# Introduction to Beam Theory

Area Moments of Inertia, Deflection, and Volumes of Beams

What is a Beam?

Horizontal structural member used to support horizontal loads such as floors, roofs, and decks. Types of beam loads  Uniform  Varied by length  Single point  Combination



Common Beam Shapes p

I Beam

Hollow Box

Solid Box

H Beam

T Beam

Beam Terminology gy

The parallel portions on an I-beam or H-beam are referred to as the flanges. The portion that connects the flanges is referred to as the web.
Web

Web

Flanges

Flanges

Meriam and Kraige. Wiley .Support pp Configurations g Source: Statics (Fifth Edition).

Meriam and Kraige.Load and Force Configurations g Concentrated Load Distributed Load Source: Statics (Fifth Edition). Wiley .

h L b . L. and height height. h h. The cross section is rectangular rectangular.Beam Geometry y   Consider a simply supported beam of length. with width width. b b.

Axis Centroid h/2 X .Axis h/2 b/2 b/2 . as shown on the rectangular cross section. which is similar to a center of gravity of a solid body. Y . X and Y axes intersect at the centroid of a symmetric cross section.Beam Centroid   An area has a centroid. The centroid of a symmetric cross section can be easily found by inspection.

bending increases Units of I are (length)4. ft4. bending decreases As I decreases.g. e g in4. or cm4 . or rotation Moment of inertia (I) is a measure of a beam’s  Stiffness with respect to its cross section  Ability y to resist bending g As I increases. bending. e.Area Moment of Inertia (I)      Inertia is a measure of a body’s ability to resist movement.

t l circular. However.g.. For a solid rectangular cross section. i l t triangular) i l ) are readily dil available il bl i in math th and d engineering textbooks. moment of inertia equations for common cross sections (e.I for Common Cross Cross-Sections Sections  I can be derived for any common area using calculus.  bh 3 Ix = 12   X-axis (passing through centroid) h b b is the dimension parallel to the bending axis h is the dimension perpendicular to the bending axis . rectangular.

00” b = 0.25” .00” X-Axis X-Axis h = 0.25” YA i Y-Axis Y-Axis b = 1.Which Beam Will Bend (or Deflect) the Most About the X-Axis? P P h = 1.

Solid Rectangular g Beam #1  Calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis Y-Axis 3 2 h 2 1 b 1 I = x h = 1.02083 in 4 b = 0.00” X-Axis I = x ( )( ) 3 I x = 0.25” n i 0 0 . 1 n i 5 2 . 0 2 1 .

00130 0 00130 in 4 3 .Solid Rectangular g Beam #2  Calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis Y Axis Y-Axis X-Axis h = 0.25 in ) 12 I X = 0.00” IX = (1.00 in )(0.25” bh 3 IX = 12 b = 1.

25” h = 1.00” b = 0.Compare p Values of Ix Y-Axis Y-Axis X-Axis h = 0.00130 in 4 Which beam will bend or deflect the most? Why? .00” X-Axis b = 1.02083 in 4 I X = 0.25” I x = 0.

Concentrated ( (“Point”) ) Load  Suppose a concentrated load. is applied to the center of the simply supported beam P L . P (lbf).

P .Deflection  The beam will bend or deflect downward as a result of the load P (lbf).

Δ L .Deflection (Δ)  Δ is a measure of the vertical displacement of the beam as a result of the load P (lbf). e ec o . P Deflection.

Deflection (Δ)  Δ of a simply supported. Δ P = concentrated load (lbf) L = span length of beam (in) E = modulus of elasticity (psi or lbf/in2) I = moment of inertia of axis perpendicular to load P (in4) . center loaded beam can be calculated from the following formula: P PL Δ = 48EI L 3 Deflection.

Deflection (Δ) PL Δ = 48EI I. is a significant variable in the determination of beam deflection But…. the Moment of Inertia.What is E? 3 .

Modulus of Elasticity y( (E) )    Material property that indicates stiffness and rigidity Values of E for many y materials are readily y available in tables in textbooks. Some common values are Material Steel Aluminum Wood E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 .

change? PL3 Δ = 48EI Material Steel Aluminum Wood bh 3 Ix = 12 E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 .Consider… If the cross-sectional area of a solid wood beam is enlarged. E. how does the Modulus of Elasticity.

which will have the larger Moment of Inertia.Consider… Assuming the same rectangular cross-sectional area. steel or wood? PL Δ = 48EI Material Steel Aluminum Wood 3 bh 3 Ix = 12 E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 . I.

Δ. steel or wood? PL3 Δ = 48EI Material Steel Aluminum Wood bh 3 Ix = 12 E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 . which will have the larger deflection.Consider… Assuming beams with the same cross-sectional area and length.

C l l ti th Calculating the moment t of fi inertia ti f for more complex l cross-sectional ti l areas takes a little more effort.More Complex p Designs g    The calculations for Moment of Inertia are very simple for a solid.25 in. Consider a hollow box beam as shown below: 0. 6 in. . symmetric cross section. 4 in.

can be used but is used in a different way.Hollow Box Beams   The same equation for moment of inertia. Treat the outer dimensions as a positive area and the inner dimensions as a negative area. as the centroids of both are about the same X-axis. X axis. Negative Area X-axis Positive Area . I = bh3/12.

5 in.5 5 5 in. bi = 3. ho = 6 in.Hollow Box Beams   Calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis for the positive area and the negative area using I = bh3/12. The outer dimensions will be denoted with subscript “o” and the inner dimensions will be denoted with subscript “i”. in bo = 4 in. X axis X-axis hi = 5. .

bo = 4 in.5 in )3 12 .5 in.Hollow Box Beams ho = 6 in. bi = 3.5 in )(5. 3 I pos bo h o = 12 I neg 3 b h = i i 12 3 I pos = (4 in )(6 in ) 12 I neg = (3.5 in. X-axis hi = 5.

I box b h b h = o o − i i 12 12 12 3 I box = 4 in.5 5 5 in ) 12 I box = (4 in )(216 in 3 ) − (3.5 in )(166.5 3 5 in )(5.Hollow Box Beams  Simply subtract Ineg from Ipos to calculate the moment of inertia of the box beam. Ibox I box = I pos .25 in.4 in 3 ) 12 12 I box = 23.I neg 3 0. 6 in. 3 (4 in )(6 in )3 − (3.5 in 4 .

bo = 4 in.5 in. the centroids of both the positive and negative areas must be on the same axis! ho = 6 in. . bi = 3.5 in. X-axis hi = 5.Important p  In order to use the “positive-negative area” approach.

I Beams  The moment of inertia about the X-axis of an I-beam can be calculated in a similar manner. .

I Beams  Identify the positive and negative areas… X-axis a s Centroids of the positive area and both negative areas are aligned on the xaxis! 2 Negative Areas Positive Area I pos bo h o = 12 3 I neg bi h i = 12 3 .

I Beams   …and calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis similar to the box beam R Remember b th there are t two negative ti areas! ! Itotal = Ipos – 2 * Ineg X-Axis ho hi bo I I − beam b h 2 bi h i = o o − 12 12 3 bi 3 bi .

H Beams  Can we use the “positive-negative area” approach to calculate the Moment of Inertia about the X-axis (Ix) on an H-Beam? X-Axis .

Therefore.H Beams  Where are the centroids located? X-Axis They don’t align on the X-axis. we can’t use the “positive-negative approach” to calculate Ix! We could use it to calculate Iy…but that’s beyond the scope of this class. .

Divide the H-beam into three positive areas.H Beams    We need to use a different approach. X-Axis h1 b2 b1 h2 h1 b1 3 3 1 I H -beam = b1 h b h b h + 2 2 + 1 12 12 12 3 1 OR I H -beam 2 b1 h1 b 2 h 2 = + 12 12 3 3 . Notice the centroids for all three areas are aligned on the X-axis.

Assignment g Requirements q  Individual  Sketches of 3 beam alternatives  Engineering calculations  Decision matrix  Final recommendation to team  Team  Evaluate designs proposed by all members  Choose the top 3 designs proposed by all members  Evaluate the top 3 designs  Select the best design  Submit a Test Data Sheet  Sketch of final design  Engineering calculations  Decision matrix  Materials receipt .

Test Data Sheet       Problem statement Sketch of final design Calculations Decision Matrix Bill of materials and receipts Performance data      Design load Volume Weight Moment of Inertia Deflection .

Actual Performance Project Plan Results Conclusion and Summary . Actual Costs Expected vs vs.Engineering g g Presentation   Agenda Problem definition  Design Requirements  Constraints  Assumptions Project Plan  Work Breakdown Structure  Schedule S h d l  Resources Research Results  Benchmark Investigation  Literature Search           Proposed Design Alternatives Alternatives Assessment (Decision Matrix) Final Design Benefits and Costs of the Final Design Expected vs.

Project j Plan   Start with the 5-step design process Develop a work breakdown structure  List all tasks/activities  Determine priority and order  Identify milestone and critical path activities Allocate resources Create a Gantt chart  MS Project P j t  Excel  Word   .

.

For Next Class…  Read Chapter 8. Introduction to Engineering. pages 227 through 273 .