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Area Moments of Inertia, Deflection, and Volumes of Beams
What is a Beam?
Horizontal structural member used to support horizontal loads such as floors, roofs, and decks. Types of beam loads Uniform Varied by length Single point Combination
Common Beam Shapes p
Beam Terminology gy
The parallel portions on an I-beam or H-beam are referred to as the flanges. The portion that connects the flanges is referred to as the web.
Wiley . Meriam and Kraige.Support pp Configurations g Source: Statics (Fifth Edition).
Wiley .Load and Force Configurations g Concentrated Load Distributed Load Source: Statics (Fifth Edition). Meriam and Kraige.
h L b . The cross section is rectangular rectangular. and height height. L. with width width. h h. b b.Beam Geometry y Consider a simply supported beam of length.
Axis Centroid h/2 X . X and Y axes intersect at the centroid of a symmetric cross section. as shown on the rectangular cross section. Y . The centroid of a symmetric cross section can be easily found by inspection.Axis h/2 b/2 b/2 .Beam Centroid An area has a centroid. which is similar to a center of gravity of a solid body.
e. ft4. or rotation Moment of inertia (I) is a measure of a beam’s Stiffness with respect to its cross section Ability y to resist bending g As I increases.Area Moment of Inertia (I) Inertia is a measure of a body’s ability to resist movement.g. bending increases Units of I are (length)4. e g in4. or cm4 . bending. bending decreases As I decreases.
i l t triangular) i l ) are readily dil available il bl i in math th and d engineering textbooks.. rectangular. For a solid rectangular cross section. t l circular. However. moment of inertia equations for common cross sections (e.I for Common Cross Cross-Sections Sections I can be derived for any common area using calculus.g. bh 3 Ix = 12 X-axis (passing through centroid) h b b is the dimension parallel to the bending axis h is the dimension perpendicular to the bending axis .
25” YA i Y-Axis Y-Axis b = 1.25” .Which Beam Will Bend (or Deflect) the Most About the X-Axis? P P h = 1.00” X-Axis X-Axis h = 0.00” b = 0.
25” n i 0 0 .Solid Rectangular g Beam #1 Calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis Y-Axis 3 2 h 2 1 b 1 I = x h = 1. 1 n i 5 2 .00” X-Axis I = x ( )( ) 3 I x = 0.02083 in 4 b = 0. 0 2 1 .
00” IX = (1.25” bh 3 IX = 12 b = 1.00 in )(0.25 in ) 12 I X = 0.Solid Rectangular g Beam #2 Calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis Y Axis Y-Axis X-Axis h = 0.00130 0 00130 in 4 3 .
Compare p Values of Ix Y-Axis Y-Axis X-Axis h = 0.25” h = 1.00” b = 0.25” I x = 0.02083 in 4 I X = 0.00” X-Axis b = 1.00130 in 4 Which beam will bend or deflect the most? Why? .
is applied to the center of the simply supported beam P L . P (lbf).Concentrated ( (“Point”) ) Load Suppose a concentrated load.
P .Deflection The beam will bend or deflect downward as a result of the load P (lbf).
Δ L .Deflection (Δ) Δ is a measure of the vertical displacement of the beam as a result of the load P (lbf). e ec o . P Deflection.
Δ P = concentrated load (lbf) L = span length of beam (in) E = modulus of elasticity (psi or lbf/in2) I = moment of inertia of axis perpendicular to load P (in4) .Deflection (Δ) Δ of a simply supported. center loaded beam can be calculated from the following formula: P PL Δ = 48EI L 3 Deflection.
Deflection (Δ) PL Δ = 48EI I. the Moment of Inertia.What is E? 3 . is a significant variable in the determination of beam deflection But….
Some common values are Material Steel Aluminum Wood E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 .Modulus of Elasticity y( (E) ) Material property that indicates stiffness and rigidity Values of E for many y materials are readily y available in tables in textbooks.
E.Consider… If the cross-sectional area of a solid wood beam is enlarged. change? PL3 Δ = 48EI Material Steel Aluminum Wood bh 3 Ix = 12 E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 . how does the Modulus of Elasticity.
steel or wood? PL Δ = 48EI Material Steel Aluminum Wood 3 bh 3 Ix = 12 E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 . which will have the larger Moment of Inertia.Consider… Assuming the same rectangular cross-sectional area. I.
steel or wood? PL3 Δ = 48EI Material Steel Aluminum Wood bh 3 Ix = 12 E (psi) 30 x 106 10 x 106 ~ 2 x 106 . Δ.Consider… Assuming beams with the same cross-sectional area and length. which will have the larger deflection.
C l l ti th Calculating the moment t of fi inertia ti f for more complex l cross-sectional ti l areas takes a little more effort.25 in. 4 in.More Complex p Designs g The calculations for Moment of Inertia are very simple for a solid. . symmetric cross section. 6 in. Consider a hollow box beam as shown below: 0.
can be used but is used in a different way. as the centroids of both are about the same X-axis. Negative Area X-axis Positive Area . Treat the outer dimensions as a positive area and the inner dimensions as a negative area. I = bh3/12.Hollow Box Beams The same equation for moment of inertia. X axis.
5 5 5 in.5 in. in bo = 4 in. bi = 3. . X axis X-axis hi = 5. The outer dimensions will be denoted with subscript “o” and the inner dimensions will be denoted with subscript “i”. ho = 6 in.Hollow Box Beams Calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis for the positive area and the negative area using I = bh3/12.
3 I pos bo h o = 12 I neg 3 b h = i i 12 3 I pos = (4 in )(6 in ) 12 I neg = (3. bi = 3.5 in.5 in )3 12 . bo = 4 in. X-axis hi = 5.Hollow Box Beams ho = 6 in.5 in )(5.5 in.
5 5 5 in ) 12 I box = (4 in )(216 in 3 ) − (3.I neg 3 0. Ibox I box = I pos . I box b h b h = o o − i i 12 12 12 3 I box = 4 in. 6 in.4 in 3 ) 12 12 I box = 23.5 in )(166.Hollow Box Beams Simply subtract Ineg from Ipos to calculate the moment of inertia of the box beam. 3 (4 in )(6 in )3 − (3.25 in.5 in 4 .5 3 5 in )(5.
bi = 3. X-axis hi = 5.5 in. . the centroids of both the positive and negative areas must be on the same axis! ho = 6 in.Important p In order to use the “positive-negative area” approach. bo = 4 in.5 in.
I Beams The moment of inertia about the X-axis of an I-beam can be calculated in a similar manner. .
I Beams Identify the positive and negative areas… X-axis a s Centroids of the positive area and both negative areas are aligned on the xaxis! 2 Negative Areas Positive Area I pos bo h o = 12 3 I neg bi h i = 12 3 .
I Beams …and calculate the moment of inertia about the X-axis similar to the box beam R Remember b th there are t two negative ti areas! ! Itotal = Ipos – 2 * Ineg X-Axis ho hi bo I I − beam b h 2 bi h i = o o − 12 12 3 bi 3 bi .
H Beams Can we use the “positive-negative area” approach to calculate the Moment of Inertia about the X-axis (Ix) on an H-Beam? X-Axis .
. we can’t use the “positive-negative approach” to calculate Ix! We could use it to calculate Iy…but that’s beyond the scope of this class.H Beams Where are the centroids located? X-Axis They don’t align on the X-axis. Therefore.
Notice the centroids for all three areas are aligned on the X-axis. Divide the H-beam into three positive areas. X-Axis h1 b2 b1 h2 h1 b1 3 3 1 I H -beam = b1 h b h b h + 2 2 + 1 12 12 12 3 1 OR I H -beam 2 b1 h1 b 2 h 2 = + 12 12 3 3 .H Beams We need to use a different approach.
Assignment g Requirements q Individual Sketches of 3 beam alternatives Engineering calculations Decision matrix Final recommendation to team Team Evaluate designs proposed by all members Choose the top 3 designs proposed by all members Evaluate the top 3 designs Select the best design Submit a Test Data Sheet Sketch of final design Engineering calculations Decision matrix Materials receipt .
Test Data Sheet Problem statement Sketch of final design Calculations Decision Matrix Bill of materials and receipts Performance data Design load Volume Weight Moment of Inertia Deflection .
Actual Costs Expected vs vs. Actual Performance Project Plan Results Conclusion and Summary .Engineering g g Presentation Agenda Problem definition Design Requirements Constraints Assumptions Project Plan Work Breakdown Structure Schedule S h d l Resources Research Results Benchmark Investigation Literature Search Proposed Design Alternatives Alternatives Assessment (Decision Matrix) Final Design Benefits and Costs of the Final Design Expected vs.
Project j Plan Start with the 5-step design process Develop a work breakdown structure List all tasks/activities Determine priority and order Identify milestone and critical path activities Allocate resources Create a Gantt chart MS Project P j t Excel Word .
pages 227 through 273 .For Next Class… Read Chapter 8. Introduction to Engineering.
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