allows for easy installation and adjustment by adopting a lens with a built-in stepper motor that can remotely control the focal length and precisely adjust the camera focus, offering hassle-free instal lation and maintenance. The IP8372 is also equipped with a mounting bracket that conceals all cables within. Variations in range: IP8362, IP8352, IP8335H, IP8332, IP8330, IP8331 Contact: Alex Bantjes, +27 (0)12 657 0960, firstname.lastname@example.org
CCTV Handbook 2013 www.securitysa.com
tegory: Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range:
IndigoVision 2MP IP bullet camera IndigoVision BX Range IndigoVision BX600HD 2MP Remote zoom and focus Yes up to 32GB Micro SD card not included Motion detection H.264/Mjpeg. Audio G.711, ONVIF The BX range cameras are IndigoVision’s HD and full HD range of ONVIF conformant cameras supported by the reliable SMS4 software management platform. Includes wide dynamic range with IR and a true day/ night mechanical IR cut filter. The unit is IP66 rated with a 3mm-9mm vari-focal lens. BX 500 the full HD PTZ option with 20x optical zoom. BX400 is an indoor/outdoor mini dome option with vandal proof models rated at IK10 Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), email@example.com
Category: IP 360° megapixel camera Brand/Range name: AV365CO Supplier: Arecont Vision Camera name: H.264SurroundVideo Resolution: 8 megapixel xel Auto/Manual focus: Manual Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. 360° view, extended motion detection grid. Privacy masking. Standards supported: H.624 and MJPEG Description: An area typically requiring multiple PTZ cameras or multiple fixed cameras can be covered with a single panoramic camera. It delivers comprehensive coverage with forensic detail – all without the need for an operator or control software. A cost efficient solution, SurroundVideo panoramic cameras virtually obsolete the need and related expense of PTZ cameras. For applications that require critical detail like licence plate recognition, combine the panoramic camera with single sensor megapixel cameras at entrance and exit points. Variations in range: 180° versions, 360° versions, 8 MP or 20 MP Day/Night versions Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), firstname.lastname@example.org
Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description:
Variations in range:
IP bullet cameras Rediview IP bullet Reditron RVIP-IRB-Mini 1.3Megapixel Manual Vari focal Lens Yes. Micro SD/HC 64 GB Yes. Masking 5 user-defined areas. H.264 / MJPEG – ONVIF V2.1 Latest sensor technology with 720p resolution. 100% fully functional IP camera with browser support, ONVIF compliance, and embedded Flash technology inside. Offering 3-axis movement. High Powered IR LED for night vision. Supporting PoE or 12V for the most simple of installation. Safari, Chrome, IE, Firefox, Opera: all browser compatible. 1.3 MP HD 30-50m IR 2 MP FHD 30-50m IR 3 MP FHD 30-50m IR Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), email@example.com
C Category: S D PTZ Sony SNC-EP550 IP HD with 28X optical zoom Brand/Range name: Sony Ipela n Supplier: Reditron 50 Camera name: SNC-EP550 Resolution: 720p Auto/Manual focus: Auto Onboard storage: Yes up to 32 GB Onboard intelligence: Intelligent motion detection. Filters out normal false alarms normally associated with motion detection. Standards supported: MPEG4, H.264, JPEG. ONVIF. Description: The EP550 is a cost effective HD network PTZ that supports 28x optical zoom. It includes Wide D technology from sony @ 86dB. The PTZ has a 340°-pan area. SD card slot for local stor age is also present. Variations in range: EP-521 – 4sif IP PTZ with 36X optical zoom EP-580 – Full HD IP PTZ with 20x optical zoom ER range support full 360 degree pan Contact: Kershia Kistan, Reditron, 087 802 CCTV (2288), firstname.lastname@example.org
www.securitysa.com CCTV Handbook 2013
za rmerwe@secequip. IR distance • Programmable 220 pre-set positions. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard Intelligence: Yes. external super high speed dome 432x power zoom – 36X optical. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Extreme long-range IR camera PTZ Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security urity Camera name: 15-AS55L L Resolution: High horizontal izontal resolution n 550TV lines nes Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus us Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: N/A Description: • Extreme long-range IR positioning high speed PTZ camera 432x power zoom • ¼-inch progressive scan CCD • Super high power Infrared Length LEDs @ 200m • Electronic image stabiliser • WDR support • 8 privacy mask zones • 3D co-ordinate • 128 pre-set positions • Pan range 0˚ ~ 360˚.za Category: Analogue.co. speed 0.securitysa. iPv4. analytics. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. pattern tern tours. each 180s memory • 8 Cruising tracks with 32 pre-set positions each • 8 Privacy Mask Zones • IR LED service life >30000 hours Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.co.co. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150.com . Standards Supported: N/A Description: • Colour/mono.vandermerwe@secequip. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Intelligent IR PTZ camera a Brand/Range name: COP PTZ speed dome Supplier: COP Security Camera name: 15-CD60W-1020 Resolution: High horizontal resolution 530TV lines.co.za 64 CCTV Handbook 2013 email@example.com Name of software: NetFocus Description/purpose: Hybrid recording / display Features/functionality: • Image enhancement by Intelligent noise filtering • Intelligent video analytics • Dual monitor • Thumb nail preview search • Digital camera zoom • CMS/Web/mobile viewing and e-Map monitoring • Wide range of IP camera options and NetFocus IP camera integration Availability: PC based/embedded Cost: No licence fee Unlimited cameras Runs in browser or as an independent application? Independent application and browser Standards the software adheres to: ONVIF/CAMS Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. PoE high power.0 MP Auto focus Yes. speed 300˚/s • Tilt range +45˚ ~ -50˚. Pattern tours. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150.za Category: Analogue. 32 GB Yes. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. masking. Y-WDR. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 firstname.lastname@example.org@secequip. simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • PoE N/A Riaan van der Merwe. 12X digital • Electronic image stabiliser • 120-150m IR range with 72 IR LED • Programmable IR schedule.CAMERA SELECTION BUYERS’ GUIDE GUIDE Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP megapixel NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFTI-H2100 Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. 4 pattern tours.5˚ ~ 60˚/s • RS-485 multi-protocols communication Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. iPv6 • X20 HD IP outdoor camera • Real-time HD speed dome camera • Triple codec.
Yes. Integrating these two sensors provides unparalleled performance resulting in accurate detection. Standards supported: N/A Description: • High sensitivity/resolution HDR Wide Dynamic ICR camera in external water proof housing with high power IR LEDs.co. iPv4. iPv6. info@securitell-int. PoE high power. with ultra-high resolution colour CCD and a highly tuned thermal imager for true 24/7 performance. Auto/Manual focus: Manual focus. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Standards supported: ONVIF. 17μm pixel pitch.za Category: Customisable dual sensor optical and thermal integrated PTZ system Brand/Range name: Ascendent (Canada) Supplier: Securitell Camera name: Ranger-37X-TI: Electro-Optic PTZ Camera Resolution: Optical: 600TVL (day) / 700TVL (night) Thermal: FLIR Generation 2. megapixel Brand/Range name: NetFocus NS Series Supplier: ForeTech 00ATIR Camera name: NFIB-H2000ATIR Resolution: Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2.vandermerwe@secequip. Riaan van der Merwe. • OSD setup menu. recognition. cross line. • Motion detection. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Securitell. megapixel es NetFocus NS Series ForeTech NFIN-H2000ATIR Real-time HD video streams of 1080p – 2.co. Y-WDR. and rapid deployment scenarios. and identification of intruders. Simultaneous multi streaming • Local SD card backup • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Bidirectional audio • 90˚ tilting • Vandal & weatherproof design • Auto focus PoE / 12V.com Category: Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: Auto/Manual focus: Onboard storage: Onboard intelligence: Standards supported: Description: Variations in range: Contact: IP. rotation. All of this is integrated into an IP 66 housing constructed of strengthened aluminium with alloy treated anticorrosive coating. Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: Yes. negative.za www. • 2X digital zoom with manual pan/tilt. • Auto/manual electronic shutter speed adjustable. OnVIF. simultaneous multi streaming • Day & night by ICR • PoE • Auto focus • Weatherproof design Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe. HDR. IP streamer available. Variations in range: Customisable to suite your requirements.com CCTV Handbook 2013 65 .Category: Analogue Street surveillance all-in-one camera. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: Yes. Description: • 2 mega-HD IR bullet camera • Real-time high definition dome camera • Triple codec.co. PoE high power.5mm IR corrected continuous zoom lens. analytics. • Challenging high lighting condition.vandermerwe@secequip. Variations in range: N/A Contact: Riaan van der Merwe.5mm129. • S/N radio with auto 3D-DNR. 32 GB SD Card Onboard intelligence: Yes. Pelco-P/D standard protocol.0 MP. iPv4. • Built in video. Masking. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan.0 MP Auto focus Yes. Suitable for fixed installations as well as portable. 32 GB SD Card. Masking. Auto/Manual focus: Auto focus Onboard storage: No Onboard intelligence: No Standards supported: PTZ communication via RS-485 / RS-422. Secequip +27 (0)82 904 1150. iPv6 • 2-mega HD fixed IP dome camera • Real-time HD definition • Triple codec.vandermerwe@secequip. privacy marking.za Category: IP. Brand/Range name: Supplier: Camera name: Resolution: COP Camera COP Security 15-CO43RVIC Super High resolution CCD with Star-Light more than 600TV lines (D/N) video digital signal processor (SOC) IC. analytics. freeze.securitysa. H/V mirror. +27 (0)82 556 6565. advanced protocol • Analogue to IP converter Contact: Sam Lessing. +27 (0)11 624 2576 riaan. Optional: • Various fixed thermal lenses • Optical zoom thermal lenses • 336x256 FLIR thermal imager • 640x480 FLIR thermal imager • Radar integration • Image stabilisation • Heater or blower • Wiper • Pelco D. Description: The system boasts a 37X optical 3.
or a number plate identification system.” said Wyman.” Remote surveillance removes collusion and intimidation once one eliminates the human element from the onsite security equation. “It is critical to match the customer’s requirements with the correct system. “The bottom line is that customers need to be educated on these benefits in an objective manner. Remote surveillance will confirm the extent of a security breach and provide the armed reaction company with accurate information on the number of intruders and their positions within the premises. one is able to sidestep collusion. with low-cost emerging companies dominating the market.” Policies and procedures are only as good as the employees implementing them. do local companies believe that this is a viable option for Africa? “On the current model. CEO of Vox Telecom. Customers are advised to ask prospective remote offsite monitoring companies to provide them with references. one pays for bandwidth. or even cameras with night vision will be made once their advantages and applicability to the environment are determined.” said Chertkow. “By moving monitoring of surveillance offsite. A bona fide remote offsite surveillance operator will spend time with the client discussing and establishing specific risk areas. unless these companies do a full needs analysis of customer needs. Finally. The biggest stumbling block at present is the lack of knowledge around the benefits of cloud/hosted solutions and remote monitoring. “The vast choice of remote surveillance companies is starting to become a real issue. Unfortunately.” “The management of companies tends to be wary about having critical business data and footage hosted remotely. the practice also allows the company to employ a covert health and safety watchdog. offsite footage and incident reports provide customers with a chain of evidence for prosecutory purposes. Any possible tampering with footage is eliminated. according to Mark Chertkow. one increases the operational costs.” Wyman concluded. one can gain a completely objective overview of onsite activities from anywhere at any time. By adopting remote offsite surveillance.securitysa. We suggest that companies install a separate firewall for business-critical data that only the client can access.” said Roy Wyman. There will be instances where remote offsite monitoring is not the solution. so by pushing footage onto the cloud. one could feed only event-driven footage onto the cloud and download it offsite. companies are able to save thousands of rands. in addition to the monetary benefits derived from instituting remote offsite surveillance. Unsafe operating practices and behaviours that infringe the health regulations of an organisation are quickly identified by an independent operator and tagged for immediate resolution. The international market is not faced with the same high levels of crime and collusion that Africa does. “However. Around 95% of alarms received by armed reaction companies are actually false alarms. There is an overriding fear of systems being hacked. By moving footage offsite into the cyber realm. Decisions on whether the client requires hi-res cameras. However. 66 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.REMOTE MONITORING Keeping tabs from a distance By Allyson Koekhoven. the likelihood of the service providing a return on investment are highly unlikely. MD of Remote Offsite Monitoring (ROM). but the extractable operational benefits of remote surveillance are manifold. This also releases capital that can be invested in installing surveillance cameras.” said Jacques du Toit. which are capable of providing eight times more visibility due to their constant coverage of areas. How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? How do you decide when a remote surveillance service is the solution for your application? Is there scope for cloud-based solutions for remote surveillance in Africa? Some may see CCTV as a grudge purchase.” Floating on a cloud Given the mixed response to the advantages of cloud or hosted surveillance internationally. Only by talking to an experienced and reputable company will this be determined. Visit working sites and establish whether the company you are entrusting the security of your assets to is able to provide you with the system and service you really need.com . “Often companies only realise after an incident has occurred that physical guarding or technology on their own are simply not a sufficient security tool.” said Du Toit. MD of Graphic Imaging Technologies (GIT). “There is definitely a place for hosting on the cloud.
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securitysa. Many commercial and private organisations are opting to have video surveillance protecting people and assets 24x7 in the hope that cameras manned by remote operators are less likely to succumb to intimidation or collusion. this is susceptible to lightning and breakdowns. What should customers expect to get from their service providers in terms of connectivity when they sign up for remote surveillance? Failover/different service providers/ wireless and wired etc. In many cases. Dusty Van Den Berg. bearing in mind the costs of 3G data. For smaller business the list is endless. What makes a remote monitoring service work? One of the key growth areas in the surveillance market in South Africa is the remote monitoring industry. question the availability of incoming and outgoing lines and question the backup or fail over strategy as well. MD. Continued on page 70 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: The issue with any communications activity in South Africa is bandwidth and the reliability of your connectivity. Our suggestion is that a company uses its primary data service that is not used during the day for security monitoring at night. Also keep in mind that most larger corporation also have strict IT policies that govern the data communications. Question the stability of the lines.com . Broadband services such as ADSL is best effort and highly contended and there is no time in which network operators are forced to maintain within a specific time. firstly the control room and secondly the clients side. with video coverage of your premises. Just how effective is this? And what do the people in the industry see happening in the market? Will growth continue or are we seeing a levelling off with larger organisations developing their own in-house remote services? And what are the best practices to follow when looking at a remote service? reasonable. When visiting the control room ask to see the server room handling the control room communications. The obvious alternative is having a separate back-up ADSL service provider to combat failovers on the lines. a customer must make peace with fact that he needs an exact copy of the primary service. Wireless options are also available. such as: • Customers need to understand what kind of connectivity comes with the SLA. and depending on the risk to be protected a fail over line will need to be added to this. In most cases these links are of higher quality and come with the required SLA. within pricing constraints. Still others are using remote video monitoring to support their business processes and health and safety procedures.REMOTE MONITORING Remotely reactive By Andrew Seldon. Most bigger businesses have got IT departments that look after all the communication issues and have often got several configurations that they can use to get video and alarms through to the control room with some sort of fail over as well. which could be a 3G data card. then it is important that one applies for a service that comes with an SLA. VoxOrion Telecom: There are a few key issues to take into consideration. It’s of no use having 10 lines running at 100% capacity all the time as data will be lost. sales manager. The client side will need to be planed based on the client requirements. Daytona Electronics: There are two sides to connectivity. this can often be a large obstacle to overcome. fibre communication is far preferable. Jacques Du Toit. Wright Surveillance: Customers will obviously expect to be connected at all times. Realistically the service provider has to ensure that they have as many fail-over communication options as is 68 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. it is recommended that nothing less than a 1 Mb DLS is made available for the video streaming. I would recommend getting the IT department involved from the inception of the project as they will be able to advise what can and what may not be done. • If full redundancy is required. MD.? Gary Stephenson. In addition. you will have less chance of false alarms as every alert can be verified before dispatching armed response or calling the police. including the hardware are cheaper than manned guarding services. • If safety and security is really important for a customer. that it is uncontended and that there is a guaranteed mean time in which to prepare. the remote service providers claim their services. It is not enough to just insure the availability of lines but also question the speed and amount of data utilisation on these lines. but through another vendor using other technologies. most communication networks in SA run on a copper backbone and or through Telkom.
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keep calm in a tense situation and communicate with customers and armed reaction companies in an appropriate manner. guarding or CCTV installation and maintenance. Other factors to be taken into account include whether the required escalation capabilities are in place. Monitoring is reactive. installation etc. and additional product specific training. The systems behind the technology (such as incident management reporting software) must be foolproof – this is the heartbeat of the system. Du Toit: Most importantly here. monitoring. It is critical to the success of remote surveillance that the monitoring company does the design and installation of the client’s CCTV system. the higher the grade of the operator’s certificate the better. armed response and off-site monitoring services are supplied by different service providers. Our business is monitoring. i. Du Toit: It must be independent. and communication is key. our controllers undergo training in kinesics (understanding body language). i. the situation is properly assessed and the correct communication steps are followed. and it is also crucial that he be suitably capable of dealing with a tense situation. For the service to be successful the remote monitoring station must be receiving the appropriate alarm signals and CCTV images. a mention must be made to the technical staff in the background. how can a potential customer separate those who are capable and those who are trying to cash in on the trend? Stephenson: Establishing and operating a CCTV surveillance control room is a specialised security service. as we are all aware things will go wrong at the oddest times. is the quality of the control room. It is vital for potential customers to look for service providers with a proven track record. what is the remedy. the same person. they will be more than willing to also guide you and offer you advice on what to look for and warn you of potential problem to look out for. Continued on page 72 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Security skills are always an issue in the industry. the ability to communicate to both the stakeholder and the armed reaction company. which equips them to identify potential threats pro-actively. For example.e. and availability of spares. The list of questions is almost endless.REMOTE MONITORING Continued from page 68 Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What services and capabilities. the control room must be secure and have an acceptable level of redundancy – from power to security. What skills does your remote provider need to have on board? What skills (or people) should they be hiring for what different functions? Stephenson: The quality of the remote monitoring station personnel is integral to the level of service delivery to the client. our philosophy is that the perfect security service scenario is where the guarding. people and systems.com . and request references of existing clients to verify the quality of the service delivery. etc. It is not enough to take the word of a salesman. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Should remote surveillance operators provide a full security service – as in guards.securitysa. We are talking about world-class automated communication. So when an alarm is triggered. Van Den Berg: Vet all your suppliers. Keep in mind this is an evolving industry so question on-going training programmes. most of the more reputable companies will be very willing to show you their infrastructure and control rooms as they are proud of it. Van Den Berg: All security staff need to be registered with PSIRA. recruits high quality CCTV controllers that undergo further specialised in-house training programmes. It still surprises me how many calls we get from clients that have just experienced an incident and their remote surveillance service was found lacking. overall (not connectivity). i. Our business is not about surveillance. and remote monitoring of the incoming signal/image by experienced and qualified operators. must customers look for in their remote service providers? With many people offering remote monitoring. Go through and see a few suppliers. ask to see all the control room staff as well as the company’s PSIRA certificates.e. etc. i. ‘Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?’ which means ‘Who will guard the guards themselves?’ Having the guarding company monitored by an independent remote monitoring centre who will engage an independent armed response company ensures the client has three layers of protection. see for yourself. looking at a live screen 24-hours a day trying to identify suspect behaviour. computer skills. Wright Surveillance 70 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. The agent must be appropriately and adequately trained and graded. Question other qualifications achieved by the controllers. Look out as well for the ability to report on trends. surveillance. and can offer an end-to-end solution. Du Toit: The first question to ask is what function one is fulfilling and differentiate between armed reaction. – in addition to their remote work. sleeping on duty or physical patrols. We provide valuable information to the customer – for example: response time to react from the armed reaction company or actual onsite guard activity. armed response. If and when there is a technical issue after hours. As much as the controllers are there monitoring the site. another good question is the availability of technical staff as connections and technical issues do not only occur during office hours. the same gate. One of the benefits of being independent is that one cannot hide one’s dirty washing. the accuracy of the physical incident report of the event – from the armed reaction company to the customer.e. Successful service providers in this industry are those with extensive experience in the security industry. This entails developing a bespoke security solution for each client. In addition. For this function one needs an operator that can operate IP-based technology. installation of the appropriate technology best suited to that client’s operating environment. The system must guide the operator on what actions to take and not allow for any shortcuts.e. The success of the service is in lowering the customer’s risk. then when they come and see how we do things and it becomes clear that the wool was pulled over their eyes. but as long as you ask plenty of questions you will not come short. or should they stick to their knitting with surveillance? Stephenson: In order to ensure the highest quality of service delivery and minimise the potential for collusion.
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Our experienced surveillance team operates in a secure. It is in that your customer knows that you are there looking out for their best interests. This could include notifying the other security services on site. We offer full time or event-based surveillance plus the option of virtual guard tours and supervision. image quality. Wright Surveillance’s extensive experience in the field of remote monitoring means that we’re well aware of what technology delivers the right results in the control room. properly trained and reliable staff and a fully comprehensive incident management report system. and calling the appropriate authorities such as armed response and SAPS. It is imperative to have the correct ratio of control room operators to number of clients. I would not recommend that the client puts all his eggs in one basket so to speak. which includes an automated occurrence book and reporting system that is integrated into the software platform. and provide the best integration. and our vast experience ensures that our CCTV security systems deliver as promised. After using various products over the years. or does he tell his employer and put the client at risk? Hi-Tech Security Solutions: How does your company differentiate itself in a crowded market? Stephenson: Wright Surveillance is an end-to-end CCTV security solution partner. ensuring that the service will benefit the client and minimise the risk he is experiencing. he is now left with an ethical dilemma. that’s when the questions get asked. we’ve found affordable products and installation techniques that supersede all others on the market. Full onsite assessments facilitate delivery of optimised solutions to offer a total integrated security package. does he tell the client and put his company’s name in a bad light and risk getting into trouble. Wright Surveillance consultants have the experience and expertise to offer the WRIGHT solution that is tailored to customers specific needs. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the control room specialities a successful remote service provider needs to have on board? Stephenson: A successful remote monitoring station provides an instant response to received alarms and CCTV footage.com . Wright Surveillance is among the pioneers of remote CCTV monitoring in South Africa. Van Den Berg: As with any specialised service such as remote video surveillance. offering CCTV planning. we analyse the risk and custom fit a remote video monitoring package to the clients specific requirements. installation and maintenance through to remote monitoring in our technologically advanced control room. Technologically advanced IT infrastructure is necessary. it is a proactive measure to prevent and limit the criminals time on site. if the operator sees a guard or armed response officer doing something that they are not meant to be doing. We have an experienced and well-motivated team that is driven to ensure customer satisfaction. hosted e-mail or any other cloud base service offered – simply another piece of the converged communications puzzle. it is attention to detail that is going to set you apart from your opposition. 72 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. It’s in having audibility on everything that happens in and around the control room. Van Den Berg: Daytona Electronics is a company that specialises in remote video monitoring for key clients. and what doesn’t.securitysa. challenging the intruders via onsite speakers. I would recommend that the client looks at his entire security risk profile and do a full risk assessment. as remote video surveillance is only small part of the entire risk. We have been doing remote video surveillance for more than seven years. Continued from page 70 Van Den Berg: I believe that the remote surveillance services are only a small part in the bigger picture. speed and reliability – all essential components when looking to ensure the delivery of a superior security solution. offsite central monitoring station allowing optimum effectiveness. access control and energy management. it’s not just offering a service at the cheapest price. Immediate evaluation of the activity/event by experienced control room operators is followed by the necessary corrective action. for when there is an incident. Du Toit: The biggest difference is that our remote monitoring offering fits into our existing folder of converged communications products being provided No additional connectivity is required – it’s just another IP service offered on top of the client’s data services. and have learned through experience the that this is not a one-package-fits-all-industry.REMOTE MONITORING Du Toit: A good relationship with and a clear understanding of the SLA that the armed response company provides to the customer. redundancy from a connectivity perspective. It’s about ensuring that the customer knows he is not just a number to your bottom line. IP PABX. to ensure that all incoming signals are appropriately managed. With over 20 years in the security industry and over 10 years in remote monitoring.
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In addition. high end video recording functionality and a TCP/IP video server from a single device. where bandwidth and user functions are separated from each other on different data streams and video channels. While there is a shortage of bandwidth in South Africa’s outlying areas that would benefit most from remote CCTV monitoring. one management operator can monitor several cameras at one time. simply. in particular. TeleEye clients can remain on SD as we offer highly-efficient remote monitoring solutions no matter what the bandwidth available in the client’s area. yes. One of the most important points that prospective CCTV clients need to know is that many video alarm verification and video management systems are cut and pasted together by installers using different standards and manufacturers.com 74 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. it is important to state that site installation is absolutely critical in terms of security monitoring. the customer would subscribe to services of a remote video response centre (RVRC). An example of this would be a company providing a separate alarm panel. It is also interesting to note that even our HD CCTV solutions use 50% less bandwidth than systems utilising the H. The former is concerned with protecting the client’s people and assets. These include mobile telecommunications where remote base stations require protection and banking where ATMs have become prized targets among criminals who are longer able to crack bank safes or reliably prey on cash-in-transit vehicles. more bandwidth is becoming available which means now is the time to consider HD CCTV remote monitoring instead of SD CCTV. On the other hand a TeleEye remote monitoring video recording server provides a BS:8418 (British Standard) compliant alarm management system. This means total cost of ownership is lower.com . sophisticated event management and operator and site logging. This is especially relevant to certain industries that are feeling the pinch of rising costs coupled with declining productivity. +27 (0)11 557 9200. The mining industry. Both halves of the equation work in symphony to ensure a complete remote monitoring solution. www. While CCTV remote monitoring is an effective security solution. This ensures that local expertise operates according to global best practice with all the associated benefits for clients. The twin halves of the remote monitoring equation – video management and alarm verification – are perfectly designed for this industry and many others. how the site should be installed and how the control room should operate. An effective remote monitoring solution should allow for both security and management function to take place concurrently without affecting each other. SMACM. lightning and surge protection and most importantly the available bandwidth at a client site. it is only as good as its installer and equipment used. Closed circuit television (CCTV) systems have become another effective weapon in South Africa’s anti-crime arsenal. instead of physically watching one individual. while the latter is essentially a management and control function. This standard specifies a Code of Practice outlining how TeleEye as a manufacturer. event distribution to operators. comes to mind. DVR and IP encoders and/or cameras to form a remote monitoring solution. It has often been said that technology will be South Africa’s saving grace in the war against crime and CCTV is an example of one of those anti-crime technologies that work exceptionally well.teleeye.REMOTE MONITORING Process and technology combined HSS asked Philip Smerkovitz. It is important to point out at an early stage that there are two distinct aspects to CCTV remote monitoring – alarm monitoring or video alarm verification and video management. In this regard. TeleEye adheres to the UK CCTV standard known as BS8418. MD of TeleEye (South Africa) if CCTV as a service works? The short answer to the question is. TeleEye’s sureGUARD video alarm verification software then provides a complete integrated control room solution providing the necessary features such as remote recordings. where there are bandwidth limitations in rural areas. TeleEye has managed to develop a compression protocol called SMAC-M that provides higher quality images and faster frame rates than products using the H.264 protocol. We are able to offer both CCTV alarm and management abilities via true multi-stream technology. For more information contact TeleEye (South Africa). That being said. Remote CCTV monitoring is currently one of the fastest-growing sectors in the security industry. whilst the Philip Smerkovitz client would often engage in their own management monitoring. TeleEye can quote numerous examples of CCTV installations not properly taking into account critical factors such as backup power. This makes more advanced high definition remote monitoring applications highly challenging. You have a massive dispersed workforce to manage and highvalue assets to protect. This means they don’t affect each other yet one unified system has been deployed. which has the disadvantage of lower image quality.264 protocol. In the country’s cities. It is commonplace that for the security or alarm handling aspect. Remote management monitoring works as a service because it has the obvious advantage of allowing the client to virtually be in multiple locations at one time.securitysa. increasing reliability and efficiency. In conclusion. should develop critical features in compliance with this standard.
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Alnet and a further 20 VMS partners.com . All models in the range come with day/night IR capabilities.” The Dynacolor camera provides both 180-degree and 360-degree viewing using the Dynacolor NVR software. The camera has a resolution of 2 to 8 MP. enabling the user to customise all the fields of view for the different channels. The software also offers digital zoom in the live view and playback using t the full power of megapixel c cameras. a director of Security Warehouse. In total. advanced storage optimisation. “However. “The best applications for these cameras include larger areas where users require coverage with fewer cameras. the company’s FullSight range offers panoramic cameras in the 360-degree and 180-degree categories. Infinova. This would typically be at stadia. ensuring that activity is recorded anywhere in the scene at all times.securitysa. camera mapping and placement. Both the Sentry360 and Sentry180 FullSight cameras are supplied with free SentryCore VMS software.3 to 10 MP are available in the FullSight 360 series cameras. utilising the Digi-iT NVR software allows for 360-degree de-warped view. “The camera is also integrated with our Digi-iT open platform NVR software. They have low light (0. said that the Dynacolor fisheye cameras come with free bundled software that can record and view camera data. NICE. providing more views and per-channel recording. Both cameras are supplied with VMD and full video content analysis with ArtecoLogic. continuous or a combination of these. Genetec.2 lux) functionality and work well with infrared illuminators.FISHEYE/PANORAMIC CAMERAS When you want to see everything By Allyson Koekhoven. This software is fully featured with remote viewing.” Lattuca explained. All the de-warped views support e-PTZ. but performs optimally where resolutions of less than 3 MP are required. FullSight According to Dean Sichelschmidt. The Digi-iT NVR software records all the possible channels on motion. there are seven possible views: normal 360-degree fisheye. Dynacolor Pasco Lattuca. On-board storage enables full redundancy should the NVR lose power supply. Axxonsoft. Both FullSight camera types utilise a single multi-megapixel sensor. Viasys. Video-Insight. Resolutions of 1. the company also markets Video-Insight and ArtecoLogic software for panorama cameras. Teleste. record and playback the full 360-degree field-of-view. event. These cameras provide a 360-degree vantage point with no blind spots and no moving parts. The camera can be mounted on a wall or ceiling and h has a built-in microphone and speaker. What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What’s happening in the world of fisheye/panorama cameras? What functionality do they have and do they have today’s ever-popular low light capabilities? The following companies have integrated with Sentry360: Milestone. 2 x 180-degree de-warped in one channel. 360degree de-warped. technical director at Natech Universal Technology. storage facilities and petrol stations. 180/360 de-warping. combined with high-resolution optics.” said Sichelschmidt. Arteco. The FullSight 180 versions offer a 180-degree view from a surfacemountable dome for both indoor and outdoor usage. In addition. and 4 x 90-degree views. each on its own channel. The immersive imaging technology allows you to see. “The Dynacolor is a true da day/night camera featuring ICR (infrared cut) function and a bu built-in IR illuminator with a Smart IR function to provide an 76 CCTV Handbook 2013 www.
The software comes with several advanced features including alarm monitoring. system status and security management. Avigilon Avigilon panoramic cameras use the Avigilon Control Center (ACC) with High Definition Stream Management (HDSM). regional sales manager southern Africa. VGA and CIF. including WDR.” added Van der Vyver. “The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome camera is ideal for monitoring indoor and outdoor environments for sectors such as education. bookmark and export functionality. ACC is also ONVIF compliant and we support numerous integrations with third-party providers. The predominant differentiating factor is that the CatVision software can provide multiple transformed views from a single video feed. “Our JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2 MP sensors which provide 180-degreeor 360-degree coverage in high definition from a single camera.za. This is contrary to many available VMS systems where the transformation has to be performed by the camera itself demanding that the system receives multiple video streams. accommodation and hospitality or for any location where installation points are limited. integrated graphic mapping. CatVision does panoramic views Cathexis offers completes 180 degree and 360 degree fisheye camera transformation algorithms. motion detection. reception areas and over aisles in retail stores. “ACC records and manages audio and video from Avigilon’s broad range of multi-megapixel IP cameras (from 1 to 29 megapixels) and other leading manufacturers’ equipment. The camera’s powerful light management settings.” he said. you can see the original source feed and transformed views of the same video feed rendered from the CatVision software. rather than multiple streams. banking. POS transaction engines. manage and store HD multi-megapixel surveillance video data. full 1080p HD. www.za. The camera can also run on 3 MP.securitysa. Cathexis has included spherical and rectangular transformation algorithms in its latest CatVision software. For more information contact Cathexis Africa. while efficiently managing bandwidth and storage.excellent low light image. make it suitable for shop fronts. www. The feature is available as standard in all of the CatVision software packages. 720p HD. to effectively capture. so only the source video need be recorded.” said Ryno van der Vyver. retail. Another advantage of this feature is that the CatVision archive player can also perform the transformations. +27 (0)31 240 0800.co. D1.cathexis. The Dynacolor is a 5 MP camera with quad stream capability.” said Lattuca.com CCTV Handbook 2013 77 . info@cat. The JPEG 2000 HD panoramic dome cameras feature four 2-MP sensors for a total resolution of 8 MP. This enables the system to receive 180 degree and 360 degree video feeds from fisheye cameras and then transform them into normal views from within the CatVision software. The advanced 3D noise reduction function also assists in providing a clear image at night and eliminates the noise (snowiness) caused by motion recording.co. In the image. At full 5 MP resolution the camera provides 10 frames per second and at full 1080 HD real-time it provides 25 frames per second.
+27 (0)31 705 1373. intelligent video management software allows for the triggering of recording (as well as alerts) using more intelligent detectors.com . Remember that a “jerky” image due to low frame rate may not be cosmetically nice. The other challenge is that. The only time that high resolution is an advantage is if there is a need to use digital zoom capabilities. This is however only 78 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. fibre channel and serial attached SCSI (SAS) which help with the access speeds. and this has been used for many years to reduce storage requirements (and help when it comes to searching for footage). The standard for most television or movies we watch is around 24fps.INTELLIGENT STORAGE IP surveillance and storage By Richard Hepplestone. with some of the IT manufacturers even creating products to address the specific needs of surveillance (e.com Resolution for resolutions sake Don’t think that higher resolution is necessarily better. mirror and RAID techniques which help with data redundancy (as well as performance) and even differential backup techniques to make the creation of offsite backups viable. It will not only help for storage. In some cases the storage can be more expensive than all the other components. we want it to appear smooth and lifelike and with the exception of a few highly detail-oriented individuals we get our wish here.g. relevant as a point of reference since the only similarity between video surveillance and television is the moving picture on the screen. alison. Anyone with experience in high-resolution IP surveillance will agree that one of the most difficult (and often most expensive) components of the solution to manage is storage. this is only going to become more of a challenge. Here are some techniques that can assist you with this. you can look at detectors such as line crossing (in a specific direction maybe). don’t be afraid to drop the resolution in the configuration of the camera. and even recording specifically when there is motion in a particular area of the screen. So we all know that storage can get expensive. but may be practically perfectly good for the job. Integration with access control or intrusion alarm systems may also be employed to assist with this. and sometimes high frame rates are needed (for example licence plate recognition on moving traffic). you may choose to have a few days’ short-term storage at high frame rates and then long-term storage at low frame rates. Information technology has given us numerous ways to provide the large amounts of storage required. We need to ask ourselves if high frame rates are necessary. they show each picture twice creating an effective 12fps. loitering (we don’t care if someone walks past but if they hang around for more than a few minutes we want to know). in the detail you need and when you need it. This is all excellent technology. The human eye struggles to discern any difference between 1 MP and 5 MP. The key thing is to remember what the solution was designed for and to only record what you need. Another problem is trying to accurately predict storage requirements when using H. As well as being able to configure multiple motion based recording zones. Sometimes. Promise storage arrays. but can also reduce load on the network. however. an object disappearing and more. Seagate surveillance drives). we still need to look at how we can minimise the storage requirement. Although most significant sized projects will more than likely require the leap from simple PC hard drives to enterprise storage systems. good disk access speeds are required. due to the need to write away multiple streams of high resolution video. Intelligent recording by effectively managing your surveillance system. With the way the cameras are dropping in price and giving higher resolutions.securitysa. It can also be useful to have a video management system that provides the flexibility to record at various frame rates. For example. A video management system can provide you with the flexibility and intelligence to ensure you achieve your goals with the ideal balance between the volume/ detail of stored images and the storage space required. Intelligent recording Possibly the most underutilised technique to save on storage space is making use of intelligent recording. and high resolution video footage can be a huge consumer of this. but how much motion there is. Sometimes just a single frame per second may be adequate (for example when looking at a wide area for general activity).r@inhep. The problem though. Even if the camera has high resolution capabilities (but may have been selected for other reasons such as WDR). The fast frame rate fallacy When watching a movie or sport on TV. The fundamental purpose of television is entertainment while the fundamental purpose of video surveillance is security (mostly – even though sometimes the footage can be quite entertaining). the cost saving (in terms of storage) can be higher than the price of the video management software. CCTV product manager at IDS. In fact with some animated movies.264 since it then becomes not only how often there is motion. with external arrays which allow us to add large numbers of drives. For more information contact Inhep Digital Security. Even the most basic analogue systems allow for recording on motion. not to mention the value of time saved when retrieving footage. is the cost.
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Each technology group incorporates different formats and in turn has its own trade-offs. Knowing when each should The two main frame-by-frame compression technologies curbe used will create the best results in a system design. Compression technology selection by application ated through frame-by-frame (NVR). As a result. At the same time.264 reduce latency. JPEG2000 is used in digital cinema. installers think only of file and JPEG compression is most widely used for static image compression disk size and how that determines the number of days video is in digital cameras and on the Internet. implementations of a particular technology may vary JPEG from one vendor to another. JPEG2000 is designed to preserve as much detail and evidence as possible within the image while greatly reducing file sizes. the question of Video that is compressed using a frame-by-frame compression how to compress and store video became a top consideration for technology presents a number of benefits over the more complivideo surveillance system designers. and system designers to have a clear understanding of by the compression process. tapes to hard disks for video surveillance storage. by a camera. because each frame compression is performed acts as an independently accessible frame and is not built up from inside the camera then transmitted to the NVR in the compressed multiple frames.264 Second. Understanding compression technologies for HD and megapixel surveillance. and transform. These block artifacts can sometimes obscure image details technologies when JPEG images are heavily compressed. on the other hand. providing all recorded video as a series of design of hybrid systems that can use multiple compression techindependent video frames ensures that video integrity cannot be nologies on the same system. video compression duced in 1992. document archiving. video comLobby 3 MP 7 JPEG2000 be compressed and transmitted pression is performed inside Doorway 2 MP 15 H. Frame-by-frame compression Frame-by-frame. This format. JPEG2000 has become a widely used standard in many different industries. This block-based transformation typically introduces blocking Frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression artifacts. and the speed. Parking Lot 16 MP 3 JPEG2000 that do not require information When analogue cameras are Cafeteria 5 MP 7 JPEG2000 from other frames – they can connected to a DVR. The end result is a series of individually compressed When the security industry began the transition from using VHS images. rently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the There are now a wide variety of compression technologies following sections. As the industry moves from cated inter-frame compression technologies discussed later. There are two broad groups of compression technologies currently used in video surveillance: frame-by-frame compression and interframe compression. available on the market. JPEG compression is named stored. Often. location. have allowed for the high security situations. First. in size. In the most demanding sion technology. IP cameras.’ JPEG compression relies on blocks of pixels.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Understanding compression technologies An Avigilon white paper. compression technologies compress video by applying a compression algorithm to each frame captured JPEG2000 Since its introduction in 2000. but no clear standard has emerged. analogue cameras and digital video recorders (DVR) to IP cameras the resulting video generand network video recorders Table 1. The centralised compression of DVRs typically meant that all rapid access improves investigation effi ciency and can improve the cameras in the surveillance system had to use the same compresforensic viability of the recorded video. Continued on page 82 80 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. diagnostic medical images. how to compress and store video comes into question Application Resolution Image rate Compression technology compression is a series of individually compressed frames again. For example. For example. challenged as valid evidence due to incomplete frames generated integrators.com . or intra-frame. Understanding these differences will allow the system designer to choose the right compression technology to best meet the project’s requirements and performance objectives. and in the capture and transmission of images from satellites and other military applications. neglecting the fact that video compression can also impact after the Joint Photographic Experts Group and was initially introa video surveillance system design. success. to compress the information in an image and reduce its file size. the compression technologies available. While IP camera video Casino 1 MP 30 H.securitysa. typically 8x8 efficiency of investigations. it is critical for end-users. technology impacts the choice of hardware for client workstations. Based on a compression technique known as a ‘discrete cosine what transmission systems can be used. recorded video can be accessed more quickly.264 out of a camera more quickly to the recorder unit at a central Hallway 1 MP 15 H.
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it can also lead to the loss of information because the whole frame is not retained. The second dard. there are many different MPEG-4 compression technologies available and few are alike. Intra-Frames (I-Frames) are complete encoded images JPEG image of the same visual quality. most implementations of nologies capture 8-bits of dynamic range. One JPEG2000 advantage and how Avigilon has combined it with High example is motion compensation using motion vectors to compress Definition Stream Management (HDSM) for even greater results is video to a smaller size. commonly referred to as MPEG-4 Part 10 key feature of JPEG2000 is its use of progressive Advanced Video Coding (AVC).264 that extends beyond standard MPEG-4 is the availability of de-blocking filters. further reducing the information required to represent video. It uses the same Figure 2. This can add compression artifacts to the image and degrade image quality. The result is a stream of video that is compressed over multiple frames rather than a series of individual frames. frame rate. Bidirectionaldynamic range and its ability to scale to higher Frames (B-Frames) are sandwiched between resolutions. lighting and activity with inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely on scene changes as part of its compression methodology. Another feature of H.264 is the newest compression technology JPEG2000 was designed to preserve the used in the security industry. discussed in the ‘Streaming and Network Effects of Compression’ H. Information on the video. and can introduce variability in the size of the compressed data stream that is generated.264 compression allows frames to be inserted between section. Networks and servers should be Continued on page 84 82 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. H. (P-Frames) are coded with reference to the Two additional features of JPEG2000 previous image. and contain information topic in surveillance because many cameras are on the changes calculated between the previchallenged to record bright and dark areas that ous and subsequent frames.264 compresextra information that the sensors generate and sion is actually a variant of the MPEG-4 stanmaintain it in the compressed video. I-Frames in a GOP to describe the relative movement of information Inter-frame compression Inter-frame compression technologies rely both on compressing data within a single frame and on analysing changes between frames. an inter-frame compression technology will attempt to store only incremental changes between frames and store whole frames only on periodic intervals. the size of the compressed stream is allowed to vary to maintain consistent image quality. and adds similar to the images generated using JPEG additional features for effective streaming and or JPEG2000 compression. MPEG-4 compression incorporates the same basic technology as JPEG from a reference frame.securitysa. but encode As a wavelet-based compression technology. Though this technique can result in bandwidth efficiencies. 30 percent smaller in file size and bandwidth than a conventional and B frames. MPEG-4 compression in surveillance are limited which means it can describe 256 different to 8-bits of dynamic range. This allows systems to be configured with a higher level of compression while maintaining more detail in the images. Typically.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 80 compression for reducing the file size of a digital image. Stream size. This results in a intensities of light within the image. of capturing more than 256 intensities of light and more information than even the human eye H. Most compression techSimilar to JPEG. When configuring a system for a constant bit rate. H. which can be either another compression are its ability to capture a wide P-Frame or the previous I-Frame. Dynamic range is an important I-Frames and P-Frames. P. This variability depends on the compression being used – if it is configured to use a constant bit rate (CBR) or a variable bit rate (VBR).264 can see. Frame-by-frame The ability to capture dynamic range is able for higher resolution surveillance cameras. which was introduced in 1999. However. De-blocking filters can smooth artifacts created by large amounts of compression. MPEG-4 compression is limited season. the amount of compression applied increases as more activities occur. Predicted-Frames transmission. Inter-Frame Compression compression to efficiently allow the transmisbasic concepts of I. compression expressed in bits. The technologies used for inter-frame encoding are also often referred to as temporal or ‘time-based’ encoding because they rely on information spread out over time. JPEG2000 allows different types of frames within video as a group of pictures (GOP) for additional compression with fewer artifacts in the image. to VGA resolutions and isn’t commonly availFigure 1. Variability in the size of the compressed stream presents important challenges in system design. The JPEG2000 compression process generates images that are A GOP is typically composed of three different frame types: I. and B Frames to encode sion and display of very high resolution images. vary dramatically throughout the day and by Typically.com . When variable bit rate compression is used. P. rather than as independent images. The two main inter-frame compression technologies currently used in video surveillance are discussed in more detail in the following sections: MPEG-4 MPEG-4 compression is an umbrella term used for many different technologies defined by the Moving Picture Experts Group. Most surveillance systems implement a variant of MPEG-4 Part 2. but relies on more advanced coding technologies. The sensors loss of information if the camera is capable of used in surveillance cameras are often capable capturing a wider dynamic range.
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However. Instead of dynamically adjusting. These issues can be addressed by the choice of compression technology and camera resolution. Streaming high resolution details with Scene lighting will also impact the maintaining the ability to digitally zoom JPEG 2000 ability of inter-frame compression and pan within the original image at algorithms to efficiently compress video.264 can only be streamed in the original Streaming and network effects of compression By increasing camera resolution. and review their respective strengths and weaknesses related to streaming within a network. Often in low light scenes. JPEG2000 and high definition stream management When used with high definition and multi-megapixel surveillance video. turer can optimise their motion detection algorithm to prevent the algorithm from interpreting noise in low light images as changes in H. additional layers of stream size and therefore allow for simpler system designs. The second drawback is apparent when viewing recorded video. when the remote client is only receiving a very-low resolution stream. multiple layers of that specific area for viewing. This means that as soon as video is sent over low bandwidth connections. the amount of the monitor used. For example. Video compressed with H.264 multi-streaming for bandwidth management. If a user is zooming in on a specific region to access Frame rate will also have a dramatic impact on the level of activity full image detail. Streaming situational awareness with storing scene changes for those frames. If a low-resolution overview image is needed. and efficient video surveillance management. Without a low resolution stream. a camera running at 30 frames per Because HDSM can dynamically second may use a single I-Frame every access the video in layers of detail. bandwidth. H. while storing the entire image on the be chosen carefully to ensure that the required retention times can server. such as the licence plate in Figure 4. This can be compressed resolution and the resolution cannot progressively adapt after compression. detail are sent. as shown in Figure 3. This results in a drachange between individual frames could matic reduction in bandwidth between be very small. For example. server and client by 23 times while Figure 4. HDSM also noise within the image will be interpreted as a scene change by the greatly reduces the processing load on the remote client.264. Storage must also that the user is interested in. Since video management servers are typically configured to record the higher resolution stream from the camera. There are two important trade-offs to remember when using H. there is no lower resolution stream available to view over low bandwidth connections. In addition to reducing client bandwidth. between frames that an inter-frame only 2 MP worth of video information compression has little or no benefit is sent to the client. frame-by-frame compreslayer of the cube is sent. Figure 3. Here. Avigilon has designed High Definition Stream Management (HDSM) within the Avigilon Control Center Network Video Management Software (NVMS) to deliver these key features. and substantial savings in server and client compared to other bandwidth could be achieved by only compression technologies. JPEG2000 can effectively and progressively compress the video and enable advanced functionality for retransmitting and managing the compressed video. the most current of the frame-by-frame and inter-frame compression technologies. the higher resolution stream must be sent at a reduced image rate if limited bandwidth is available. a network is not overwhelmed. as is possible with JPEG2000. is no longer available.264 the scene.264 compresses multiple streams of video within the camera at different resolutions. nine 5 MP cameras JPEG 2000 However. HDSM uses this designed for the worst case bandwidth demands. only the front be met under all conditions. full resolution.TECHNOLOGY: COMPRESSION Continued from page 82 visualised in the cube displayed in Figures 3 and 4. example. the ability to dynamically adapt the resolution. In the compression algorithm. HD and megapixel IP cameras come with their own unique challenges for storage. So can increase substantially. JPEG2000 progressive compression transforms an image into packets that allow a portion of the image to be transmitted and decompressed without requiring the rest of the image. When runif a connected client were viewing ning below 10 frames per second. This allows HDSM over a frame-by-frame compression to reduce the bandwidth between the technology. as the frame rate is decreased. and cause bandwidth to increase. sion technologies offer a predictable (constant) compressed data If a more detailed overview image is needed. generate 45 MP of video information the amount of change between frames that is sent from camera to server. a camera manufacthe client instead of the 45 MP of information. At this rate. HDSM will send perceived in video by the compression technology. and sends the lower resolution stream to the client for low bandwidth live monitoring while an alternate resolution is recorded on the NVR.com . it two seconds and rely on changes in the can also tailor the size of the video scene to describe the other 58 frames stream being sent to the resolution of in between. This ensures that feature to only transmit and decompress the portions of the video on higher activity.securitysa. we will compare JPEG2000 and H. it can view a scene in overview but cannot zoom in to see detail. First. only 2 MP of information is received and decompressed by when implementing a compression technology. These additional streams add to the bandwidth transmitted from the camera but are typically much smaller than the full resolution stream being recorded to the server. there the video stream on a standard 1080p may be so much incremental change monitor with a total resolution of 2 MP. Avigilon’s HDSM technology offers a unique way of working with 84 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Alternatively.
Available online tools that include pixels on target calculators are instrumental in helping select the most appropriate camera. Choosing the right compression technology Choosing the right camera for each point in a system is critical to a successful video surveillance system design. or smaller scenes of moderate activity with high frame rates.securitysa. You can choose to bias video display for low resolution decompression at a higher frame rate.4 MP of information if one stream is viewed in detail and eight streams are viewed in low resolution. then a frame-by-frame compression technology like JPEG2000 may be the only effective option. A four step control of display quality is also available to enable the manual optimisation of the viewing client.264 video. the benefits of JPEG2000 and HDSM increase. This allows details to be viewed from one video stream while keeping the overall streaming bandwidth low.264 can help minimise the required network bandwidth and storage. When available. Avigilon’s HDSM also employs unique technologies to help minimise the demands placed on the client PC for decompressing H. Resolution. with nine 2 MP H. For example. HDSM will adaptively manage both a full resolution and a lower resolution stream to the NVR and viewing client. it is important to select a compression technology suited to the application. and investigative needs will all influence the selection of compression technology. JPEG2000 compression is required to manage the high resolution information effectively. For lower resolution.264 video to reduce the demands on the client machine. When multi-streaming is enabled for H.264 cameras and multi-streaming enabled.264 video. or full resolution decompression at a lower frame rate. www. As resolution increases. For scenes on a site that require large multi-megapixel IP cameras. users can effectively generate 9 x 2 MP of information for the full resolution streams and 9 x 0. activity level.3 MP for lower resolution streams.264 video without using the resources of the main processor.264 compressed video streams simultaneously. When viewed on the client. HDSM also dynamically adapts the resolution and methods used in the decompression of H. an inter-frame compression technology like H. The lower resolution stream will be used for any overview streams where detail is not required.264 compressed video to overcome many of these trade-offs. HDSM will make use of the advanced processing unit available on NVIDIA graphics cards to decompress H. When a single stream is zoomed in for more detail. the total 21 MP of information is reduced to 4. The first factor to consider will always be resolution. This greatly improves the efficiency of decompression and can allow multiple streams of HD video at 30 image per second to be decompressed simultaneously without using resources from the main processor.com CCTV Handbook 2013 85 . If the end-user’s goal is to cover a larger scene by using a high resolution camera above 2 MP. Once resolution has been determined. allowing efficient viewing of large numbers of H. that stream will be automatically sent in full resolution while other streams are kept in low resolution for an overview version of the image. frame rate.multiple streams of H.
“From people counting and licence plate recognition to the ability to adjust automatically to lighting and discriminatory conditions. And because IP megapixel quality is constantly being improved. All that’s required for power. higher resolution pictures as a result of the terminology having moved away 86 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. IP benefits Hybrid technology is also being used with great effect in control rooms. Video analytics. This is especially relevant when it comes to the natural expansion of properties. which would likely comprise an existing CCTV analogue system and infrastructure with IP cameras that would operate through a hybrid DVR.co. he suggests hybridising pre-existing installations. An analogue RG59 cable is vulnerable to picture interference. Sensitive to the need for businesses to watch their bottom lines in the current economic downturn.za. is being used throughout the world by government. “End users need to be able to distinguish between the various benefits and shortcomings of their current analogue systems in order to be able to make the right upgrade decisions going forward. industry and manufacturing sectors. “Hybrid systems.co. IP cameras produce crisper. he adds. as a result of which many customers question the need to upgrade their systems to IP when their existing infrastructure supports analogue. offer the best of both worlds. says the technology in this particular arena has progressed at a rapid rate in recent years. in fact. he continues. analogue technology is tried.za Future proof One of the many benefits of moving over to IP. will easily bridge that gap while saving the end user a lot of money. thereby removing the need for a power supply close to the camera source. For more information contact Elvey Security Technologies. who have limited concentration spans. and in use by the majority of end users. Simple and cost-effective to add to pre-existing networks.elvey. video and sound is a PoE (Power over Ethernet) cable. Zane Greeff.securitysa. retail. leaving the average person confused and frustrated. the addition of IP security cameras to analogue networks allows control room staff to quickly and accurately analyse images and video footage for specific data such as behaviour patterns and perimeter violations. Such growth will lead to the natural expansion of properties. to the point where they are only taking in about five percent of the information on screen. IP also outperforms analogue when it comes to distance. www.” says Greeff. “The starting point to making sense of the subject is to recognise that while IP (Internet protocol) technology is being exalted as the ultimate in image quality. this technology. tasha. too.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Does hybrid deliver analogue value and IP beneﬁts? Hybrid steps to IP saves money and boosts results. With the debate on the merits of analogue versus IP cameras showing no sign of abating. Hybrid DVRs are capable of using both analogue and digital cameras. Chip set technology is behind the number of megapixels in a picture and accordingly the sharpness required to identify criminals and solve crimes. it’s understandable that many consumers are anxious about committing to new or upgraded CCTV systems. is therefore to opt for a hybrid DVR.” he says. Analogue CCTV has long delivered acceptable results in the areas of basic staff and visitor surveillance. technical director at Elvey Security Technologies. +27 (0)11 401 6700. One of the shortcomings of analogue installations is distance. It also enables digitised audiovisual streams to be sent to and viewed from anywhere in the world. as is the case for analogue cameras.” from television lines to megapixels. Research has shown that the efficiency level of the average CCTV operator drops dramatically after about 20 minutes. business. never tire. A hybrid system. warehouses and office space. “Hybrid video analytics are far more reliable than human beings. warehouses and office space.com . which can severely hamper security operations. which also reduces data storage requirements and costs. which will in turn create a gap in existing security installations. on the other hand.” Further. whose DVRs (digital video recorders) need replacing due to functionality problems or insufficient recording space. “The use of analogue and IP cameras simultaneously is a tailormade solution for a country like South Africa.” His suggestion to owners of existing analogue systems. notes Greeff. the reduction of stock shrinkage and the monitoring of specific high risk areas.smith@elvey. tested. where the small business sector is growing rapidly. IP cameras are also the answer to the need to transmit video in digital form to and from the Internet and other e-mail clients. according to Greeff. is that it essentially future-proofs one’s business. one can look forward to the ever-increasing quality of facial recognition and other video analytics.
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” Moore concludes. according to Mutinelli. Are hybrid solutions the ideal solution for those who want the best of the IP world and the best of analogue? Hybrid solutions are touted as the ideal middle ground solution for users who either cannot or do not wish to replace their entire analogue system with IP. IP image quality has now improved significantly a and there is an IP solution for every possible scenario. he adds. there was a requirement st for hybrid solutions because IP had not fo matured. It is critical. There where many instances m where analogue was required for specific wh areas or functionality. “There are some solutions that transmit HD video along co-axial cables. Firstly.” Is hybrid the solution? In the beginning. Gordon Moore. This has changed. while retaining your existing investment. “If you are happy with your analogue camera-to-video quality. A middle road is to offer an upgrade with some IP technology. it is 88 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. “Only if both analogue and IP cameras on a site are being monitored from a common control room or management platform can one truly say that it is a hybrid solution. what are the storage requirements? Secondly. simultaneous operas tion of both analogue and IP video streams should be the goal of any installation. “There are two basic considerations when converting to hybrid solutions. Seamless. converting it to IP with an encoder will make the image worse because of the way the compression engine works. if cost is an issue then hybrid solutions do provide the best of both worlds but. however.” “Hybrid systems are essentially analogue ue and IP solutions. MD at Cathexis Africa says it is important to define a hybrid solution. This may present problems with future upgradeability of systems. Therefore. However.HYBRID TECHNOLOGIES Hybrid: Best of both worlds? By Allyson Koekhoven. you can simultaneously embrace the latest technology. and then hen there is the option to insert IP encoders to convert the analogue video stream to IP. • CMSs: central management software designed to be able to connect to both DVRs and NVRs.securitysa. but simultaneously retain existing analogue cameras. “So. Ultimately.” says Ingo Mutinelli. on one common platform.” says Brecher. This will be affected by what resolution is i required and how many frames per seco second are recorded. IP becomes more affordable. in most cases. Let’s go “One needs to consider the implementation costs versus the future relevance of the solution when considering a hybrid solution. IP is ideal where the user is operating in a remote or very large location. ADI product manager CCTV/Access. A noisy image is always difficult to compress. one would make use of IP encoders to convert the analogue images to IP so that they can be incorporated into a full IP solution. when the industry started with IP. nothing beats a full IP solution. In this case.” says Mutinelli. national sales manager for Elvey Security Technologies. When implementing a hybrid solution one needs to understand that you will not get the same image quality as a full IP solution. “Hybrid solutions allow for cost-effective upgrade paths. if you need higher image resolution. These solutions are common in smaller installations ranging from 16 to 32 inputs. Currently.com . to have a centralised management system. at the end of the day. then it would be foolish to change to IP. • Encoders: this is probably the most common solution in larger projects where there have already been large investments with analogue cameras in the infrastructure. then you need to consider IP. which analogue cameras would you need to convert into IP and how will this signal scale from point A to point B. adds that there are three ways of achieving a hybrid solution: • Hybrid DVRs: these are purpose-built recorders that will have a combination of composite video inputs for the analogue cameras and an Ethernet port for the IP cameras.” says Moore. necessary to perform a needs analysis to guarantee not only the ability to upgrade a system. such as high-speed area domes. It is important that one be able le to use them together on a platform to ensure maximised aximised operability. but I believe that this is not a long-term solution as it normally requires proprietary hardware which is not compatible with all open systems. As the technology improves. where one can migrate across to IP over a period without having to start from scratch. “One should also consider the limitations such as what kind of infrastructure is a available in terms of the network capacity capacity. but also to determine whether the system can be supported and integrated ten years down the line. “ the only consideration for a hybrid solution now would be instances where there has been significant investment in analogue and there are budgetary constraints that restrict one from instituting a full upgrade.” notes Brecher. This. thermal cameras and areas where dome large zo zoom lenses were required. would be software developed by the manufacturer to allow end-users to view cameras from their older DVR and their newer NVRs. it is often a good idea to stick with analogue systems. or do they simply offer median performance levels? Gus Brecher. Common questions that come to the fore are whether they really do offer the best of both technology worlds. If the image quality of the analogue camera has deteriorated. there are traditional DVRs which h have the ability to accommodate IP cameras. However. With hybrid. until bandwidth issues have been resolved.
This means a large number of organisations are using lots of systems in their control room which cannot work with each other.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS PSIM: Why should I be interested? CNL Software white paper. including both legacy systems and new technology. As a result. security professionals have recognised the need to bring together this information in a format that can be visualised and distributed. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software aids in decision-making and deployment planning. Most end-users have video surveillance. These key points define a PSIM product. How does PSIM differ from other forms of integration? How does PSIM help? Firstly. access control and building management systems. priority and prevailing threat. It is therefore essential that the PSIM vendor is not tied to any manufacturer of the underlying systems. such as bespoke turnkey solutions offered by some integrators. and have been collated below: • Open platform: It provides easy integration with a variety of systems from leading manufacturers. Secondly. It should provide the ability to integrate events and alarms from these systems along with information such as time and geography. by Several studies have been carried out in this area by research companies including Frost and Sullivan and IMS. This is far more cost-effective than other forms of integration.securitysa. increases effectiveness and provides evidence of compliance for auditing and risk mitigation. Whilst system integration might not seem much of a challenge in the world of IT where standards have been around for decades. • Data collection: Device level information is collected from all connected systems. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software enables security departments to manage an enterprise’s exposure to security risk. These systems are not integrated together and work independently with no communication with other systems in the ecosystem. This enforces all policies. It is designed to aid decision-making and deployment planning within an organisation. PSIM provides an off-the-shelf platform to manage all of these systems. www. Within physical security operations. connecting them together through a single interface. Security breaches and challenges Following several large security breaches. the physical security world has been much slower to adapt to change. allowing it to automatically identify situations and then dynamically update them as they unfold. the security industry is now in transition. moving from disparate systems to integrated and interoperable systems. it uses workflow technology to provide operators with guidance and intelligence for situation management. which have highlighted some of the features that distinguish a PSIM solution from other physical security and event management products.com CCTV Handbook 2013 89 . location. For example. it can perform intuitive prioritisation and escalation according to a range of predetermined criteria that might include chronology. such as 9/11 and 7/7. it has been widely accepted that critical information from numerous sources is left to system operators to interpret and act upon consistently and correctly.
Unfortunately. +27 (0)12 665 3158. people and alarms – and shows what is happening in real-time within a given situation or globally across all situations. it may automatically identify the nearest cameras to a situation’s address or locate the security person closest to a medical emergency. It should provide a set of easyto-use visual tools to generate policies that are automatically imported into the system for use in the identification and resolution of situations. It should gather all information (videos. For example. and results into one folder for compliance and investigative analysis or post situation training. alarms. along with the information. This should offer the ability to display situations. This has enabled them to understand the challenges and create products that are mature enough to meet the wide number of applications seen in PSIM today. actions taken. Are all PSIM solutions the same? There are several true PSIM vendors in the market place who have been deploying their PSIM solutions for more than five years now. to aid compliance management. tools and contact information needed for resolution – all within a single user interface. people and assets relationships is essential.ethele. there are also a large number of companies who are now marketing their old products under the PSIM banner. including all operator actions. • Incident resolution: The PSIM system software should facilitate the presentation of logically displayed and clearly communicated actions. devices.co. and reporting while the system is running and support a distributed architecture for high availability and disaster recovery. • Modular platform: It should dynamically adapt to changes in devices. It should enforce standard operating procedures to an operator. configurations.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS • Data aggregation: The PSIM software should have the ability to evaluate the information that is gathered to identify and priorities real incidents and situations. www. provide training scenarios and as an auditable record of activity subsequent to a security incident. ensuring responses are fast and appropriate. True PSIM solutions have become more sophisticated. • Geospatial engine: Dynamically locating and creating relationships between devices. emphasising added organisation value through hardened security and increased efficiency or reduced ongoing costs.co. This flexibility is key when selecting a PSIM solution. These vendors are several versions into the development of their software. policies.com . audio). • Visualisation and collaboration: It should provide the ability to visualise a situation as it evolves and to share this intelligence with response teams.za 90 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. which is creating confusion in the market place as these products do not have many of the features essential to a PSIM solution. giving them vital experience that only comes from successfully deploying a number of large scale installations. For more information contact E-thele. situations. This will reduce the risk of purchasing a system that will need replacing if the organisation’s circumstances change a few years down the line.securitysa. manica@ethele. • Reporting: All activity should be monitored. Organisations should research the product and ensure the PSIM solution is futureproof and can adapt to the organisation’s changing security needs.za. The crucial factor being that the customer can decide what their priorities are and implement all or just a few modules of a PSIM according to their unique situation.
Web clients are more streamlined for faster access. Milestone Systems says every installation has to be evaluated from the needs of each customer. who should be configuring them according to the organisational policies and procedures. and will ultimately be replaced by systems that comply with industry standards.” The most important thing to look for is an IP video management platform that is truly open to ensure the widest options for now and the future. to be able to add cameras from any manufacturer. maintenance. and to provide the relevant stakeholders with real-time. Customisation can be conducted in order to best fit the client’s requirements. to upgrade with new software versions. Peter Biltsted.” Buret adds. keeping on top of the latest innovations. but also not just an open source ‘freebie’ that has no business continuity and is not sustainable. helping to find the cameras automatically. but rather a software solution that adds value to these and other disparate platforms. and will most certainly have a roadmap for future features and expansion. without the need to strip out existing equipment. others say it depends on what your requirements are. just as the IT industry had to learn to deal with open source systems and applications.The platform must ﬁt the business What do users want from their management systems? What is selling today and what is being avoided? By Andrew Seldon. for example.com CCTV Handbook 2013 91 . good online help and other documentation. and with intuitive. “Although they are not open source. The VMS should be easy to install. For example. customisable in a structured manner. Buret says. as in trouble? It seems the VMS industry is also under pressure from free software. local or both? “And don’t just plan for today’s requirements.securitysa.” He adds that the stakeholders are not only Kevin Buret security.? Peter Biltsted Do they need central management. to integrate with other systems. so using them means you always have to use that brand of cameras. etc. open systems seem attractive when considering often limited budgets in organisations. as most often an incident will affect multiple stakeholders. have no future roadmap. Today. How many locations need to be monitored. Some argue the free systems can’t match the features and functionality of paid for (or some would say “professional” systems). “My definition of a security management platform is not just a CCTV head-end system. The paid for systems are sustainable. “Free. Middle East and Africa. open management systems users can obtain for little or no cost. number and type of cameras desired. supported. easy to maintain and upgrade. including the CEO who is ultimately responsible. The next thing to look for is ease-of-use. End-users should ensure that the management platform of choice is not specific to a particular brand of technology. “These systems are implemented by professionals. surveillance and many others. so the functionality of their offerings are more www. how many users will there be of the system and what are their skill levels. logical navigation to get the job done.” Biltsted adds that the free video management systems offered by some camera manufacturers only work with that company’s cameras. you can’t use it in your system. operational information. we have expensive management systems that can do almost anything. Choose a user interface (UI) that’s customisable. whether they would benefit from analytics. easy to configure and add cameras. This brings the best return on the investment. The first question we have to ask is what a management platform is. however. mobile through smartphones and tablets. also remotely available from home or when travelling. VMS wizards are a great tool for fast installation and hook-ups with the cameras on the network. Free. These systems are mostly not sustainable. invariably these are quite the opposite in the longer term.” One should ensure that any system is compliant with existing IT standards and protocols within the organisation. Look for multiple clients to interface with the VMS: stationary at a PC. if a great new thermal or backlight-capable camera comes out in a year from another company and you need it for a critical security location. This locks you into their product road map limitations over time. whether their video management needs are relatively simple or highly complex. but we also have a growing number of smaller. with multiple languages if necessary. not supported. and may include OHS. What should an enduser be on the lookout for when considering implementing a management platform? Kevin Buret from Sukema Integrated Solutions says. these paid-for platforms do not have to be expensive. process and procedures and disparate technologies. What do users want from their management systems? We asked one local and one international platform developer for their take on management platforms. director. “The paid-for VMS platforms are developed by companies who really focus on VMS. easy to use by the daily operators. It should bring together the people. as well as the business operational requirements. which poses future risk for the business. they should be open to be able to work with and interface/integrate with other existing and disparate systems. as long as they meet the requirements and future requirements of the client.
not to mention money. won’t.MANAGEMENT PLATFORMS comprehensive.” states Buret. it is the resistance to change form personnel. especially if it’s an open platform solution that allows integration with the widest choice in hardware and other software like access control.” he says. “A well-planned system that is based on the required outcomes of the client is the starting point of any professional system. thereby optimising the solution. No matter where or how a company starts implementing a management platform. how does it go about planning and starting the installation to prevent it ending up as a complex. cumbersome and expensive systems that integrate every single component within the organisation.” says Buret. Integration can be accomplished on a database level due to most IP-based systems. costly mess? “Planning. etc. languages. integration should only be conducted if it is going to add value to an operational challenge. the stakeholders. “Traditional security management systems are fast working themselves out of the pricing bracket of many organisations. access rights. they require a significant investment in skills. which may not exist as an off the shelf product. but the majority of smaller installations would be lost with such complex systems. and allow for additional budget requirements in the next few financial years to scale the system. identify the required operational outcomes. “Management should have real-time information at their fingertips to allow them to focus on managing. “This needs to be driven from the top management downwards. rather than hours spent compiling reactive reports. and can focus on dealing with the resultant outcome. camera views. analytics. Mobile devices are becoming increasingly important as a source for capturing information in real-time.. what bandwidth capacity is needed. planning and more planning. not to mention the giant task of ensuring what you implement is suited to your actual needs and not the vanilla installation your integrator wants to supply. management systems should be focussing on providing effective and efficient operational systems to ensure that staff are only required to have minimal input.. and do not require expensive integration at a component level. you can upgrade to the higher versions with more capability as your needs grow.securitysa. the business requirements and processes need to determine the best-suited management system. Failing to plan.” Complexity not needed Traditional security management systems are large. Milestone XProtect Smart Client is an interface that is adaptable to different skill levels. who need to buy into the process of utilising the system. the existing disparate systems and technology. Those who have more complex needs can have them while those who don’t. cumbersome and expensive. Are they worth it? Very large installations may be able to get a reasonable return from this investment. phase the implementation. For example. then identify the gap between these and the management system/s being considered. If you also choose an open VMS. “The most important factor with any system is not the system itself. Each user can tailor the look and functionality to their own needs to optimise their daily tasks and performance. noting that there is a full range of VMS offerings available today and if you buy a company’s lower end product to start out.” A professional supplier of VMS will give the installer advice and recommendations on how to optimise the use of hardware to be installed with the software. One cannot shoehorn and alter the business requirements into a free system so that the system works. “It is unnecessary to implement large. This gives the best total cost of ownership. otherwise it is a complete waste of time and money.” Biltsted has a another approach. by means of a business requirement study. there is still a technical and skills gap that needs to be overcome.” One needs to. the management system is the rules engine and information disseminator providing stakeholders with decision-making knowledge. work within the budget.com . you have all the options you could need both today and tomorrow. What’s more. storage 92 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. etc.” “A really good VMS can provide comprehensive features without every user needing to use them. Be sure to look for after-sales support as well: a pure VMS manufacturer has dedicated support for customers and ensures that the latest technologies can be utilised. or any system is potentially doomed for failure before it starts. Assuming a company has decided they need a professional management platform with all the bells and whistles.
” requirements. provisioning systems. Visualisation: A PSIM software platform must be able to visualise the actual situation independently from active events. multi-site (even cross-national) implementations that want centralised control with local access.” The Sukema platform consists of a core Microsoft compliant. as well as any customisation required by the client. and the wide set of proven third-party integrations possible. Clients can add onto the core in a modular fashion according to their increasing requirements and budget constraints. Whether it is sold through a channel partner or directly from Sukema.com/news-events/press-template. In case of an event. the reseller/end-user should look at what services are offered with the product and if it is enough for you. XProtect Smart Wall is the go-to choice for our customers with big command centres. comprehensive management features. Our search and export tools are praised. No software resides on a user’s PC.” Buret says Sukema’s platform “is developed by ourselves in South Africa. It must be capable of developing customised reports that allow for analysis of multiple events in order to optimise policies and response. For example.” He adds that the global network of partners and customers in the Milestone ecosystem which all contribute inspiration and continued innovation is also important. to medium hospital type size. Real-time policy/configuration management: A PSIM software platform must be able to define and change policies and parameters related to various connected devices in the underlying subsystems (such as access control. “The Milestone open platform is not just about our software. Web enabled/browser-based platform that is accessible to authorised users from any location around the world. intrusion. working together to make IP video surveillance the best that it can be. using a system that can grow with your needs? Biltsted says evaluations about what is important can only be made by each customer. The rules based workflow should be sufficiently complex as to adapt to escalating situations. to the diversity and number of hardware devices supported. therefore hardware and vendor agnostic. Milestone Federated Architecture is a huge benefit to large.securitysa. manage/ counter the threat and control response operations. servers. php?pr_id=1779. We are open in our collaboration with our partners and the customers. data warehouses. whose needs vary from type of organisation to size to geography and over time. based on pre-determined rules and policies. or do you start small.XProtect_ clients efficient.com CCTV Handbook 2013 93 . Availability/resilience: A PSIM software platform must have capability for redundant functionality (eg. the location and the scope of the threat it presents. as well as enterprise versions for global mining size organisations. Post-event reporting and analysis: A PSIM software platform must provide an audit log that allows for post-event forensic review detailing the event situation and the action taken. support and maintenance is quick. what should users be looking for when considering a management platform? Do you go for a system that can do everything and set it up to meet your needs. “Partners and end-users testify to the ease of installing and working with XProtect: the wizards for fast camera connections. alerts and reporting. to respond. and is supported and maintained by ourselves. Features and functionalities in most modern day systems are very similar. 5. this only forms about 20% of implementing a successful management system that meets the client’s requirements. too. Connectivity and integration: A PSIM software platform must connect and manage multiple disparate security systems. we are always directly responsible for the BRS with the client. 2. “The determining factor in the Milestone VMS open platform is the broadest ability to choose: from the range of functionality in our portfolio of products that are regularly upgraded. 4. mass notification and building automation. the PSIM platform must be able to graphically display situational information in a manner that provides responders with a picture of the nature of the event. it’s our way of doing business. “Our systems cater for clients from a residential estate size. etc. examples include (but are not limited to) video surveillance. 6. easy and www. A rules-based workflow for response: A PSIM software platform must be able to immediately offer a step-by-step action plan. therefore upgrades. etc. perimeter protection. The PSIM platform should be capable of integration with other business systems within a corporate IT-infrastructure such as ERP systems. fire and life safety. It must be able to integrate real world information as a geo-spatial representation. 7. video. and capable of connecting to any input sensors and external applications. This includes the ability to integrate backup systems to automate transfer of control room capabilities. The PSIM platform should be open. Biltsted says that if these services are not offered. It must be able to watch and monitor the functionality and integrity of the underlying subsystems and detect possible threats on the network. the implementation and training. to large corporate size. 3. Correlation and verification: A PSIM software platform must be able to automatically connect and cross-reference multiple events from multiple disparate security systems in real-time and give the ability to flexibly set rules. communication gateways and databases) to support continuity of business and disaster recovery. “Another thing is a dedicated VMS manufacturer will use the latest programming tools and technologies. Making the right choice Seeing that there are many options when it comes to management platforms. etc.” IMS Research: What is PSIM software? IMS Research believes that a PSIM software platform must meet the seven following criteria: 1. in addition to setting compression of the data as desired. access control. Milestone has beneficial archiving capabilities such as pruning or grooming the video to different levels and storage types which saves on bandwidth.). Source: http://imsresearch. in complex solutions utilisation of 64-bit OS technology should be considered for optimisation of the solution.
and the deterrent that such a system provides can go a long way towards preventing theft and helping law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute offenders. identify incidents and improve service levels. Video analysis tools can assist in this scenario. Forensic video synopsis technology increases the accuracy of video analysis and dramatically decreases the time required to browse footage. for example. this information can be used to modify behaviours in any scenario. www. reducing review time even further.za. and identify which aisles and shelves are most frequented by customers. and assist with improving store layout. the type of analysis used is critical in ensuring the success of the solution. and by combining these movements into a single video with time stamps for each individual event. One of the major challenges facing any user of CCTV is the sheer volume of recorded events that occurs every day. It enables users to obtain better quality evidence faster. Video synopsis. Surveillance has become an essential element of modern security solutions as it delivers the ability to monitor areas of operation. Hospitals can utilise the technology to monitor patient care. the human eye gets tired and is prone to missing incidents that appear on camera. Video synopsis software allows users to index and view original event videos with a single click and combine multiple clips into a single summary review. to allow for more specific focus and less distraction. Video synopsis works by detecting movement in the field of the video. By enabling hours of footage to be viewed in a matter of minutes. stores can use this technology to analyse and identify shopping behaviours and patterns. short circuiting the lengthy process of identifying key events. as sifting through hours and hours of footage is typically not feasible. however. a form of forensic video analysis. markc@git. and often simply acts as a deterrent to those with malicious intent. casinos can use video synopsis technology to monitor tables for suspicious behaviour and ensure that cheating can easily be detected and the perpetrators identified. any user can gain real value from hours of otherwise meaningless CCTV footage. Sifting through hours of mundane footage for seconds of useful video is an almost impossible task without specialised analysis tools.com . as once problem areas have been identified and trends have been picked up. enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes. technology called video synopsis can prove far more useful and efficient. any organisation can use the software to improve staff productivity. turning hours of footage into synopses of just a few minutes. Video synopsis enables the viewer to summarise hours of footage into just a few minutes.co. +27 (0)11 483 0333. GIT. users can rapidly review and index full-length footage and create synopsis videos that overlays multiple objects and activities that occurred at different times.co. leveraging value out of CCTV is often a challenging task. It is also possible to apply areas of interest and areas of exclusion to either home in on a specific area or exclude areas of footage that are not relevant. VS creates a snapshot of events that summarises hours of footage. for behavioural analysis and more. In fact. video analysis is simply a generic term to describe computerised processing and analysis of video streams. However. In the retail environment. When looking for a video analysis solution. Video synopsis (VS) is the simultaneous presentation of events that happened at different times. provide evidence in case of an incident.securitysa. forensic video synopsis enables real value to be leveraged from hours of footage. These snapshots can then be used for identifying suspicious behaviour and perpetrators of incidents. One of the obvious applications of this is to identify criminals. However. reducing the time and cost of manpower. This does not necessarily mean that it will make the task of finding those critical seconds any easier. highlighting incidents or suspicious behaviour and allowing the potential of CCTV footage to be fully utilised. With the power of this forensic technology. and even if the manpower exists to do this.za 94 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. focus exclusively on a door that was broken into or a shelf from where an item was stolen. For example. The areas of exclusion can help to remove movement which is irrelevant. However. Using advanced video analysis tools such as video synopsis. replacing the fast forward function with an intelligent solution that enables all video footage to be reviewed every day for better security. Events can be browsed through frame by frame. such as trees waving in the wind. The ability to home in on specific areas allows the viewer to. the power of video synopsis goes beyond crime prevention and has applications in a number of different areas. For more information contact Graphic Image Technologies. and videos can be exported to create evidence files. To put it simply.git.ANALYTICS Video synopsis versus video analysis By Mark Chertkow. This can help to ensure optimal product placement for maximum revenue.
securitysa. This complex intelligence management framework provides clients with an intelligent.com www. Cengence Essentials has a variety of modules which are added to Cengence Pulse thereby providing a comprehensive management system. to allow for accurate and user required result sets from the analysed data. enabling effective management of operational concerns within an organisation. Tasks are created manually using a front-end screen (either in Pulse self.gilbert@pbstechnologies. It allows for the real-time management of devices. update and manage all documentation within an organisation. operating entities and areas of operational efficiency. Cengence Scribe is a user friendly Web based tool used to store. will then extract user requested information and display it in a format that is easy to understand and fully customised. Result sets can be pre-defined and thus force specific analytical data to be produced in line with the client’s specific needs and requirements. The system utilises a process flow system which will allow for the creation of complex tasks in line with pre-defined outcomes. Cengence provides intelligent business solutions across multiple industries. Cengence Customer Portal is the gateway through which a channel partner is able to execute and control a range of activities which will manage the administration of their clients’ activities with respect to the use of purchased products. Specific task outcomes and tasks can be linked to specific person or groups for execution thereof. All data gathered is compiled into an identikit that is saved for further analysis. Cengence Threat is primarily a data capturing and result rendering interface that affords the user the ability to automatically or manually capture data in a prescribed and customisable format. assets and documentation used during the investigation. Incidents logged are processed and analysed in real-time in order to generate fast and efficient results. as prevalent in the Cengence Complexis package. integrated and holistic view of their business. increased market share. Cengence TaskMaster is a complex tasking system that allows the user to define and manage required tasks in line with requirements. operational and tactical business decision making in order to achieve improved efficiencies.com CCTV Handbook 2013 95 . the creation. or on a Web page accessible from any Internet capable device). analyses and draws associations to the incident and reports on a possible outcome based on patterns thereby enabling management decision making. Data is then captured in a centralised data repository from where various analytical algorithms. It drives proper functioning and reporting of system performance and service delivery in an auditable manner. It manages the information of persons. Cengence is a locally developed Complex Intelligence Management Framework (CIMF) comprising multiple products created to meet the requirements of complex intelligence. These incidents can also be raised anonymously thereby reducing victimisation. reporting and investigating any incidents on a single or across multiple sites. retrieve. Cengence Tricorder is a mobile tool used on a cell phone or smart phone in conjunction with Cengence Pulse to facilitate stock control. monitoring and management.ANALYTICS: PRODUCT OVERVIEW Intelligence management framework Local management platform puts everything in front of operators. Business Intelligence reports and task progress reports will also allow for more accurate and real-time management of the tasks. enhanced communication. billy. Cengence Pulse is the heart of the Cengence product line and is the platform to roll out Cengence throughout an organisation. Cengence Essentials is an analytical and efficiency tool effective in the monitoring and managing of all systems and related services. a comprehensive knowledge base and better results. +27 (0)11 805 6600. Data is collated and read from the access control database which maintains records and keeps a history of all movement within the environment. documenting. acceptance and escalation of job cards. Results can then be rendered within the Cengence Threat or any other interface and automated actions executed through the use of the Cengence TaskMaster package. All the Cengeance Essentials modules can be procured separately as required by the client. It is an end to end system which not only automates the management of task but also aids in strategic. monitoring and notification of incidents and faults. The persons or groups will then be automatically notified of the pending task as well as track and monitor the progress. the support and maintenance of devices and staff tracking within an organisation. mitigation/eradication of risk. Its privilege system together with document inscription ensures secure access to sensitive information. Cengence Complexis is an advanced analytical tool that can process and analyse vast amounts of data in extremely short times.pbstechnologies. It integrates information into a centralised system. reduced costs. Cengence Incident Management is a Web-based tool for registering. For more information contact PBS Technologies. and reporting of staff performance. Cengence integrates into all brands of product and systems thus making it non brand specific. www.com. Cengence Gatekeeper is an access control device software application used for management of visitors and staff access with their related and/ or allocated assets. This interface allows for the creation of structured data from a series of unstructured or unsorted data.
Thus. they can perform intelligent interpretation of events automatically and in context with the present scenario. may trigger investigation. Firstly. • Managing these incidents remotely from a control room. Humans are particularly good at these tasks but suffer from human frailty (lack of alertness. as motion in large spaces are analysed. the quality of technology is often not fit for purpose. Street (CBD) surveillance consists fundamentally of: • Detecting possible events. it appears that where systems are successful. they operate without or with minimal human intervention. • Identifying real incidents and selecting actual incidents from false alarms. When it comes to camera coverage for this purpose. such as street surveillance environments. the appearance of objects (specific vehicles. Let’s briefly explore each of the above characteristics and the contribution of intelligent systems in each. Some factors are relevant with regards to the technology used. control room diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. It therefore assumes that cameras are placed such that they cover areas where incidents are expected to happen and where the surveillance operator has jurisdiction to monitor. So what should be the criteria for a good street surveillance solution? In order to define solutions. Detection An important technical parameter when it comes to detection is the ability to recognise possible events. intelligent systems can perform mundane tasks without supervision such as searching intelligently through video material for objects. not the least sharing of cameras between multiple monitoring agencies – a possibility that has become significantly easier with the advent of digital cameras and networks.ANALYTICS Intelligent systems in high motion surveillance By Dr Bennie Coetzer. etc. When these systems are evaluated. What would be the characteristics of a system capable of delivering the above functionality and how can intelligent systems offer a contribution? In order to investigate what such systems can offer a brief definition of the characteristics of intelligent systems in this context would be in order. suitable and trained staff is used. Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering. Intelligent systems automate tasks. it is important to consider the critical aspects of street surveillance. When considering the application of CCTV in high-motion areas. (This discussion will be limited to CCTV and its options but other aspects of street surveillance are obviously also important). While behavioural analysis does not necessarily require high detail. Covering an area is a subject where many strategies can be deployed to reduce cost.securitysa. Clearly it would be a waste to simply place cameras everywhere. The cost of covering an area has reduced dramatically in the recent past but it is still costly when one considers installation. • Presenting evidence to courts for prosecution. Furthermore. running. preferably pro-actively. incidents or even actions. but sufficient resolution to perform adequate detection is also required. Secondly. limited concentration and others). Detection is often a question of recognising behaviour or anomalies. this has often more to do with the control room operations than the technical systems themselves. a number of aspects are clear. broad area coverage is required. System components often fail and there is often neither the will nor the resources to maintain sophisticated Dr Bennie Coetzer systems.com . Secondly. • Investigating incidents post-incident and gathering evidence. In some control rooms the operation is efficient. In most cases. In most cases their diligence overcomes the shortcomings of technology. According to the SAPS forensic department. specific people) or out-of-place behaviour such as movement in dead spots. 96 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. the success of such systems is often touted to be high but ends up mediocre. more than 95% of video footage analysed by them turns out to be unusable for investigation purposes and even more are less useful for prosecution. maintenance and so on. cameras are everywhere and placed anywhere. specific recognition such as facial or ANPR does require much better resolution.
Wide area detection sensing will therefore probably consist of wideangle views to cover most of the area with specific high-resolution (narrow angle) views on specific places monitored for specific events. time to reach possible targets and. Last but not least. What can intelligent systems offer? In the detection arena. because machines can work in parallel and process a lot of information simultaneously. This will assist human operators by taking over the mundane and boring tasks of continuous monitoring. a time sliced view of any area. it can be used to create tracks of movement and predict destinations. in particular. the requirements change dramatically. Such analysis in conjunction with scenario analysis can offer very powerful incident detection capabilities.com CCTV Handbook 2013 97 . But when it comes to identification they can zoom in to any object and because of their narrow view the camera is essentially subject to a very even illumination spread. higher resolution cameras can be used with no loss of information. Similarly. very good identification can be achieved.securitysa. or support illumination. These cameras are very poor in their ability to monitor as they have essentially tunnel vision and have to be directed if used in the monitoring sense. improved detection. Here identification becomes paramount and therefore resolution is critical. All of this serves to improve the quality of service. analysis of detected events can. automated detection. immediate facial recognition or number plate recognition can identify objects specifically assisting an operator in knowing who he is dealing Continued on page 98 www. assist humans and reduce reaction time in addition to potentially lower the cost of providing security and indeed even of hardware required. In this context. intelligent systems strive to improve detection and. Identification When it comes to identification. so what can intelligent systems offer? A number of automated tools can be used to assist humans in this detection. while still in its infancy. In addition. by using sophisticated analysis and cross-correlation techniques. intent of the action. These do not have to be from single views but can be achieved in a combination of multiple camera views. the use of pan/tilt/zoom cameras have also become much cheaper and their capabilities have also increased dramatically.) This means that fewer cameras can be used to achieve the same result. ANPR. (When cameras with resolution higher than the screen resolution are used. Analysis of historic events and time-line analysis can create pro-active trends and contextual analysis can be used to create priorities in detected events. some pixels are simply not displayed and no one can observe what happens unless you zoom in – an action that will only be performed when something has been detected in the first place. Modern image processing techniques can support this function successfully by offering both behaviour detection (motion and tracking analysis) as well as specific object detection (facial. resulting in significant cost saving. providing at best. filtering true alarms from false/ nuisance alarms and so on. These include rapid pointing of the camera by pointing at a position on the static (wide area) scene and automatically designate the camera to slew to this point. humans offer at present by far the best abilities. But to be useful it must be able to offer some capabilities such as continuous detection. With the use of low-light capabilities. With wide area sensing illumination becomes a real problem as cameras have notoriously low dynamic ranges and special care must be taken to offer constant level illumination or support illumination. shape recognition). significantly reduce false alarms. Fortunately. combining information into single events. even to some extent. Behavioural analysis is a hot topic today and.
Storage period – the general rule of thumb is that the storage period need not be longer than the period required to recognise the crime. Post-event analysis Once the excitement has died down the real work often starts. This requires access to historical information and this is also where many systems fail. An intelligent system should be able to treat recorded video as live video and perform all the same detection and recognition functions on historical information – often faster than real-time. immediate access to relevant recordings of the incident. Incident management Up to this point. Using track analysis. However. Most of these functions. are primarily the responsibility of the prosecution agency. communicating with these resources and so on. For most views frame rates of less than 8 fps is adequate to determine behaviour and if less of an eye strain is important due to long viewing periods. as well as access to historical information such as names. Evidence for prosecution While the prosecution effort is generally not part of the command and control system and at this point.com or www. Frame rate – a parameter which is often overstated to the detriment of resolution. Incident management includes a number of functions such as continuously monitoring the event itself. • Be in constant communication with resources and offering them useful information as well. Consideration should be given to video resolution. • The presentation of relevant views can be automatic by the use of scenario planning and analysis. required frame rate. machines could offer a significant contribution to the surveillance process. important that evidence is managed in a way that is conducive to successful prosecution. the incident. also assist in contextualising the incident and managing it appropriately.com . however. Whether the incident was contained or not the analysis of what led up to the event and what happened during the event must now take place. Thus. but if objects are to be identified over the image a contrast difference between subject and background of at least 0. most cost effective solution that will still achieve this should be acquired.5 dB (for simple processes) is required throughout the scene. understanding what resources are available to manage the incident. The design should consider what the information is to be used for and once this is defined. It is. Frame rate is only required to be high if the possibility of missing an action exists. While this is clearly a human task. Video resolution – this must be such that the type of object is recognisable at the distance seen. but more than that. Similar specifications for identifying all objects must be calculated and appropriate camera specifications be used.securitysa. such as other events that are happening in the area that may be affected by. when it comes to incident management. Intelligent machines can locate sightings of people. Dr Coetzer can be contacted at Protoclea Advanced Image Engineering (benniec@protoclea. predicting possible scenarios and monitoring these potential spots. These have the potential of reducing human workload. • Evidence can be stored securely until the trial is complete. 98 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. a company specialising in the development of products such as those described in this article. camera dynamic range. how would intelligent systems assist at the post-event analysis level. etc. The automatic identification of objects allows operators to rapidly classify an event into an incident and also to prioritise incidents according to historical information that may have been gathered. addresses and prior suspicions. Once this is done relevant information can be extracted and saved into long-term storage. controlling the camera to search for subjects. Such plans could have foreseen certain disasters and initial war room views could be pre-set to speed up reaction.com/protoclea). Whenever identification is important resolution should not be sacrificed. It is sad to say that in most cases the actual use of the information is disregarded to save money. the use of intelligence is somewhat limited to that of the lawyers and advocates. it has the potential of using humans in a way where their unique and powerful abilities are best used. in shadows as well as in bright areas. This requires amongst others: • Evidence be packaged in formats that prosecutors can easily access and present. or their low storage requirement resulting in long storage periods. To recognise the shape and model at least 10 pixels per metre. humans are in a class of their own. • In addition. ie. It is probably safe to say that cameras and video recording equipment are mostly sold on their ability to compress video streams into narrow bandwidths. • Understanding the environment and location by presenting the team with maps/building layouts of the relevant areas. would need at least three pixels per metre on the object. vehicles and other events prior to the incident and it can do this automatically. or influence.facebook. One of the most obvious tasks would be to search through available historical events of both the incident and the pre-incident information. intelligent systems can greatly assist in the following way: • Enhancing the views that operators have of the incident. The task requires amongst others the following of the command and control system: • Presentation of visible views of all views that are relevant to the incident and removal of irrelevant views. This could include a variety of image enhancement to allow for detection of weapons.ANALYTICS Continued from page 97 with based on prior information. This is clearly a big job and is often handled by an incident management team. to recognise that an object is a car one Conclusion It should be clear that the next wave in security systems and in particular. • Offering additional information. resulting in improved security at a lower cost. Given that the above was achieved. identifying people. look into dark spots. frame rates of 10 fps to 12 fps are usually sufficient. This ability to bring scenario analysis into decision making is an area that promises huge advances in security provision and particularly in high dynamic environments such as street surveillance control rooms. storage period and so on and at the risk of stating the obvious some aspects should be re-stated. combined analysis from multiple sources and so on they can assist in powerful analysis of information creating very good evidence for prosecution. high-motion systems will be the use of intelligent systems. Dynamic range – this is difficult to define as it is seldom specified by manufacturers. • Evidence is treated in such a way that it cannot be tampered with or be lost. to identify its number plate at least 500 pixels per metre. the best. other than packaging of the evidence and the way it is packaged.
Likewise. the jury is still out. due to the 35 Mbps per sector limit on bandwidth. MD.11ABGN (and future releases) are cost-effective and can be built to reliably carry video and other data traffic in the last mile. and how you build the overall solution that matters more than the individual components and technologies.com CCTV Handbook 2013 99 . Their security is robust and reliable and shared media solutions such as 802. • Fixed and low latency for zero video hiccups. ie. which equates to dedicated bandwidth per CCTV surveillance camera in a Point-toMultipoint (PtMpt) environment. If you forget to ensure there is enough bandwidth over the network technology you choose. as found in a multi-service environment. we have a few options when it comes to connectivity. WiFi: Due to the cheap nature of these solutions. wireless technologies (mostly WiFi) are significantly more flexible. your surveillance solution is going to be a disappointment. video. It’s a shared media solution. the experience and expertise of the reseller or installer comes to the fore.” Peter Turvey. including copper and fibre-optic. CEO of Duxbury Networking says it’s a question of horses for courses. but again may not be the perfect option. over 200 Mbps per sector for a typical large CCTV deployment.” • Configurable uplink and downlink – remember video surveillance is mostly one way in the direction of uplink. economies of scale cannot be reached. The nature of the WiFi 802. remote locations can also be connected to live streams at very low bandwidth requirements – which is perfect for our unreliable cellular networks. • Enough bandwidth per PtP link. eg. In addition. typically they are intended for the low end of the market. not designed for dedicated high bandwidth traffic. In a similar vein. while meshing type technologies also make the technology more resilient. Duxbury says most data-oriented wireless technologies are well suited to CCTV applications.securitysa. So. By Andrew Seldon. it is how you use and integrate all the communication systems. point-to-point and point-to-multipoint solutions in both the licensed and unlicensed frequencies provide for measurable and reliable video backhaul. Thus. Radwin SADC Region is naturally a supporter of wireless solutions. • Enough bandwidth per sector in PtMpt to handle at least 50 x 3MP cameras. “Wired solutions. Not only that. which is quite different to technologies like Internet access where most of the traffic is one way in the direction of downlink.” He adds that there may also be additional considerations. use them – but they may not always be suited to the environment. www. With all the planning and preparation that goes into buying surveillance cameras and the supporting software. one can be forgiven for forgetting another vital component of the mix. • Robust performance in dense urban areas in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and near-line-of-sight (nLOS) situations. these include: WiMax: Due to technology being designed for home-user Internet access traffic. When it comes to selecting the solution for your project. Graham Duxbury. Fortunately. always provide the best in bandwidth. Moreover. but there seems to be a tendency for installers to prefer wired systems. but with the right technology. “In addition. if you can. • Outstanding interference mitigation mechanisms in unlicensed wireless frequency bands. such as other traffic to cater for.11 CSMA/SA Mac protocol does not allow for Looking at wireless When it comes to wireless networking. “In my opinion. with a growing trend to using wireless networks in support of surveillance streams.CONNECTIVITY Don’t ignore wireless The networking technology chosen for surveillance projects is a crucial component of the final success of the solution. When asked what wireless technology is suited for surveillance solutions that require reliability and constant throughput. the connectivity. he says: Any wireless technology that has tick boxes next to the following: • A wireless portfolio that includes Point-to-Point (PtP) as well as a solution for Point-toMultipoint where dedicated bandwidth is allocated per subscriber unit. • Sophisticated Media Access Control (MAC) protocols and Air Interfaces/ Frames which cater for the un-interrupted delivery of time sensitive data. it has a typical one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink ratio. many IP cameras support built-in WiFi. Not that the right wireless technology can’t handle video streams. Turvey notes that some wireless technologies are not suited for CCTV surveillance.
CAT5 networking cable is typically the preferred medium for IP surveillance as it provides great speed and very few hassles once installed. a variety of wireless communication. with the proliferation of wireless networks today. that where fibre is already installed it is very good option and should be utilised if possible. and no longer are installers compelled to use coax cable. Gated communities and estates also tend to have issues with cable systems.” Connectivity: cable or wireless? By Chris Sutherland. Wireless is typically not an in building solution but can be deployed to cover a campus wide CCTV deployment. However. which means that the more 3G phones. more efficiently. when dealing with converged multiservice networks. it typically can never be reproduced in a real-live field environment. the market teems with new high definition IP camera options.11n). In short. WiFi cannot guarantee the timeous delivery of video traffic. tablets. etc. unlike fibre. It’s a shared media solution. They therefore need to source from suppliers who understand the connectivity requirements of an overarching. splicing. the less bandwidth is available for the video surveillance solution.” He does note. as this requires digging up pavements and roadways in order to lay trunking for the cables to use.7 Mbps uplink and 21.” He adds that it is an alarming issue that a chief finance officer (CFO) or a chief technical officer (CTO) is being asked to make decisions on technologies that could be foreign to them. converged CCTV/data networks are headed in this direction. Wireless. are used in a 3G cell. but having a carrier grade wireless solution. Carrier grade products are a far better option. will ensure a reliable surveillance system. as long as the right product is used. high latencies. dongles. to always do a proof of concept (POC) to ensure that a solution will operate as marketed. Although CAT5 is great for the task. and said product is installed properly. implementations are offering faster speeds and even more reliability than ever before. “However. Internet access. it begs the question. standard WiFi equipment is still not the best option for wireless transmission. Packet loss. Carrier grade wireless equipment manufacturers such as Radwin and Linkra. who do not conform to standard WiFi protocols. however. and dropped links are always a possibility when using standard WiFi. and some of the best-designed surveillance systems do not purely rely on one data transport medium. even on a campus or in building. has no real distance limitations for CCTV. And while in a perfect laboratory environment a vendor might be able to reproduce its marketing specifications. the nature of wireless is obviously untethered and can be delivered over long distances (up to 120 kilometres) as long as the above criteria is met. there are some circumstances where a cable infrastructure simply isn’t viable or even possible. “The CCTV market is being advanced by users’ needs to monitor more locations. “That said. can be installed in a day. distribution and analytics solutions capable of recognising potential security breaches without human involvement. etc adds excessive costs to the deployment. as with analogue CCTV systems. “What’s more. “Traditionally. there isn’t a single best method of connectivity. simply cannot rely of a cable-based solution. it is too long a distance for fibre. Duxbury notes that one of the issues one needs to focus on is finding a supplier that knows how to offer the best advice.” says Duxbury. and is therefore intended for applications that most downlink in nature. Each connectivity method usually has its own unique set of characteristics that make it ideal for certain applications. which one is best? The truth is. if the fibre does not exist then costs will soar. sometimes it might stretch the truth somewhat. organisations built separate surveillance networks alongside their regular corporate networks. and with less interference.com . serve larger geographic areas.securitysa. Now that so many different IP-based connectivity options are available. they began to engineer end-to-end solutions that used a single transport medium.1 Mbps downlink). with fluid recordings and no dropped frames. it must be understood that if a fibre installation is one metre short. management of these infrastructures becomes critical. which offers great throughput and great reliability. Miro IP surveillance. Due to the collision nature of the protocol. combined with cable infrastructure where possible. being IP based means that a number of different connectivity options are available. “When the significant cost and performance benefits of fully converged networks was realised.” Certain wireless technologies are also suited for long distances without the hassles associated with laying and maintaining cable. as well as leading-edge storage. Mining environments. control and management systems. as the cost of trenching. For these scenarios. view clearer images and automatically analyse large amounts of data. and with the introduction of the latest wireless standard (802. installers typically turn to wireless networking. brand manager. but a combination of many. They are typically presented with marketing material that is similar between vendors even though the underlying technologies are very different. therefore there is no dedicated bandwidth. Standard outdoor WiFi equipment has been used successfully in many of these applications. “Customers/installers face the challenge of incorporating these new systems into existing networks and integrating them with information management systems. which are constantly changing. making them much more suitable for surveillance applications. Turvey says that.” Turvey says that one must also exercise caution and not just believe what one reads when presented with a vendor’s marketing documentation. are able to transmit data much faster. due to it not being specifically designed for surveillance applications. It is advisable 100 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. software. is quick and easy to install and very costeffective when compared to fibre. then an integrated fibre option was selected. eg. standard WiFi IP surveillance systems are indeed possible. underlining the fact that sheer bandwidth is no guarantee of ultimate performance. 3G: Has a ratio of one-third uplink and two-thirds downlink for data traffic (3G HSDPA+ standard – 5. Today. time. on the other hand. How get connected Technology is not the only issue to consider when deploying a surveillance solution. end-to-end solution – from the camera to the disk drive.CONNECTIVITY the dedicated delivery of traffic and it cannot guarantee low latencies. If the corporate or campus network was fibre based. However.
www.com CCTV Handbook 2013 101 .securitysa.
history shows that many applications designed for use in the world’s militaries have the potential to cross over into the civilian space with just a few clever tweaks. how has the thermal market changed over the past few years? Jason McGregor. it has made thermal technology more accessible and available to every day use. Axis Communications: There has been a definite change in the market from analogue to IP thermal cameras.THERMAL The expanding role of thermals Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. Today the image sensors have much higher resolution giving us farther detection ranges as well as cleaner and crisper imaging. there is still the challenge of trying to properly communicate the advantages of thermal imaging in the commercial security arena. MD of TeleEye (South Africa): Security installers and design engineers have historically considered such state-of-the-art technology as thermal imaging to only be suitable for military applications. With the price shift. Hi-Tech Security Solutions asked a few people in the know for their views on this market and where they thought it was heading. The introduction of dual thermal imaging cameras has increased the appeal of thermals dramatically. However. Couple that to PTZ units and you have an all-encompassing solution. (180x120. The first thermals launched had lower resolution sensors which made detection ranges fairly limited. 320x240. Philip Smerkovitz. than using conventional video cameras.securitysa. This has allowed the technology to be accessed and tested by a greater number of potential customers. MASS Price decline has been the prime mover in helping thermal technology break into the mainstream CCTV market. 384x288. We need to bring military applications to bear against the country’s hardened criminals. as with any military pedigree. this thinking is gradually giving way to a realisation that South Africa is indeed engaged in a war of sorts. many of whom – somewhat ironically – have a military background. C3: • Thermals are becoming more IP orientated and able to integrate to IP surveillance solutions. Jason McGregor. Thermal cameras are still a popular addition to the security arsenal of many organisations. Axis Communications sales manager for Africa John Loftus. 640x480).com . John Loftus. • Their capabilities of detecting intrusion through heavy fog / mist are improving. innovative engineering has seen thermal imaging now well integrated into security applications throughout the civilian sector. General Motors’ Hummer is an excellent example of how a vehicle with a military pedigree can perfectly appeal to civilians following a well thought-out makeover. Brendon Cowley. Another major driving factor has been the take up of premium motor manufacturers utilising thermal technology for nighttime driving. • Thermals are being used far more as a 24/7 surveillance camera and not just used for night-time viewing. • Thermals are being manufactured to include intelligent video analytics for surveillance purposes. who then want to use this technology on their own property. Many corporate managers still view the technology as somewhat ‘over the top’ Fortunately. MD of MASS Brendon Cowley. larger areas can be protected using a far less number of thermal cameras. However. While not related to the CCTV arena. director of C3 102 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Thermal manufacturers have been at pains to be to point out cost benefits and point to the fact that although undoubtedly thermal cameras are more expensive than conventional CCTV. • A variety of detectors can be found nowadays. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Apart from price declines and more companies becoming involved in manufacturing thermal cameras. Similarly.
Everything you see in normal daily life has a heat signature. albeit different resolution are available our differentiating factor is the ability to stream multiple colour palettes from the same camera which enables www. Many of the objects you could be looking for. An army might order 10 000 thermal imaging devices whereas a civilian population. thermals offer a far more reliable detection medium than conventional video cameras due to the high contrast of the images relayed. Day/night cameras/IR devices and night vision devices work by detecting reflected light energy. which has been eagerly adopted by many residential estates. Perimeter monitoring remains one of the most popular applications for thermal cameras. Loftus: Perimeter detection. and corporate organisations. precious metal refineries and classified national keypoint sites. But the amount of reflected light they receive is not the only factor that determines whether or not you’ll be able to see with these cameras: image contrast matters. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: A thermal camera is a thermal camera. Within corporate South Africa we are seeing excellent uptake when it comes to reliable perimeter protection at an affordable price. Primary use is detection rather than surveillance. they make pictures from the minute differences in heat between objects. Flir Systems distributors. The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complimentary technology. TeleEye. like people. they just have different lenses for different distances. gold mines. process control. With the increased use of unmanned analytics. Without a doubt. Outdoor applications where long range recognition. They also have the ability to cover long ranges meaning they have traditionally been deployed in the protection of large perimeters found in mines. They need enough light. might order 100 000 thermal imaging systems. thermals are suitable. health and safety. not cost effective or environmentally restricted when it comes to white light or IR illumination. generate their own contrast because they generate their own heat. too. detection or identification is required. estates and office parks.securitysa. and enough contrast to create usable images. Is this true? How do your thermals differentiate themselves? McGregor: Whilst sensors themselves can be quite similar. Few people realise that thermal cameras are not blinded by sunlight making them an excellent daytime option as well. nature conservation. areas where there is little or no additional or ambient lighting. preventative maintenance and so on. Industrial requirements remain high and we contain to see healthy growth in this area. tunnels of the Gautrain.The crossover of military technologies into the civilian arena has the advantage of price decreases being able to be realised as uptake increases. thermal cameras are the best 24-hour imaging option. automation. This ability also means they can transcend security applications and also be ideal for traffic monitoring. wide open spaces. Thermal cameras don’t have these shortcomings as they detect heat/ energy and not reflected light. Wherever there is a high risk or high value area that requires a sophisticated surveillance system.com CCTV Handbook 2013 103 . Potential thermal camera applications are limited only by the creativity of the installer. Smerkovitz: Applications include areas where it is impractical. Thermal cameras also have the distinct advantage of being able to see through smoke and fog and this makes them ideal for marine. One must remember that thermal cameras are not only suitable for night-time illumination. and law enforcement applications. Cowley: Best suited for low light conditions and large open spaces where intrusions with a normal day/ night camera become difficult to detect. residential estates. Thermal imagers can see them well because they don’t just make pictures from heat. C3 has installed thermal cameras at a variety of places such as power stations. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What are the primary functions people are using thermals for? Where are they best suited? McGregor: We are seeing thermal being used across the board into varying segments. can convincingly demonstrate that the total cost of ownership of thermal cameras is much lower over long distances compared to traditional surveillance cameras.
securitysa. Megapixel sensors are now available but are very expensive and will not reach the mainstream market in the foreseeable future. Smerkovitz: Leading manufacturers in thermal imaging. The mainstream security market is using uncooled thermal modules and the first of these introduced to the mainstream security market were general low resolution 160x90 pixels. These are still popular and are used generally as a detector with analytics. offer many lens variants which. Oculus currently offers an IP option with a DRS core. image quality is crucial and several different resolutions are available. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: What advances in thermal technology can we expect to see in the next year or so? McGregor: More analytics. Cowley: At present there is only one high end manufacturer of thermal cameras for the commercial market that has the zoom capability on both the thermal and visual / CCD camera. The rest of the dual thermal / CCD with zoom capabilities offer the zoom on the CCD only. There are quite a few factors that differentiate one thermal camera from another. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Are we going to see more intelligence built into thermals in the future? McGregor: Axis will continue to support and promote our ACAP (Axis Camera Application Platform ) offering. a camera that has an Micron Pitch 50 μm using a 50 mm lens may detect intrusions at a distance of 300 m. TeleEye always recommends that clients ensure their thermal imaging systems use the DDE software algorithm for optimal image quality. Loftus: Higher resolutions. coupled with stronger processors and higher resolutions. We also offer either 9 Hz or 25 Hz units. the farther the field of view (FOV) is. Due to this increased resolution these modules are suitable for identifying and surveying areas in their own right. Smerkovitz: These dual function cameras are already widely used and will remain popular since they offer all the benefits of long-range thermal detection. such as Flir. depending on client requirements. Perhaps most importantly. Oculus offers three different thermal cores (from three different core manufacturers) each with different pricing. • Hertz: This is the frequency at which the camera operates and is directly related to frame rate. Product ranges will be expanded to include dome-type multi-sensors. • NUC: As the number of pixels increases and their sensitivity improves the quality of image is increasingly dependent on a process called Non Uniformity Calibration or NUC. Smerkovitz: Image quality will continually improve in leaps and bounds as advanced software becomes available. Cowley: No.THERMAL better detection in changing environments.25°C (250 mK) and 0. Operators can also make use of the optical zoom camera to further interrogate the target. Cowley: Temperature monitoring / flame detection / intelligent video analytics. this statement is not true. multiple camera options on one platform. Edge storage as well as the ability to load third-party analytics directly onto the camera gives the end user flexibility and scalability to customise each camera to their required application. the thermal being used to detect a threat and the video camera to identify. whereas a camera with a 20 μm using the same 50 mm lens. Cooled thermals calibrated to a known temperature which means they are more sensitive to minute temperature changes.05°C (50 mK). again. Smerkovitz: Absolutely.com . While you might consider a quarter of degree to be adequate thermal sensitivity as soon as you look at a low contrast scene you’ll discover the image quality adversely effects the image quality as noise begins to dominate the image. Let’s talk about a few of them: • Sensitivity of the thermal sensor: As you review published camera specifications you will see thermal sensitivity specifications range between 0. in some cases very similar in quality achieved from a monochrome video camera. verification and recognition of targets in the absence of light. Different lenses are indeed offered for different distances with one particular lens being able to detect a human being at a staggering 18 kilometres. red-tape requirements and resolutions. Alternatively. many thermal cameras are now available with builtin analytics. Greater analytical capability will be built into future camera systems further reducing reliance on human operators who are by nature never 100% reliable or accurate. analogue units with an additional encoder. 104 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Loftus: The vast majority of thermal cameras are sold alongside a video camera as a complementary technology. will these solutions become the norm? McGregor: This is becoming an offer from many manufacturers but is very costly so will remain a niche requirement. light permitting. which will continue to drive development of edge analytics providing the customer with an array of applications which can be installed on the camera. Loftus: Yes. This calibration process results in greater image quality and improved camera performance. exact positioning devices. Oculus offers an industry leading hi-res 640x480 option. • Micron Pitch (μm): The smaller the micron pitch number is . Loftus: Thermal cameras are split into two main categories cooled and uncooled modules. For example. they are particularly suited for very long-range applications and are generally only used by military or government in high risk areas where the cost can be accepted against the protection required. better quality products will become available at lower prices. As one would imagine. Hi-Tech Security Solutions: Some manufacturers offer dual thermal/visual cameras that allow operators to zoom in when an alert is raised. Less than 50 mK is ideal and will result in higher sensitivity of the thermal sensor which will result in better detection of intrusions and higher image quality (less noise). 320x240 and more recently 640x480 thermals modules are now available and these provide excellent images. The higher the frequency the higher the frame rate the better the quality of the image. is another in a long list of advantages of these devices. will detect intrusions at a much farther distance (450 m).
primarily around how well each sensor type works in low light conditions. celebrating over 70 years of existence. and in dark areas. the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. which enables Syntech to offer resellers scalable solutions according to their requirements. It’s the quality of the analogue cameras which make all the difference. sizes and looks. energy-efficiency capability and overall system stability. Analogue signals can be recorded on your PC as a digital recording. offering a higher overall reliability as a time-proven surveillance system. year on year www. and meet many application requirements for cost-effective surveillance systems. either within a retail environment (at the till point or in store). Analogue CCD cameras also manage motion well. the cost of implementing a surveillance system is now relatively small compared to the cost of not having that system in place – a major factor in the decision to install a CCTV system. As a business owner. to encapsulate quality images benefiting people in security conscious environments. models. Analogue has and does perform exceptionally well at night. laptop or desktop computer). Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. Analogue CCTV has become readily available to the public. and have a very easy to use system. Most CCTV setups run on a time lapse basis (around twenty-five frames per second (PAL). Initially. from fixed and varifocal lenses.securitysa. In South Africa. the pricing of the equipment is substantially lower and more cost-effective than it has ever been. Analogue CCTV manufacturers have a vast range of camera specifications. and DIS (Digital Image System) boasting advanced features in terms of image quality. For more information contact Michelle Marais. analogue CCTV cameras have a relatively low cost up front. DIS cameras have become very competitive in the analogue market. While IP (Internet protocol) cameras have appeared on the market. We’re moving away from the current entry level 420 and 480 TVLs and making our entry level 600 and 700 TVLs. There are many areas of safety that concern us. and thirty frames per second (NTSC). This allowed images from existing analogue cameras to be recorded and stored on hard disk drives with images being a much higher quality 2013 The analogue system is KING. Syntech. There are some significant advantages in CCD image quality over CMOS.co. the number of interlaced even and odd lines define the quality and resolution of the picture.com CCTV Handbook 2013 105 . The pricing at the time was sky high and the perception of installing CCTV into certain sectors of the market was perceived as a negative. a four-way power supply and a 4 channel DVR with a 500 GB hard drive. CP Plus entry-level DIY kits are also available for the B2B market from Syntech for a retail price of around R5999. The manufacturers are still improving their analogue ranges with such concepts as WDR (Wide Dynamic Range) allowing a camera to filter intense back light and enhancing the ability to distinguish features and shapes by scanning the same frame twice and then processing the image pixel by pixel into a single frame. As each picture is made up of horizontal lines. or within a business (where deviant behaviour has a better disguise. in a warehouse (where consumable products may go missing). there are shortages that occur. but needs to be monitored to protect your assets). When analogue cameras entered the market a few decades ago.za CCTV TIMELINE 1942 First used by the US Military to monitor the testing of the V2 missiles 1953 Used in the UK for the first time for the Queen’s coronation 1960s Started appearing in public places to monitor crowd behaviour during rallies and public figure appearances 1980s VCRs (Video Cassette Recorders) came onto the scene making CCTV more popular enabling its users more storage of their video surveillance 1990s The DVR (Digital Video Recorder) was born. These digital recordings are often compressed in order to save the footage regularly. allowing digital broadcasting of the video signal. All analogue cameras employ a CCD sensor. Replacement of a damaged or broken camera has become far easier. where IP cameras can use either CCD or CMOS sensors. a monitor. Analogue cameras send analogue signals to a DVR (digital video recorder) or other platform (smartphone. Syntech. the market was abuzz. manufactured and technically improved. and are generally compatible with different types of surveillance equipment. A standard analogue CCTV surveillance system includes the cameras. we feel the need to have a security system. 4 CMOS 600 TVL cameras. Businesses and home-owners alike steered away from the expensive ‘élite’ option of having closed circuit television. cables and a DVR. to box camera sets with interchangeable lens configurations to best suit the solution required.ANALOGUE Analogue: still going strong By Michelle Marais. 18 metre cabling per camera. although the signal needs to be converted via a video capture card in your computer. while retaining sophisticated technology. The image detail of analogue cameras is measured in TVL (TV Lines). which is either a charge coupled device (CCD – the digital microchip which produces the picture signal) or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). with features capable of performing in extremely low illumination areas. Both IP and analogue cameras employ an analogue image sensor. Today it’s a different story. As home-owners. Most DVRs act like a network camera. cameras were released at 320 and 340 TVLs. michelle@syntech. CP Plus systems are technically easy to install. ensuring peace of mind in the safety of our homes. These DIY kits include a DVR.
50. Solid state drives (SSDs) are another option. RAID 0 allows a group of hard drives to act as a single usable storage array with increased performance of distributing load across all hard drives. Beyond redundancy and fault tolerance. For example if you had eight hard How you store your video footage impacts your ability to make optimal use of it. surveillance storage is less expensive. Innovations in speed and interfaces have also allowed HDDs to handle larger amounts of incoming data and quickly provide that data back to applications enabling advances like HD and megapixel surveillance. the ability to increase the density in which data is stored has allowed HDD size to shrink tremendously. Striping with parity extends the process of breaking up a file and storing it across multiple drives to include a calculated value – parity information – in addition to the original data that rebuilds data if some portion of it is later lost. 1. To help understand these concepts better its best to review how they’re implemented in real surveillance systems and the different RAID levels used. RAID 5 uses striping with distributed parity. This change resulted in a dramatic capacity increase while costs continued to decrease.com . to distribute data across multiple hard drives.securitysa. most surveillance systems use multiple disks in redundant configurations (see the next section on RAID for more detail). the part of the analogue to digital surveillance transition – how images are captured – is placing unique demands on surveillance storage technology. This is the most fault tolerant RAID setup since all data is mirrored fully. In 2011. search. Moving parts always come with some risk of failure over time. RAID 1 mirrors all data to two drives and uses no striping or parity. Because of this. The most important technology that will impact any storage system involving multiple hard drives is called RAID – redundant array of independent disks. RAID provides redundancy by grouping multiple hard drives and employing different techniques.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Storage technologies for video surveillance An Avigilon white paper. SSDs rely on a large amount of solid-state memory.30 per gigabyte in 1998 to $0. Striping improves performance of a RAID system by writing data to a large number of drives simultaneously so that the duration of a single write operation is greatly reduced. However. HDD technology has evolved incrementally from the same basic concept pioneered in 1956 – a stack of spinning platters and scanning heads. most surveillance systems in place today make use of hard disks to store surveillance images digitally. RAID 0 is the simplest form and provides no redundancy or fault tolerance. The data is read from the spinning platters using scanning heads positioned over the spinning disks. Redundancy – RAID The fundamental technology of digital surveillance storage – the hard drive – is only the beginning of the hardware involved in a storage system. 5 and 6.053 per gigabyte in 2011. implementing RAID also increases the performance of a storage system by increasing the throughput beyond what could be accomplished with a single hard drive. These demands require integrators and customers to have a deeper understanding of the storage technologies available and the impact that each storage option has on their surveillance system. however since it requires twice as many hard drives to provide the needed capacity it’s typically used only for operating systems or programs. The unique demands that result from the transition from analogue to digital image capture are largely driven by the fact that digital images can exceed the resolution limits of analogue cameras. playback and manage. RAID levels 5 and 6 are more commonly used for large amounts of storage for surveillance video. essentially microchips. For example. Along with the reliability and resiliency improvements that are gained with the elimination of moving parts. more efficient and progressively powerful. although multiple pairs of mirrored hard drives can be striped together in a RAID 10 or a RAID 1+0 array. This white paper explores available surveillance video storage technologies and the impact of each solution on video management software performance to arm security and IT professionals with the information to make the best storage decisions when designing a surveillance system. and have no 106 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. With hard drive capacity doubling approximately every two years and the cost per unit shrinking by 50%. and rarely as the RAID level for large amounts of storage like surveillance video. Using striping without parity or mirroring. One shortcoming of HDD technology is its reliance on mechanical moving parts. Higher resolution and higher definition images mean more detail and better evidence in surveillance video but also mean each camera has the potential to generate larger images that require appropriate technology solutions to efficiently store. As a result. the cost per gigabyte of SSD technology was $1. Storage technologies Disk drives The hard disk drive (HDD) is the central component to the digital storage of surveillance video. this means that data is both spread out over multiple drives and additional information is stored to allow data to be rebuilt after failure. The surveillance industry continues to transition from analogue to digital. Though the fundamentals of HDD technology haven’t changed. Mirroring is the simplest form of redundancy and simply copies the data on two drives – as any data is written. the typical price per gigabyte of raw HDD storage has decreased from $56. The most common RAID levels in a surveillance system are 0. The trade-off for improved speed and reliability is increased cost. data can be spread out at a low level across multiple hard drives. The way surveillance images are stored has also changed from analogue-based recording solutions – like VHS tapes and film – to digital storage on hard drives. Hard drives have the possibility of failure – especially when using moving components – so redundancy is a critical consideration to ensure data won’t be lost and systems will continue to operate in the event of a drive failure. mirroring and striping. Though declining rapidly – at 30 times more than current HDD prices – the cost of SSDs are too expensive for the large storage capacities needed for most surveillance systems. it’s created in both places. This transition is taking place on two fronts – how the images are captured and how they are stored. moving parts to store information. A conventional mechanical hard disk operates using a series of spinning rigid plates that store information using magnetism. With striping. SSDs also offer substantial increases in speed for both reading and writing data over mechanical HDDs.
RAID is implemented either at the hardware or software level within a server or storage enclosure. In the following section we’ll explore how video surveillance software stores video in more detail. so RAID 6 ensures data is not vulnerable during the rebuild process. They also allow features like search. indexing. Storage architecture The final layer between a surveillance application and storage is the software technology and architecture used to structure and index stored video. block level access is required by most systems. write. A surveillance system could make use of a simple file system for everything from configuration files to the video itself – typically however performance needs require the use of a relational database in addition to a basic file system to provide the necessary performance of writing. events. rules. and system logs. and export to happen efficiently. accessed infrequently and does not present high demands on speed of retrieval. or network attached storage (NAS). SAN will typically be used for very large amounts of storage that require access from multiple servers while centralising management. playback. Rebuild time increases with array size. users and groups. Storage communication We’ve already discussed the basic technologies commonly used for surveillance storage – a collection of hard disk drives most likely grouped in a RAID 5 or 6 configuration. metadata and surveillance video – that need to be stored and pose unique challenges. The difference between block and file level access translates primarily to performance: block level access provides higher performance by allowing lower level access. backups. In the event any one of the eight drives fails. DAS is the simplest and most economical for storage that needs to be accessed by only a single server. the parity information won’t always be written to the same drive with every file. The next important topic is how the surveillance system communicates with that storage. The choice between the two protocols is based on the needs of the network in terms on interconnectivity and performance.securitysa. As the name implies DAS provides storage directly attached to a server. NAS provides only file level access to a storage volume while DAS and SAN provide block level access. while file level access limits performance but can provide easier concurrent access to multiple users in non-surveillance applications like file sharing. www. Video management software (VMS) simplifies the process by storing data between files and databases based on its nature. including Avigilon Control Center (ACC). Implementing RAID at the software level relies on system resources and introduces additional overhead and delays that impact performance of your storage and make it unsuitable for video surveillance storage.drives in a RAID 5 setup each file would be spread out over seven drives and parity information about the file written to the eighth drive. RAID 5 provides fault tolerance to a single drive failure. NAS is the final category for connecting storage to a surveillance system. Configuration data does pose some unique demands because it has to be encrypted and only modified when proper security checks have been performed. The simplest form of software used by any surveillance application is a file system. An important thing that differentiates the storage communication technologies is whether they provide block level or file level access to the storage device from the connected servers and applications.com CCTV Handbook 2013 107 . RAID 6 extends RAID 5 by distributing parity information for each file to two drives. VMS storage and impact on surveillance design A typical surveillance system generates four types of data – systemrelated configuration data. the file system provides the basic functionality to read. configuration data and events. This can be information on recording schedules. Usually it’s a very small amount of information. and scalability. Relational databases play a key role storing and indexing data for video surveillance systems. increased performance of spreading disk operations over multiple hard drives and only costs an additional hard drive in each array of disks. A wide variety of technologies are available for communication in SANs. storage area network (SAN). The smallest and simplest type of data is system-related configuration data. The methods of attachment vary but for enterprise class storage it’s done via a serial attached SCSI (SAS) cable from a dedicated hardware RAID card. Since RAID 5 distributes the parity information. and organise files. alarms. In surveillance. A fundamental operating system feature. this allows the system to tolerate the failure of two drives in an array without losing data but costs an additional drive per array. file level access and the use of network attached storage is typically limited to applications with very few cameras. a VMS will typically store this data within a structured database. no data is lost and the system can rebuild the contents of the failed drive once it’s replaced by using the data on the other seven drives. resources. iSCSI is more cost effective because it uses standard network cabling and switches when compared to the more expensive and complex cabling and switching that Fibre Channel requires. A VMS will also use a database to provide these features. Generally this communication will fall into one of three categories – directly attached storage (DAS). For the performance needs of surveillance and truly enterprise class storage a hardware RAID controller is a requirement for any surveillance video storage. RAID 6 becomes more important as array size grows and to ensure storage isn’t vulnerable in the event of a rebuild process. As a result. For these reasons. however modern SANs used for surveillance most often use either Fibre Channel or iSCSI. and managing the complex event and video related information that’s part of a surveillance system.
if the free space or regions being written are spread far apart. The amount of video generated by a single server will vary based on number of cameras. The use of a database embedded into the VMS is unique to Avigilon and delivers considerable advantages. Metadata is any additional information that describes or adds to the content of the video. the database plays a key role in a surveillance system. corrupted by another application. implementations. Tightly related to the video and generating at an equal rate but in smaller size is metadata. how a VMS stores video significantly impacts the performance and features of a surveillance system. A full understanding of these technologies empowers security professionals to understand the options available when purchasing or designing video surveillance. Metadata that’s inaccurately sequenced relative to video becomes useless.com . Conventional off the shelf database technologies are unable to provide the efficiency and power required to quickly search and playback HD video. The type of database used and how it’s managed also impacts the speed of playback and searching. device input and output events. Embedding the database means data and queries are quickly handled and database resources can be more actively managed by the VMS process. if the data can’t be easily and rapidly searched – it will not enable the effective handling of investigations. Summary Advances in storage technology are accelerating the transition from analogue to digital in surveillance and enabling security enhancing technologies like HD surveillance systems. As a result. and amount of motion. if related data is all physically located in one place the speed to read access the data is greatly reduced. or accessed insecurely than one embedded and managed by the VMS. The high volume needs of managing event storage are met well by a database. writing video may also take longer which can limit system capacity. Fragmentation is ignored by most conventional computer applications and systems rely either on user-initiated applications or periodic tasks to defragment a disk. Data ageing. Other VMS will typically use an external database. general system events. Searching and playback of that data can become very slow. Typically the data generated by video is much too large for storage within a database so it is usually stored separately in a file system and indexed in a database. www. The unique file system used by Avigilon allows data ageing to be applied at different times for different cameras on a single server allowing finer control of storage allocation then other VMS that only rarely offers any ageing settings and typically only has a global value. resolution.avigilon. which has several disadvantages. external databases are subject to separate management of licensing. The use of these buckets allows ACC to strictly manage fragmentation while enabling technologies like data ageing and backup of HD video in highly efficient ways not possible with other systems. For more information contact Avigilon.STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES Another data type generated by a VMS for storage is events. storage is performed on hard disks comprised of rapidly rotating disks. MySQL. it’s important that the VMS be aware of and manage fragmentation as it writes and overwrites video on a disk. Events will typically be small in size but can be high in volume and place significant demands on a system to store. performance becomes limited – external databases require data be passed between processes from the main VMS process to the process running the database. and challenges related to surveillance video storage. and in large corporate environments may require involvement of other departments tasked with managing all external databases on site. HD video places unique demands on a storage system as the video generated is higher in resolution. potentially higher in data rate and contains more information than conventional video leading to users doing more searching and reviewing as the value of their stored video increases. As outlined previously.com. +27 (0)72 584 4992. Because this data must be stored in an indexed fashion that’s rapidly searchable. The most important and significant type of data generated by a VMS is the surveillance video itself. For this reason Avigilon Control Center makes use of a high performance embedded database that is tailored for HD video surveillance storage. Beyond understanding the technologies involved. Two important demands must be carefully accounted for by the VMS when storing metadata: speed of searching and time synchronisation to the video.vandervyver@avigilon. Another core technology Avigilon Control Center uses is a unique file system architecture to manage storage efficiently for HD video surveillance system. data from a camera can become widely spread out over a disk. Over time – as different amounts of data are written. First. Therefore. knowing how a VMS uses storage is necessary to understanding how the VMS can affect the quality of evidence a surveillance system stores. In addition. Disk fragmentation is a key concern. The physical position of data on disks impacts performance tremendously. The type of events generated and stored will range from user audit events. the downtime needed to defragment a disk after fragmentation has occurred is unacceptable. The high performance embedded database used in ACC is tuned to ensure the industry’s fastest HD searching and a responsive time line that allows intuitive jog and shuttle playback controls. allows JPEG and JPEG2000 compressed video to be automatically managed to store video at half the original frame rate after a set period. motion events. ryno. deleted and overwritten on a disk – fragmentation can occur and related data is no longer located on the disk close to other related data. The file system used to store the video content in ACC makes use of files broken into different intelligent buckets whose content and structure are managed by ACC and indexed within the embedded high performance database. it must be stored in a database.securitysa. As outlined earlier. For example. How does Avigilon store video? Now that we’ve covered the technologies. Second. Events also require rapid indexing and searchability – functionality that is also best supported by a database. such as Microsoft SQL Server. For motion detection and analytics applications this will include the location of motion within video as well as object location and direction. For this reason. but can be several terabytes per day. Unfortunately – in the case of surveillance systems – the storage system is required 24x7 to write high volumes of data generated by video. Avigilon Control Center’s purpose built approach to using the best available storage technologies and architectures provides users with a system that is highly scalable and provides rapid access to the best evidence and reduced investigation times. When fragmentation is not managed properly in a video surveillance environment.com 108 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. An external database can easily be patched incorrectly. a high definition stream management (HDSM) technology. and then at a quarter the original frame rate after a further point of time. This results in cumbersome investigations and limits an operator’s ability to realise the value of high-resolution cameras. The video itself poses the largest challenge to a storage system. As well. upgrades. it’s important to understand how Avigilon Control Center (ACC) has been architected to minimise storage requirements and maximise performance despite the higher storage demands of high-definition surveillance. index and search. or Postgres SQL. or external events from an integrated system. These features greatly reduce investigation time and allow security professionals to quickly access all the additional information captured by HD and multi-megapixel IP surveillance cameras.
a small industrial town just outside of Johannesburg. “Picture quality and ease of installation were just two of the many 3. lubricants. however. soil fumigation. financial director.” says technologies. Chemsystems: provides are monitored by Axis P1344 chemical products Mike van Schelt. Africa. intersection. reliability or long-term stability. Its site at Chloorkop. using Axis network cameras. SLA Group. systems and solutions in southern Africa. thereby reducing the risk of an incident or intrusion failing detection by security personnel. dust and light fog. workshops and storage tankers are under 24-hour surveillance. that offers complete perimeter coverage and extensive internal monitoring capabilities. person or vehicle and requiring no additional light source.axis.com CCTV Handbook 2013 109 . This ensures that our customer has complete control of the entire site at all times. “The Axis Q1910-E Thermal Network Camera presented itself as the most intelligent option. petrochemical. Previously this open area was responsible for continuous trespassing and the removal of large quantities of valuable stock. “We realised that AECI– Chempark’s perimeter was a major security issue that required careful attention and meticulous product investigation. For more information contact Axis Communications. A decision was taken to consolidate and upgrade the existing solution. Seasoned IP CCTV and systems integration provider.alves@axis. Teixeira. “Every single corridor. The firstto a diverse range of rate HDTV image quality of industries.CASE STUDY Perimeter protection at its most effective AECI’s Chemserve Systems goes thermal to secure its Chloorkop site. it is rapidly becoming a force to be reckoned with in the security and surveillance industry. thermal cameras are ideal for securing perimeters and dark or shadowed areas. This sustained involvement allows SLA Group to offer best value for money solutions without compromising on quality. Creating images based on the heat that is generated by any object.” 5.” Axis Q1910-E uses thermal imaging to detect people. Akulu Marchom: supplies chemical raw materials and value-adding video surveillance of the highest possible resolution in the zones services to the cosmetics. was being monitored by four different analogue camera systems. The vacant land that borders the north and west sides of the Chloorkop AECI’s site no longer poses a threat to the security of the premises. mainly in High definition images South Africa and in southern The main entrance to the Africa. Axis P1344 ensures that control room personnel are able to view 2. The Axis PTZ network cameras provide a visual of what security can expect to encounter during these responses. site and the internal roads 1. even complete darkness cannot offer criminals a place to hide.com. Network Cameras. as price is driven down by improved technology. based solution makes this entirely possible.” says Teixeira. polymers and plastics. The versatility of the Axismoplastic compounds to a diverse range of industries. Protecting essential stock AECI–Chempark divisions supply an extensive range of specialty chemical products and related services for industrial use across a broad spectrum of customers in the manufacturing and mining sectors. roy. Plastamid: plays a leading role in the manufacture and supply of therbe accessible by the surveillance cameras. mining.” A fortified boundary SLA Group has over 24 years’ experience in the design. www. For a long time thermal imaging was too costly for any application outside of the military. It has been a pleasure dealing with such a professional system integrator. designed and installed a cohesive solution. Chemserve Systems.com www.securitysa. “Any movement after working hours will automatically trigger an alarm that security officers can react to immediately.” remarks SLA Group’s Alexandre Teixeira. haze. manufacture and installation of CCTV and automation systems for the power generation. objects and incidents in complete darkness or challenging conditions such as smoke. entrance and exit needs to 4. “It is imperative that warehouses. toiletry and detergent industries in South where clarity and detail are critical. administrative buildings. The main entrance control room maintains centralised control of the entire system. Chemfit: has 30 years’ experience in supplying traded and blended The system has paid for itself in terms of efficacy. while the IT server room records and acts as a main buffer for the whole system. IU: manufactures and supplies a range of polyurethane products. iron and steel and chemical industries. making effective security surveillance extremely difficult.” specialty chemicals to a broad range of industries. AECI’s Chemserve Systems provides chemical products to a diverse range of industries. including water treatment. +27 (0)11 548 6780. Thanks to the installation of Axis thermal network cameras. reasons that we selected Axis as our IP partner for this project.
Should the staff member deviate from this. has been integrally involved with the implementation of security solutions for a diamond mine in Botswana. The system needed to provide full biometric access control into the mining area. the security provider. Focused surveillance was needed on all mining areas included in perimeter. Johannesburg.za What were the customer benefits? Using a full IP system. ADT Security. and the mine staff ensured the system was designed and implemented to be efficiently applied and supported all disciplines on the mine.com . What was unique about this particular solution? CCTV and access control was used to manage high risk areas without the hindrance of physical barriers. We were able to utilise the fibre ring network around the mine and plant to connect all systems to the servers and control rooms. crushing and flotation. Access to work areas was granted per area and per duration and loaded into the system. He provides the following information on the project. mining and materials handling. one for security and one for process control. the customer received easy and fast implementation and ease of use. There are also cameras mounted inside the vacuum chambers of the cyclone sorting units to monitor a process that is normally impossible to see. What would you say are the success factors of this case? Close cooperation of ADT. the engineering contractor. the CCTV system will register the intrusion and immediate action can be taken. Cameras were placed at all critical process areas to monitor the process flow. What technology was used? All systems implemented were full IP systems with power over Ethernet connections. ADT was able to integrate it into the security system for monitoring and secure mustering of staff during a fire. On the access side. What was the timeframe in which you implemented the solution? The project ran over a sevenmonth period (starting in February 2012 and ending in Sept 2012) and coincided with the civil construction of the mine and plant. Minimal cable runs were required as all devices 110 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. Further to this.co. What solutions did ADT Security put in place? We applied the Tyco C-Cure 9000 access control system with full IP Edge door controllers. The customer is also guaranteed of a future-proof solution fully upgradable should they require growth or changes. The biometric system used was the Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics.securitysa. business development manager Fire. This use of technology for both security and process is fairly unique. Staff can now proceed to working areas through virtual barriers to the approved and disarmed areas. the CCTV system is installed for security as well as process and production. This is a very innovative use of the integrated power of the security system to support operations without interfering with it. connected back to network switches with a single cable for data and power. What were the client’s needs? The project scope was to supply a fully-integrated security solution for a diamond mine in Botswana. Security and Integrated Systems. Any other comments you want included? Although the fire system was delivered by another vendor. mpaynter. 0860 100 911. recovery and process areas. to and from the security areas and within the high-risk diamond recovery building. The security system was the latest in digital security with virtual matrices and content analytics. smart card technology with Morpho Access fingerprint biometrics and full IP PoE door controllers were used. DRA. The video system installed is the Tyco American Dynamics Video Edge Network video recorders with the Illustra 400 Series IP dome and bullet cameras as well as VideoEdge IP Speed dome PTZ cameras. For more information contact ADT. short house and diamond export areas.za@adt. The IP intercom system delivered was the Aiphone IP intercom system. Two monitoring control rooms were required.CASE STUDY Watching the diamonds Integrated security installation keeps diamonds in the right hands. Martin van der Westhuizen.
www. the three-storey. Completed in 2011. the video security system also monitors all the sensitive areas in and around the museum’s exhibitions of Tyrolean history. Panomera has no movable mechanical parts. where only one operator can control the camera. Besides focusing on the giant panoramic canvas and its viewing gallery. charles@geutebruck. For more information contact Geutebrück.securitysa. regardless of where it took place. an unlimited number of operators can navigate across the entire scene independently of each other. technical director for local distributors MASS. The combined museum and gallery complex is run by Tyrolean State Museums which also manages the Tyrolean State Museum Ferdinandeum. which means there is no wear. In contrast to PTZ cameras. the vast. has been designed to showcase both the dramatic. over large distances.Panoramic views with Geutebrück New Innsbruck museum rounded off with Geutebrück video.com Huge width and depth capability with high quality By Allyson Koekhoven.” said Swanepoel.za. it is able to isolate a single sensor/lens combination to focus on a specific area within the total field of vision. dates from 1896 and is one of only twenty artworks of its kind still in existence. together with one overall view. irrespective of where specific lenses are deployed in the field of vision. the Inn Valley and the Alps beyond. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas. one will see increasing pixellation of the image. Although all operators are connected with the same camera. +27 (0)11 867 6585. the Zeughaus (Armoury). at high resolutions. It is commonly accepted that with increasing distance. By implementing a number of megapixel sensors. The Tyrol Panorama. mid-field areas and longer distances. life and culture. 1000-square-metre. and installed more than sixty Sony cameras.. “The Panomera camera overcomes this and is capable of recording up to 30 frames a second with viewing and recording in real-time. Dallmeier’s Panomera system allows users to view wide vistas. each with its own lens. Its core exhibit. Over recent years the company has repeatedly chosen Geutebrück video solutions to safeguard its buildings and collections and the new Bergisel development was no different. However. Innsbruck installer Fiegl & Spielberger supplied the alarm and video solutions including Geutebrück re_porter-16 video systems. A well-known problem with PTZ cameras is that the operator is forced to choose between overview image and detailed view. Ettiene Swanepoel. high-tech concrete and glass construction is set into the hillside next to the Tyrolean Imperial Infantry Museum at Bergisel to the south of the city. as well as the modern day panoramic outlook over Innsbruck. canvas panorama depicting the local battles of 1809 against Napoleonic and Bavarian forces. a new purpose-built museum in Innsbruck. In contrast to PTZ cameras.com CCTV Handbook 2013 111 . at high resolutions. Court Church and the Folk Song Archive. the Museum of Tyrolean Folk Art. in the Austrian Tyrol. 360-degree wraparound painting of the same name. each of the individual users can select their view individually and zoom or pan as they desire.geutebrueck. while the other sensors are deployed to provide an overall panoramic view and recording. recently restored. thus extending the camera’s lifetime and drastically reducing maintenance.” Swanepoel said. The sensors are arranged with preselected focal length lenses to focus on close-up areas.co. with Panomera. explained that the main limitation with many megapixel panoramic cameras is the gradual degradation of picture quality as the digital zoom ratio increases. into the Panomera system. It is thus possible to later reconstruct any event for use as evidence in court. over large distances. “The engineers at Dallmeier tackled this issue and developed a technology that utilises a multi-focal sensor system. and to recognise all persons involved. the Panomera always records the entire scene. www. The combination of sensors will all be viewed and recorded as one scene with the ability to access a single sensor during either playback or live viewing.
za 112 CCTV Handbook 2013 www. guiding the response teams over vast areas both above and below ground. as well as intelligent analysis tools. which will be one of the first attempts at marrying operations with security onto a common operating system. Bosch provided Ferrero with an integrated security solution that offers high-quality images. backed by video storage. and which created around 1 000 jobs. body scanners and asset tracking as well as other security and operations systems.za Chocolate producer opens a secure facility in Russia. One aspect of this standard is the protection of the production facilities. In order to store video files. “Building on the initial CCTV and access control integration the plan is to incorporate facial recognition. To reduce the theft of assets and the number of injuries on duty. Zama Zamas meet PSIM IPSecurityCenter PSIM solution chosen to optimise protection of a gold mine.South Africa & Sub-Sahara Africa.” For more information contact E-thele . nine iSCSI arrays with a total capacity of 100 TB were installed. The camera control is coordinated by the Bosch Video Management System (BVMS).co. comfortable management. opened its first factory in Vorsha Sobinskiy. disparate security technologies. A 24-hour access control and detection of suspicious behaviour were key requirements. “IPSecurityCenter will enable this gold mine giant to improve its security solutions while optimising currently installed. therefore. implementation and support of situational management and PSIM solutions will provide an integrated security management solution to one of the world’s largest producers of gold. In order to guarantee a globally comparable and accepted norm. At the same time IPSecurityCenter will collect data for reporting. +27 (0)11 651 9838. lighting conditions or leaves. consequently safety records can be influenced negatively by death or injury of illegal miners as they are legally recorded as if they were employees.co. perimeter intrusion detection and video analytics technologies.co. the popular Italian chocolate manufacturer. was in need of plant security when expanding its production in Eastern Europe and Russia. GIS.za. as well as the ability to be integrated into the existing IP network. explains Wolfgang Engling. in the Vladimir region northwest of Moscow. where Ferrero produces its all-time favourite Kinder Chocolate and the Raffaello praline in an 80 000-square-metre plant.bosch. such as weather. equipped with four workstations and such features as the quick search function within video archives. it was vital to have an expandable surveillance system. www. and a reduction in the total cost of ownership. Ferrero.boschsecurity. When its Russian subsidiary. For evaluating the recorded scenes.ethele. Mining organisations have a duty of care to protect staff and visitors. fire detection. “The key factor was the level of security they could expect from a solution and the expected level of return on investment”. The cost of the IPSecurityCenter solution versus the estimated savings in preventing gold theft was a good security investment for the organisation. physical alarm systems. Christine. explains Manica Sanders. +27 (0)12 665 3158. The solution supplied by Bosch comprised cameras and storage capabilities. is not only a key component of the security operation. Environmental influences. had to be excluded. ZAO Ferrero Russia. As well as securing the mines themselves there is also a need to secure gold in transit. such as unauthorised access to restricted areas. This specific mine in South Africa has the on-going challenge of protecting its gold. “IPSecurityCenter will provide the client’s operators with real-time situation awareness. The scada software will later be integrated onto the same common platform. forensic investigation and evidence gathering purposes”. business development manager at E-thele. but also a major factor in the health and safety compliance policy. In terms of cameras.securitysa. this surveillance solution is equipped with Intelligent Video Analysis (IVA) from Bosch. such as rain or snow. one of the most crucial factors to address was the security of the facilities. aligned using an encoder. making the operator’s work more targeted and efficient. Additionally. the mining client will use IPSecurityCenter to expand their existing CCTV video surveillance capability while optimising the significant investment in currently installed legacy technologies such as access control. which offers the reliable detection of suspicious behaviour. illegally parked cars or changing aspect ratios of objects. including surveillance of the exterior and interior premises. the industry introduced the International Food Standard (IFS) in 2003 to support manufacturers and retailers in their striving for quality.com .Smit@za.CASE STUDY Sweet surveillance with Bosch Security Food production today is not simply a business. tools and equipment against theft through illegal mining activities by Zama Zamas (illegal miners) and by miners employed by the organisation. Physical Security Information Management (PSIM) software developer CNL Software and E-thele SQD Networks a local company involved in the design. For more information contact Bosch Security Systems .com. As a result. manica@ethele. By combining several products and technologies. It also takes into consideration changing light and environmental conditions. MD at E-thele SQD. Access control. 120 IP and analogue cameras were installed to provide comprehensive monitoring. www.
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