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The Holy Song of God
Arranged for singing by Swami Nirmalananda Giri
Copyright 2004 Atma Jyoti Ashram
The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna
Dhritarashtra said: Assembled there on dharma’s field– Kurukshetra–desiring war, What did my sons and the Pandus? Do tell me now, O Sanjaya. Sanjaya said: There then the King Duryodhana, Seeing the Pandav forces ranged– Ready for battle–did approach His teacher, Drona, and did say: “Behold, O Teacher! here arrayed This great army of Pandu’s sons, Assembled by Drupada’s son1 Who is thine own gifted pupil. “Here are heroes, mighty archers, Bhima and Arjuna’s equals, The great warriors Yuyudhana, Virata and Drupada, too. “Drishtaketu, Chekitana, And the valiant king of Kashi, Purujit and Kuntibhoja, And Shaibya–all the best of men. “And courageous Yudhamanyu, And valorous Uttamaujas– Shubhadra’s and Draupadi’s sons– All who are mighty car warriors.2
Arjuna A great-car-warrior (maharatha) was a commander of eleven thousand bowmen as he rode in his chariot.
“Hear, too, O best of the twice-born, Those distinguished among ourselves. The leaders of my army here: These now I recount unto you. “Yourself and Bhishma and Karna And Kripa, victorious in war; Ashwattama, Vikarna, and Somadatta’s son: all are mine. “Also many other heroes, Who now risk their lives for my sake, Discharging various weapons, All very skilled in waging war. “Impossible to count is this Army defended by Bhishma, But that army led by Bhima Is very easy to number. “Stationed in your proper places, Whatever be your positions, Do you now all give your support And protection unto Bhishma.” That powerful, oldest Kuru, Bhishma, the grandsire, blew his conch And sounded loud a lion-roar That he might cheer Duryodhana. Following Bhishma, suddenly Conches, kettledrums, cymbals, drums And trumpets were sounded aloud, So the uproar was tremendous.
Then Madhava3 and Pandava,4 In the great chariot standing That was yoked with the white horses, Sounded forth their divine conches. Sri Krishna blew Panchajanya, Arjuna blew Devadatta, And Bhima of ferocious deeds, Blew upon his great conch, Paundra. King Yudhishthira, Kunti’s son, Blew on Anantavijaya, Nakula and Sahadeva: Sughosha, Manipushpaka. The supreme bowman, Kashi’s king, And the great warrior Shikhandi, Dhristadyumna and Virata, And invincible Satyaki. O Lord of Earth! then Drupada, All the sons of Draupadi, and Subhadra’s son, the mighty-armed, Each one blew upon his own conch. Then throughout heaven and the earth Resounded the terrific noise Which rent asunder all the hearts Of those in Dhritarashtra’s ranks. Then seeing Dhritarashtra’s ranks Standing marshalled, about to fight, The monkey-ensigned5 Pandava, Was impelled to take up his bow
3 4 5
Krishna Arjuna Arjuna’s standard was a flag with Hanuman, the monkey-devotee of Rama, depicted on it.
And speak unto Hrishikesha,6 O Lord of earth, these fateful words: Arjuna said: Achutya,7 place my chariot In the midst between the armies So from that place I may observe Those who are here prepared for war– Desiring to begin battle– And know with whom I have to fight. For I desire to observe those Who are assembled here for fight, Wishing to please Duryodhana By taking his side in this war. Sanjaya said: Commanded thus by Arjuna, O Bharata, then Krishna drove That grandest of all chariots Between the two hosts, and there stopped. Thus facing Bhishma, Drona, and The rulers of the whole vast earth, “Behold, O Partha,”8 then He said, “All the Kurus assembled here!” Then Pritha saw assembled there Fathers, grandfathers, teachers, sons, Maternal uncles, brothers, and Grandsons as well as friends of his. The son of Kunti, seeing there In both the armies relatives, Fathers-in-law, and companions, Stood and contemplated them all.
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Bushy-haired One–Krishna Imperishable One–Krishna The Son of Pritha–Arjuna
And filled with despondence.9 if I destroy My own kinsmen in this battle. My skin is burning as with fire. My bow is slipping from my hand. I see my own kinfolk Desiring to fight approaching. Cowherd–Krishna 10 7 . brothers-in-law. Nor can I even stand upright. enjoyments. too. Abandoning life and riches. Nor do I desire victory– No. Inauspicious omens I mark. he spoke: Arjuna said: Krishna. Maternal uncles.10 Those for whose sake we should desire Kingship. sons. My body now is shivering. And many other kinsmen. And not good fortune do I see. and pleasures. grandfathers. and grandsons. Through sorrow my limbs now fail me. enjoyments surely mean Nothing to us. O Govinda. My hair is standing up on end. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 9 Beautiful-haired one–Krishna. Teachers. O Keshava. My mouth is parched with grief and woe. Fathers-in-law. Array before us in battle. not kingship nor yet pleasures– Kingship. fathers. My mind is reeling and confused.Then filled with infinite pity.
Adharma overwhelms them all. Their rites of dharma then die out. Overpowered by adharma The family’s women then are Corrupted. and from corruption The confusion of castes arise. From caste confusion families And their destroyers fall to hell. From killing Dhritarashtra’s sons? Sin only could take hold of us If we should slay these aggressors. Janardana. 11 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Agitator of Men (an epithet of Vishnu)–Krishna 8 .11 Who clearly see the evil caused By such destruction of our kin. Yet why should we. what pleasure could be ours. We are not justified to kill Our kinsmen–Dhritarashtra’s sons– How. From the destruction of dharma. I never could wish to kill them– Not even to rule the three worlds. Could we be happy. They see no wrong in destruction Of family or even in Wreaking treachery upon friends. Madhava? Their thoughts overpowered by greed. Not turn away from this fell sin? On destruction of families. having killed our own people. Ancestors also fall without Offerings of rice and water. So how much less for rule of earth? Indeed.Even if they wish to kill me.
Arjun’ cast away His bow and arrows and sank down. His mind overcome with sorrow. Then observance of caste duties And family laws are destroyed.The family’s destroyers’ wrongs Produce the confusion of caste. 9 . Have we not heard. If the sons of Dhritarashtra With weapons armed should now slay me Though unarmed. Sanjaya said: In the midst of the battlefield Thus speaking. repeatedly. ends the first discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Despondency of Arjuna. yet that still would be A greater happiness for me. 43 44 45 46 47 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Janardana? Ah! Alas! we are now resolved To do great evil with our greed For royal pleasures for whose sake We intend to kill our own kin. the scripture of Yoga. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal. That indefinite time in hell Accrues to those whose fam’ly laws Have been wiped out.
O Arjuna? At no time should you entertain Such cowardice–unsuitable.5 Indeed. downcast and despairing. That we should conquer them or they conquer us. Abandon this faintheartedness And stand up. O Scorcher of Foes! Arjuna said: But how can I in battle fight With arrows. not leading to heav’n. Who are worthy of reverence? 1 2 3 4 Better that I eat the food of beggary Instead of my slaying these great-souled gurus. I cannot tell which will be better. But to disgrace. and whose eyes were filled With tears. If I kill them my enjoyments in this world Of wealth and desires will all be stained with blood. Madhusudana. 6 12 Destroyer of the Demon Madhu (properly an epithet of Vishnu)–Krishna 10 . too. Madhusudana12 spoke these words: The Holy Lord said: Whence has come this faintheartedness Of yours in the time of danger Ignoble. The sons of Dhritarashtra stand facing us– After whose slaying we would not wish to live.Chapter Two Sankhya Yoga Sanjaya said: To him who was thus overcome By pity. Against Bhishma and Drona.
Youth and old age arise in turn. With mind in confusion I supplicate You. As to the embodied childhood. Arjuna. Truly there never was a time When I was not. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 11 . So he gets another body– The wise are not confused by this.Weakness and pity overcome my being. Then further said “I shall not fight. nor these Lords of men–nor in the future A time when we shall cease to be. though I should attain The unrivalled and prosperous dominion Over the earth. scorcher of his foes. O say decidedly what is my duty. nor you. Sanjaya said: Having said this to Govinda. as though smiling Hrishikesha then spoke these words: The Holy Lord said: You have been mourning for those who Should not be mourned for.” And fell into a silence deep. I am Your disciple. and mast’ry over the gods. To him who thus was despondent In the midst of the two armies. though you speak Words of wisdom–for the wise grieve Not for the living or the dead. do You direct me. O Bharata. I see nothing that can remove this sorrow That dries up my senses.
He whom these things do not afflict. Bharata!” 13 12 . That by Which all is pervaded– Know That is indestructible. Nor having been will it e’er come not to be. That wise one. eternal. immeasurable.13 He who thinks the Self is slayer And he who thinks the Self is slain– Neither of the two understands. embodied Self are said to come to an end. nor is it slain. The unreal never comes to be. These bodies inhabited by The eternal embodied Self Are declared to come to an end. heat. Is fit for immortality. Therefore now fight. perpetu’l. The real does never cease to be. Neither is the Self slain. Therefore fight. The certainty of both of these Is known to those who see the truth. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Literally: “These bodies inhabited by the eternal. indestructible. they come and go. Bharata. O Leader of Men. There is none with the power to Destroy the Imperishable. The Self slays not. nor yet does it die. It is not slain whene’er the body is slain. primeval. and pain. Birthless. O Bharata. pleasure.Truly material contacts Produce cold. The same in pain or in pleasure. Learn to endure them. Impermanent.
This Self is called unchangeable. All beings are unmanifest In their beginning. Over the unavoidable. Of that which is dead. unthinkable. And if you think this self to have Constant birth and death–even then. eternal self. birth is sure. there was no room for the final phrase: “What lamentation can there be over this?” 13 . nor burnt.In what way can he who knows this– Indestructible. Unmanifest. knowing this to be such. This self by fire is burnt not. Bharata. Therefore. This self cannot be cut. death is sure. 22 This self by weapons is cut not. nor dried: ’tis changeless. O mighty-armed. Unmanifest then in their end. Manifest in their middle state. All-pervading and unmoving. eternal. And this self is by wind dried not. Birthless and imperishable– Slay or cause another to slay? 21 Even as a man casts off his worn-out clothes And then clothes himself in others which are new So the embodied casts off worn-out bodies And then enters into others which are new. Therefore you never should lament. you should not be Impelled for this reason to grieve.14 14 23 24 25 26 27 28 To maintain the meter. Of that which is born. You surely ought never to mourn. This self by water is wet not. Immovable. Nor wetted.
Another hears of it as being wondrous. then will say Of you things not to be uttered. To the honored such disrepute Is surely worse even than death. Then forfeiting your own dharma And honor you shall incur sin. Who thus are called. hearing.Someone perceives this self as being wondrous. And you will be lightly esteemed By those who have thought much of you. That comes to them as heaven’s gate. The world will also ever hold You as a craven reprobate. Therefore you should not. O Arjuna. Another speaks of it as being wondrous. The great car-warriors will believe You shrink back from battle through fear. does not understand. This indweller in all bodies Is ever indestructible. But if you refuse to engage In righteous warfare. What could be greater pain than this? 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 14 . Arjuna. You surely ought never waver. To fight in a battle like this. Bharata. Ever mourn for any creature. Fortunate are those Kshatriyas. then cavilling At your great prowess. And looking at your own dharma. And another. For there is nothing better than A righteous war for Kshatriyas. Your enemies.
Then engage now in this battle. intent on heav’n. Delighting in the Veda’s word. Off’ring rebirth as actions’ fruit. This way you shall incur no sin. Arjuna. rise. truly endless. (Gita 2:39.” Filled with desires. This buddhi yoga15 by Sankhya16 Is now declared to you–so heed! Joining this insight to your will. You shall be rid of karma’s bonds. Sankhya teaches that liberation and true knowledge are attained in the supreme consciousness. Yoga is based on the Sankhya philosophy. where such identification ceases and Purusha is realized as existing independently in its transcendental nature. Also. O son of Kunti. E’en a little of this dharma Protects you from the greatest fear. victory and defeat the same. O Pritha’s son. Nor are adverse results produced. endorsed by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita. In this no effort is wasted. In strength of heart resolved to fight.5. resolute Understanding here. Sankhya: One of the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy whose originator was the sage Kapila. 15 16 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 Buddhi Yoga is the Yoga of Intelligence which later came to be called Jnana Yoga. 15 . Declaring that the cause of suffering is man’s identification of Purusha with Prakriti and its products. 3:3. The Ramakrishna-Vedanta Wordbook says: “Sankhya postulates two ultimate realities. the Yoga of Knowledge. Sankhya is the original Vedic philosophy. Conquering.” Not surprisingly. the ignorant ones. gain and loss. They. Addicted to so many rites. 18:13. And saying: “There is nothing else.19. Make pain and pleasure. The thoughts of the irresolute Are many-branched.). the second chapter of the Gita is entitled: Sankhya Yoga. There is a single. Whose goal is enjoyment and pow’r.By dying you attain heaven. you enjoy the earth. Purusha and Prakriti. then. Therefore. proclaim Their flow’ry speech.
44 45 46 47 48 49 50 “The Vedas deal with the three gunas. and be free From the pairs of opposites.Attached to pleasure and power Their minds are drawn away by this Speech. from the triad of the gunas. free from the pairs of opposites. Or be attached to inaction. and to them is not granted The insight from meditation. ever-balanced.17 For the Brahmin who knows the self The Vedas are of no more use Than a reservoir of water When there is a flood ev’rywhere. Free yourself from them. and established in the Self. Therefore to yoga yoke yourself! For skill in action is yoga. The Vedas deal with the gunas. Not to its fruits at any time. cast off In this world good and evil deeds. Without attachment do actions Heedless of success and failure– Evenness of mind is yoga.18 Seek refuge in enlightenment. Your right is to action alone. Action’s inferior by far To Yoga of Intelligence. Joined to enlightenment. Be free.” 18 17 Buddhi yoga 16 . O Arjuna. Then being steadfast in yoga. and Eternally fixed in the self. Never should they move you to act. free from [the thought of] getting and keeping. Abhor action done from desire.
fear. Steady in thought–such is a sage. In the pleasant or unpleasant Not rejoicing or disliking.Those whose minds are joined to wisdom. Free from passion. fixed in Deep meditation. Then you shall be indifferent To the heard and the to-be-heard.” Unshaken by adversity. unmoving. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 17 . Krishna. or sit. and anger. is the description Of the man of steady wisdom. His self satisfied by the self. Steadfast in deep meditation– How does he speak. He is called “of steady wisdom. Without attachment on all sides. Are freed from bondage to rebirth And go to the place free from pain. Having abandoned action’s fruit. or walk? The Holy Lord said: When he completely casts away All the desires of the mind. When your intelligence crosses Beyond delusion’s confusion. Arjuna said: What. You’ll attain self-realization. His wisdom is seen to stand firm. Disregarding Vedic doctrine. When your intellect stands. And freed from desire for pleasures.
For the tranquil-minded at once The intellect becomes steady. Son of Kunti: The turbulent senses carry Away forcibly the mind of E’en the striving man of wisdom. loss of mem’ry. Moving amongst objects of sense. From attachment desire is born. Dwelling on objects of senses Engenders attachment to them. He whose senses are thus controlled– His wisdom stands steadfast and firm. In tranquility all sorrows Cease to arise for him. Sense-objects turn away from the Abstinent. thwarted desire. 19 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 That is. And from desire19 anger is born. By self-restraint. the self-controlled Thus attains to tranquility. indeed. intent on Me. Know this indeed. From delusion. turns away From him who has seen the Supreme. destruction Of intelligence: All is lost. but the taste for them Remains. Restraining all senses. Desire and loathing banishing. he should Sit disciplined. As the tortoise draws in its limbs. From loss of mem’ry. From anger ’rises delusion. His wisdom is established firm. 18 . but that. too.And when he withdraws completely The senses from the sense-objects.
Yet remains unmoving and still. becoming full. as The wind a ship on the waters.22 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 The literal translation is: “Like the ocean. not so the man who is full of desire. the Absolute Consciousness that is God. He in whom all desires enter And yet remains.” 21 22 20 Pronounce as four syllables: e-go-tis-m.For the undisciplined there is No wisdom. 19 . unmoved. which becomes filled yet remains unmoved and stands still as the waters enter it. Brahman is the Supreme Reality.21 This is the divine state–having Attained this. As the ocean. he whom all desires enter and who remains unmoved attains peace. That in which all beings awake Is night for the wise one who sees. he’s not deluded. Nirvana is the state of liberation from the bondage of karma and the wheel of birth and death that comes from knowing Brahman. Will be found firmly established. it carries Away the understanding. When the mind is guided by the Wandering senses. has peace. no meditation. acts free from longing. The wisdom of him whose senses Are withdrawn from objects of sense On all sides. The man of restraint is awake In what is night for all beings.20 He who abandons all desires Attains peace. Indifferent to possessions And free from all egotism. For him who does not meditate There is no peace or happiness. He attains Brahmanirvana. Fixed in it at the time of death. O mighty-armed one.
20 . ends the second discourse entitled: Sankhya Yoga. the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal.Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna.
Not by abstention from actions Does a man pass beyond action.” Prakriti: Causal matter. 21 . And not by renunciation Alone approach to perfection. And action: yoga of yogins. Also known as Pradhana. No one for even a moment Exists without doing action. 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 “By the gunas born of prakriti. the fundamental power (shakti) of God from which the entire cosmos is formed. the root base of all elements.Chapter Three The Yoga of Action Arjuna said: If you believe that knowledge is Better than action. Then how is it you urge me to Engage in terrible action? With speech that seems equivocal You confuse my intelligence. Tell me surely this one thing: How Should I attain the highest good? The Holy Lord said: In this world there is a two-fold Basis taught by Me long ago: Knowledge: the yoga of Sankhyas. the material cause of the world. undifferentiated matter. a hypocrite. Is deluded. Keshava. Each is forced to perform action– E’en against his will–by gunas.23 He who restrains action’s organs While yet revolving in his mind Thoughts of objects of the senses.
for action Is far better than non-action. the Creator. i. “The gods. “May you foster the gods by this.e.26 The wicked eat their own evil Who cook food only for themselves. But he who enjoys the gods’ gifts Without offering is a thief. Perform your duty. is superior.. And may the gods then foster you.e. Even maintaining your body Cannot be done without action.. a title of Brahma the Creator. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 24 25 26 Prajapati: Progenitor. In the beginning with mankind Prajapati24 made 25 sacrifice. Arjuna. The good are freed from all evils. Will give you desired enjoyments. each the others fostering. 22 . You should act without attachment. created I. Said: “By this shall you multiply: This shall be granter of desires.He who by the mind controls the Senses. Then. and yet is unattached While engaging action’s organs In action.” Eating sacrificial remains. wrongdoings. The world is bound by the actions Not done for sake of sacrifice. Hence for sacrifice. fostered by sacrifice. You shall attain highest welfare.
27 23 . 28 Many translators feel that “Brahma” in this verse can legitimately be rendered “Veda”–Veda in the sense of divine wisdom.28 He who here on the earth does not Set in motion. Vidya. For the maintenance of the world.27 Brahma from th’ Imperishable. As an example you should act. This wheel. angels. Action arises from Brahma. the first of the created beings. constantly unattached Perform that which is your duty. and archangels (Bhur. Indeed. Indeed by unattached action Man surely attains the Supreme. On the other hand. Hence the all-pervading Brahma Is established in sacrifice. lives full of sense delights. O Arjuna. Bhuwah. From action is born sacrifice. Hiranyagarbha or cosmic intelligence. Who is pleased only in the Self: For him there is no need to act. He has nothing to gain by acts. it is positively believed by all Hindus that Brahma attained his position specifically through the performance of sacrifice (yajna). Maliciously and uselessly.From food all beings are produced: And from rain all food is produced: From sacrifice there comes down rain. And no need of any being For any purpose soever. and Swah). Who is satisfied in the Self. He who is content in the Self. So “Brahma” is quite logical here. perfection was attained Through action by King Janaka. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Brahma: The Creator (Prajapati) of the three worlds of men. Nothing to gain by inaction. Therefore.
attached. And I would destroy these people. Nor anything that must be gained– Yet still I continue to act. unattached. Follow the path set forth by Me. I would be confusion’s maker.” 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 24 .Whatever the best of men does– This and that–thus other men do. One should not unsettle the minds Of the unwise attached to works. Pritha’s son. if I should not engage– Tirelessly–at all in action. in all instances. Then all mankind would. Whatsoever in the three worlds. everywhere. O Descendant of Bharata. these worlds would perish if I Should fail to engage in action. As the unwise ones act. Indeed. The wise should cause them to enjoy All acts–himself showing the way. Those with ego-deluded mind Imagine: “I am the doer. Yea. I have no duty. All actions. For maintaining the world’s welfare. Are done by Prakriti’s gunas. So the wise should act. Whate’er the standard that he sets– That is what the world shall follow.
But those despising My teaching. Let not the wise Upset these of partial knowledge. the gunas as the senses move among and act within the gunas manifesting as the sense-objects. All follow their own prakriti. One should not come under their pow’r. fight! Those men who constantly practice This teaching of Mine. Even the wise acts according To his own nature: prakriti. Turn wisdom into confusion. the man who knows the truth About the gunas’ actions thinks: “The gunas act in the gunas. they are released From the bondage of their actions. full of faith. With your fever30 departed. Not contemning. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 29 30 That is. Free from desire and selfishness. Who thus refuse to practice it. Entrusting all actions to Me. Those deluded by the gunas Of prakriti become attached To their actions.”29 And thinking thus is not attached. They are indeed his enemies.And yet. Know them to be lost and mindless. 25 . The “fever” of delusion and grief. Intent on the Supreme Spirit. So what will restraint accomplish? Attraction and aversion rule When senses contact sense-objects.
controlling the senses At the outset. As if urged thereunto by force? The Holy Lord said: It is desire.31 Seemingly against his own will. mind.One’s own dharma. though imperfect. The constant foe of all the wise. The senses. For the dharma Of another invites danger. know it as Desire’s unappeasable fire. Is better than another’s done To perfection. As wombs cover the embryos. Know that to be the enemy. Varshneya. destroyer Of knowledge and realization. So is it enveloped by that. As mirrors are obscured by dust. O son of Kunti. Therefore. That’s born of the rajo-guna: Of great craving. Arjuna said: Then by what is a man impelled To commit evil. and intellect Are said to here be its abode: These things delude the embodied By veiling his innate wisdom. And knowledge is covered by this. it is anger. Kill it–the sinful. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 31 Clansman of the Vrishnis–Krishna 26 . and of great sin. As fire is enveloped by smoke. O Bharata.
knowing Him Who is above The intellect. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. that foe: desire. 42 43 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Above the intellect: the self. Above the mind is intellect. Above the senses is the mind. the scripture of Yoga. and restraining The self by the Self. ends the third discourse entitled: The Yoga of Action. Thus. then destroy That enemy.Above the body are senses. the science of the Eternal. 27 .
Though birthless. Thus. Arjuna. And Vivaswat’s was earlier. This ancient yoga is today Declared by Me to you because You are my devotee and friend. 1 2 3 4 5 6 28 . then he In turn taught it to Manu. This secret is supreme indeed. I have full knowledge of them all. I manifest by my own pow’r. Arjuna said: O Krishna. who Then taught it unto Ikshwaku. The royal sages knew of it. While you do not. Arjuna.Chapter Four The Yoga of Wisdom The Holy Lord said: This imperishable yoga I taught to Vivaswat. Controlling my own Prakriti. Although the Lord of all beings. later was Your birth. by long lapse of time. Scorcher of Foes. handed down in succession. This yoga. imperishable. How then should I understand that You taught this in the beginning? The Holy Lord said: Many the births that I have passed– Many passed by you. Was lost here on earth.
For protection of the righteous And destruction of the wicked. taking refuge in Me. Then do I manifest Myself. The fourfold caste was made by Me. fear. Never do actions taint Me. changeless. Leaving the body. nor Do I thirst for action’s result. Because success from such action Is quickly attained in this world. Though I am the Maker thereof. and then there is The arising of adharma. My divine birth and My action. In whatever way they resort To Me do I thus reward them. It is My path which ev’rywhere All men follow. O Arjuna. anger– Absorbed. Longing for success in action.Whenever dharma decreases. Know Me as non-doer. Based on guna and on karma. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 29 . Purified by fire of knowledge. For establishing of dharma. In this world men worship the gods. Freed from attachment. Many have attained My Being. He who thus knows in its true light. O Bharata. I manifest from age to age. is not born Again–but he attains to Me. And whosoever knows Me thus Is not fettered by his actions.
I shall tell you what action is: This knowledge frees you from evil. E’en though acting. Even sages are bewildered As what is action. Content with what comes unbidden. He truly does nothing at all. Having abandoned attachment For action’s fruit. Acting with the body alone. envy. Abandoning all thoughts of gain. prohibited. Seeing action in inaction– Such a man is wise among men: A yogi–doing all action. Seeing inaction in action. Not dependent e’en when acting. the ancient seekers After freedom performed action. For you should know the nature of Actions enjoined. Do you. Whose undertakings are devoid Of plan and desire for results. As well as that of inaction– All this is hard to understand. thought and self restrained. Though acting he incurs no fault. The same in success or failure. perform action. Without wish. he is not bound. Whose actions are burnt in the fire Of knowledge–him the wise call wise. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 .Knowing thus. therefore. always content. inaction. Beyond duality. As did the ancients in past times.
austerity. Some offer the senses’ actions And the functions of life force in The yoga-fire of self-control. sound and other sense objects Into the fire of the senses. Who acts only as sacrifice: His whole karma dissolves away. Some offer wealth.” 31 . Offer knowledge as sacrifice. and Then stop the course of both the breaths– Their breath-control their sacrifice. His mind established in knowledge. That is enkindled by knowledge. And yoga as their sacrifice. Brahman is the oblation poured out by Brahman into the fire of Brahman. by him Brahman is attained.32 Some yogis offer sacrifice To gods alone. of restraint and stringent vows. Brahman is to be attained by him who always sees Brahman in action. while some others Offer the self as sacrifice Unto the self in Brahman’s fire. and exhalation into inhalation. restraining the path of inhalation and exhalation.34 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 “Brahman is the offering. Some offer the outgoing breath Into the incoming breath. Brahman is the off’ring and the Oblation made by Brahman in The fire that is Brahman. Some offer senses like hearing Into the fires33 of restraint. Some. Who sees Thus.Having gone beyond attachment.” “Others offer inhalation into exhalation. intent on control of the vital breath (prana).” 33 34 32 Pronounced as two syllables: “fi-yers. Some.
Arjuna. In the same way. They go to the Primal Brahman. Destroy their sins by sacrifice. Know this. 32 . Even if you should be the most Sinful among all the sinful. All of them are born from action. Sacrifices of many kinds Are spread out before Brahman’s face. By this you shall come to see all Creation in your self and Me. The fire of knowledge does reduce To ashes all karma–know this. Neither this world nor the others Are for the non-sacrificing. All action without exception Is comprehended35 in knowledge. The wise who realized the truth Will instruct you in that knowledge. By questioning and by serving. Yet you would cross over all sin By the raft of knowledge alone. knowers of sacrifice. 35 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 That is. Eating sacrificial remains. contained (encompassed) or completed in knowledge (jnana). and you shall not again Become deluded. O Arjuna. As fire reduces wood to ash. Better than mere material Sacrifice is that of knowledge. Know that by prostrating yourself. All these. Thus knowing you shall be released.While those of regulated food Offer it to digestive fires.
Nor yet the next. and devoted. The doubter has neither this world.Within this world there is nothing So purifying as knowledge. goes to destruction. the science of the Eternal. nor happiness. And the master of his senses. The ignorant man. Attains this knowledge. With work renounced by yoga and Doubts rent asunder by knowledge. 36 Conqueror of Wealth–Arjuna 33 . and having Attained quickly finds Supreme Peace.36 Bind him who is poised in the self. the scripture of Yoga. the perfect in yoga Finds that knowledge within his heart. ends the fourth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Wisdom. without faith. The doubting. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Take refuge in yoga: arise! 38 39 40 41 42 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Cutting with the sword of knowledge This doubt about the self which is Born of ignorance in your heart. Dhananjaya. The man of faith. Actions do not. In time.
He easily is freed from bonds. That person finds the fruit of both. Sankhya and yoga are one. If one is practiced correctly. Without yoga. the yoga of detached action. Of the two. “Sankhya and yoga are diff’rent. The place attained by the Sankhyas Is also attained by yogis. The sage disciplined in yoga Quickly attains unto Brahman. The Holy Lord said: Renunciation and yoga Both lead to highest happiness.” The childish declare–not the wise. 1 2 3 4 5 6 37 That is: Karma Yoga.Chapter Five The Yoga of Renunciation of Action Arjuna said: Renunciation of action And yoga37–You praise both of these. 34 . Renunciation’s hard to gain. Which is the better of these two? Tell this to me decisively. He is a constant renouncer Who neither likes nor dislikes: for Free from the pairs of opposites. He Who perceives this truly perceives. however. yoga Excels mere renunciation. O Mighty-Armed.
with self purified. Not acting or causing actions. hearing. or the senses. But those led by desire are bound By attachment to action’s fruit. “I do not do anything.Yoga-yoked. 35 . He is not tainted when acting. They attain peace of steadfastness. Offering actions to Brahman. 38 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 “As the ruler” omitted here to fit the meter. Having abandoned attachment. walking. For purifying of their heart. breathing. Nor union with the fruit of deeds– Inherent nature does the deeds. senses conquered. His self the self of all beings. Seeing. forsaking action’s fruit. Neither agency. touching.” thus Thinks the steadfast knower of truth. intellect. releasing. Forsaking attachment to deeds. Yogis act only with body. With self subdued. The embodied sits happily38 Within the city of nine gates. Mind. sleeping. smelling. Renouncing all acts with the mind. Eating. nor actions Does the Lord create for the world. Opening and closing his eyes– Convinced that it is the senses That move among the sense-objects. Well-poised. and holding. Speaking. He acts untainted by evil As lotus leaf is not wetted.
” 40 39 Dogs in India are wild animals related to jackals and hyenas. Brahman is even and perfect– So they indeed rest in Brahman. an elephant. and steady In intellect. Whose self is That. Ignorance envelops knowledge. Resting in Brahman. Purified. By it people are deluded.39 The wise see the same atman in: A wise Brahmin who’s disciplined. He gains unchanging happiness. A cow. And whose consummation is That. Finding happiness in the Self. a dog– Even in an eater of dogs. With intellect absorbed in That. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 “They whose minds are absorbed in That.The Omnipresent takes note of Neither merit nor demerit. whose basis is That. whose selves are fixed on That. steadfast in That. undeluded. The pleasant does not rejoice him Nor does the unpleasant grieve him. Unattached to external things. who hold That as the highest object.40 Those whose minds rest in evenness. go to the end of rebirth. are freed from rebirth. But those whose ignorance has been Destroyed by knowledge of the self– That knowledge of theirs. Conquer existence in this world. like the sun. And one with Brahman through yoga. whose evils have been shaken off by knowledge. Reveals then the Supreme Brahman. 36 .
With thoughts restrained. He who can endure here. He whose happiness is within. With moksha as the supreme goal. the Enjoyer of Sacrificial austerities. Are wombs of pain. They have beginning and an end. One with Brahman. before Liberation from the body. intellect. indeed. The wise does not delight in them. Whose light is within–that yogi. Freed from desire. Son of Kunti. Knowing Me. Excluding all outside contacts. Mighty Lord of all the world and Friend of all creatures. Doubts dispelled and senses controlled. Fixing awareness ’tween the brows. Released from desire and anger. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 37 . Desire and anger’s impetus. Engaged in good for all beings– The seer gains Brahma-nirvana. fear. he gains peace. and anger: Such a sage is for ever free. Balancing both inhaling and Exhaling within the nostrils. those ascetics Who know the Self. mind. Controlling sense. gains nirvana. a happy man. Whose delectation is within. With imperfections exhausted.Pleasures born of contact. Is a yogi. find very near The bliss of Brahma-nirvana.
Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 38 . the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. ends the fifth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Renunciation of Action.
Know that to be karma yoga Which also is called renouncement. 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . Is steadfast in cold. Not he without fire or action.Chapter Six The Yoga of Meditation The Holy Lord said: He who performs bounden duty Without desiring action’s fruit– He is a renouncer. Desiring to attain yoga. He should never degrade himself. And the self’s only enemy. and honor and dishonor. the Self is a friend. Tranquility becomes the means. He’s said to have attained yoga. Pain. For him who has conquered himself By the Self. When he is attached neither to The sense objects nor to actions. pleasure. He should lift himself by the Self. The wise use action as the means. But for him who has not conquered Himself. None becomes a karma yogi Without renouncing inner deeds. The highest Self of him who has Conquered himself and is peaceful. heat. the Self remains a foe. yogi. And has renounced all purposing. For him who has attained yoga. The Self is indeed the self’s friend.
Without desires or possessions. With mind controlled. Establishing for himself in A clean place. Neutral to enemies and kin. devoted to Me. Firm in the brahmachari’s vow. Always disciplining himself. The righteous and the unrighteous. supreme peace. not too high or low. foes. fear banished. thought controlled. He should sit. Covered with a cloth and with a Antelope skin and kusha grass. And attains to union with Me. With mind quieted. friends.The yogi who is content in Knowledge and discrimination. and neck Erect. motionless and steady. thoughts fixed on Me. stone. Looking t’ward the tip of his nose Steadfastly. head. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 40 . Senses subdued. Holding his body. With mind one-pointed. not looking around. let him sit there On that seat and practice yoga For his self-purification. The yogi whose mind is subdued Goes to nirvana. the yogi should remain Alone. He attains eminence who looks The same on well-wishers. and gold are all the same. Constantly concentrating on The Self. With senses conquered–unto him Earth. with thought and self controlled.
disciplined. When he feels that infinite bliss– Through his purified intellect– Which transcends the senses. He is satisfied in the Self. yoga destroys all sorrow. Moderate in sleep and waking. Then he is known to be steadfast. restrained.41 When he is absorbed in the Self Alone. Beholding the Self by the self. then set In his true state he is steadfast. By the practicing of yoga. Having obtained this.Yoga is not eating too much. Yoga destroys all his sorrow. Arjuna. For the moderate in eating And in diversion. When the mind comes to rest. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 “For him who is moderate in food and diversion. As a lamp in a windless place Flickers not–to such is compared The yogi with his mind controlled. who is moderate in sleep and waking. and with his mind controlled. Nor keeping awake. And established therein he is Not moved by heaviest sorrow. whose actions are disciplined. from all desires. Steadfast in yoga of the Self. Not the habit of too much sleep. Nor is it not eating at all.” 41 41 . Free from longing. he regards No other gain better than that.
He attains boundless happiness.Let that which is called yoga be Known as the state of severance From pain. Abandoning wilful desires– All of them without exception– Also completely restraining The many senses by the mind. He. free of evil. The one who sees Me ev’rywhere. I am never lost unto him. Attains the supreme happiness. He should subdue and hold it back– Direct it to the Self’s control. Nor is he ever lost to Me. He sees the same Self at all times. undisturbed. sees The Self present in all beings. And all beings within the Self. Easily contacting Brahman. wanders off. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 42 . disciplined by yoga. And who sees all things within Me. Having become one with Brahman. and freed from all evil. Moving here and there. and which should be practiced With perseverance. Whenever the unsteady mind. He gains quietude by degrees: Let him not think of any thing. The yogi whose mind is tranquil With passions calmed. With intellect set in patience. With the mind fastened on the self. Thus constantly disciplining Himself.
established in unity. I deem it is hard to control– As hard as to control the wind. Worships Me dwelling in all things. That yogi is deemed the highest. That he applies unto himself. Strong. That yogi e’er abides in Me. Owing to the mind’s restlessness. attains it. but uncontrolled. Striving by right means. But that one who is self-controlled. He who judges pleasure or pain By the same standard ev’rywhere. The mind is restless. Yoga is hard to be attained By one whose self is uncontrolled. The Holy Lord said: Without doubt the mind is restless And is difficult to control. turbulent. But through practice and dispassion It may be governed. I do not see how it endures. With mind wandering from yoga. and unyielding. Whatever be his mode of life.He. O Krishna. Arjuna said: Possessed of faith. Kunti’s son. Arjuna said: This yoga which is taught by You Characterized by evenness. What is the end of him who fails To gain perfection in yoga? 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 43 .
Then the fallen yogi takes birth Among the pure and prosperous. There he regains the knowledge which He acquired in his former life. His previous practice alone Impels him on the yogic path– He who just asks about yoga Rises above the Vedic rites. He gains the worlds of the righteous. O Kuru’s son. a torn cloud. You should now completely dispel. Verily.Does he not. earth and heaven. And strives even more than before. It is not possible for aught But You to dispel this my doubt. fallen from both. O mighty-armed. And dwells there throughout countless years. The Holy Lord said: Verily. for Doers of good ne’er come to grief. supportless. 44 . 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 42 Both worlds–the here and the hereafter. There is no destruction for him Neither here nor hereafter. O Keshava. O son of Pritha. Or else he will be born into A family of wise yogis. For perfection. a birth such as that Is hard to obtain in this world.42 then Perish. deluded in The path that leads unto Brahman? This doubt of mine.
45 46 47 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. 45 . the science of the Eternal. Arjuna! Of all the yogis. the scripture of Yoga.That yogi. he who with The inner self merged into Me. ends the sixth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Meditation. gradually gains Perfection throughout many births And thus reaches the highest goal. or doers of works– Then be a yogi. The yogi is regarded as Superior to ascetics. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. And jnanis. striving earnestly. I deem him as the most steadfast. Pure from taint. With faith devoted unto Me.
” I have inserted “Arjuna” in this verse to fill out the meter. Scarcely any knows Me in truth. These two Prakritis should be known As the womb of all these beings. water. Yet know my higher prakriti Sustains all beings that exist And the whole cosmos. And of those adept in striving.43 Which. nothing further Remains to be known in this world. air. O Arjuna. Intellect. 46 . now hear How through the practice of yoga You shall fully come to know Me.Chapter Seven The Yoga of Wisdom and Realization The Holy Lord said: With your mind intent upon Me. Scarcely one strives for perfection. Taking refuge in Me. Earth. ego-principle: These are the eight divisions of My prakriti. just as in the first verse of this chapter I had to omit “Son of Pritha” to maintain it.44 Such is my lower prakriti. mind. Of this whole universe am I The Origin and Dissolver. fire. being known. Of thousands of human beings. ether. To you I shall explain in full Knowledge and realization. Mighty Armed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 43 44 Pronounced as five syllables: “Re-a-li-za-tion.
45 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 These three states will be discussed in Chapter Fourteen. free From all desire and from passion. manhood in men. but they in Me. Know me as the eternal seed Of all beings. I am the desire in beings That is according to dharma. I am the fragrance within earth. I am Om in all the Vedas. and the Austerity of ascetics. 47 . All creation is strung on Me Like strands of jewels on a thread. All this world is deluded by The states composed of the gunas. Thus it perceives Me not. Sound in ether. The radiance of moon and sun. yet I Am not in them. Dhananjaya. and the Splendor of the splendid am I. States of being which are sattwic. Only those devoted to Me Shall pass beyond this illusion. And the brilliance within the fire. th’intelligence Of the intelligent. The life in all beings. There is absolutely nothing. I am the taste within water.Higher than Me. This divine illusion of Mine Is difficult to go beyond. Rajasic and tamasic45–know As proceeding from Me. Who am Eternal and higher than these. I am the strength of the strong.
Impelled thus by their own natures. He knows: “All is Vasudeva. the Supreme Goal. low– Deprived by Maya of good sense. the wise man. Devote themselves to other gods. Of them. 46 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 “He who dwells in all things”–the Universal God. By “this or that” desire or rite. seekers of welfare. Seekers of knowledge. deluded. Whatever form a devotee May seek to worship with full faith– That faith of his is blessed by Me To be steadfast. And he is dear to Me. He. Follow the way of the demons. unwavering. These four kinds of virtuous men Do worship Me. excels. 48 . But I see the man of wisdom As My Self. with mind steadfast. Supremely dear am I to him. Abides in Me. At the end of his many births The wise man takes refuge in Me.But those not devoted to Me– Evil-doers. as well. e’er steadfast. deprived of their good sense. All these indeed are exalted. O Arjuna: The distressed.46” How very rare is that great soul! Others. Devoted to the One. Endowed with faith he then receives His desires from that worshipped form Because I have decreed that those Desires should be granted to him. and the wise.
And those who are yet to be born. I know the departed beings. Veiled by illusion born of the Combinations of the gunas.But temporary is the fruit For those of small understanding. the Primal One. This deluded world knows Me not– The Unborn. Freed from the pairs of opposites– They worship Me with firm resolve. To the gods go their worshippers. The unintelligent think Me Manifest. Also the living. But none whatsoever knows me. The Primal God. though Unmanifest. At birth all beings fall into Delusion. Those who know Me. Arjuna. They whose sin has come to an end. They know Brahman thoroughly. But those men of virtuous deeds. Chief Sacrifice. They truly know Me with steadfast Thought even at the time of death. Not knowing My supreme state as Unchanging and transcendental. and Know the Self and Karma as well. the Immutable. By desire and hatred rising Through duality’s delusion. My worshippers come unto Me. Those men who take refuge in Me Seek freedom from old age and death. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 49 . O Scorcher of Foes.
50 .Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. the scripture of Yoga. ends the seventh discourse entitled: The Yoga of Wisdom and Realization. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal.
The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman
Arjuna said: What is Brahman and Primal Self, And what is Karma, O Krishna, What is the Primal Element, Also, what is the Primal God? Who, and in what way, is Primal Sacrifice here in this body? And how are You known at the time Of death by the self-controlled ones? The Holy Lord said: Deathless is the Supreme Brahman The Primal Self that dwells in all; The sacrificial offering: Karma–causing both birth and life. The Primal Element is the Perishable adjunct of this; The Primal God is Indweller, And I the Primal Sacrifice. And he who at the time of death Meditating on Me alone, Goes forth, and leaving the body, Doubtless attains to My Being. Whatever he remembers when Departing from the body, that Alone is reached by him because Of his constant thinking of that.
Therefore, at all times, constantly Remember Me, and then do fight: With mind and intellect absorbed In Me, you thus shall come to Me. With mind made steadfast by yoga, Which turns not to anything else, To the divine supreme Spirit He goes, meditating on Him. He who meditates on the Seer, the Ruler, The ancient, subtler than the atom, support Of all, Whose form is inconceivable and Radiant like the sun and beyond darkness. At the hour of death with his mind unmoving, Endowed with devotion and with yoga pow’r, With the prana ent’ring between the eyebrows, He goes unto the divine supreme Spirit. That which Veda-knowers call the Eternal,47 Which the ascetics, free from passion, enter; Desiring which they live as brahmacharins, That path I shall explain unto you briefly. Controlling all of the senses, Confining the mind in the heart, Drawing pranas into the head, Doing yogic concentration, Uttering OM, the syllable That is God, and intent on Me, Departing thus from his body, He then attains the Goal Supreme. He who thinks of Me constantly, Whose mind does never go elsewhere, Yogi of constant devotion– For him I am easy to reach.
Reaching the highest perfection, Having attained Me, those great souls Are no more subject to rebirth– The evanescent home of pain. All worlds, including Brahma’s realm, Are subject to rebirth’s return, But for him who attains to Me There is no rebirth, Kunti’s Son. The knowers of true “day” and “night” Know Brahma’s Day and Brahma’s Night Are each a thousand yugas48 long– And each one comes unto an end. At the approach of Brahma’s Day, All manifested things come forth From the unmanifest, and then Return to that at Brahma’s Night. Helpless, the same host of beings Being born again and again, Merge at the approach of the Night And emerge at the dawn of Day. But beyond this unmanifest There is the Unmanifested, Eternal Existence, Which is Not destroyed when all beings merge. The unmanifest, eternal, Is declared as the Supreme Goal, Attaining Which they return not. This is My supreme dwelling place. Yea, this is the Supreme Being, Attained by devotion alone, Within Which all beings do dwell, By which all this is pervaded.
One thousand yugas–one “day” (or “night”) of Brahma–is 4,320,000,000 years long.
Therefore. returns again. ends the eighth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Imperishable Brahman. Austerity and gifts–yogis Surpass and gain the Great Abode. the scripture of Yoga. shall not return. and thus returns. O Arjuna. No yogi who knows these two paths. is deluded. By one he goes to non-return. Smoke. the bright fortnight. The six months of the sun’s South Path– Taking this path the yogi gains The lunar light.Now I shall tell you. Of the times in which. O Pritha’s son. sacrifice. Whatever merit is declared As gained from Vedas. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. 23 24 25 26 27 28 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Fire. By the other. The six months of the sun’s North Path– Knowers of Brahman take this path And thereby go unto Brahman. be steadfast in yoga Throughout all times. the science of the Eternal. departing. and the dark fortnight. 54 . light. Truly these two light and dark paths The world thinks to be eternal. nighttime. departing. The yogis shall once more return Or. Arjuna. daytime.
Arjuna. Nor do beings dwell within Me– Behold this.Chapter Nine The Yoga of the Kingly Science and Kingly Secret The Holy Lord said: To you who argue not shall I Declare this most secret knowledge Which. But I do not dwell within them. without attaining Me. My Self yet does not dwell in them. God does not draw His being from us. Royal knowledge. royal secret. This the supreme purifier. eternal.49 As mighty winds move ev’rywhere. when joined with realization. My Divine Yoga! Bringing forth and supporting them. Readily learned by the righteous. O Arjuna. Easy to practice. 49 55 . All this world is pervaded by Me in My unmanifest form: All beings do dwell within Me. Return. Yet always dwell in the ether. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The idea of these two verses is that we draw our being from God. Know. that even so Do all beings dwell within Me. We are contained in Him. Shall free you from impurity. He is not contained in us. Those without faith in this dharma. To the path of birth in this world– The realm of death.
51 Rakshasa: There are two kinds of rakshasas: 1) semidivine. Animating My Prakriti. Prakriti produces all this. Worship Me single-mindedly. Without sense–truly they abide In the delusive nature of The rakshasas51 and asuras. Helpless under Prakriti’s sway. Dhananjaya. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 A kalpa is a Day of Brahma–4. Meat-eating human beings are sometimes classed as rakshasas. 56 . The moving and the unmoving. Because of My proximity. I Myself send them forth again. vain knowledge. Of vain hopes. In the Day of Brahma creation is manifest and in the Night of Brahma is it resolved into its causal state. The deluded disregard Me Dwelling within a human form. Arjuna. vain deeds. or 2) cannibal demons or goblins. Sitting as one indifferent And fully unattached to them: This is the truth. enemies of the gods.320. Unaware of My higher state As the Great Lord of all beings.000 years. The world revolves because of this. As their eternal Origin. I project again and again This whole multitude of beings. 52 50 Asura: Demon.52 But those great souls that abide in Their divine nature. And yet these acts do not bind Me. It alternates with a Night of Brahma of the same length. evil being (a-sura: without the light). benevolent beings.At the end of a kalpa.000.50 all Beings merge in My Prakriti: At dawn of another kalpa.
Witness. Friend. Being and non-being am I! The knowers of the three Vedas worship Me By sacrifice. the Pranava. sacrificing by The sacrifice of pure knowledge. Sustainer. I am Both immortality and death.54 Gain worlds and enjoy pleasures of the Devas. And others. Yajur Vedas. and Substratum. the offered things. As the sun I give heat and I Withhold and send forth rain. and act of oblation. the Known. and as manifold. I am the rite. Origin. Refuge. by drinking Soma. and thus Made pure from sin pray for passage to heaven. Father and Mother of this world. The offering. Always steadfast. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 53 54 The “to be known. Storehouse. Abode. This is a comparatively lower realm of development in the cosmos. the All-Formed. they worship Me. Surendralokam–the world of Indra.53 Purifier. as one. Grandfather. Worship Me. Sama. the Lord.” the object of knowledge. the sacrifice. Dissolution. As distinct. 57 . Goal. I am the mantra and the ghee. Seed Imperishable. The fire.Glorifying Me always and Striving ever with firm resolve. Bowing to Me in devotion. The Rig. Supporter. king of the “gods” who control the forces of nature.
ineptly. “Gods” (devas) are the demigods presiding over various powers of material and psychic nature. To spirits go their devotees. To fathers go their devotees. incorrectly. But because they do not know Me They return. also worship Me. inappropriately. And to Me go My devotees. Even those who with faith worship Other gods. they re-enter the mortal world. It literally means “not according to the rules” or even “without/outside the rules. but this classification can also include earthbound human spirits. 56 55 58 . That I accept–the devout gift Offered by the pure-minded one. haphazardly. Though with a mistaken approach55– This is the truth. 22 23 24 25 26 The words “with a mistaken approach” is the best I can do with avidhipurvakam.Having enjoyed the heaven-world. For them I secure what they lack And preserve that which they possess.56 Whoe’er with devotion offers A leaf. “Spirits” (bhutas) are non-human nature spirits. inappositely. keeping the injunctions of the Vedas. Son of Kunti. or water.” The idea seems to be that these people do not know or understand how to worship God because they do not know or understand the nature of God. Worshipping Me with steadfast mind. improperly. And Lord of all sacrifices. “Fathers” (pitris) are ancestors or other departed human beings. 21 Those who direct their thoughts to Me. mistakenly. To the gods go their devotees. subject to rebirth. fruit. with merit Exhausted. flower. All of these may be either positive or negative. they constantly come and go. irregularly–either express a value judgment or add an extra meaning or attitude the Sanskrit does not include. some of them subhuman (“elementals”). Thus. Other possible terms–ignorantly. inaptly. Filled with desires. Truly I am the Enjoyer.
Krishna denies this. and I am in them. understand: My devotee is never lost. Even those born of evil wombs. Women. O Son of Kunti. All those who take refuge in Me Also go to the Supreme Goal. Are in Me. also Shudras. He should be considered righteous. denying the truth of the Self. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 At the time of Krishna. claim that only Brahmin and Kshatriya males can attain liberation–and they have to be from “good” backgrounds. holy Brahmins And devoted royal58 sages! Having obtained this transient And joyless world. Steadfast in renunciation And freed.Whate’er you do. whate’er you eat. Whate’er you sacrifice or give. Truly having rightly resolved. then worship Me. Do that as offering to Me. Quickly he becomes virtuous And goes to everlasting peace. some ignorant people. you shall come unto Me.57 How much more. 58 57 Kshatriya 59 . Thus shall you be freed from the bonds Of actions–both good and evil. then. Vaishyas. devout. Whate’er austerity you do. and even today in India. But those worshipping Me. If even an evildoer Worships me single-heartedly. I am the same to all beings: To me none is disliked or dear.
With mind fixed on Me. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. bowing down to Me. the scripture of Yoga. devoted. Thus made steadfast. 34 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. ends the ninth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Kingly Science and Kingly Secret. 60 . the science of the Eternal. Worshipping. with Me as your Supreme aim–you shall come to Me.
Were born of My mind. knowledge. The ancient Seven Great Rishis60 And Four Manus. and from them Are all the creatures in this world. 1 2 3 4 5 6 59 60 61 I had to leave out “impartiality” in this line to keep the meter.59 Austerity. restraint of sense. He who knows Me as birthless and Beginningless. death. and contentment. Mighty-Armed. Both good repute and ill repute– All these arise from Me alone. non-delusion. Reason. In truth I am the source of the Gods. Non-injury. benevolence.Chapter Ten The Yoga of Divine glories The Holy Lord said: Now hear from Me the supreme word Which I speak to you. the world’s Great Lord– He alone among mortals is Undeluded and freed from sins. The Seven Rishis are great Beings who exist at the top of creation and supervise it. The Manus were the progenitors of the human race. misery. I speak desiring your welfare. 61 . truth. fear. Birth. For you are beloved to Me. Neither the multitude of gods Or great seers know My origin. Calmness. also fearlessness. Forbearance.61 with pow’rs like Me. as well as of the great seers. happiness.
the Brahma Sutras. Narada: A primeval sage to whom some of the verses of the Rig Veda are attributed. 62 . becomes established In yoga–there can be no doubt. With minds and lives intent on Me. I. and the codifier of the Vedas. Vyasa: One of the greatest sages of India. author of the Mahabharata (which includes the Bhagavad Gita). composer of some of the hymns of the Rig Veda. Supreme Abode. Enlightening62 one another. the First God. the constantly steadfast. I am the origin of all. Abiding in their hearts. The Birthless and All-pervading– Thus all the sages declare You: Narad’. destroy The darkness born of ignorance By the shining lamp of knowledge. Another ancient sage. And speaking of Me constantly.64 And Vyasa65–and now do You. Arjuna said: Supreme Brahman.He who knows all these manifold Manifestations of My pow’r And glory. the wise worship Me With consciousness all filled with love. commentator on the Yoga Sutras. I bestow the buddhi-yoga By which they shall come unto Me.63 Asita Devala. They are content and do rejoice. To them. Supreme Purifier. 62 63 64 65 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 This can also mean “awakening” spiritually. Out of compassion for them. too. And from Me ev’rything evolves– Thinking thus. Yourself declare it unto me. Worshipping Me with affection. Divine. Eternal Person.
Archetypal) Purusha. How may I know You. Both God and the individual spirits are purushas. You should now describe completely Your divine manifestations By which. the middle. Ruler of the world. 63 . I am never satiated In hearing Your amrit-like67 words. I am the Self abiding in The heart of all beings. 67 Amrita: That which makes one immortal. In truth. because There is no end to My expanse. God of gods. O Yogi. and Also the end of all beings. pervading all these worlds. but God is the Adi (Original. For You know Yourself by Yourself. Lord of beings. neither gods nor demons Know of Your manifestation. But only the chief ones. O Keshava. and the Purushottama (Best of the Purushas). Parama (Highest) Purusha. The Holy Lord said: Listen! I shall tell you of My Divine Self-manifestations. Always meditating on You? In what aspects of Your Being Are You to be thought of by me? Explain to me in more detail Your pow’rs and manifestations. I am The beginning. You do abide within all things.I regard all this that You say To me as true. the Supreme Purusha:66 Source of beings. Purusha means “person” in the sense of a conscious spirit. 66 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Purushottama. O You.
71 I am Indra72 among the gods. on which the gods dwell. the king of the lesser “gods” (demigods). Meru: The mountain. Know Me the chief. Of Vedas. Vittesha: Kubera. Intelligence in all beings.78 And of mountains Meru79 am I. the lord of wealth. 77 78 79 The Vasus are eight Vedic deities characterized by radiance.73 Shankara. Among the Rudras. I am Marichi of Maruts. the ocean. or demon. The Rudras are Vedic deities of destruction for renewal. Yaksha: There are two kinds of yakshas: 1) semidivine beings whose king is Kubera. Brihaspati.” A title of Shiva.81 Among the waters. Of the senses I am the mind. the god of war and son of Shiva and Parvati.80 Of generals I am Skanda. 80 81 Brihaspati: The guru–priest and teacher–of the gods. goblin. the god of wealth. Vasava: Indra. Adityas: Solar deities. or the mountain on which Shiva is ever seated in meditation.” God as the Preserver.70 Among the stars I am the Moon. of supreme height. The Sama Veda is a compilation of Rig Veda hymns that have been pointed for singing. 74 Kuber75 of yakshas. Agni: The Vedic god of fire. The Maruts are the presiding deities of winds and storms. the Sama Veda.76 rakshasas. and Marichi is their chief. Obviously a yogic symbol. And of priests. or 2) a kind of ghost. O son of Pritha. Also known as Subramanya or Karttikeya. Of Vasus77 I am Pavaka.I am Vishnu68 of Adityas. Said to be the center of the world. 21 22 23 24 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 Vishnu: “The all-pervading. “The Auspicious One. 64 . supporting heaven itself.69 The Sun among luminaries.
an adept. In the context of this verse. Japa: Repetition of a mantra. the god of beauty and love. The king of the serpents. Yajna: Sacrifice.87 Of Deva-rishis.83 Of words. Narada. Kamadhenu: Wishfulfilling cow produced at the churning of the milk ocean. Siddha: A perfected being. Surya). usually the fire sacrifice known as agnihotra or havan. a perfect yogi. king of the gods. seer of the Truth.93 And among men I am the king.96 Of serpents I am Vasuki. Of trees I am the Ashwattha. A name of Kamadeva.89 Among siddhas. 65 . Of elephants. Uchchaishravas: The name of Indra’s horse (or the horse of the Sun god. Uchchaishravas92 Who was born of the Amrita. Vajra: the special weapon of Indra.95 The cause of offspring. the one-syllabled OM. 93 94 95 96 97 92 Airavata: The white elephant of Indra that was produced by the churning of the ocean. japa yajna is the offering or sacrifice of continually repeating Om. the Thunderbolt. The “world tree” in the sense of the axis of the earth and even of the cosmos. a ritual sacrifice. 88 89 90 91 Gandharva: A demigod–a celestial musician and singer. Airavata. Of Gandharvas. Kapila: The great sage who formulated the Sankhya philosophy which is endorsed by Krishna several times in the Bhagavad Gita. The name means “high-sounding” and refers to the power of mantra. a seer.86 Of immovables: Himalayas.Of great Rishis82 I am Bhrigu. He assisted at the churning of the milk ocean. that was born of the amrita that was churned from the ocean by the gods.91 Among horses. offering. Of Yajñas.90 Sage Kapila.84 the Japa85 Yajña. Ashwattha: The pipal (sacred fig) tree. Chitraratha: The chief of the gandharvas. Bhrigu: An ancient sage. Among weapons.94 Among cows I am Kamadhuk.97 25 26 27 28 82 83 84 85 86 87 Rishi: Sage. so illustrious that he mediated quarrels among the gods. sacrificial ceremony.88 Chitraratha. Kandarpa. the eternal tree of life whose roots are in heaven.
) Ananta: The chief of the Nagas. Of knowledge. yet he remained steadfast. Often depicted as an eagle.99 Of water beings. through the plains of Northern India. Daityas: Demons who constantly war with the gods. the evil Hiranyakashipu. usually taking the form of snakes.106 Of purifiers I am Wind. and upon whom Vishnu reclines. Among birds I am Garuda. tortured him and attempted his life because of his devotion and his speaking to others of divine matters. 101 102 103 104 100 99 98 Pitri: A departed ancestor. 105 Prahlada: A daitya prince who rejected his daitya heritage and became a devotee of Vishnu. Varuna. Garuda: A great being who can assume bird form. (In Sanskrit naga is the word for snake.103 Of demons104 I am Prahlada.Of Nagas98 I am Ananta. Aryaman: Chief of the Pitris. Sometimes “races” or nationalities who acted contrary to dharma and fought against the “aryas” were also called demons (daityas or asuras). a forefather. Among beasts I am the lion. Often identified with the conscience. knowledge of the Self.107 Of fishes I am the dolphin. whose coils encircle the earth and who symbolizes eternity (“ananta” means “without end”). Varuna: A Vedic deity considered the sustainer of the universe and also the presiding deity of the oceans and water. His life is recorded in the ancient epic Ramayana. 108 107 106 66 . His father. Of rivers I am the Ganges. Ganges: The sacred river–believed to be of divine origin–that flows from high up in the Himalayas. This was the case with the people among whom Prahlada was born. and therefore considered the king of birds. Hindus consider that bathing in the Ganges profoundly purifies both body and mind.108 Of manifestations I am Beginning. Among warriors I am Rama.100 Of pitris101 I am Aryaman. Yama: The Lord of Death. controller of who dies and what happens to them after death.105 Among measurers I am Time. 29 30 31 32 Nagas: Astral beings that often interact with human beings. and empties into the Bay of Bengal. and the end. middle. 102 Of controllers I am Yama. Of disputants I am logic. Rama: An incarnation of God–the king of ancient Ayodhya in north-central India. he is the vehicle of Vishnu.
Of secret things I am silence. I am fame. Among the rishis. The gayatri meter is found only in the Rig Veda and consists of three lines of eight syllables each. Of chants I am Brihatsaman. “the season of flowers” is a term for Spring. I am inexhaustible Time.113 Vasudeva. prosperity. The splendor of the splendorous. the season of flow’rs. The ancestral clan of Krishna. The knowledge of knowers am I. Among sages I am Vyasa. A lunar month. patience.112 The gambling of the fraudulent. It is considered especially appropriate for mantric invocation of deities before worship. Son of Vasudeva–Krishna An ancient seer and poet.Among letters.109 Of meters I am Gayatri. I am sattwa of the sattwic. I am victory and effort. 33 34 35 36 37 38 109 110 A type of chant to Indra in the Sama Veda. speech. Of compounds I am the dual.111 Of seasons. 112 113 114 115 111 Kusumakaras.114 Of Pandavas. Strategy of the ambitious. This is the time of ideal weather in India. 67 .110 Of months I am Margashirsha. I am all-destroying death and Origin of all that shall be. Ushanas. Among Vrishnis. Dhananjaya. roughly the latter half of November and the first half of December. Mem’ry. I the Sustainer. wisdom. courage. the All-formed. the letter A.115 The sceptre of authorities.
the science of the Eternal. What I have spoken unto you Is but an example of them. there is no end of My divine manifestations. moving or unmoving. Whatever is glorious or Prosperous or yet powerful. O Arjuna? I ever support this whole world By just one portion of Myself.Whate’er the seed of all beings. 68 . ends the tenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Divine Glories. No thing. Arjuna. the scripture of Yoga. Of what value is it for you To know all this. Arjuna. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Understand that springs from but a Fraction of My radiant Pow’r. That also am I. 39 40 41 42 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Can e’er exist apart from Me.
Then do You. Master. They avert misfortune and sickness and bring treasures.Chapter Eleven The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form Arjuna said: In kindness you spoke unto me Regarding the Supreme Secret That is known as the Supreme Self. omnipresence. always together. Behold the Adityas. Ashwins: Two Vedic deities. And so it is. The Rudras. or Controller of the cosmos. O Partha. 117 69 . divine. O Lord of Yogis. And Your eternal majesty. My forms A hundred fold–a thousandfold– Various. Many wonders ne’er seen before.117 and Maruts. The Holy Lord said: Behold now. Yet still I desire to behold Your Ishwara116-Form. and also Of various colors and shapes. O Krishna. celestial horsemen of the sun. Ashwins. “Ishwara” implies the powers of omnipotence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 116 Ishwara: “God” or “Lord” in the sense of the Supreme Power. Ruler. and omniscience. O Lord. O Krishna. Wherefore. The origin and dissolving Of beings has been heard by me In detail from You. Vasus. if You should think Me capable of seeing It. Show to me Your eternal Self. O son of Bharata. O Supreme Lord! As You have declared of Yourself. who herald the dawn and are skilled in healing. Behold. By this my delusion is gone.
The Infinite.See now in this My body the Whole universe centered in one– Both the moving and unmoving– And all else you desire to see. With many divine weapons raised. And with many wondrous aspects. Bowing down in adoration Thus spoke with joined palms unto Him. Krishna. God embodying all wonders. But you are not able to see Me with your own eyes. If the light of a thousand suns Arose together in the sky. filled with wonder And with his hair standing on end. 70 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 . the Great Lord of Yoga. I give to you the divine eye– Behold My supreme Yoga Pow’r. Then Arjuna. Sanjaya said: Then having thus spoken. Wearing divine garlands and clothes. Arjuna. With many divine ornaments. There in the body of the God Of gods the son of Pandu saw The universe resting in One With its manifold divisions. O King. Omniscient. With divine perfumes and ointments. Showed unto the son of Pritha His own Supreme Ishwara-Form: With many mouths and many eyes. Then that would be like the splendor Of that Resplendent Mighty One.
and discus. and beyond measure. “May it be well!” thus saying. Lord. You are the Primal Purusha. club. Infinite in power. The sun and moon Your eyes. into You enter these hosts of gods. O Great-souled One. And all the quarters are filled by You alone.21 71 . The three worlds tremble with fear. 19 This firmament fixed between heaven and earth. stomachs. You are Guardian of Eternal Dharma. Seeing this. all around blazing Like burning fire and sun. the bands of great Rishis and Siddhas praise You with splendid hymns. 16 I see You with diadem. the Lord. nor beginning of You Do I see. Heating the universe with Your radiance. And the hosts of all grades of beings in You. of manifold arms. the Supreme Being.20 Truly. Brahma. And all the rishis and celestial serpents. and eyes. Some of which extol You in fear with joined palms. mouths. or end. 17 You are the Unchanging. 18 You are without beginning.Arjuna said: O God. middle. 15 I see You of boundless form on ev’ry side With Your manifold arms. I do ween. middle. Very hard to look at. seated upon the lotus. You are the ultimate resting-place of all. Neither end. I see all the gods in Your body. A mass of radiance shining ev’rywhere. Your marvellous and awesome form. burning fire Your mouth. of Your Universal Form.
and so am I. Among whom are numbered Bishma. then. With the multitudinous hosts of monarchs. thighs. Asuras. Ashwins. 22 Having seen this Your immeasurable form– With very many mouths. with mouths wide open. Maruts. And some with their heads completely pulverized. arms.118 and Vishwa-Devas. as the many torrents and streams Of all the rivers flow towards the ocean. and fearful with many tusks– All the worlds are terrified. 72 . Terrible with tusks and fearful to behold. have mercy. nor do I find peace.The Rudras. and blazing With many a color.119 Gandharvas. and feet. Abode of the universe. 26 Enter precipitately into Your mouth. Yakshas. 24 Having seen Your mouths. eyes. Some are found sticking in the gaps ’tween Your teeth. with the warrior chiefs of ours. I know neither the four Quarters. Drona. and Siddhas– All these are looking at You. and Sutaputra. and find no courage nor peace. quite astounded. So do all these heroes of the world of men Now enter into Your fiercely flaming mouths. fearful with tusks. Vishnu. O Lord of Gods. Ushmapas. Sadhyas. Ushmapas: A class of ancestors (pitris) which live off subtle emanations or vapors. blazing Like Pralaya-fires. 28 118 119 Sadhyas: A group of celestial beings with exquisitely refined natures thought to inhabit the ether. Adityas. With large and fiery eyes: I am terrified At heart. 25 And all these sons of evil Dhritarashtra.27 Verily. Many stomachs. 23 On seeing You touching the sky. Vasus.
Are blazing. Truly.Just as moths precipitately rush into A blazing fire. And addressed Krishna in a faltering voice. Karna. do you kill. Bowing down to Him. O Supreme God: have mercy! I desire to know You. Even without you. 29 Swallowing all the worlds on every side With Your flaming mouths. although only to perish.35 73 . Therefore do you arise and thus acquire fame. and trembling. and overwhelmed with fear. Drona. but fight. by Myself are they already slain. Bhishma. and enjoy unrivalled dominion. O Primeval One. In like manner so do these creatures also Rush into Your mouths though only to perish. consuming. prostrated himself. Arjuna. Be not distressed with fear. and Others already killed by Me. O Vishnu! 30 Tell me who You are–You Who are fierce in form. The Holy Lord said: I am. burning. Here made manifest for destroying the world. indeed. and surely You shall conquer your enemies in battle. filling the world with radiance. You are licking Your lips. Arjuna With joined palms. Your fierce rays. mighty world-destroying Time. Salutations. Be merely an apparent cause. Jayadratha. none of the warriors here Arrayed within the hostile armies shall live. I know not indeed Your doings or purpose. 31 32 33 34 Sanjaya said: Having heard this speech of Krishna. Conquer.
Salutation on every side. Non-being. By You is the whole universe pervaded. Agni. alone. The Great and Primal Cause of even Brahma. wherefore You are All. Pervadest all these things. Supreme Goal.Arjuna said: It is fitting. 37 You the Primal God. Chandra. to forgive all this. yea. or Great Father) are titles of Brahma. infinite in power and in prowess. walking. with others.121 Varuna. and Great-grandfather. addressing You as “O Krishna. Chandra: Presiding deity of the moon or the astral lunar world (loka). beyond both. O Yadava. Immeasurable One. sitting. Agni: Vedic god of fire.120 Yama. Hrishikesha. You are Supreme Refuge of this universe. 38 You are Vayu. O All! You.40 Whatever I have presumptuously said From carelessness or love.122 Prajapati. unconscious of this Your greatness– 41 However I may have been disrespectful To You in jest. I bow to You! 39 Salutation to You before and behind. that the world Is delighted and rejoices in Your praise.” speaking As a friend. reposing. That rakshasas fly in fear to all quarters. Lord of gods. Again and again I bow. 36 Why should they not bow to You. Eating. the Ancient Purusha. O Friend. I bow to You a thousand times. 120 121 122 123 42 Vayu: The Vedic god of the wind. the One Thing to be known. And siddhas bow to You in adoration. Prajapati and Pitamaha (Grandfather. 74 . Infinite. O Great-souled One.123 I bow. Source of the cosmos? Unchanging–Being. I implore You. the Creator. Knower.
O God. or by severe austerities Am I seen in such Form in the world of men. so awesome. Diademed. so terrible With your fears dispelled and with your heart gladdened. universal.47 Not by Vedic study or by sacrifice.The world’s Father–of the moving. do I crave Forgiveness: as a father forgives his son. By gifts. There is no one Your equal in the three worlds. Assume then That same beloved four-armed form of Yours. and a lover his love– Thus even so should You forgive Me. and yet My mind is distracted with terror. A friend his dear friend. unmoving– You are the worshipful Guru of gurus. of universal form. Who can excel You. Which has not been seen before by aught but you. Mighty beyond compare? Prostrating in adoration. By any other than you. seeing Your form. Abode of the universe. by My own Yoga Power– Form resplendent. Now see once again this former Form of Mine. Show me. In mercy Lord. Overjoyed am I. 49 75 . 43 44 45 46 The Holy Lord said: Graciously have I shown to you. bearing the mace and the discus. O You of thousand arms. This Form Supreme. 48 Be not afraid or bewildered. rites. infinite. O Arjuna. only Your previous form– O Lord of gods. Arjuna. having seen This Form of Mine. I wish to see You as before.
nor By sacrifice can I be seen As on this day you have seen Me.Sanjaya said: Krishna. Not by Vedic study. The Holy Lord said: Verily. My thoughts are now composed. Arjuna said: Now having seen this. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. also Entered into. ends the eleventh discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Vision of the Cosmic Form. and I Am now restored to my nature. having thus spoken to Arjuna. Even the gods Ever long to behold this form. enters into Me. Thus the Great-souled One. nor by Austerity. Seen in reality. Showed once again His usual manlike form. without ill will To any. He who does work for Me alone. 76 . O Janardana. Scorcher of Foes. 50 51 52 53 54 55 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Freed from desire. By single-minded devotion I may be known in this true form. hard indeed it is To behold this great form of Mine Which you have seen. Your gentle Man-like form. Devoted to Me as his goal. the scripture of Yoga. the science of the Eternal. assuming His gentle Four-armed form pacified him. the terrified. nor by gifts.
Unmanifest. meditating on Me with single-minded yoga– 1 2 3 4 5 6 77 . deeming Me as the Supreme Goal. And even-minded ev’rywhere. fixing their mind on Me. They worship the Unperishing. the Unmanifest– Which are better versed in yoga? The Holy Lord said: Those who. For the Unmanifest is hard For the embodied ones to reach. Engaged in the welfare of all– Verily they reach Me alone. resigning All action. Those who worship Me. Unthinkable Unchangeable. Omnipresent. Unspeakable. Greater is their trouble whose minds Are set on the Unmanifest.Chapter Twelve The Yoga of Devotion Arjuna said: Those devotees who worship You. with supreme faith. And those also who do worship The Changeless. Worship steadfast. It is My opinion that they Are thus the best versed in yoga. Immovable– Having subdued all the senses.
He hates no one. Renouncement124 than meditation.” Even-minded and forbearing. Free from feelings of “I” and “mine. dear to Me. Devoted to Me. here and hereafter. Better is knowledge than practice. Then by taking refuge in Me. Mind and intellect fixed on Me. Even that leads to perfection. firm in conviction. 124 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tyaga: Literally: “abandonment. Then doubtless you shall evermore Live in Me. their Savior from The sea of mortal samsara. O Pritha’s son. balanced in mind. Verily. If you are unable to fix Your mind on Me in steadiness.To these whose mind is set on Me. 78 . be Intent on acting for My sake. If you cannot do even this. Dhananjaya. Self-controlled. Instant peace comes from renouncement. and is friendly And compassionate towards all. By constant practice of yoga Seek to reach Me. Abandon the fruits of action. Becoming this way self-controlled. I become ere long.” Renunciation–the relinquishment of the fruit of action. Always content. Fixing your mind on Me alone. Meditation than mere knowledge. But if you are unable to Constantly practice yoga. Placing your intellect in Me.
nor desires. pleasure and pain. described. ends the twelfth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Devotion. 15 16 17 18 19 20 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. steady-minded. Deeming Me as the Goal Supreme. In heat and cold. He is the same to friend and foe. full of Devotion–he is dear to Me.He who agitates not the world. and full of Devotion–he is dear to Me. Who is freed from joy. envy. endued with faith. Homeless. And ever free from attachment. 79 . And in honor and dishonor. skilled. He who is free from dependence. Devoted–are most dear to me. Renouncing all undertakings– That devotee is dear to Me. untroubled. the science of the Eternal. Nor grieves. Silent. fear. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. content with anything. Pure. He neither rejoices nor hates. They who follow this Immortal Dharma. And whom the world agitates not. renouncing Both good and evil. Who deems blame and praise as equal. unconcerned. And worry–he is dear to Me. the scripture of Yoga.
That do you hear from Me in brief. To be the Knower in all Fields. and that which should be known– I wish to know these. Full of convincing reasoning. O Bharata. And he who knows it thus is called The Knower of the Field by those Who know of both Field and Knower. Knowledge. The great Elements. 80 . Who He is and what His powers. Know Me also. cause-effects.) 126 The five jnanindriyas (organs of perception) and the five karmendriyas (organs of action). In passages about Brahman. Intellect. in sacred chants.125 The Holy Lord said: This body is known as the Field. 125 1 2 3 4 5 “In some of the books you will not find this verse. This has been sung by the Rishis In many ways. The ten senses126 and the one–mind– The five objects of the senses. The knowledge of Field and Knower I consider as the knowledge.” (Swami Sivananda in his Gita commentary. Some commentators look upon this verse as an interpolation.Chapter Thirteen The Yoga of the Distinction Between the Field and the Knower of the Field Arjuna said: Prakriti and Purusha and The Field and Knower of the Field. What the Field is–its properties. Egoism. Keshava. the number of verses of the Bhagavad Gita will come to 701. Modifications. the Unmanifest. If you include this verse also.
81 . Non-attachment and non-clinging To son. old age.130 Constant in knowledge of the Self. or sitting near a teacher.127 patience. and pain. Approach of teacher. aversion. Distaste for others’ company. The aggregate. And absence of egotism. Absence of both pride and deceit. and Frequenting secluded places. home. Stability and self-restraint. The contrary is ignorance. rectitude. Which bestows immortality– Beginningless Supreme Brahman: Neither being nor non-being. and its aspects. Unswerving devotion to Me With single-minded yoga. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 127 128 129 130 Ahimsa Acharyopasanam: Approaching a teacher. intelligence. or society. Harmlessness. Indifference to sense objects. and all suchlike. death. I shall describe what must be known. disease. pain.Desire. Janasamsadi: crowds of people.129 Keeping in mind the evils of Birth. Pronounce as four syllables: e-go-tis-m. Seeing the goal of truth-knowledge– This is said to be true knowledge. pleasure. Constant evenmindedness in Desired and undesired events. wife. And steadfastness: thus is the Field Briefly described.128 purity.
It is Said to be beyond all darkness. Shining by functions of senses. Undivided. Knowledge. With ears throughout the universe– THAT stands. heads. Yet without senses. Outside and inside all beings. Knowing all this. Both the unmoving and moving. Originates from Purusha. Goal of knowledge. Yet experiencing gunas. Pleasure and pain’s experience. detached. the One Thing to be known. knowledge and that which must Be known has been briefly stated. and know That all modifications and Gunas are born of Prakriti. Thus Field. free from gunas. Incomprehensible because It is subtle and far and near. pervading ev’rything. and faces ev’rywhere. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 82 .With hands and feet everywhere. yet Maintaining all. My devotee Attains to My state of being. Eyes. In production of the body And senses Prakriti’s the cause. within all hearts. yet It exists As if divided in beings: The sustainer of all beings– He absorbs and generates them. Know Prakriti and Purusha Are both beginningless. The Light even of lights.
and Still others by karma yoga.Purusha within Prakriti Undergoes Prakriti’s gunas. Whatever be his state in life. Worship as they hear from others. The Supreme Purusha is called The Looker-on in this body: The Permitter. too. go beyond death. Lord. deathless in the dying. O Bharata. He shall never be born again. Even these. the moving or The unmoving. the Supporter. Devoted to what they have heard. Since seeing the Lord equally Existing ev’rywhere in all. and Self. not knowing thus. Others by Sankhya yoga. Then goes unto the Supreme Goal. again. Some perceive the Self in the Self By the Self through meditation. The one who truly sees is he Who ever sees the Supreme Lord Existing equally in all Beings. Know it to be from the union Of the Field and the Field-Knower. Others. He injures not the Self by Self. Birth in good and evil wombs comes From his attachment to gunas. Whate’er is born. He who thus knows the Purusha And Prakriti with the gunas. Experiencer. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 83 .
the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. And that the Self is actionless. O Bharata. The Self seated in the body Is not tainted in any case. Does not act. He sees the sep’rate existence Of all inherent in the One. Through subtlety is not tainted. Being without beginning and Devoid of gunas. the science of the Eternal. and is not tainted. They who with the eye of knowledge Distinguish Field. As the all-pervading ether.The one who truly sees is he Who sees that all actions are done Solely by Prakriti alone. This Supreme Self. 84 . though embodied. Field-Knower. the scripture of Yoga. As the sun alone illumines This entire world. unchanging. in the same way The lord of the field illumines The entire field. and Freedom from beings’ Prakriti. They indeed go to the Supreme. 29 30 31 32 33 34 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. And their expansion from That One– He then becomes one with Brahman. ends the thirteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Distinction Between the Field and the Knower of the Field.
O Bharata. And I the seed-casting Father. 131 85 . Nor tremble at its dissolving. and tamas–these Gunas born of Prakriti bind Fast in the body him who is Indestructible. rajas. Whatever be the forms produced Within all wombs. The origin of all beings Then comes from that. Sattwa. creation and dissolution do not affect them in any way since they have severed all bonds with it. Of them Brahma is the great womb. At creation they are not born.Chapter Fourteen The Yoga of the Division of the Three Gunas The Holy Lord said: I shall tell you supreme knowledge Which is the best of all knowledge. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The idea is that the liberated are not impelled into birth at the beginning of the creation cycle nor are they unsettled at its dissolution. Sattwa is stainless. yet it binds By attachment to happiness And by attachment to knowledge. luminous. And free from defect.131 For me great Brahma is the womb. Son of Kunti. Resorting to this knowledge they Attain identity with Me. That is. embodied. And in that do I place the egg. Having known which all the sages Attained to highest perfection.
and Tamas over sattwa. It binds fast the embodied one By the attachment to action.Know rajas’ nature is passion. longing– When rajas is predominant All these arise. It binds by miscomprehension. When through each sense of the body The light of knowledge clearly shines. If the embodied one meets death When sattwa is predominant. and sleep. Then he attains the stainless realms Of the knowers of the Highest. Bharata. Then it should be known that sattwa Is there fully predominant. and rajas prevails Over sattwa and tamas. And Tamas. Rajas to action. Sattwa prevails over rajas And tamas. Indolence. Producing thirst and attachment. unrest. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 86 . heedlessness. Stupefying the embodied. Sattwa ’ttaches to happiness. obscuring knowledge. O descendant of the Kurus. Darkness. undertaking Of actions. greed. O Bharata. inertness. Activity. And delusion–all these arise When tamas is predominant. Attaches unto delusion. Tamas is born of ignorance. Bharata. rajas.
verily. And delusion and ignorance. Is sattwic and pure. death. Arjuna said: By what marks. The sattwa ’biding go upwards. while from tamas Arises miscomprehension. Is freed from birth. The fruit of rajas is pain. abiding in the Lowest guna. do go downward. he is born From the wombs of the deluded. he’s born Amid those attached to action. pain. And attains immortality. He who goes beyond these gunas Which are the source of the body. and how does He pass beyond these three gunas? 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 87 .Meeting death in rajas. Dying in tamas. Tamasics. is he known Who has gone beyond the gunas? What is his conduct. disease. greed. Rajasics dwell in the middle. From sattwa arises wisdom. From rajas. The fruit of good action. and Ignorance the fruit of tamas. He attains unto My being. they say. O Lord. When the seer beholds no agent Other than the gunas and knows That which is higher than gunas.
The same in pleasure or in pain. 88 . stone. Knowing: “The gunas operate. O Pandava. displeasing. ends the fourteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division of the Three Gunas.” Stands firm and is unwavering. Who is not moved by the gunas. and gold alike. The same in honor and disgrace. Abode of Eternal Dharma. He sees earth. Alike to pleasing. the science of the Eternal. Firm. “I am the abode of Brahman. 132 This is the realization of the liberated person. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. he.The Holy Lord said: He who hates not the appearance Of light and of activity And delusion. The Immortal. He. The same to friend and enemy. Nor yet longs for them when absent. He who renders service to Me With unswerving devotion. the same in censure and praise. Is fit for union with Brahman. Immutable. Abode of the Absolute Bliss. sitting like one unconcerned. the scripture of Yoga. Going beyond the three gunas.”132 22 23 24 25 26 27 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Renouncing all undertakings– He has gone beyond the gunas.
is a Veda-knower.” Without pride. origin. Going whither they return not. Takes on the senses and the mind And abides within Prakriti. they never return: “In that Primeval Purusha. branches below. spread its branches. That the sun illuminates not. An eternal part of Myself.Chapter Fifteen The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit The Holy Lord said: There is th’ eternal Ashwattha With roots above. its buds Are sense-objects. Nourished by the gunas. Having cut this firm-rooted tree With the axe of non-attachment– Then that goal is to be sought for. Which. delusion–attachment conquered– Dwelling in the Supreme Self. without desires. For that is My Supreme Abode. Fount of actions. I seek refuge. This its form is not here perceived– Its end. attained. Freed from the dualities–pleasure and pain– The undeluded reach that eternal Goal. The sacred hymns. existence. he who Knows it. Below. the leaves. 89 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . and in the world Below its roots give rise to acts. There shines neither the moon nor fire. above. Becoming a soul in this world.
the taste. behold Him Dwelling within themselves. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 90 . Dwelling within living beings In the form of digestive fire. That which is in the moon and fire– Know that light to be Mine as well. I Myself cause all plants to thrive. Memory. striving. The yogis. unintelligent. the touch. Thus presiding over the ear. I support All beings with My energy. Accompanied by the gunas. The eye. and their loss Proceed from Me: for I am the Veda’s Goal. Entering the earth. I am seated within all hearts. He takes these And goes.When the Lord obtains a body And when He leaves it. knowledge. see Him not. The deluded do not see Him– Those with the eye of knowledge see. and Knower. but the Unrefined. Author. The light which resides in the sun. the smell– As also the “sense” of the mind– He experiences objects. That light illumines the whole world. Joined with prana and apana. remains. as the wind takes the scents From their seats: the flowers and herbs. Do I digest the fourfold food. enjoys. Having become the wat’ry moon. Even though striving. When He departs.
O Bharata. All beings comprise the Changing. one awakes To the highest enlightenment– All his duties thus accomplished. But there is also the Supreme Purusha. He. I transcend the Changing and am Above even the Unchanging. free from delusion.133 He who. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. 133 Purushottama 91 . ends the fifteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Supreme Spirit. called the Highest Self. thus Knows Me as the Supreme Spirit. Immutable Lord. the science of the Eternal. thus worships Me With all his heart.Two Purushas are in this world– The Changing and the Unchanging. So in this world and the Veda I am called the Supreme Spirit. the scripture of Yoga. 16 17 18 19 20 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. Who pervades All the three worlds and sustains them. Knowing this most secret teaching Imparted by Me. Kutastha is the Unchanging. knowing all.
arrogance. It is: “Non-injury. Absence of pride–all these belong To one born for a divine135 state. renunciation. anger.” In this instance it means those positive souls who are progressing toward divinity. modesty. veracity. non-calumny. truth. fortitude. freedom from desire. Sense-control. The divine state is deemed to make For liberation–for bondage.Chapter Sixteen The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demoniacal The Holy Lord said: Courage. Asurim: The state of an asura. Purity. Flamboyance. Harmlessness. the complete list could not be given. purity. absence of hatred. 1 2 3 4 5 134 To maintain the meter. one who dwells in darkness (a-sura–without the light). Here it means those negative souls who are turned away from divinity and moving further into degredation of consciousness and mode of life. Tranquillity. Uncovetousness. harshness.” Daivim: The state of a deva or “shining one. gentleness. ignorance– All these qualities belong to One born for a demonic136 state. forgiveness. Self-conceit. absence of anger. compassion for beings. absence of fickleness. compassion. absence of anger. almsgiving. 136 135 92 . Truthfulness. gentleness. study. but do not grieve: You are born for a divine state.134 Boldness. renunciation. and uprightness. Austerity. sacrifice. The demonic. serenity. firmness in Knowledge and yoga.
holding evil thoughts Through delusion. nor is truth. and Arrogance. Without a basis. Full of hypocrisy. Produced by mutual union.There are two types of beings in This world: divine and demonic. Beset with immense cares ending Only with death. “The universe is without truth. Bound by a hundred ties of hope. With lust for cause–what else?” say they. The divine type has been described. Now hear of the demonic type. Purity is not found in them. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 93 . and now this wealth Also shall be mine in future. pride. without God. Nor is good conduct. All this is mine. bent on its destruction. Filled with insatiable desires. Holding this view. And this desire I shall obtain. They strive to gain by unjust means Wealth for sensual enjoyment. these ruined souls Small-minded and of cruel deeds Arise as the enemies of The world. “This today has been gained by me. they foully work. Those of demonic nature know Not what to do or refrain from. and regarding Gratification of lust as The highest–feeling it is all. Given over to lust and wrath.
for show. I enjoy. Given over to egoism. anger. lust and wrath. Self-conceited. “Who else is equal unto me? I will sacrifice. and greed. I am successful. they fall Into still lower conditions. For I am the Lord. Cruel. And deluded birth after birth. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 94 . Covered by delusion’s meshes. triple is this gate of hell. filled with The pride and foolishness of wealth. Yea. powerful. Power. give.“I slew that enemy. most degraded of men. and happy. “I am rich and well-born. I hurl perpetu’lly into Only the wombs of demons here. Contrary to the prescribed forms. They sacrifice in name.” Thus deluded by ignorance. Entering the demonic wombs.” they say. and more I shall slay. therefore one Should forsake ev’ry one of these. Perfect. These malicious evildoers. Addicted to gratifying Lust. Not attaining to Me. These malignant people hate Me In both themselves and in others. Led astray by many fancies. insolence. rejoice. stubborn. they fall into a foul hell. That is destructive of the self– Lust.
22 23 24 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. ends the sixteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division between the Divine and the Demoniacal. The scriptures should be your guide in What should be done and what should not. He who sets aside the counsels Of scriptures from desire’s impulse. And thus goes to the Goal Supreme.The man who has got beyond these Three gates of darkness. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. the science of the Eternal. Attains not unto perfection. the scripture of Yoga. You should act here within the world. nor Goal Supreme. Nor happiness. 95 . Arjuna. Knowing what the scriptures prescribe. Practices what is good for him.
Do you hear of it. rakshasas. or tamas? The Holy Lord said: Threefold is the embodieds’ faith Inherent within their nature– The sattwic. Know them as of demonic will. 1 2 3 4 5 6 137 138 Pretas are ghosts. And Me. spirits of the dead. The sattwic men worship the gods. In truth. senseless as they are. Yea. he is what his faith is. Rajasic: Yakshas. impelled by The force of lust and attachment. the body’s indweller. 96 .138 Those of extreme austerities– Unscriptural–given to show And egoity. Each one’s faith is according to His natural disposition. Bhutas are ghosts and also various kinds of low-evolved spirits. All the organs in the body. the man consists of his faith.Chapter Seventeen The Yoga of the Division of Threefold Faith Arjuna said: Those who set aside prescriptions Of scriptures. Do torture. The others–the tamasic men– The pretas137 and hosts of bhutas. rajasic. what is their condition: Sattwa. doing sacrifice With faith. or rajas. and the Tamasic.
and for vain show.139 or faith. and Substantial–such the sattwic like. the rajasic like– Producing pain. That which is stale. appetite. sour. 97 . Intent. 139 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 That is. That which is performed. That sacrifice which is offered Without desire for reward and According to scriptures’ command. agreeable. stinking. Arjuna. Savory. refuse. teachers. Know that to be a sacrifice Rajasic in its character. The wise. purity. without offering to the priests. salty. O Arjuna. This is the truth. Sacrifice unscriptural and Without the offering of food. grief. Cooked overnight. Foods that are bitter. Seeking for fruit. Straightforwardness. as duty. And burning. twice-born. impure. as is sacrifice. or gifts. and disease. Is the food the tamasic like. cheerfulness. tasteless. and almsgiving. strength. non-injury– Are austerity of body.The food also liked by each one Is threefold. is sattwic. pungent. Is tamasic in character. Food building life. Worship of gods. Hear from Me now their distinction. purity. joy. Austerity. continence. Excessively hot. Without mantras. dry. Health.
also steadfast Is considered to be sattwic. or Looking for the fruit. is rajasic. True. and with Ostentation. and transitory. agreeable. practice of Self-study–these are said to form What is austerity of speech. worship. The gift given at the wrong place Or time. Unstable. silence. That gift which is given to one Who does no service in return.Unvexing speech. Done out of a foolish notion. That is declared as tamasic. is called tamasic. self-control. beneficial. This threefold austerity done With highest faith by those without Desire for fruit. Honesty of motive–all this Is called mental austerity. Austerity practiced to gain Welcome. 140 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Satkara–hospitality with honor. And what is given with a view To receiving in return. to one worthy– That gift is held to be sattwic. Kindliness. In a fit place. Austerity with self-torture. Or for the purpose of harming Another. to unworthy persons. Without respect or with disdain.140 honor. Steady serenity of mind. 98 . is rajasic. or again Reluctantly.
Vedas. given. the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. Unreal or false. “Sat” is used with the meaning of Reality and of goodness. and Sacrifice. are Begun with utterance of “Om. Steadfastness in sacrifice. Sat.“Om. So also the word “Sat” is used In the sense of auspicious acts. And austerity is called “Sat:”141 Also action in connection With these is designated “Sat.” Whate’er is sacrificed. 141 142 Real or true. gift. whate’er austerity Is practiced without faith. 99 . gift. the science of the Eternal.” without desire For fruits–thus are sacrifice. Sacrifice. And austerity then performed By seekers of liberation. Tat.” this has been declared The triple title of Brahman. the scripture of Yoga. Uttering “Tat. austerities According to the scriptures. Or done. gifts. By That were created of old Brahmins. ends the seventeenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of the Division of Threefold Faith. is known Here or hereafter as “Asat.” By the expounders of Brahman.”142 23 24 25 26 27 28 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita.
Sacrifice. And gift should not be relinquished. Should still be performed. austerity. though leaving Attachment and the fruits. 1 2 3 4 5 6 143 144 Renunciation.” Abandonment.” 100 . but done. Sacrifice.Chapter Eighteen The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation Arjuna said: I desire to know sev’rally. while others say That sacrifice. gift.144 Krishna. O Tiger of Men. O best of Bharatas. The Holy Lord said: Renouncing desire-based actions Sages consider sannyasa: Abandonment of all works’ fruits The wise declare to be tyaga. Arjuna. “turning from. austerity– Should not be relinquished. such is My best and certain conviction. Tyaga has been declared to be Of three kinds. austerity Are purifying to the wise.143 O Hrishikesha. O mighty-armed one. As also of tyaga. gift. “casting aside. Hear the conclusion regarding Tyaga. Some say action should be renounced As an evil. the truth of Sannyasa. But even these works.
Producing not the fruit thereof. The presiding divinity. Is rajasic relinquishment. with doubts dispelled. But not to the relinquishers. When work is done only because It should be done. The threefold fruit of all action– Uncongenial. Steadfast. And that which is also the fifth. The functions of manifold kind. Abandonment from delusion Is declared to be tamasic. nor are they Attached to the congenial work. Learn from Me these five causes for The accomplishment of all works As are declared in the Sankhya Which is the end of all action: The body. The relinquishment of action From fear of trouble or of pain. mixed– Accrues to non-relinquishers. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 101 . Relinquishers of sattwic kind. Actions cannot be entirely Relinquished by the embodied. agent. the senses. That relinquishment is sattwic. leaving aside Attachment and the fruit as well. But the relinquishing of fruits Of action is relinquishment. congenial. hate not Uncongenial work.But the renunciation of Required action is not proper.
Knowledge. The Absolute. He who through a non-purified Understanding looks on his Self. With intelligence untainted. He who is free from egoism.Whate’er action a man performs By his body. Knowledge. But that by which in all are seen Many beings of many kinds As diff’rent from one another. Confined to a single effect As the whole. from the distinction of Gunas: hear them also duly. He kills not. and agent are Declared by Sankhya to be of Three kinds. The instrument. and the knower Form the threefold cause of action. and without reason Or basis in truth. Know that knowledge as rajasic. That by which in all is seen the One Indestructible Substance Inseparate in the sep’rate– Know that knowledge to be sattwic. the known. action. purpose. and the mind– Whether right or just the reverse– These five alone are its causes. speech. agent Are the threefold base of action. neither is he bound. Although he kills all these people. as the agent– He of distorted mind sees not. trivial– Know that knowledge as tamasic. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 102 .
Without heed to the consequence. With self-conceit and much effort. Humble. endued with courage and Ardor. indolent. Impure. damage.Action without love or hatred And without desire for the fruit. According to the three gunas Exhaustively and severally. An agent free from attachment. Now hear the triple distinction Of intellect and fortitude. fearlessness. and unaffected in Success or failure. O Dhananjaya. Loss. That intellect which knows the paths Of work and renunciation. fear. malignant. And free from any attachment Know that action is called sattwic. greedy. Right and wrong acts. Action done desiring desires. Wicked. Bondage and freedom. Action that’s done through delusion. procrastinating– Such an agent is tamasic. One passionate. or ability: Know that action as tamasic. Despondent. know as truth: That action is called rajasic. easily elated Or dejected. is rajasic. obstinate. desirous of Action’s fruits. dishonest. vulgar. is sattwic. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 103 . is sattwic. Unsteady.
That intellect enveloped in Darkness. fear. and senses Are regulated. regarding adharma As dharma. That which is like poison at first. Fortitude by which the functions Of the mind. That arising from the contact Of object with sense–at first like Amrit’ but like poison at last– That happiness is rajasic. and seeing all things Distortedly. That intellect is rajasic. despondency. is tamasic. desire. Grief. That fortitude is rajasic. and overweening conceit. unswerving By means of yoga is sattwic. From attachment to all their fruits. That by which the stupid does not Give up sleep.That intellect of mistaken Apprehension of dharma and Adharma. That by which one regulates the Mind to dharma. and by which one Attains unto the end of pain. That fortitude is tamasic. But like amrita at the end. and wealth. prana. Now hear from Me of the threefold Happiness whose enjoyment is Learned by practice. of right and wrong acts. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 104 . Born of self-realization’s light– That happiness is called sattwic.
39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 105 . and miscomprehension. Or in heaven among the gods. courage. piety– These are the duties of Brahmins. sloth. Calmness. Are the duties of the Vaishyas. husbandry. restraint. By Whom all this is pervaded. From Whom all beings do come forth.That which begins and results in Self-delusion arising from Sleep. Man attains highest perfection. There is no entity on earth. And Shudras’ duty is service– Arising from innate nature. that now hear from Me. discernment. Agriculture. as also of Shudras. trade. That is declared as tamasic. How by his duty he attains Perfection. Also not fleeing from battle. splendor. The duties are distributed According to guna-nature. Valor. Born of Prakriti. Arjuna. Knowledge. sovereignty– These are duties of Kshatriyas. A man attains to perfection. Worshipping Him with his duty. patience. uprightness. Devoted to his own duty. Generosity. austerity Purity. and skill. Of Brahmins and Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Found devoid of these three gunas.
The same to all. without desires. and mind controlled. Arjuna. that supreme Consummation of all knowledge. pride. Endued with a pure intellect. Abstemious. With body.One’s own dharma. learn from Me in brief How. having reached such perfection. Dwelling in a secluded place. The duty to which one is born Should not be relinquished. speech. power. Neither grieving nor desiring. possessiveness. dispassionate. Subduing body and senses. He attains Brahman. One with Brahman. He whose mind is ever detached. Relinquishing the sense-objects. though imperfect. The duty Of one’s own nature brings no ill. wrath. Lust. Forsaking ego. for as the fire by smoke So defect envelops all deeds. freed from The notion of “mine. e’er engaged in Meditation. 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 106 . Leaving attraction and hatred. Is better than another’s though Done to perfection. he thus attains Supreme devotion unto Me. although Faulty. With subdued heart. Attains by renunciation To perfect freedom from action.” and tranquil– He’s fit for union with Brahman. tranquil-minded.
By My grace he attains to the Eternal. Fettered by your karma born of Your nature. what you. Thus ever fix your mind on Me. Though doing all actions always. What and Who I am. Resigning mentally all deeds To Me. He forthwith enters into Me. Always taking refuge in Me. For your nature will compel you. immutable State. Desire not to do. But if from self-conceit you will Not hear Me. filled with pride and self-conceit.” In vain shall be this your resolve. If. deluded. Resorting to buddhi-yoga. with all your heart Take refuge in Him. You wrongly think: “I will not fight. O Arjuna. With mind fixed on Me. then you shall perish. causing Them by His Maya to revolve As if mounted on a machine. you shall by My grace surmount all obstacles. as to the highest goal. the Lord dwells in The hearts of all beings. he knows Me in truth. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 107 . and you shall Surely attain unto supreme Peace and the eternal abode. O Bharata.Devoted. then having Known Me in My reality. you shall have To do–though in spite of yourself.
nor to one who does not desire to listen. Never speak this to one without Austerities or devotion. Relinquishing all dharmas. Or one who renders not service. nor to one who speaks evil of Me. now reflect on It fully. Fill your mind with Me. then do as you please. Nor shall there be another on The earth dearer to Me than he. You shall reach Me. for truly I Promise you–you are dear to Me. you Should take refuge in Me alone. because you Are dearly beloved of Me.145 He who with supreme devotion To Me teaches this most supreme Secret unto My devotees Shall doubtless come to Me alone. nor to one who is without devotion. Therefore I shall speak for your good. wherefore grieve not. Sacrifice and bow down to Me. been declared To you by Me.” 145 108 . Most secret of all. more secret than All other secrets. Nor among men is there any Who does dearer service to Me.Thus has wisdom. Or to one who cavils at Me. nor to one who does not render service. devoted. Then I shall fully liberate You from all sins. Now hear again My supreme word. 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 “This shall not be spoken of by you to one who is without austerity.
I am firm. Yoga’s Lord. I will do Your word. most secret yoga. has the delusion Of your ignorance been destroyed? Arjuna said: Yea. Sanjaya said: Thus have I heard this wonderful Dialogue of Vasudeva And the high-souled son of Pritha. O Pritha’s son.And he who studies this sacred Dialogue of ours. Causing my hair to stand on end. Direct from Krishna. shall worship Me by knowledge’s sacrifice. I recall again and again This wondrous. Full of faith and free from scoffing. shall attain The happy worlds of the righteous. Has this been heard. By you with a one-pointed mind? Moreover. This is My certain conviction. By grace of Vyasa have I heard This supreme. destroyed is my delusion. and my doubts are gone. Himself the one declaring it. 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 109 . And I have gained my memory Through Your grace. And even that man who hears this. liberated. He. holy dialogue Between Krishna and Arjuna And rejoice again and again.
the dialogue between Sri Krishna and Arjuna. ends the eighteenth discourse entitled: The Yoga of Liberation by Renunciation. 77 78 Om Tat Sat Thus in the Upanishads of the glorious Bhagavad Gita. and right Order: such is my conviction. Where’er is Krishna. Yoga’s Lord. Where’er is Arjuna. victory. 110 . the science of the Eternal. Great is my wonder. O King. there are Splendor. and I rejoice again and again. wealth. the scripture of Yoga.As I recall and recall that Most wonderful form of Hari.
146 2:1 13:1 13:2 10:20146 Sri Ramana Maharshi said that this verse is the quintessence of the Gita–the Gita in a single verse. and whose eyes were filled With tears. O Bharata. The knowledge of Field and Knower I consider as the knowledge. 4) I am the Self abiding in The heart of all beings. And he who knows it thus is called The Knower of the Field by those Who know of both Field and Knower. Madhusudana spoke these words: 2) The Holy Lord said: This body is known as the Field. I am The beginning. and Also the end of all beings. the middle. downcast and despairing. 111 . 3) Know Me also. To be the Knower in all Fields.Sri maharshi gita 1) Sanjaya said: To him who was thus overcome By pity.
It is not slain whene’er the body is slain. Nor having been will it e’er come not to be. 10) As the all-pervading ether. death is sure. Of that which is dead. 8) That by Which all is pervaded– Know That is indestructible. The Self seated in the body Is not tainted in any case. Nor wetted. birth is sure. 2:27 2:20 2:24 2:17 2:16 13:32 112 . The certainty of both of these Is known to those who see the truth. 6) Neither is the Self slain. There is none with the power to Destroy the Imperishable. nor yet does it die. 9) The unreal never comes to be. Immovable. Over the unavoidable.5) Of that which is born. perpetu’l. The real does never cease to be. eternal. Through subtlety is not tainted. primeval. Therefore you never should lament. nor dried: ’tis changeless. All-pervading and unmoving. 7) This self cannot be cut. nor burnt. Birthless. eternal self.
Going whither they return not. Freed from the dualities–pleasure and pain– The undeluded reach that eternal Goal. 16:23 13:27 11:54 113 . without desires. There shines neither the moon nor fire. Attains not unto perfection. Nor happiness. 16) By single-minded devotion I may be known in this true form. delusion–attachment conquered– Dwelling in the Supreme Self. Attaining Which they return not. 15) The one who truly sees is he Who ever sees the Supreme Lord Existing equally in all Beings. Scorcher of Foes. 15:6 8:21 13) Without pride. 12) The unmanifest. This is My supreme dwelling place. For that is My Supreme Abode.11) That the sun illuminates not. eternal. also Entered into. Is declared as the Supreme Goal. 15:5 14) He who sets aside the counsels Of scriptures from desire’s impulse. Seen in reality. deathless in the dying. nor Goal Supreme.
22) Above the body are senses. I bestow the buddhi-yoga By which they shall come unto Me. I. destroy The darkness born of ignorance By the shining lamp of knowledge. In truth. and devoted. Abiding in their hearts. And the master of his senses. Reveals then the Supreme Brahman. 18) The man of faith. Above the intellect: the self. the man consists of his faith. 20) Out of compassion for them. like the sun. 21) But those whose ignorance has been Destroyed by knowledge of the self– That knowledge of theirs. 17:3 4:39 10:10 10:11 5:16 3:42 114 . Above the senses is the mind. Yea. 19) To them. the constantly steadfast. and having Attained quickly finds Supreme Peace. Attains this knowledge. he is what his faith is.17) Each one’s faith is according to His natural disposition. Above the mind is intellect. Worshipping Me with affection.
Moving here and there. He should subdue and hold it back– Direct it to the Self’s control. In the same way. O Arjuna. wanders off. 26) Released from desire and anger. 3:43 4:37 4:19 5:26 6:25 6:26 115 . then destroy That enemy. He gains quietude by degrees: Let him not think of any thing. 28) Whenever the unsteady mind. knowing Him Who is above The intellect. 27) With intellect set in patience.23) Thus. and restraining The self by the Self. With thoughts restrained. Whose actions are burnt in the fire Of knowledge–him the wise call wise. those ascetics Who know the Self. find very near The bliss of Brahma-nirvana. 25) Whose undertakings are devoid Of plan and desire for results. that foe: desire. With the mind fastened on the self. 24) As fire reduces wood to ash. The fire of knowledge does reduce To ashes all karma–know this.
sees The Self present in all beings. He is called “of steady wisdom. 30) He. Supremely dear am I to him. He sees the same Self at all times. And he is dear to Me. For them I secure what they lack And preserve that which they possess. excels. Freed from desire. as well. e’er steadfast.” 5:28 6:29 9:22 7:17 7:19 2:55 116 . intellect. mind. and anger: Such a sage is for ever free. Devoted to the One. 33) At the end of his many births The wise man takes refuge in Me. disciplined by yoga. With moksha as the supreme goal.” How very rare is that great soul! 34) When he completely casts away All the desires of the mind. Worshipping Me with steadfast mind. 31) Those who direct their thoughts to Me. 32) Of them. His self satisfied by the self. the wise man. fear. He knows: “All is Vasudeva.29) Controlling sense. And all beings within the Self.
117 . And whom the world agitates not. 37) The same in honor and disgrace. 40) Content with what comes unbidden.35) He who abandons all desires Attains peace. And worry–he is dear to Me. causing 147 2:71 12:15 14:25 3:17 3:18 4:22 Pronounced as four syllables. Who is pleased only in the self: For him there is no need to act. The same to friend and enemy. Who is satisfied in the Self. Nothing to gain by inaction. 38) He who is content in the Self. 41) O Arjuna. envy. The same in success or failure. Indifferent to possessions And free from all egotism. he is not bound. Who is freed from joy. the Lord dwells in The hearts of all beings. 39) He has nothing to gain by acts. Beyond duality. Renouncing all undertakings– He has gone beyond the Gunas. fear. acts free from longing. E’en though acting. And no need of any being For any purpose soever.147 36) He who agitates not the world. envy.
and you shall Surely attain unto supreme Peace and the eternal abode. 42) O Bharata. He. Who seated in Arjun’s car. with all your heart Take refuge in Him. 18:61 18:62 148 These four lines where written by Sri Ramana to be included in the recitation of the forty-two verses he selected as the essence of the Gita’s teachings. Spoke the Gospel to Arjuna And removed his distress.Them by His Maya to revolve As if mounted on a machine. Om. may that Embodiment of Grace save us!148 Om Tat sat. 118 .