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THE PATH OF PURITY .
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No. AMEN CORNER. AND AT NEW YORK. E. AND BOMBAY . MELBOURNE.C. OF VIRTUE (OR MORALS) Xonfcon PUBLISHED FOR THE PALI TEXT SOCIETY BY THE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. 11 (EXTRA SUBSCRIPTION) BEING A TRANSLATION OF BUDDHAGHOSA'S VISUDDHIMAGGA BY PE MAUNG PART TIN TRANSLATOR OF THE " ATTHASALINI " I.TRANSLATION SERIES. TORONTO.
Pk PniNTEU IN GREAT BRITAIN. .
which all along felt the need of a European edition of this work. it is quoted by just these Commentaries on the Nikayas as well as taries by the Samantapasadika and Atthasalim. As has been explained in the Editorial if THE Note to my translation of the Atthasalim. vol. To those unacquainted with the history of the Commentaries it would thus seem that the Visuddhimagga was written later than these Commentaries. Rhys Davids has said what she had to say about the book and its author. six years ago. and recently brought out their own edition of the text. xlix. I especially appreciate her useful list of quotations in the book from canonical and other works. the Visuddhimagga in its turn refers to the Majjhima . In the Afterword to her scholarly edition of the Visuddhimagga. Rhys Davids. the Majjhima Commentary. which is being edited for the Pali Text Society by When. For instance. Professor Lanman of Harvard University published an admirable analysis of this first part in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. I will here touch upon just one point. No. and is therefore earlier than these works.D. could wait no longer. the famous treatise which was. 3. Mrs.PREFACE present volume is a translation of the first part of Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. The Visuddhimagga makes reference (see Index) to the Commenon the Anguttara. Majjhima. therefore. But. I submitted my translation to the Pali Text Society. 1913. I would have taken up. had not entertained from year to year good hopes of seeing Professor Lanman's edition and translation. The Pali Text Society. Mrs. as is believed. on the other hand. written in Ceylon in the beginning of the fifth century A. August. the translation of the I Visuddhimagga instead of the Atthasalim. So. Since then ten years have passed by without our seeing the long-hoped-for American edition of the text or its translation. and Samyutta. on the assurance of the editor. that she saw no prospect of an American translation. Woods. Professor James H. refers to it by name.
87). ' And we know that there were these original Ceylonese Commentaries and ' also the Poranas on which Buddhaghosa based his writings. 1914) by Pyi Sayadaw. 1917-19. Final decision. called the Buddha's Word. have been preserved through the centuries by a line of teachers. This explanation may account for the close similarity. we regard the Visuddhimagga and the Vimuttimagga as may more or less independent works. but to the original Ceylonese Commentary from which he later made his redaction. My thanks are due to Bhikkhu Sllacara. Nagai has pointed out in the Journal of the Pali Text Society. Rhys Davids for her kind help in reading the proofs and for the keen interest she has taken in the translation. as does M.vi Preface Commentary by name. which. whose aim is consistency in doctrinal interpretation attire. should be postponed until we know more of Buddhaghosa's writings and the works to which he refers. however. and to Mrs. OXTOKD. written by men who belonged to the same school of thought namely. EXETEK COLLEGE.' rather than originality in striking out new paths. the orthodox school at Anuradhapura. however. he refers to the Digha Commentary that is. said of the other references in the Visuddhimagga to the The same may be Com- mentaries on the Anguttara and Samyutta. I have consulted with benefit the Burmese translation (Rangoon. I would not. or at least consulting. PE . 1922. who was kind enough to go over my first draft translation of Chapter I. In the Sumangalavilasirii also (i. exists between the Visuddhimagga and the Vimuttimagga. December 10. go to the extent of saying. Nagai. And in the footnotes I have made occasional quotations from such works on the Visuddhimagga as the Mahatikd by Dhammapala of Ceylon and the Ganthi by Saddhammajotipala of Burma. to the original Ceylonese Commentary he was recasting. that these two works are one and the same work appearing in different ' Considering that the doctrines. a work by another writer. as M. the explanation may well be that the reference is not to the Majjhima Commentary as it has been written by Buddhaghosa. which is Buddhaghosa's Commentary on the Digha Nikaya.
EXPOSITION OF THE ASCETIC PRACTICES 66-95 66 - GENERAL DISCOURSE 1. THE ALMSMAN'S PRACTICE 4. THE HOUSE-TO-HOUSE-GOER'S PRACTICE 5. THE ONE-SESSIONER'S PRACTICE 6. PROXIMATE CAUSE ? WHAT ARE ITS ADVANTAGES ? HOW MANY KINDS OF IT ARE THERE WHAT IS ITS CORRUPTION ? - 10 ? 11 12 57 57 - WHAT ITS PURIFICATION ? - II. MANIFESTATION.CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE CHAPTER I. THE OPEN-SPACER'S PRACTICE 11. 6. V - vi - EXPOSITION OP VIRTUE 1. THE BOWL-FOODER'S PRACTICE 7. 3. ITS - IT VIRTUE ? 9 ITS CHARACTERISTICS. 5. 7. THE TREE-ROOTMAN'S PRACTICE 10. THE THREE-ROBER'S PRACTICE 3. THE ANY-BEDDER'S PRACTICE 13. WHAT IS VIRTUE ? IN WHAT SENSE IS WHAT ARE ITS ESSENCE. THE SITTING-MAN'S PRACTICE 70 73 74 76 - 78 79 81 - - 81 84 - 86 87 89 90 91 OF ASCETIC AND OTHER TERMS AS MORAL TRIAD OF ASCETIC AND OTHER TERMS AS DIFFERENTIATED IN GROUPS AND IN DETAIL 92 93 . THE AFTERFOOD-REFUSER'S PRACTICE 8. THE BURNING-GROUNDER'S PRACTICE 12. 8-65 8 2. ITS 4. THE REFUSE-RAGMAN'S PRACTICE 2. THE FORESTER'S PRACTICE 9.
And why was came one night a certain deva who.THE PATH OF PURITY Honour be to Him. may from this tangle disembroil. in order to have doubt removed. 2 so all mankind. on virtue planted In intellect and intuition trained . The brother ardent and discriminant : 'Tis he firm. because it arises below and above repeatedly in connection with such objects as visible things. without. By the net of craving. known as the various classes of 1. Gotama. And it is said to be " Tangle within. lo! in the toils Entangled is the race of sentient things." it 1 Thus It is thus spoken? said that to the Blessed One then staying at Savatthi it was spoken." from the fact of its arising within one's own and others' individualities and what thereto appertains. For craving is network of branches of bamboo-bushes and the " is meant tangle like the tangle of the '' like. Kindred Sayings 20. without. of this : Who is't can from this tangle disembroil ?" 1 And this briefly is the meaning. 1 . in the sense of an intertwisting. Buddha Supreme the Saint. asked this question there : his " Tangle within. the Blessed. Hence would I ask thee. - Read velugunibajatadlhi. in the organs subjective and Mankind is entangled in such a tangle. the INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE " The man discreet. and the like are entangled by such tangles as bamboobamboos bushes. Just as objective.
the world of form. Attend ye to the things that " " I relate. embroiled. are entangled. Hence would I ask thee. The man discreet. the Brahma of Brahmas. the meaning of. though they seek it here. according to the truth. .2 The Path of Purity this is the sentient beings. Not knowing aright the Path of Purity. The brother ardent and discriminant : 'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil. The meaning of the stanza of the Sage. Gotama. which is free from and exceedingly pure. I will expound the Path of Purity. the Deva of devas. "  And because of such entanglement. viz. in that tangle of craving meaning. Though they to ordination have attained. bearer of the Tenfold Strength. Which holds all virtue. addressing the Blessed One by his family is't can from this tangle disembroil?" "Who name. of this. by all taints Purity is meant Nibbana. the Sakka of Sakkas. The way to this purity is of sense. In intellect and intuition trained. Hard to attain in the Great Conqueror's realm. confident with the Four Confidences. and is straight and safe. whose desire is purity. the world and the world of the formless. enmeshed. 1 Or threefold conditions. gladdening even those Who never may attain to purity For all their striving. Which treats of virtue and such other things." is to be understood thus: Therefore I ask thee. endowed with spake this unimpeded knowledge and the stanza in answer " : all-seeing eye. Gotama. means: Who is able to disentangle this tangle which has thus entangled the Three Elements? 1 Thus questioned. the Blessed One. Devout men." In setting forth. and contains Purest decisions. walking in unobstructed knowledge of all things. on virtue planted firm. Which rests on the strict rules of the devout Dwellers at the Great Minster. Here.
. 327. Hath insight. mind by method trained. for the realization of "This Nibbana. 46. : The which who understandeth.Introductory Discourse the '' 3 Path the is " Path. is for the of purification beings . This Path of Purity has been set forth in terms of simple insight in some places thus " All things conditioned are impermanent . 290. 'Tis he can cross the flood so hard to pass . engaged in fulfilling virtue said to be established in virtue. holdeth In scorn. virtue planted firm. brethren. . Dhammapada 372. stirs can to mystic rapture win. in terms of virtue and the like in other places thus : " He that in virtuous habit never fails. " 4 Who up effort. 2 2b. Thereon (i. The highest conduct on good morals based: This maketh mortals pure. But here in the Blessed One's reply it has been set forth in terms of virtue and so forth." 5 And the same with the Supreme Efforts and so forth." means. 3 6 * Kindred Sayings I. in terms of kamma and so forth in some places thus : " Good will.e.  in III ' 31 terms of Jhana-insight in other places thus " : He from Nibbdna is not far in whom "2 Appear Jhana and insight. not rank nor wealth "3 . Ib. puts forth all his strength. in terms of the application of mindfulness and so forth in some places thus: single way. being established in And here in this phrase one who is even now is is." The means of its acquisition is called I am going to speak of that Path of Purity. to wit: the Four Applications of Mindfulness. This is the path of purity. Hence fulfilling the meaning here 1 being established in virtue by 277.." of Purity. on the Blessed One's stanza) this is the brief comment : " On virtue. Dialogues of the Buddha ii. Dlgha Nikaya ii. 76. and wisdom. the meaning.. this path.
" wisdom is called discriminait is ardent. In intellect and intuition trained. Ardent means energetic. is is " the meaning. and this threefold wisdom. the sword of insight. of hate. and clear away. 1 " In intellect and intuition trained. and this ardour." Viz. to wit: this virtue and this concentration set forth under the heading of mind. making frequent questionings and being strenuous in culture. By this word is discriminant indicated preserving wisdom. At the moment is worthy of the best heaven and earth. lift up. second there is insight-wisdom. 1 - . " " the brother clanger in the stream of existence this is " " 'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil (bhikkhu). "Discreet" means. means:  Just as a man standing on the ground may lift up a well-sharpened sword and clear away (disentangle) a big bamboo-bush. so may the brother endowed with the six states. wise by means of wisdom born of kamma associated with conception (in the womb) attended by the Three Root-conditions. and insight " " under the name of intuition (or wisdom). the sentient being. Endowed " therewith. In this answer wisdom comes three times.wisdom well sharpened on the stone of concentration. maintaining all functions. for here concentration is set forth under the head of intellect (or mind). Hence has the Blessed One said : of Fruition he. cleave that entire tangle of craving which keeps falling into the continuity of his at the own aggregates. having cleared the tangle. He who possesses '' In discriminant. First there is 2 mother-wit. and standing on the ground of virtue. on virtue planted firm. The brother ardent and discriminant : 'Tis he may from this tangle disembroil. of delusion. The absence of greed. and third there He sees preserving wisdom. Such as acquiring the subjects of meditation. for energy is called ardour in the sense of causing the corruptions to be completely burnt up. gifts in " The man discreet." means cultivating concentration and insight.4 it. by means of the hand of preserving wisdom supported by the strength of energy. The Path of Purity "The man" means. tion. And indeed he clears that tangle moment of his attainment of the Path.
And since it bears such merit as indicated the happiness of the religion " in its progress. and compre- hending by means of wisdom. the cleansing from the three corruptions. concentration. the religion happy in its three stages. Indeed." is absence of remorse. And since it bears such merit as the various kinds of supra-normal power. " the refraining from all evil." and higher virtue.Introductory Discourse 5 What " is meant therein is is." 4 it is evident that virtue is the beginning of the religion. " " in ardent and discriminant it is meant that he is to be persevering by means of the said energy. the man " that there remains nothing for which he to do in regard to that wisdom by means of " said to be discreet. the avoidance of the two extremes and the practice of the middle course. Here. thus." for his wisdom has been made And perfect in virtue of kamma done in a previous existence. and wisdom. and establishing himself in virtue. progress. from such expressions as: 3 beginning of moral states ? The virtue of great purity. tJie  For. from such expressions as: 4 concenand so it is that evident on. Knowledge of former existences. the Blessed One has set forth this Path of Purity under the heads of virtue. the opposition to transgression and so forth. fulfilment of morality. 143. How so ? Here by virtue is indicated the training in the by concentration. the training in the higher wisdom. the passing away and reappearing beings. the training in the higher and thought. cultivate calm and insight indicated by way of intellect (or mind) and intuition (or wisdom). in the middle of the religion. thus far have been set forth the threefold training. 3 Samyuttav. * DJuimmapada 183. . tration is By wisdom 1 is indicated the happiness of the religion in its 2 of Its beginning. it is happy. the means of escaping states of woe and so forth. by wisdom. and the destruction of the intoxicants. 1 the sufficing condition of the threefold knowledge 2 and so forth. the rejection of the corruptions in three ways. and the instrumentality necessary to Stream-winning and so forth. And by virtue is indicated the happiness of the religion in " its beginning. By concentration it is happy. and end. What is the For.
So 2 neither praise nor dispraise moves the wise. For. and in wisdom the means of transcending all existences. by concentration the avoiding of the extreme of self -mortification and by wisdom .6 consummation. . As it has been said "As wind a massy rock doth never move.' rejection of various parts immorality by various parts of morality. knowing others' thoughts. In concentration is set forth the sufficing condition of endowment with the Sixfold 3 For. and that it is the consummation of And since it maintains its natural state un- amid desirable : and undesirable things. one attains to the Four Analyses. (2) (4) and near. For. knowing how to bring the intoxicants to an end. and the knowing process. elimination of the factor in question ' in Expositor 454. 81." Similarly. 6 of Tadangappahdna : rejection by parts. of set forth the rejection of the corruptions by concentration. . Super-normal power far (1) manipulating (3) the physical form. The Path of Purity For. (5) clairvoyance far and near. Similarly in virtue is set forth the means of transcending the states of woe. in concentration the means of transcending the elements of sensuality. 5 183. the practising of the middle course. and not to anything higher. And in wisdom is set forth the sufficing condition of the various kinds of analysis. from the expression. depending on the attainment of virtue one attains to the Threefold Knowledge. depending on the attainment of wisdom and on no other ground. 4 Analysis of things. this is the religion of the " Buddhas" 1 we the cleansing of see the religion. that by way of 2 Dhammapada clairaudience Ib. depending on the fulfilment of conSuperknowledge. is Again. . in virtue is set forth the sufficing condition of endowment with the Threefold Knowledge. (6) remembering former existences. and not to anything higher. causes. it is happy. 4 By virtue also is indicated the avoiding of the extreme of devotion to the pleasures of sensuality. centration one attains to the Sixfold Superknowledge. affected the superiority of wisdom. as darkness by the light of Translated as ' ' a lamp. terms. one's mind. by virtue by way 1 3 of partial rejection. .
the Threefold Training. the means of transcending the states of woe and so forth. Thus in so far are set forth these nine triads. cleansing of the corruption Again. that for Never-returning. and such other triads as those of merits. the cleansing of the three corruptions. fulfiller of is said to be a fulfiller of virtue.  corruption of craving of views. to wit. the avoidance of the two extremes and the practice of the middle course. likewise But the Never-returner is said to be a concentration. and by wisdom. that for Sanctity. This is the Introductory Discourse. the religion happy in its three stages. opposition to their latent tendency. opposition to their up- by wisdom. by virtue is set forth the instrumentality for Stream- winning and Once-returning. tion. the rejection of the corruptions in three ways. by wisdom. the opposition to transgression and so forth. cleansing of the rising. by concentration. . the sufficing condition of the Threefold Knowledge and so forth.Introductory Discourse discarding. by virtue is set forth opposition to actual deeds of the corruptions. For the Stream-winner the Once-returner. by concentration. by virtue is set forth the cleansing of the corruption of misconduct. by concentration. the instrumentality for Stream. 1 of and by wisdom.winning and so forth. and the Saint a fulfiller of wisdom. that by way extermina- Again. Again. .
? : 1. its proximate cause ? 4. 44. forth. 269. mental properties are virtue. the volition which is virtue is that of the seven courses of action of one who forsakes life-taking. and elaborated into what wo understand bv virtue.- virtue? Volition is virtue. and so on the mental properties which are virtue are such states as non-covetous. its essence. beginning with the subject of virtue: What is virtue ? x 2.CHAPTER THUS of I EXPOSITION OF VIRTUE this Path of Purity. its manifestation. How kinds of virtue are there 6. and wisdom. non-transgression is virtue. n. the following questions are asked. What is virtue? who abstains from lifeand so or of who fulfils his set duties. Pss. Consequently it may not be sufficiently useful to all and so. and the mental properties which are virtue are the abstinence of one who abstains from life-taking and so forth. one For. Cf. What is its many corruption ? And what its 7." wherein the volition which life-taking is virtue is that of one who abstains from and so forth. albeit set forth under the heads concentration. What are its characteristics. moral habit. merits. restraint  is virtue. For It was the very essence of the Founder's gospel. habitual good conduct. virtue. What are its advantages ? 5. purification ? And these are the answers 1. or of one who fulfils' his set duties. 2. 1 Sila is p. In what sense is it virtue ? 3. his Order it became the basis of doctrine. 2 What Such states as the volition of one /. 8 . Further. taking " this has been said in the Patisambhidamagga. . of the Brethren. including various has been expounded very briefly indeed. in order to make it known in detail. 2 i.
is the answer to the : In what sense is is it virtue ? virtue in the sense of being virtuous (or moral). attains to the restraint of the con3 this is mindfulness-restraint.  Passing to the remaining questions 2. one's bodily actions and so on are not dissipated. 10. Thus this Fivefold Restraint as well as the restraint which noble youths dreading sin exercise in regard to anything that falls in their way should " be understood as restraint. Ib." means the absence of bodily and vocal transgression in one practised in virtue. goodwill. trolling faculty of sight" " The currents flowing in the world Ajila. Exposition of Virtue " 9 ness. supporting. is the right placing together (of bodily and vocal actions). Sulla . . of energy. in which purity is One does of livelihood also included. this the restraint 4 By insight they may be shut iw.fulfitted with this restraint according to thePatimokkha this is Patimokkha-restraint. Non-transgression is virtue.virtue. Or it means. And what is this ? The being virtuous. of knowledge. This so far " is virtue ?" What question. The being a See also Expositor 454.I. these may By mindfulness be checked. "' z endowed. in such expressions patience- not consent to the uprisen lustful thought in such expressions it is energy-restraint. " He keeps watch over the controlling faculty of sight. by virtue * ' is synonymous 1035. of mindful" Of these. where with Patimokkha-reatraint. 1 i. Said the Exalted One. The meaning is that It because one is highly virtuous. Vibhanga 246. knowledge-restraint in which "5 (knowledge it is in) the (right) use of the (four) requisites also is included. " One " ( endures cold and heat " restraint." restraint should be understood as fivefold: 1 by means of the Patimokkha. 1. -' 1 ' restraint 70. He is ness." In restraint is virtue.V/>i/ "' Majjhima i. 3 6 Digtw. right views expressed in this manner: Putting away covetousness he lives by thought free from covetous" ness." this is I teach. of patience.
yellow. and of different varieties of the establishment of moral states. is the meaning. as possessing such a characteristic. notwithstanding its various kinds. essence is said to be either function or property. and Is virtue. of speech. Indeed those who are skilful in the significations of words here understand this double meaning. perception of various colour-areas and nothing more. and has the essence. for all that sense by itself can tell us. as 1 Read sanidassanattam perception of form. of faultlessness." 3. its manifestation. It is considered to This virtue has. is the characteristic mark of the different varieties of virtue such as volition and so on. in the sense of function. and so on. It manifests itself as purity. it does not go beyond right placing and establishment. because albeit of such various kinds they do not go beyond visibility. that is. said to be purity of body. in the sense of being cool (to). visibility the characteristic mark of the form such as indigo. In excellence and war against Therefore this virtue possesses the essence. this And concerning has been said : Her active property or essence lies all sin. because. in the sense of property. ? its essence. . proximate cause it been divided. of destroying wickedness. virtue. purity. perception of objects through the visual sense. Now: What its are its characteristics.10 The Path of Purity support of moral states by way of establishment. even as visibility 1 So has its mark The mark For just as of objects is is. is. so what has been said about being virtuous by way of the right placing of bodily actions and so forth. and of mind. Its proximate cause is the sense of shame And  dread of blame (for so the wise give praise). " It is But others virtue in the set forth the meaning in such ways as: sense of being the head (sird). its manifestation. For when the characteristics and so on are mentioned.
a good report is noised abroad. essence. of one virtuous. this world. on the dissolution of the body after death. of various qualities such as absence of For absence of " Householders." 1 Further. endowed with virtue. to whatsoever assembly one virtuous. 86. it " five obtained by the virtuous. 4. an assembly of brahmins. one virtuous. manifestation. or an assembly of monks. Again. Again. .I. Thus are to be understood its characteristic. Sense of shame and dread of blame its proximate cause. endowed with This is the second virtue. an assembly of laymen. householders. This is the fifth advantage of the fulfilment 2 of virtue by the virtuous. dies undeluded. virtuous. 1. 3 Mnjjhima i. householders. which means immediate reason. endowed with virtue. been mentioned. a heavenly world. This is the fourth advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the virtuous. Ananda. advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the virtuous. are the advantages of the fulfilment of virtue What are these five advantages ? In householders. endowed with virtue. has been said. virtue arises and establishes itself in their absence it does not arise nor establish itself. In such wise have the various beginning with loveableness and preciousness and ending in the destruction of the intoxicants. householders." Furthermore: " Brethren. 33. What are its advantages ? The acquirement remorse. goes. reaches a happy destiny. acquires much wealth chiefly owing to the effect of non-negligence. This is the third advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the virtuous. endowed with virtue. Exposition of Virtue 11 manifest itself as purity. one virtuous. should a brother desire to be dear and precious advantages to. whether it be an assembly of princes. This is the first advantage of the fulfilment of virtue by the Again. householders. he enters boldly and unperturbed. Again. and : are extolled by the wise as proximate cause. For in the presence of sense of shame and dread of blame. one virtuous. Thus various qualities such as absence 1 Anguttara v. respected he should fulfil the virtues" 3 of virtue. and honoured by his fellow-monks. moral virtues have remorse for benefit and advantage. a Dlgha ii.
abstinence (dyad 3). as worldly or transcendental (dyad 7). as abstinence or non. avails. nor soft rays of moonlight can destroy Heart-burnings of a creature. Now this is the answer to 5. middling or superior (triad 1). Necklaces or pearl. yellow sandalwood. as practised for a limited period of life or until the end of life (dyad 5). the specialized or fundamental precepts. men 1 virtue destroys self-blame. root of merits.12 The Path of Purity  More- of remorse constitute the advantages of virtue. likewise as dominantly influenced 1 2 by self. But virtue's water can remove the stain Of all things living. How many kinds of it are there (i) ? All this virtue is of one kind through its characteristic of being virtuous (ii) (monad i. slayer of faults. Note the plural form yatino instead of yatayo. (dyad 2). Can purify on earth the taints of men. cool. known The sum Of Begetting joy and praise. Gems. noble. She alone Virtue well-guarded. Who can tell The limit of her power ? Not Ganga stream Nor Yamuna nor babbling Sarabhu. as interested or disinterested (dyad 4). .). as violable or inviolable (dyad 6). Rain-bearing breezes. over : The true No religion gives to noble sons other stay than virtue. What scent else blows with and against the wind What stairway leads like her to heaven's gate ? ? W hat door into Nibbana's city opes r ? The Sage whose Outshines the virtue is his ornament In virtuous pomp and pearls of jewelled kings. Thus should be of all the discourse on the power virtue. Nor Aciravati nor Mahi's flood.  (iii) It is of three kinds as inferior. two kinds as positive or negative rules of conduct (dyad 1) likewise as the minor or the major precepts 2 It is of . Or.
abstention. volition. (pentad 1) . or connected with the requisites (tetrad 4). or tranquillized (triad 3). or non-transgression (pentad Of (i) these. concerning the sisters." is a positive rule of conduct. unlimited precepts of purity. the non-doing of " what has been prohibited as. . or the fruit of former conditions (tetrad 3) .' Of these two. precepts of purity not misconstrued. 'Specialized with reference to a special precept is the specialized precept. Thus it is twofold as positive and negative rules of conduct. This ought not to be practised. or concerning laymen (tetrad 2) as natural. the latter by faith. or doubtful (triad 4) as probationary. of stability. restraint. likewise as rejection. fixed law. or 1 by the Law (triad 2). and as restraint according to the Patimokkha. according to what has been said in the Patisambhida. restraint of the controlling faculties. (v) It is of five kinds as limited precepts of purity. or tranquillized precepts of purity. In the second dyad ' special precept ' means the highest is Or. Exposition of Virtue 13 by the world.' means of it By they avoid." is a negative rule of conduct.' a synonym for the precept which remains over from the Bet - 1*. precept. In the onefold portion (monad 1) the meaning the is to be understood as has been said above. guard against a prohibition ' ' negative rule of conduct. as misconstrued. concerning novices. Here is the word-definition: (ii) In the twofold portion (dyad 1) by having fulfilled the precepts those who are endowed with a precept are practised in it positive rule of conduct. or neither probationary nor adept (triad 5). 2 fulfilling of the " This ought to be precepts enacted by the Blessed One thus: practised. adept. 9. . (iv) It is of four kinds as partaking of deterioration. .I. of speciality. purity of livelihood. or of penetration (tetrad 1). 2). the former is accomplished by the effort of faith. completed precepts of purity. impure. what is emu-ted just special. as pure. customary practice. likewise as concerning the brethren. not misconstrued.
The remainder the " minor pre- which is it is impossible that a brother without fulfilling the law of the minor precept. as minor and major precepts (or specialized and fundamental)." and lesser precepts. and is a synonym for the set of eight precepts of which pure livelihood is the eighth." is the inducement of views. there is the transcendental virtue. the purified actions. iv." The former is perfected by perfec" tion in the latter.  is the is " major precept. Thus it is twofold as abstinence and non-abstinence. In the fourth dyad interested means that there are two inducements the inducement of craving and the inducement of views." 5 Thus it is twofold. Expositor 505. because it ought to be in Hence (the Buddha) purified practice previous to the Path. 4 3 I. Of these two that which arises from a desire to attain " (a blissful) existence thus: By means of this virtue I shall become a dera or a certain deva. 6 Ib. and pure livelihood. is the virtue of abstinence. iii. precepts for the brethren and the sisters as laid Patimokkha. In the third dyad." 2 Or. Hence (the Buddha) has said: Brethren. 2 Cf.e. and there is the worldly virtue which is a constituent of this these constitute the ' ' : 1 Viz. Ib." 6 is the inducement of craving. 461. his vocal action. deed and four of speech. 3 is the major 4 precept". iii." Or. in the Mahavagga and Cullavagga. Anguttara 124 /. i. iii. This set of eight is the foundation of the Path. three of Cf. 6 Angultara 14.e. his livelihood have been well purified. that which is included in the Khandhaka duties " is the minor precept. should fulfil the law of the major precept. 7 Dhammasangani 1005 . ii. down in the I. is the virtue of non-abstinence. has said: "Previously his bodily action. Vinaya Texts i (Sacred Books of the East).14 The Path of Purity which pure livelihood ' of eight precepts of ' is the eighth. The remaining volition and so on. that " included in both the Yibhanga's. 1 The fundamental precept is the foundation of the exalted practice of the Path. " That which arises from pure views thus: By means of this 7 And virtue there will be purity. the mere abstention from life-taking and so on. what has been declared to be the minor cept.
limbs and life. for the sake of a certain person does not give rise even to a thought of gain. relatives. purpose of concentration. gain ? then. How. 44." In this way also the others should be expanded. for the purpose of repose. which is for the is is for purpose of gladness. on account of." Thus it is twofold. precept that by reason of. " As has been said: 3 Discipline is for the purpose of restraint. that which " transcendental. which is for the purpose of rapture. there is virtue violable by limbs. In the seventh dyad is all (or the object of) the intoxicants is worldly ". will he transgress it ? Such virtue is not violable by gain. " violable.' fifth is " dyad the virtue which is practised within a is for a limited period of life. transgressing any precept that may have been observed. by reason of. which the is is for the purpose of absence of remorse. In the sixth dyad that which is limited by present gain. life. virtue violable by gain. there is virtue there is virtue violable by relatives. is known as contrary to that is said in the Patisambhida: 1 is What " inviolable. What is that virtue which is violable by gain ? Some one in the world on account of. 43. and is a constituent part of the escape from existence. which a Ib. Exposition of Virtue 15 and " disinterested virtue. In the time-limit so long as life." it is practised during a life-time That which arises 'until the end of Thus it is twofold. for the sake of gain transgresses any may have been observed. it " has been said: 2 What is that virtue which is not violable by In this world.' In this way the others also should be expanded." not accompanied by the intoxicants is virtue which " is accompanied by Of these two worldly virtue brings about distinction in present life. which which i i. purpose v. there is virtue violable by life." ' And this has been What is that virtue which is violable ? violable by There is pomp. i. 164. which for the purpose of is for the blix#." pomp. as violable and as inviolable. as interested disinterested. 3 Vinaya . Thus it is twofold. also.I. In the answers concerning the inviolable. as practised for a limited period of and until the end of life. Such  is the virtue that is violable by gain.
namely." is is "inferior"." 3 is ship. that virtue which arises through inferior conation. transcendental virtue Or. not graspno material form behind and does not give On the definition of Ariyan see Expositor 452. consciousness.e. that which is practised from a superior. ing after anything. is fold as inferior. Among the triads : In the first triad. while that virtue of the perfections which arises for the sake of the " superior. for such purpose is the attentiveness. and is Parinibbdna. for purpose is the consultation. for such purpose is the groundwork. 2 3 entrance into Nibbana which. middling. and superior. which is for the purpose of knowing and emancipation. that through middling conation and so on so on is desire for is ' "middling"." Or. leaves rise to rebirth. i.  is dominantly influenced 1 Anupadaparinibbana. which is for the seeing purpose of emancipation. energy. Thus it is twofold. worldly virtue is "middling". " thus: I am possessed of virtue. which is for the purpose of birthless For such purpose is the discourse (on the such Discipline). The Path of Purity and seeing is which the truth. 1 the ground (iii) of retrospective knowledge. as worldly and transcendental. the emancipation of the mind devoid of grasping.16 of knowing disgust. " inferior ". but these other brethren are wicked and uncorrupted " superior." Thus. having regard for self. that virtue which arises for the sake " of inferior ". that for a meritorious result is middling" that which is practised in connection with Ariyan"' " 2 This is what ought to be done. that through superior conation and Or. that wealth and property by way of craving is " for the sake of self -emancipation is middling". virtue corrupted by exalting self and disparaging others. or investigation. and from a desire to put " away what is improper for self. which is for tlie purpose of for the purpose of dispassion." is " pomp . In the second triad that virtue w^hich arises out of selfrespect." evil in nature. it is threeemancipation of all beings. is "inferior". The Tika reads : in connection with Ariyanship out How shall one like me do such evil ?' ' of a loathing for evil: ." Transcendental virtue brings about escape from existence. thus: superior.
one speaks of a it is has a disposition for ease. is That which is associated with the fruition " of probation and adeptship is Thus it is tranquillized. Exposition of Virtue arises 17 by self. of one who has a disposition for quarrels. threefold which ' is not misconstrued. u and from a out of respect for the world. So will it be pleasant for him. In the fifth triad virtue associated with the four Ariyan Paths and the three fruitions of monkhood is probationary that which is associated with the fruition of sanctity is " " " the rest is neither probationary nor adept. Hence it is said to be threefold. in man who . the religious meditator should purify the impure virtue. arises is having tion regard for the world. is dominantly influenced by the Law. of one who has a disposition for beautification thus. and so on. Thus it is threefold as pure. so that. the Patisambhida1 there are three kinds of virtue: moral. as referring to their virtue." out of respect for the Law. it should be dispelled by not transgressing against the object. and so on." Of these. of one who has a disposition for ill. immoral.' In the fourth triad that virtue which is fulfilled without committing an offence or by atoning for an offence committed." Thus it is by the That which threefold as dominantly influenced by self. *' " . the offence. In the third triad that virtue which in the dyads (dyad 4) was said to be interested. as moral. . and so on. i. therefore. That virtue which is a constituent part of the path of a good average person and associated with the path of the probationers." That which world. the virtue of one who has doubts regarding the object. or the transgression. 44.I. " the virtue of one who has not atoned for an offence is pure '"' . is known " as doubtful. and from a desire to honour the greatness of " the Law. having regard for the Law." as misconstrued and so on. But virtue is spoken of as simply the natural dispositions of the various beings in the world. and unmoral." Thus adept .' is misconstrued through the ' ' ' misconstruction of craving and views. and when there is doubt. desire to avoid accusa- dominantly influenced by the world. threSf old as probationary. committed " is impure".
is Eight are by way " conThese constitute virtue fourfold cerning laymen. to insight turned." possible for the constant and female. beliefs. seeking fixity of thought. concerning novices. not the good. Because he is unwise. The regulated conduct of various people according to family customs. And all his virtue to corruption turns. who should keep them separate from those enacted for the brethren. Who is content Nor will bestir with his own virtue won." brethren. Seeth no injury to anything. seeking nothing higher. Pleased with his virtue. Hence the division of the triads is to be understood in accordance with the method here given. (iv) In the first of the tetrads : Who serveth here the wicked. This is virtue " concerning the brethren. In the second tetrad there are precepts enacted for the brethren. who should keep them separate from those enacted for the sisters.  Full of wrong thoughts. wrapped in world-weariness. He heeds not the controlling faculties. and so on. any therefore this triad has not been brought in here.' . This is virtue " concerning the sisters. him to apply his mind In stations of religious exercise. male of duties for the sacred day. immoral virtue does not correspond which is meant here.18 and to so on." There are precepts enacted for the sisters. is One of the ' four Great Islands. 1 localities. The Path of Purity of the characteristics of the virtue Of these three. Thus it as concerning the and so on. This brother's virtue turns to stagnancy. This brother's virtue is Thus it is fourfold as partaking of deterioration. virtuous. The His virtue to pre-eminence Dissatisfied. is turned. In the third tetrad non-transgression by men of Uttara" " kuru 1 is natural virtue." five precepts The ten precepts " if for novices male and female constitute virtue There are ten practice of lay-disciples.
when he hears a sound with his ear. 2 Vibhanga 244. restrain that which might give occasion for immoral states. and of the future Buddha in many " as the fruit of former conditions. And so. he attains and to mastery over it." The of the future Buddha. covetousness. and grief to flow in over him while he dwells unHe keeps watch over his restrained as to the faculty of sight. 121. and grief to flow in over him while he dwells unrestrained as his to the faculty of mind." Thus births. Mahakassapa. trains himself in the observance of the pre" 2 this is virtue as restraint according to the Paticepts" " as restraint of the controlling Virtue mokkha. that when the future Buddha descended into the mother's had no thought connected with lust for men. (a) that virtue which has been declared "Here (in this religion) a brother restrained the restraint of the Pdtimokkha. covetousness." (d) talk (about self i * add gain to gain. is lives. he entranced by the general appearance or the details of it. sees danger in the smallest faults. He sets himself to restrain that which might give occasion for immoral states. boastful way and donors). or smells an odour with his nose. Exposition of Virtue 19 virtue " as customary practice. and as trickery. is virtue it is fourfold as natural. and so on. Vibhanga 345. and others. or tastes a flavour with his tongue. Dlgha i. or cognizes an idea with his mind. In the fourth tetrad. " virtue as fixed law. such as the transgression of the six precepts " encicted for the sake of livelihood. Dialogues of the Buddha 15. in faculty of sight.I." The virtue of such pure beings as Ananda. like manner." 4 insinuation (in almsgiving). or feels is net a touch with his body." (6) " faculties. Cf." is that virtue which has been declared thus: Whm he sees an object with his eye. being by by the Blessed One thus: possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort.  he is not entranced by the He sets himself to general appearance or the details of it. 70. and he attains to mastery 3 abstinence from wrong livelihood arisen by over it. hungering to crushing " as purity of livelihood." 1 is she wotnb. is virtue of the four requisites 3 i." (c) The of evil states. . He keeps watch over mental (representative) faculty. declared thus: virtue of the mother " This is a fixed law. slander. The use Majjhima iii.
" (iv. releases of the states of ills mokkha itself is restraint of the Patimokkha the restraint. misbehaviour. " is possessed of The of. this is wickedness also is misbehaviour. this quotation is brought out and commented on in 2 36 /. Order here obtains his livelihood by a of leaves. Virtue as restraint according to the Patimokkha. is to be understood in the way that Being restrained by the means. dealing with the four kinds of the fourth tetrad) 5 this is the deciding discourse together with the word-by-word comment from the beginning: "Here" means. or bath-powder." The restraining is hence it is called a name for restraint. or wrong livelihood loathed by the Buddhas. .20 The Path of Purity " : after pure reflection set forth after this manner He accepts the robe wisely reflecting that it is only for the warding off of cold. In being restrained by " " is the the restraint of the Patimokkha. or tooth-sticks. 10. vocal transgression. Lives meaning." and so on." 1 is known as virtue " connected with the requisites. Herein (i. " " means comports himself. or of wearing " torn shattered rags. by any other means of This is called misbehaviour. endowed with. by bean-curry talk. is misbeand these what behaviour Of haviour? and-vocal text. or fruits. to be restrained by that Attained to. by fawning." Patimokkha his viewing danger in the virtue of the precepts. from the i- him who guards it. " Patimokkha-restraint." faith becomes a monk in the customary way. who from religion. by nurture (of supporters' chil- dren). a). of flowers. called bodily- transgression. 2 ' Bodily transgression. observes it. woe and so forth " Patimokkha. is the " comes in the Pali For this has been said: He is behaviour and There is good lawful resort. "in this " " Brother is a son of respectable family." non-transgression. and so forth. possessed of good is there misbeJtaviour. meaning  good behaviour and lawful resort. 1 Majjhima i. bodily and vocal. because of stream of existence. " " The restraint of the Patimokkha means that the PatiIt delivers. Vibhanga 246. All the A certain gift member of of bamboos.e. by carrying messages on foot. The remaining portion of p.
Of these. is unlawful resort ? A certain member of the Order here widow. he associates after the manner of laymen. a nun. speaks while standing and to '$ while stretching out his arm walks up and down with sandals on while the senior brethren walk without sandals. or a liquor shop . serves. attends on families of faithless sisters. . . unbelievers." " Further. a and their disciples. Of these what is bodily misbehaviour A certain member of the Order here. not wishing their good. a eunuch. walks above while they walk below. against the 'precepts. stands and sits rudely brushing against the senior brethren. stands and sits in front. heretical teachers. who are welling springs (for the benefit of monks). . . Thus being full of. sits on a high seat. what . resorts (for alms) to a harlot. attends on faithful families against the precepts. and there is unlawful resort. possessed of. sits with his head covered. Exposition of Virtue behaviour? Bodily 21 And vocal what is good non-transgression. As regards lawful resort there is lawful resort. stands and sits pushing himself . member of with kings of believers the Order here does not resort to a harlot does not associate after the . having gone to an assembly of the Order. All virtue-restraint also is good behaviour. bodily and vocal. walks on the promenade while they walk on the ground. comfort or security (from the burden of ill). endowed with such good behaviour and such lawful resort. one is said This is called be" possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort. follows. arrived at. benefit.  This is called resort ? unlawful resort. bodily-and-vocal non-transgression this is called good behaviour. who love and who brethren the shining of yellow robes and the odour of sanctity. . ministers. A his livelihood by a gift . lawful resort. of bamboos This is called good behaviour. attained to. certain member of the Order here does not obtain non-transgression.I. certain . of the lay-disciples male and female. benefit. comfort. And what manner is lawful A . desire the good. serves. an old maid. who abuse and censure the brethren and the lay-disciples male and female. of laymen. with kings. fully possessed of. loathed by the Buddhas. follows. fulfilled with. and security of the and sisters. good behaviour and lawful resort" here should be understood also in this way: For misbehaviour is twofold.
as a guardian. obedient. of bending and stretching his limbs. understood. endowed with mindfulness and comprehension. Of these what is lawful resort . is possessed of good deportment. without the permission of fire- the senior brethren throws down wood in the fire-shed and shuts door . of looking sideways. and says to a woman or a girl: "Madam so-and-so. possessed of a sense of shame and dread of blame. is distinguished by his gracious manner of advancing. and full of regard for worthy This is called good behaviour. strenuously energetic. where their women and daughters are sitting down. withholds seats brethren. and without asking leave of the senior brethren rudely speaks on the Law. behaviour should be understood as opposite. speaks while standing. . So far it should be things. a respectful observer of the minor precepts. of such and such a Is there rice-gruel ? to eat ? What shall something eat ? Of what shall we partake ? ? and drink family. Further- more.  and while stretching out his arm. behaviour. contented. keeps a guarded door as respects his controlling faculties. and strokes the head of a child. to the bathing-place brushing against the senior goes brethren and before them takes a bath brushing against them . keeps his eyes lowered.22 The Path of Purity from the new its close to the senior brethren. Lawful resort is of three kinds: as a sufficing condition. down and before them comes up brushing against them and before them enters among houses brushing against them and before them departing from their side goes in front of them enters abruptly into the secret and private rooms of respectable people. of retreating. . . and as a bond. is moderate in food. This is called vocal misbehaviour. devoted to keeping awake. goes among houses. This is called bodily mis. what is there to eat Is there food ? Is there we drink ? What shall we What its will you give me ?" Good Thus he chatters. wears his inner and outer robes properly. And what is vocal misbehaviour ? A certain member of the Order here goes to an assembly of the Order. answers a question and expounds the Patimokkha. free from desires. a brother is respectful. of looking ahead.
of mindfulness" said by the Blessed One: " Thus being full of . a pedestrian. gets beyond one's doubts. . what is the lawful resort of a brother. feelings. is called ? lawful resort as a sufficing condition. a chariot. virtue. and states. This is called lawful bond ? The four applications of mindfulness wherein the mind is bound. 2 as regards the body. here by so much of the text being restrained by the restraint of the Patimokkha. He does not go looking of a village on entering among the houses above. resort as a guardian." the virtue of the Patimokkha-restraint is indicated by the exposition. self-sacrifice. down. or in different directions. purifies what has been heard. committed in the course of his training.. one is said to be possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort. 1 I. owing to whom one hears what has not hitherto been heard. wisdom.I. or under whose training one increases faith. a woman. rectifies one's views and in composes one's mind. Sayyutta v. thought. and walking along the streets. or a man.e. endowed with such good behaviour " and lawful resort. learning. a horse. " Trains himself in the observance of the precepts trains himself by observing all that ought to be observed in " produced by immoral states of consciousness. Exposition of Virtue 23 as a sufficing condition ? A good friend endowed with the qualities of the ten subjects of discourse. What is lawful resort as a guardian A brother here. " is determined by the person.. But all beginning with " should be possessed of good behaviour and lawful resort the precepts. And " understood to have been said to indicate that practice which arises for any one who practises it.  " such as are unintentional." Sees danger in the smallest faults" is in the habit of seeing danger in the various kinds of the smallest faults. 148. and is well-restrained. his paternal province ? It is the four applications 2 This is called lawful resort as a bond. He does not go looking at an elephant. For this has been is What lawful resort as a 1 Brethren. looking before him not further than the distance of a plough. goes lowering his eyes.
" Is not entranced by the general appearance. speaking. discourse as the present one really refers to the constituent " He parts of sight in the same sense as when one says." when he sees an object by means of visual cognition commonly called the eye as instrument. left Anuradha- pura betimes. pierces with a " is. virtue which " is of the-Patimokkha-restraint." Nevertheless. and with corrupt thoughts  laughed aloud.24 5 (iv. when an impact takes place between the door (of the eye) and the object. Therefore the meaning here an object by visual cognition. having broken with her husband and having well beautified and dressed herself like a celestial nymph. It is said that a certain daughter-inlaw. smiling." and so forth. and seen. such a absence of the mind. thirty-two parts) in the body. saw on the way the Elder. such as the general appearance of a woman. and. the absence of the eye. foot. The Elder. or of any desirable form." is actually does not of hand. laughing. looking sideways. when he sees " bow. while going to the home of her relatives. The Path of Purity Virtue as restraint of the Controlling Faculties. " " details which have obtained the common name of by seize the different modes reason of repeated expression as a manifestation of the He seizes only what appears (as the abominable corruptions. like Mahatissa the Elder who lived at Mount Cetiya. looking ahead." When (he) sees an object with his eye. so on. who was coming to Anuradhapura from Mount Cetiya for the sake of alms. wondering what it was. But the " Ancients have said: The eye does not see the object in the The mind does not see the object in But one sees by the mind with the sentient eye as basis. attained Sanctity. eye. and so forth. " " on so is a brother established in and He (p." does not seize the general appearance as furnishing a basis for corruption. a man. In virtue as restraint of the Controlling Faculties which " when he sees an object with his has been shown in this way. 6). Hence it has been said: . and acquiring the perception of the foul in her teeth (-bones). " Is not entranced by He stops at what the details of it. 19). and capable of seeing an object. looked up.
the five-door-adverting) arises.I. then. But if at the moment of apperception there arises wickedness. following the same road. these states such as covetousness and so forth might flow in over. he saw. He sets himself to restrain that. might pursue this person who dwells with the door of his sight open without shutting the faculty of sight by the door-leaf of mindfulness on account of. '' Exposition of Virtue 25 Those bones. adverting. But indeed. accomplishing the function of in order. it is because there arises neither mindful- ness nor forgetfulness with reference to the sentient eye. when a visible object enters the avenue of sight. and called to mind His first perception. saw the Elder and enquired: "Perhaps Your Reverence has met a certain lady ?" The Elder replied : " I know not whether man of bones or woman passed. her teeth. apperception takes place." And the husband. Only he who is practising thus is said to keep watch over it. forgetfulness. Then arise and cease the visual cognition accomplishing the function of seeing. by reason " of. lack . on the cessation of the subconsciousness after arising two or three times. or of any one of the Immediately still processes beginning with adverting. and the inoperative element conditions accomplishing of mind-cognition without rootthe function of determining. Even where he stood The Elder thus attained to Sanctity. in these processes there is neither restraint nor nonrestraint at the time of subconsciousness. and then ceases. this A certain lump In " went by way. the resultant element of mind-cognition without root-conditions accomplishing the function of scrutinizing. whatsoever non-restraint of the faculty of sight. But afterwards. the inoperative mind-element (or." sets himself to shut his faculty of sight by the door-leaf of " mindfulness. the resultant mind-element accomplishing the function of receiving. there is neither restraint nor non-restraint in the faculty of sight." his faculty of sight if and to attain to mastery over whereby." which might give occasion." and so on.
and so also are the subconsciousness and the thought-processes beginning with adverting. with his ear. yet when the closed. lays claim untruly. yet when the doors closed. oppressed by desire. Like what ? Just as although the interior of houses. or laziness. all treasure within the town are not town unguarded. spoken of immediately after virtue as restraint of the con" Of the six precepts enacted for the sake trolling faculties: " of livelihood means for the sake of. to virtue as Purity of Livelihood (p. it is said to be restraint in the " when he hears a sound faculty of sight. (iv. four doors in a may be well closed. the door is guarded. and so forth.entrances and chambers. on account of livelihood. when virtue and so forth arise at apperception. And the same with. one with evil desires. and so also are the subconsciousness and the thought-processes beginning with adverting. and so 5 forth. so when wickedness and so forth arise at apperception. the door is guarded and so also are the subconsciousness and the thought-processes beginning with adverting." and so on. when nonis is present thereat. to possession of a quality pertaining only to ."  And why ? the door is unguarded. But when virtue and so on arise restraint at apperception. 19). so that thieves entering by a door of the town may do what they please. Passing now Virtue as Purity of Livelihood. and there is no entrance for thieves through the closed doors of the town. and so also the sub consciousness and the thought-processes beginning with adverting. falsely.26 The Path of Purity of knowledge. the door is unguarded. well protected. then there is non" restraint. lack of patience. virtue as restraint of the controlling faculties should be understood as possessing the characteristic of not being entranced by such outward signs and so on in following the corruptions in visible objects. so. all treasure within the town is well guarded. although the interior of houses and so on of the may town are well not be closed. unprotected. Such non-restraint is called non-restraint in the Because when it arises faculty of sight. And thus briefly. c). door. Like what? Just as. Hence. although it arises at the apperceptional moment.
and fame this is called boastful talk" ' upon gain. winding speech on the part of one of evil desires. on account of livelihood.' and so on. binding speech. bean-curry talk. what " about talk (with a show of wisdom) this is called trickery. full praise. encircling speech. ill. on account of livelihood. thus are laid down these six " Of these six precepts. of the offence. * Vibhanga352f. who relies " honour. roundabout talk. boastful repeated talk. and fame this is called oppressed by desire. and so commits the Pacittiya offence. down to the last which only entails reprimand from a senior brother or sister. the state of knitted brows. in and in his round- of one of evil desires. very flattering talk. a 1 3 Vinaya v. and so on. . honour. trickery. regulating. demands for his own benefit and eats delicious food. This and the following five are names of offences against the Vinaya of a descending degree in seriousness.I. nurture (of supporters' children) on the part acquisition of the requisites and fame. What here is " insinuation?" A sign. on account of livelihood. 1 whereby he commits a Parajika offence. praise. flattering talk.e. who relies giving a hint. For the sake of. one knowingly proclaims (for gain) that a certain brother who lives in one's monastery is a saint. establishing. not being ill. " upon gain. a sister. honour. and so commits the Thullaccaya offences. fawning. insinuation" those on the Higher Path to Sanctity. its production and is called his its state on the part of one of evil desires. and so commits the Patidesaniya For the sake of. on account of livelihood. Exposition of Virtue 27 the highest kind of men. a brother. Of trickery. 146. For the sake of. one acts as go-between. 3  and so commits the Dukkata offence. not being ill. this is the Pali text: 4 What here is "trickery?" The adjusting. boastful talk. one not being demands for one's own benefit. for her own benefit and eats delicious food. ' ' postures. soup or rice. a hint. oppressed by desire. pleasant speech. from the first kind which involves immediate and lifelong expulsion from the Order. who relies upon gain. making a sign." precepts in the words. and so commits the Sanghadisesa offence. on account of livelihood. For the sake of." " Initial talk?" 'What here is talk. knitting the brows. I. 2 For the sake of. oppressed by desire. demands.
exclaiming does not want : to take anything. ridiculing. a beginning is made with in what is catted his acquisition of the " basis of trickery that is called his requisites and so on. full search. honour. because the threefold basis of comes in the Mahaniddesa. sarcastically praising (or casting out). relies upon gain. desire. accusing. desirous desire this. oppressed by desire. but only in order that the donors may obtain merit. reviling. therefore. sarcastically praising much (or totally casting out). and fame this is called crushing slander. much as he wants them on account of evil desire. roundabout talk. fully accusing. oppressed by desire." : the meaning of this Pali text is to be understood thus " " who relies upon gain.e. " also the householders' firm faith in he refuses the robes and so forth offered to him. merits. as knowing him that he shows favour 2 to those " ! who offer excellent robes in divers Ah what little desire has our master ! He ways. In the exposition of trickery. means of another in such wise as taking what has been obtained in this place to that place and bringing what has been obtained in that place to this place. Implying that he accepts the gifts offered not because he -wants them. and dependence on the four postures. for one fleshly need by " earnest seeking. and honour. in order to set forth this threefold basis. " " Oppressed by oppressed by. honour. backbiting on ' the part of one of evil desires. blaming. full fleshly need. much ridicul- ing. dealing in dispraise.  evil And desires " means. desiring is the meaning. where acquisition of the requisites is to be understood as the admiration of him which causes the presentation to him of requisites in cartloads." means. the seeking. 2 .28 ' The Path of Purity What here is " crushing slander ?" Abusing. who relies upon gain. and fame this is called " hunger- add gain to gain. of trickery After showing off imaginary means. It would indeed be great gain to us were he to accept a little from us !" 1 224. i. and fame. set apart by. since." " What here is hungering to add gain to gain?" The search." honour. and " Of the report of good repute. 1 as the acquisition of the requisites. who ing relies to upon gain. seeking. on the part of one of evil desires. earnest search.
dwelling and medicine for he says: Through the presence of three things a son noble of faithful family gets much merit. Exposition of Virtue 29 For " it has been said in the Mahaniddesa: 1 is the basis What of trickery that is called his acquisition of the requisites ? Householders here below invite a brother to accent the four requisites. a robe. much as he wants them. the dwelling. and he. refuses the robe owing to his desire for more . trickery. eats coarse ' food. refuse-heap.' accepts you would be deprived of the opporI have no need of thin gift. cit. and medicine for the sick. secluded.I. which seem to show his attainment of qualities possessed 1 Loc. is the gift. Him the householders know thus: is of few wants. You And have indeed faith. wear his What is the of a costly dwelling to a monk ? It is proper that he should live at the foot of a tree or under the open sky. and of those worthy of receiving the gift. I accept it out of compassion for you. contented. monk or should pick up rotten nigs graveyard. many dwellings. of evil desires.' And the admiration that he excites in various ways by his words. namely. much medicine ' for the sick. resorts to coarse medicine This monk for the sick. more they the strenuously energetic. And refuses the alms. from shop-refuse. and 1 ant.' should make medicine out of putrid cow-urine or bits of myroAnd accordingly he wears a coarse robe. and ' ascetic. production and its state is known as the basis of ' trickery that is called his acquisition of the requisites. From the presence of faith.' And so all the him to accept robes. And accordingly he many robes. its Such knitting of the eyebrows. from a and make and use of grand alms to a monk ? It is proper that he should maintain life by whatever morsels of What is the use food he has received on his begging round. the medicine for the sick. state of knitted brows. set apart from laymen. dwelling. much food. However. . oppressed by desire. ' he speaks thus : What is the use of a costly robe to a monk ? It is proper that a robe. alms. of the thing offered. and there it. a faithful son of noble family get* much merit. invite sick. alms. worthy to receive Were I not to accept it tunity of earning merit. What is the use of a ? medicine the sick to It is proper that he monk for costly balan.  resorts to a coarse dwelling.
the foot of such flat turret. standing. companion or intimate friend under lives same preceptor and the same teacher that monk who in such and such a monastery. is a powerful monk. 225. knitting the eyebrows repeatedly. and wishful of obtaining praise. tower. graduated turret. 3 4 roof being one sloping piece. talkative and praised for ' wonderfully tricksome. key. is to be known as "the basis of trickery that is called roundabout talk. acquaintance. square turret. and lying down. he being of evil desires " and oppressed by desire. is a powerful monk. And ' monk who has such and such a the preceptor or teacher.'' He says : That monk who has such a bowl. being repeatedly blinded by the dust of evil desire.226. connected with the Void as. excessively his words.' More- over. the people ' may praise him. . state of knitted brows." As has been said l " What is the basis of trickery that is called roundabout talk? is A certain member of the. hut. speaks oppressed by words appertaining to the Ariyan Law. water-filler. cavern. its production and state.  pavilion. trickery. secret. cave. pro- found.' The admiration that he 4 excites by regulating his four postures with a view to getting praise. 2 The The roof consisting of two sloping parts which meet at the ridge- pole. 5 Ib. is spoken ' the basis of trickery that is called roundabout talk. . treasury. pair of sandals. he utters such speech. This monk has acquired such and such calm attain- ments of the modes of of as ' life. transcendental. 3 . hidden. walking.30 The Path of Purity in truth he is by noble men. being of evil desires. belt. is to be understood as the basis of trickery dependent " on the postures. metal cup. in so doing hoping that desire. he speaks thus : That monk who wears such and such a robe is a powerful monk. sitting. waterThat strainer. such and such a friend. to get oppressed by desire. . and hoping 1 praise from the people 76.' Such knitting of the eyebrows." As has been said 5 : What ' is the A certain member basis of trickery that is called the postures?' of the Order here below. Order here below who of evil desires. subtle. 2 half-roofed monastery. at and such a tree. Viz. service-hall. gabled house. whereas : of evil desire.
In me such and such a " " Boastful talk means royal high minister is pleased. in his acquisition of the requisites so-called which is said to be his acquisition of the requisites. is ' state of knitted brows. Exposition of Virtue 31 by his actions. ' 2 Or. as though he possessed and pretends to be rapt in trance. " " means. means the mode of arrangement. " " Adjusting means initial arrangement or reverential arrange" " ment. its production known as the basis of trickery that is called the postures. The manner of him who products trickery. and state. "Regulating" means perfect arrangement. establishing." himself which he " is good talk given freely Repeated talk good monk). lies down. of lying down. walks. ' sits. sits. in that (p. ' it is said to produce faith. concentration. The Trickery 2 producing of trickery " is production of trickery. Establishing In his roundabout talk means by speech bordering on wisdom. With me the king is pleased.' ' . adopts an affected style of walking. "Flattering talk means talk flattering to such a person as a millionaire." is The state of him who works " trickery initial talk In the exposition of boastful talk. for what purpose have you come ? " state of trickery. is noble and polished reading parimatthita/or purimatthita. to him from among the householders who is afraid the brother " may not be happy in a particular place. and regulating of the postures." means wonderfulness. he knits and contracts his brows.' In that text " requisites or. Knitting of the brows ' is said to mean by 1 way of showing that he is noble and of the first importance.I. "Of the postures" means of the four postures. trickery. walks. a great 1 ' " Or. stands. on seeing men come to the monastery he begins " Is it the talk thus: Sirs." on made manner in the said (as to a enquiry being boasting with my bowl. 27) :" In what is called his acquisition of the . knitting of the brows. proceed. His nature is to knit his " brows." The " state of one whose nature is to knit his brows is state of " " knitted brows. I will follow Or it means boastful talk turning upon " makes after presenting himself thus: I am Tissa." means that. stands. lies down with a resolve to keep up appearances. hence he is known as knitting his brows." " " to invite the brethren ?  If so. Such adjusting.
" said to be rika 1 story is to be understood." and so forth. speaking pleasant speech. we shall offer." Here the Telakandapraise. some words are true." is not proper to say." The Binding repeatedly on all sides is encircling speech." Fawning " " bears resemby ever lowering oneself. which " is " binding speech. like a nurse." " " "" In the exposition of insinuation sign is any act of body and speech producing a sign to others for the giving of the " " Making a sign is the making of a sign as much requisites. he asks: Lay-disciple. Very flattering talk means talk flattering a person on all sides. as to say. As when beans are cooked some are not cooked. " " " is is lowliness.' Nurture  is the state of nur' turing. where have " it from the ?" From sugar-cane field. while the rest are lies. Did you get any food ?" on seeing others going " " is speech connected with the Hint along taking food. . nurtures on his hip or shoulder the children of families carries them is the " meaning. they give it to me only. *' " requisites. " Binding speech " means that he talks thus: " Lay-disciples. Or." " forth with This knows me thus: flattery setting family only. Bean-curry talk '' " " blance to a curry of beans. If they have anything to give." you brought time you used to offer the first fruits. so when a certain person speaks. Giving a hint ? " is the production of a hint 1 Telakatahagatha See Journal of the Pali Text Society." Speaking loving words again and without to again regard anything about the truth or the Law.32 The Path of Purity " " boat-owner. We have not yet had a chance. seeing a man holding " a sugar-cane in his hand. the act of him who. that may be known " it after sucking it." His state is " " that of a bean-curry. Praising repeatedly on all sides is full praise. formerly at such a AVhy do you not ofier on goes binding and enveloping them " with his talk until they say." is setting forth. 1884. a lord of great charities. sir. " Such a person is said to be a bean-curry-man. The state of nurturing is nurture. Lay-disciple. Sir. them now ?" And he " Is the sugar-cane there sweet ?" Sir. 49 /. while the rest are cooked." " thus it is enveloping speech. To him who replies give the sugar-cane to the brother.
of a family. If they were milk-sucking They milk-sucking ' ' seeing cow-herds tending calves. struck by the stone. should be considered." and food. fish " and all. " wanted.  cooked the butter." Then the housewife. down wishing for food. butter in a jar. frequenter object wanted. I saw a stone like the molasses kept there in the bowl.I. and not wishing to give " There is no rice. the brethren also would receive milk. and gave everything. sees sugar-cane in a door-corner. unable to impose upon the bald-pate. frequenter family. flat pieces of salt fish in a basket. Then the brother enters the interior of the house." What may it be. Then he says: are not calves. presented him with were the sugar-cane. . And the saliva mixed with poison issuing from its mouth in its state of anger was like the butter kept there in the jar. sir. and looking about. And the snake. It is said that a certain a of a the house and sits enters brother. Roundabout talk " is talk bordering on the Here the story of the brother. In the exposition of " crushing slander " 28) " abusing 1 Read pitake/or pat ike. Exposition of Virtue 33 thus: On Order asks: drinking the mother's milk. 1 rice in a pot. And the brother says: Madam. a member of the '' Are these calves sucking the mother's milk or " diluted buttermilk ?" They are calves sucking calves. Looking about with the intention of striking it." And in this way he makes the lads inform their parents so that they have " to offer milk. The lady comes back saying she has not " obtained any rice." round and round until speaking desires is molasses. The lady of the house seeing him. a hood like the fiat pieces of salt-fish kept there in the spread The teeth of the snake wanting to bite the stone basket." the cowherds reply. like the rice kept there in the pot. sir ?" "I saw a snake like the sugar-cane lying there in the door-corner. I already saw a sign that to-day my alms-begging would not be success" ful. what one is roundabout talk. Thus a talk bordering on rice. molasses in a bowl. and comes out and sits down. says: to a house as to though goes neighbour's bring rice. " Winding speech one gets what is " (p.
W that place" 1 means to that house." whereby he calls out: What sarcastically praisa great lord of "Ridiculing" this by man who is feeds making fun thus: "What a life is " on the seed of kamma !" Much " : ! ' ridiculing What do you call this man a non-giver. saying. who always gives the expression nothing to making much fun thus " " ' " everyone ?" Accusing is charging one with a lack of alms- giving or of praise worthiness. . village to village." Dealing in dispraise that he deals out dispraise of a person from house to house. I. and saying to him There is no salvation for you. an a denizen of hell. belief. Backbiting means that he speaks honeyed words in one's presence. a camel." " In the exposition of hungering to add gain to gain.e.' Dhaminapada Corny. " sarcastically praising. thinking that from fear " " of dispraise that person may give him alms. because it crushes." " " " T hat has been obtained in this hungering is tracing out. a simpleton. " therefore it is called crushing slander. Blaming is charging another such as calling him a person without faith.34 is The Path of Purity " Revil" 1 abusing by means of the ten terms of abuse. and speaks in dispraise behind one's back. calling a person a thief. another's merits like extracting scent from a fragrant substance by grinding it. district to district. Making charge thus on all " " " sides is means fully accusing. off with a scrapes off another's merits as unguent is scraped off the body split bamboo or because it crushes and grinds to powder . iv. it is called backbiting. humiliating speech. an ox. "Search" ' is desiring to ass. And because such a speech of one who dares not look another in the face is like gnawing the flesh " This is " another's back. a fool. a brute. what a amis!" led lord of alms !" " Samukkhepana " is is ing much. on seeing a person who " has not given alms a monk calls out sarcastically: Oho! " verbally." " called crushing slander means. " " To place means what has been obtained from this house. without "Casting out" (ukkhepana) is casting out a person " " " Speak not to him about almsgiving. ukkhepana means a a cause by finding reason." whereby. ing is with fault." " out Totally casting (samukkhepana) is casting out a person on all sides. and it (this speech) is also a search after gain. Or. 1 .' and ' An evil destiny awaits you.
Exposition of Virtue
means tracing out. " Full search " means tracing out repeatedly.  Here is to be related the story of the brother who went giving to the boys of various families whatever had been obtained, beginning from the first house and getting milk and rice-gruel on the way. " " and the others are only synonyms of " search " Seeking and so on. Hence " search " is " seeking," " earnest search "
"earnest seeking," "full search" is full seeking thus is the construction here to be understood. Such is the
and so on. " states such as Of evil in, (p. 19, c), by the ex"such as" inclusion should be understood of the pression
various evil states spoken of in the Brahmajdla Sutta in this " way: Whereas some monks and Brahmins, while living on food
provided by the faithful, earn their living by wrong means of by low arts, such as these: 'palmistry, divining by
means of omens and signs, auguries drawn from thunderbolts and other celestial portents, 'prognostication by interpreting dreams, fortune-telling from marks on the body, auguries from
gnawed by mice, sacrificing to Agni, offering 1 Thus has been indicated this oblations from spoon" " wrong livelihood by way of evil states such as the transcloth
gression of the six precepts enacted for the sake of livelihood, trickery, boastful talk, insinuation, crushing slander,
hungering to add gain to gain." That abstinence from all " virtue as purity of livelihood," such wrong livelihood is
the requisites. " purity is the purity of life. 5 (iv, d). Virtue connected with the requisites. And immediately after this there is mentioned " virtue " " connected with the requisites," wherein wisely reflecting means knowing on reflection as to expediency and the right
the word-by-word comment depending on it What is that ? Effort in the search for " " LifePurity" is the state of being pure.
path: considering is the meaning. The consideration men" for the warding off of cold," is tioned here in such wise as
The Path of Purity
" wisely reflecting." Here robe" means any garment such as the waist-cloth. "Accepts" means enjoys, wears or puts on. "Only for" is  an expression " For the warding off of cold," showing the limit of purpose. to be understood as
and so forth this is the sole object of the religious medi" tator in accepting the robe; there is no other. Of cold" means of the cold arising to any one either internally by the
in the weather.
elements, or externally by a change " For the warding off means for the of of the for purpose warding off; expelling so purpose Because that sickness may not be produced in his body. when the body is afflicted with sickness, one becomes distracted in mind and cannot wisely strive (for culture),
disturbance of his
One allowed the use of a robe for the 1 warding off of cold. And the same with all the other words. " " For among them means of the heat of fire, i.e., of heat " heat produced in a jungle-fire, and so forth. In of the touch " of gadflies, mosquitoes, wind, heat, and reptiles," gadtherefore, the Blessed
also called blind
" " dust and wind not charged with dust. Heat is the sun's " " heat. are those creatures that creep and move Reptiles about, such as the long-bodied snakes. Their touch is twofold
" Mosquitoes divided into wind charged with
the touch of bite and the touch of contact; and this troubles not him who is seated covered with a robe. Hence under
these circumstances he accepts a robe for the purpose of the
only for" is to show the limit of a constant purpose. " " is a constant the covering of one's private parts For " at others are so times. The Here only private purpose. " parts means the interstice between the legs. Indeed, when
repetition of the expres-
of these parts is revealed, the sense of shame is disturbed, destroyed and so because they destroy shame they are called
private parts." Hirikoplnapaticchddanatthdni means for the purpose of covering these private parts. The reading
also hirikopinaih paticchddanattham.
Occurring in Majjhima
quoted above on
p. 20, n.
Exposition of Virtue
"Alms" means any
being put into the brother's bowl in his food-gather" " Or alms means the collection of morsels of food.
It has been said to be the collection, group of morsels of food, " " obtained from various houses. Not for sport means not
for purposes of sport like village-boys and so forth; it is said " " " indicative of play." Nor for intoxication means
the pride of manhood."  Nor for personal charm means not for the purpose of beautifying oneself like court " people and courtesans and so forth; it is said to be indicative " " of fulness of limbs, big and small." Nor for beautification
not for a display of pride like boxers and wrestlers and so " it is said to be indicative of the pride of strength and " "
means not for the purpose of beautifying oneself like actors and dancers and so forth; it is said to be " indicative of clear" " ness of skin and complexion." Not for sport Of these, has been said in order to remove the sufficing condition of delusion; "nor for intoxication" has been said in order to " remove the sufficing condition of hate; nor for personal nor for to remove the in order charm, beautification,"
sufficing condition of lust;
not for sport, nor for intoxicain order to tion," prevent the growth of one's own fetters; " nor for personal charm, nor for beautification," in order to
prevent the growth of another's fetters. And by these four expressions, rejection of unwise attainment and of devotion to a life of pleasure should be understood to have been " has the meaning indicated. The expression " only for " " of this material means this Of already given. body
body dependent on the four great primary " For the sustenance means in order to be
order that the procedure (of life-controlling-faculty) may not be cut off; or in order that (the body) may last long. He
accepts alms for the sustenance and preservation of the body as the owner of a decayed house props up his house, and a cart-
lubricates (lit. feeds) the axle of his cart; he accepts it, not for sport nor for intoxication, nor for personal charm. " " a is sustenance nor for beautification. Furthermore,
98. he accepts alms in order to uphold the noble practising. compendium considerate eating. as he does." Or. by means of his of his on account acceptance of alms. I shall subdue the old feeling. precepts.38 synonym The Path of Purity for life-controlling faculty. or medicine to counteract heat and cold. and so forth. "For aiding the practice life of the noble " means of complete instruction in the in order to uphold the noble life Law. Hence " for the sus- should so far be undertenance. of in the sense inflicting pain. - Join asapp&y ii to the folloicing compound in the text. as people who desire to cross the ocean rely on a Thus I shall subdue the old feeling and I shall cause " no new feeling to arise means  he accepts alms giving " heed thus: By this acceptance of alms I shall subdue the old feeling of hunger and shall produce no feeling due to immoderate eating. for release from the desert of exis- tence." He accepts alms of food as a patient ship. I shall 1 S. hunger is called hunger. as bodily strength their children's eat flesh in order to starving parents might by devotion to the three be able to cross a desert. " takes medicine. or one who eats till his loin-cloth cannot be retained. like one of those brahmins: one who eats till he has to be lifted by the hand. ii. or one who has to roll where he eats. as one might accept ointment for a wound." Causing its root not to arise by means of produce no new feeling. and the noble life of the Path. " because it old feeling 2 arises in this life-time owing to unsuitable and unrestricted " food on account of old kamma: destroying its cause by suitable and restricted food. . life. thus So far should the also is the meaning to be understood." " " pangs. Indeed. it is called " And that feeling which will arise in future through the accumulated kamma of inconsiderate eating in this life-time is called " new feeling. or one who eats till he vomits." for the allaying of which he accepts alms. 1 as people who desire to cross a river rely on a raft. preservation of this body stood to mean for the procedure of the life-controlling " For the allaying of the pangs of faculty of this body. or one who eats till a crow pecks from his mouth. the on considerate forsaking of devotion eating.
seats The two taken together are called himself. and blame by the wise. by not eating food to satiety.I. " " /. 983. saying: " By moderate eating I shall have the preservation or equalization called the longevity of this body in harmony with causes owing to the absence of the danger of cutting of! the life-controlling faculty or of destroying the four postures. acceptance. sleepy restlessness. he sleeps. Wherever he sits." In order that one may dispel the danger of the weather and dwelling. it has been said " Indeed Let Hath he but eaten mouthfuls four or five. here is sure enough him drink water : Refreshment for a brother  filled with zeal" * And so far the limiting of purpose and the path mean should be understood to have been shown. pleasure of sleeping on the is side. " of the Wherever sleeping place and seat. lessness" due to the absence of such faults as discontent. or By the pleasure of torpor. Faultlessness also and comfort faultless" ness is by avoiding inconsiderate search. drowsiness. that is a seat. Dwelling " means For the dispelling of the danger of the weather and for the purpose of delighting in solitude "" weather in the sense of causing trouble is weather-danger. "And maintenance shall " be mine means he accepts alms. faultlessness is due to the forsaking of the pleasure of lying down. so that "comfort shall be mine". exposition of most of the terms lien. and so on. and the non-forsaking of righteous bliss be understood to have been shown. "comfort" is through moderate eating." 1 Psalms See also Expositor 511 of the Brethren. thus he accepts alms. that is a sleeping place. the production of bodily strength caused by suitable and " " moderate eating. and Or "faulteating. whether in a monastery or half-roofed monastery. caused " " Comfort is due to by unsuitable and immoderate eating." He accepts alms of food as a patient of long suffering accepts healing " " " medicine. for a similar .commented on. Exposition of Virtue 39 to self -torture. Or. accomplishing the harmonizing of the four postures less through eating : than four or five mouthfuls.
yet the covering of one's private parts in the acceptance of a robe is a constant purpose. Medicine which the work of a doctor. that unsuitable weather which causes sickness of the body and distraction of mind should be disit is pelled " by acceptance for the of a dwelling: and it has been said that purpose of dispelling that weather and of well- being in living alone. hidden danger is lust." ' from the weather. knowing and reflecting that there such dangers cannot cause him trouble. while the others (cold and heat) are so only at times. molasses. is to be understood as accepting hidden danger. an ornament as in the (Ariyan) chariot has the ornament of purity. the wheel of energy. Majjhima i. . The brother who accepts a dwelling. hate. They may cause trouble to one seated in an open yard. and so on.40 TJie Path of Purity delight in solitude. from its guarding it. 108. as being permitted by him. at the foot of a tree. >amyuttav. tigers. 106. Here it is proper " it as constituent and protection. so here also this has been said concerning the constant dispelling of danger from the " the Or. and so on.6. by there being no guarded door and by seeing unsuitable objects. " In the requisite of medicine for ' is in the sense of counteracting disease: going against is the meaning. suitable for the sick." said to be anything used by a doctor. tJie axle of jhdna." As. a constituent as in to take " the 3 " honey. it after wise reflection. Medicine " is for the sick is medicine for the sick. obvious danger is lions and and so on. giving no opportunity for the production of life-destroying disease." 1 and " so on. " surrounded by the seven requisites of a town. and so " means a protecRequisite oil. monk should carry out whatever are the factors of livelihood. " " is It is a synonym for anything suitable. for the purpose of dispelling danger for the sick. such as forth." 2  and tion as in so on. 1 2 3 Anguttaraiv. although by the warding off of cold and so forth the dispelling of the danger of the weather has been indicated. Of the two. and so on. this weather as described already is just and weather." And "danger" is twofold: obvious danger weather." and so on. For that medicine " for the sick is protection of life.
" because it arises from disease. Hence observing by faith completely the precepts as enacted. and leprosy." So. and so forth. and so " " that is. restraint according to the Thus Patimokkha faith. reverent . as is shown by the Buddha's rejection of a request to enact these precepts. In means." a disturbance of the elements. " For the freedom from the pain " of those feelings connected with diseases means. and live enjoying robes and so forth." " medicine for the sick and a requisite. boils. for it is accomplished by the enactment of the three precepts being beyond the province of disciples.I. is said to be the " " constituent or protection of life. Exposition of Virtue 41 means of pro- It is also a constituent of life because it is a life. have been " " " born.definition is: Because beings come and go. . king. her egg or yak his tail. whose characteristic is judicious use " of the requisites. should be understood to be connected with the requisites. honey. In means disease connected with diseases. one should be perfect in it (this fourfold restraint). therefore are they called "Connected with the requisites" means con"requisites. he accepts medicine until all that pain is removed. being requisite of medicine for the sick. " is to be attained by faith. in order to be free from the suffering. molasses. guard thy virtue well. For thus has it been said regardless even of life. so. have become. are intended. which have been produced. pustules. on. : "  Be As pheasant guards Or as a son prudent. Of this fourfold virtue "the in brief this virtue. Connected with disease '' of feelings. the immoral resultant feelings." nected with those requisites. relying on these. painful feelings. beloved. being longing requisite. or one's sole eye. sprung therefrom. depending on these. And this also has been " the stories told of Elders bound by thieves in a forest." And the word. and whatever is suitable for the sick and per- Hence it is called " And mitted by the doctor such as oil. Which have arisen means. it is requisite of medicine " for the sick . my disciples do not transgress even for the sake of life the precepts which I have laid down for them" And in this sense are to be understood said.
the head of his corruptions is severed by the Path of Sanctity when he died. by mindfulness restraint of the controlling faculties to be attained. coming with five hundred brethren saw and cremated the Elder's body and had a shrine also should. virtue as Patimokkha-restraint 1 Samasisi i. When one adopts any of the four postures until sanctity is attained and dies in that posture. he is called jivitasamasisi. than the faculty of sight grasping details and signs in visible objects. yielded : Be Even so as Patimokkha-restraint is is to be attained by faith. aflame. and so forth. And when a jungle fire came on he established insight before the creepers could be cut. in Brahma world. And the Elder. and made him down. 168. one is called iriyapathasamasisi. let life up forsake not virtue's law Enacted by the Master of the world. molten.- built.42 It is The Path of Purity said that in the Himalayan forest thieves lie bound an Elder with black creepers. for this is accomplished by mindfulness. increased his insight for seven days.  For 3 when it is not attained. and died in the extinction of his corruptions. and so forth. better were an iron wire heated. one should attain it well through checking. ." and so on. Hence others of good family Keeping the Patimokkha pure. remem- 2 bering the Fire-sermon preached in this way: "Brethren. died there and and was reborn in the Again. When one is afflicted with a disease. His death being simultaneous with the extinction of his corruptions. as he lay. 1 Elder Abhaya.e. and attaining sanctity dies of that disease. followed by covetousness and other evil states of con- sciousness which proceed in the eye-door. 3 Read asampadite hi. a reciter of the Digha Nikaya. one is called rogasamasisi. because covetousness and so forth do not flow from controlling faculties that are established by mindfulness. Hence. incandescent. the seizure by the general appearance of visible objects. attaining the fruition of never-returning. by means of unremitting mindfulness. 2 Samyutta iv. burning. Tambapaimi Isle thieves bound an Elder with puti creepers and made him lie down.
tastes. as he was going about for alms. And one is harassed by those thieves. Dhammapada . the corruptions.  It is said that seeing a woman. does not last long." l this restraint of the controlling faculties is virtue as Patimokkha-restraint also endures. " And this has mind. well closed by gates. things Guard the controlling faculty : for these. my mind aflame. enters ill-roofed house. the corruptions. one is lust does not penetrate the mind. as rain penetrates a been said: tangible. Exposition of Virtue 43 also does not endure. well-guarded door. Lust enters the uncultivated mind. like corn which is not well set round with a thickset hedge. Gotama. Finding an open and unguarded door. " And this has been said: tangible. tastes. Even as rain an Witt vex thee as a village vexed by thieves.I. things Guard the controlling faculty : for these. And not harassed by those thieves. Finding in thee a closed. In sights. The mind. like corn well set round with a thickset hedge. tell And me how 1 I may extinguish it. as it was done by the Elder Vangisa when he was recently ordained. odours. however. is not harassed by robbers. pity have. an extreme admonition. pray thee. odours. Will shun thee as a village shunned by thieves. lust arose in the Elder but recently ordained. and lust penetrates the house badly roofed. Lust cannot penetrate a well-taught mind"* But this is flighty. lasts attained." 13. " Then he said to Elder Ananda : With sensual I lust I burn. In sights. But when long. sounds. as a village with open gates by robbers. Rain cannot penetrate a well-roofed house. is Hence restraint of the controlling faculties is to be attained in repelling arisen lust by directing one's attention to the foul. 14. sounds. as a And village. as rain does not penetrate a house well roofed.
I will acquire the virtues. Further. was a great ironwood But the Elder had never looked up at it. but cultivate the mind In things unpleasant. I have lived in the cave for over sixty years and I did not even know whether the painting existed or not. wandering round the dwellings. And at the cave-entrance tree. that it may attain know single aim. and said: Sir. 1223 /. I say. And the king heard of it." x the Elder. Burn not repeatedly. beautiful is the painting. Lads. ." Thus there it is lifted his said that for so long the Elder living there never eyes and looked up. for they Are full of lust. this order: "As long as the Elder does not come. Now I know to-day through you who possess eyes. It is said that he knew that it was in blossom when each spring he saw the filaments that fell to the ground. i. and wishing to pay his respects. Go. " saw the painting. 188. hearing of the Elder's virtuous attainments. And Maha- It is said that there was a beautiful painting of the Renunciation of Seven Buddhas in the great Kurandaka cave. went his way. repelling his lust."  And the Elder. i. who mitta. shalt thou see and Things-in-the-making Evil as other than thee. paid 1 S. And when the Elder did not come he caused to be shut up the breasts of the women and had his seal put to in the village who were suckling infants. The king. went to the village." " The Elder said. as not the self. sent for him three times. To concentration and a Slay the great lust." had the Elder brought within the palace. so long these infants must not suck milk. which gives a different order of the lines. And many of the brethren. and introduce the Elder. out of compassion for the infants. and saying to his " ministers. should be like the Elder Cittagutta. a brother who is fulfilling restraint of the controlling faculties. and like the Elder who lived in the great Coraka monastery. Th.44 The Elder " replied: The Path of Purity Through wrong perception is thy mind aflame Pleasant appearances avoid. lived in the great Kurandaka cave.
Then the Elder's subject of meditation became exceedingly pure and clear. saying to himself. The eyes should be cast downward they should look The distance of a yoke he shall not serve The eye's dominion. and at night ascended to the promenade. the king be happy !" whether respects or the queen. sisters. go to thy brother's presence. To-morrow I will acquire the virtues." he took the Elder's bowl. and shampoo the lay- . I make no difference as to the king or the queen. finding that the Elder was not happy there. The why : : Elder went back to the great Kurandaka cave. But this medicine will I tell of since I have become monk I have never broken the controlling faculties with a mind accompanied by greed and looked at a female form.I. And the deity that lived in the ironwood tree stood holding a torch. and saying to him. he attained Sanctity immediately after the middle watch. and having. " said to her daughter: Girl. Tell him I am unwell. like a restless ape. turned back. And it the Elder said: "May was the king that paid brethren said: " Thus seven days passed. ' ' gave him his meal of food. recite this. Or trembling wood-deer." : : A Mahamitta. my any other Let not the eye wander like forest-ape. to-day there is no opportunity. And the Elder was glad. Go. did you only say May the king " The Elder replied be happy '? Lads. and to : prepare medicine. paid his respects. Sir. By my mother be the virtue of this  declaration of truth may relieved. let him go." The daughter went and told him. and bring medicine." After seven days the king. whether it was the king that paid ' respects or the queen. or affrighted child. accompanied him a little distance. and so forth. " AVhy is subject of meditation so exceedingly clear to-day ?" And causing the whole mountain to resound. The Elder said: " I do not poisonous boil once arose on the mother of the Elder Her daughter also had been ordained among the The mother know how to gather medicinal roots. And the "Sir. And even so should son of good family desirous also of his own benefit. together with the queen. Exposition of Virtue 45 his respects.
" My other fellow-monks will eat the four sweet" is fitting behaviour. and avoiding which requisites attained impure in acquirement. And were alive. with his hand like a variegated lattice. when putrid the sweet stuffs are sent him for the and four sycamore ascetic thinking: stuffs. The observance practice by one who. Those obtained by alms-gathering and so forth are exceedingly clean in acquirement. Purity of livelihood should be attained by energy as restraint of the controlling faculties is attained by mindfulness indeed : it is accomplished by energy. And she rose and uttered these words of joy: "If the supreme Buddha instructed. from a like poisonous snakes those that are Of chapter of the brethren. from those laymen who are pleased with him because of his ascetic merits. known as clean in acquirement. and did as in that moment the lay-sister's boil was crushed and disappeared like a mass of foam. eats only the portion of sycamore." purpose of allaying a disease. 1 Whatever robes and Read pabbajitvana. Like Elder Mitta. who has not mastered requisites the ascetic practices has obtained from the Order." She went and related the matter. a which the these. and by his regular observance of the ascetic practices. abandoning and unfitting behaviour. he should stand. would he not stroke the head of a brother like my son ?" Hence A monk Another well-born youth having become 1 in the religion. because a man of strenuous energy abandons wrong livelihood. .46 sister's The Path of Purity body. and from laymen who are pleased with him on account of his religious preaching and so forth. indeed. and resorting to those search wrong are clean in their acquirement. and so forth. Therefore it is to be by energetic alms-gathering and so forth. brother. Those which a brother who has mastered his ascetic are to be practices has obtained by alms-gathering." He. are to be of known as clean in acquirement. is called a brother of the highest Ariyan race. in the wise restraint Of the controlling faculties.
But a sign. hint. on former occasions how did you get matter. honey." or " any similar reply. when I was a layman my mother mixed together butter. or " : Such a four proper or not proper to use the medicine obtained in these ways when the disease has been allayed ? The Vinaya scholars say it is it. where " do you dwell ?" "In a graduated turret. all four ways are proper. when a mortal are forthcoming. or any other to that effect. though permitted by the Blessed One. roundabout talk. Lay-disciples. intimation. and that gave senior. 1 3 The punctuation of the Pali Text is Read ayasina/or yaama. however. told that that senior monk 2 was at one time living with the Elder Mahamoggallana developing the practice of solitude in a certain forest. hint. incorrect. dialogue." a any other speech to this effect.  when one who is preparing the ground for a dwelling is asked Reverend Sir. roundabout talk. hint. one who leads an ideally simple It is Sariputta the Elder. Whoso. or intimation regarding a robe or alms. "Nobody. but avoiding them by virtue of his merits such as contentment. is giving " The dwelling of the Order of brethren is cramped such talk. a " graduated turret is not proper for the brethren. But is it a hint. sugar. Late in the evening the Elder Mahamoggallana went to attend on the and seeing him lying down. yet the life of austerity is spoilt. and so forth. sir ?" Laydisciples. is making a sign. life. " is accepts whatever requisites called. does not make sign. saying: comfort?" The Elder replied: "Brother. enquired concerning the " Brother. . and gave me undiluted milk-rice. To him one day there arose a wind-disease in the stomach." like disease arises.I. is roundabout talk. and so forth. or roundabout talk regarding a dwelling may be made by one who has not mastered his ascetic practices. Of these. As regards medicine. Exposition of Virtue 47 other requisites there are. what are you doing ? Who is by laymen: enabling you to do it?" a reply to this effect. But the Suttanta proper because the Blessed One has allowed scholars say that it is not proper because though there is no offence. causing great pain. a brother who is purifying his livelihood should not make a sign.
we always give alms to the Elders." The Elder. cure. took his bowl. and gave him the particular kind of rice. brother. thought: it How has been obtained ?" And when he tempting. use Through Then would my livelihood be full of blame. And " he showed the means of cure and said to the relatives: 1 If you make ready such and such a preparation of rice for the " Elder to-morrow. it would be improper to eat rice that was obtained on account of vocal intimation. and turned And upon the rice it upside down. I will release him. But they made him eat. 1 Or. village. Thenceforward it did not arise for forty-five years. coming early. even though my entrails were to come out and move on the ground. the Elder's illness disappeared." but at the words. The rice is very eat. 'he said to the assembled relatives concerning the means of niinittam saunipatite iiatake aha. brother Sariputta. tilting it on one side." And he I to eat uttered this exalted utterance: Were the honey-rice obtained of revelation made by speech. until I return from alms-gathering stay here. And he " said to Mahamoggallana: Brother. said: "Brother. seeing it." And the senior did not entertain such a " " thought as: He does not eat the alms brought by such as I." they prepared the particular kind of rice on the next day. the alms origin he said: to eat. filling the bowl.' reading . and thought: produce rice for my lord. we give more. sir. perhaps we shall get some to-morrow. " Be it so." and entered the The men rose to meet the Elder. And the Elder showed signs of going. being put on the ground." and filled the bowl." Saying." And the senior said.  entered into the body of the eldest son." And To-morrow immediately he went " to the family that supported the Elder. The saying: " Elder went and offered it. and caused him to suffer pain." And a deva residing in a tree at the end of the me promenade heard I will this conversation. If there be merit in me or in you. " Eat.48 The Path of Purity comfort. And the Elder Mahamoggallana. took hold of the bowl by the brim. k ' knew is its fit not Brother Moggallana. You need not have told us. saying: Now.
and so forth. connected with the requisites should be attained as by wisdom. A tion uses them is sitting in the midst of the Order is using them virtuous person who uses them without reflecas a debt. according to the rule already laid is twofold: as practised at the time of the obtaining requisites. purity of livelihood is attained by energy. one who as a uses them theft. Exposition of Virtue 49 My For bowels may gusli out and walk. faith-ordained. and likewise after reflection at the time when they are used.  And all mahatissa. So. My own mind I control. The wise monk. 1 If dawn the robe used. yet ne'er life itself will I break livelihood. three times. subsequent to reflection upon the elements and upon loathsomeness at the time when they are got. who here also the story of the Elder Ambakhadakalived at Ciragumba. and as practised at the time of using it is using them blamelessly when one uses Indeed them. and using them only after and with wisdom. as a debt. 4 .I. should purify His livelihood. after yamesu. for it is accomplished by wisdom. as an Of these. the wise man being able to see the evils and the advantages in the requisites. and the wrong search Avoid. for may use them in four ways: as a theft. 1 Supply ekasmiih divase catukkhattum tikkhattum dvikkhattum sakim yeva va paccavekkhitabbam. Hence it is to be attained by abandoning greediness for the requisites reflection And virtue obtained righteously and justly. then one should reflect four times. for I desire not the wrong search Loathed by the Buddhas. middle. a wicked person inheritance. and last watches of the night. The latter case furnishes the conclusive decision. and like a master. or once a day. down. If one is not able to do this. Here reflection deposited robes. under circumstances. before and after the meal. I. twice. should be related. nor think of the wrong search. Hence one should reflect every time and at every morsel of alms received. in the first.
1 This sentence is repeated from the previous page. being heirs to the requisites What do they use the their father's property. the requisites are the property of the Blessed One. which virtue is indeed called admonition-purity because one becomes pure listening to an admonition. For purity is fourfold: admonition-purity. they use them. dwelling. admonition-purity  virtue as restraint according to the Patimokkha. ! requisites of the Blessed One. after being unmindful in accepting them. One should also reflect every time one makes use And in accepting and using medicine also. there is offence and is not mindful in using the no ofience if one is mindful in using. which virtue through is indeed called restraint-purity because one becomes pure by " means of the restraint of mental resolve. is and reflection-purity. and so should not be marked in the Pali Text as Not traced. Of these. after in accepting them. which virtue is reflection as already described. which virtue is indeed called search-purity because one is pure of search in obtaining the requisites righteously and Reflection-purity is justly and abandoning wrong search. saying: I will not act thus again. Therefore it is to be understood that they use the requisites of the Blessed One. or the requisites of laymen ? Though given by laymen. search-purity. requisites. if one is mindful in accepting.50 comes before lie The Path of Purity has reflected he stands in the position of one of a it is using them as a debt. who has allowed them." Search-purity is virtue as purity of livelihood. proper to cherish mindfulness. and so. Restraint-purity is virtue as restraint of the controlling faculties. virtue connected with the using of the requisites. . But there is This being so.' ' 2 Majjhima i. restraint-purity. indeed called reflection-purity because one becomes pure by On this account it has been said that there is no ofience if one is mindful in using. And on this point the Dhammadayada sutta 2 has been borne out. 1 unmindful being The using of the requisites by the seven probationers is known as using them as an inheritance: for these seven are sons of the Blessed One. 12.
a cf. the using them like a master. any of these things. and water to remove The dust from off his robe. and should attain to the virtue connected with them. therefore a brother who aspires to reflecting in accordance with the various kinds of reflection already described. soft. Dwelling. being endowed with the training in the higher virtue. the story of nephew Sangharakkhita the novice 1 Sutta Nipdta 391. The brother. 392. use them like masters. seat. 98. Exposition of Virtue 51 is The using of the requisites by saints purged of the intoxicants known as using them like a master. savoury. like A drop of water on a lotus to leaf. The follower. he Should of compassion know the mean in food." 2 As regards the fulfilling of this virtue connected with the requisites. . from donors duly got. is counted as a probationer. Samyutta ii. couch. Like growth of flesh in an anointed wound. The dust from off his robe. to say nothing of the using them as a theft. man freed from debts. For preservation. is suitable for all not so the using them as a debt. And this has the been said : "  Hearing Law preached by the Blessed One.I. So will he be a fulfiller of duties. is This also called the using them is included in the using them as an inheritance. beyond the slavery . Like lubricating axles. and water to remove couch. never infatuate. For saints. who in wisdom doth Should not without reflection use his alms. because a virtuous man. which is opposed like a to the using them as a debt. And that using them after reflection by a virtuous person. and as an inheritance. And because among these four ways the using them like a master is this should use them the best. Alms. Like eating in the desert a son's flesh. even so. Is not attached Should one eat food. and seat. Hard. excel. having passed of craving. Of these four ways. 1 Still mindful.
burn not thy tongue through unrestraint Hearing the spiritual adviser's words. who are applying themselves to the state that is moral. In that place ' !' Remaining Of  fifteen I attained to sanctity. What for probationers. As he has said " As I did eat the boiled and well-cooked The spiritual adviser spake to me : rice Novice. (p. 1 i. Tathdgatas. Let him then who desireth loss of ill. saints. (v) is In the first pentad of the Fivefold Portion is. 42 /. in the Patisambhida: 1 that these are precepts this For has been said are the limited precepts of purity? They are the limited precepts of the unordained." the precepts for the unordained. who are fulfilling up to the limit the states precepts of purity? ordained. Buddhas. What are the unlimited " What They are the unlimited precepts of the are the completed precepts of purity ? They are those of good average men. re-becoming is not any more. silent Tathagata's disciples purged of Of these. 13) what to be understood as the meaning for the unordained. are strued ? those What are They of the seven probationers. Full of intentions : am I like full moon And days extinct the intoxicants. Think wisely and accept the requisites. as being limited in number. are those the tranquillized precepts of purity? of the They the who are intoxicants. and who have sacrificed their lives regardless and are the precepts of purity not misconWhat of body life. and so forth. I suffered agitation. and so forth. : and ate. supreme Buddhas." So it is fourfold by way of virtue as restraint according to the Patimokkha.52 is The Path of Purity For he rightly reflected to be told. . Thus is the particular discourse on the Fourfold Purity Virtue.
and in order shown By the brief rule. Nine thousand koti's. lies out of sight. relatives. And fifty hundred thousand. kinsman. relative. 1 koti ten millions. .I. and attained Sanctity mounted on the back of a As lay disciple through the unlimited precepts of purity. he did not transgress the precepts. A man should give up limb. and again Thirty-six (thousand) are the precepts given In the Vinaya Pitaka by Him. and are the proximate cause of " completed precepts of purity. mother. wealth.  yet these are said to be " unlimited precepts of purity. and all Law. Producing agitation. limit as limbs. thou. and that their measured by the standard of gain. 1 nine score koti's more." like Sanctity. Hast unto Sanctity attained. To recollect the life. giving Not up his recollection (of the behaviour) of men though his life has been said: " Not father. who lived at Ciragumba." The precepts free is of good average men from ordination are soon as consciousness like a well-burnished from the dirt (of corruptions). Exposition of Virtue as 53 For are to be known "the limited precepts of purity. The perfect Buddha. pondering With wisdom. uncle and nephew. being mounted on his back. life Like that senior. though there is a limit in number. like the precepts kept by the Elder Ambakhadakamahatissa. so : Wealth should be given up for a noble limb. pomp. good was in doubt. Hence the those kept by the Elders Saiigharakkhita. Thus." the ordained. This boon he does theefor thy virtuousness. as produced being exceedingly pure gem and well-wrought gold. One should give up a limb to save a life." referring to the fact that one observes them without remainder.
men Will blame him both in learning and in deeds. over sixty years old." attained Sanctity after fifty years. a death-time you have done a difficult thing in attaining the " transcendental state. men Witt praise him both in learning and in deeds. and gave intimation by snapping his " The assembled and said: Sir." " ministered to him said": Sir. And if one have much learning. as soon as he went. And me and give me opportunity. . And the Elder. men Will blame his deeds. his learning being complete. But I will tell you what is difficult. his learning not complete. 7. on his deathbed. And if one have much learning. since I became monk. The Elder said: " I have no transcendental state in me.54 It is The Path of Purity said that the Order of brethren asked Mahasangharak- khita the Elder. without understanding. as the gold of Jambu. Anguttara ii." And the brother raised the Elder and went out." Lad. The Buddha's deeply learned follower Is bearer of the law. I never established insight with a view to seeing the Blessed Metteyya." Friends. and withal No concentration in his doing.  Therefore raise Nibbana. Devas praise him. and withal concentration in his doing. If one have His nephew also little learning. without blame. 1 yea. dying at such Order fingers. No If one have little learning. Friends. Then a young brother who men have assembled from a circuit of twelve yojanas saying that you have entered complete the people will feel regretful at your death " as an average man. deed of mine done without mindfulness. And he is wise And. men Will praise his deeds. Brahma 1 praiseth him. attained Sanctity. this was not difficult to do. about his transcendental attainment. and withal Much concentration in his doing. and withal Much concentration in his doing. I do not see.
of death in lust. Whereby intoxicated. bliss But the precepts. Very soon This body will dry up even as a flower Wrapped in hot dust. son of Kutumbiya. To sanctity what time the dawn Another Elder also. he attained contemplating and Sanctity gave explanation to the Order of brethren in I shall die these stanzas: " upon me. how " is complexes !" The Elder said to him: I shall get the bliss of heaven." And that disease as he lay there. this foul-smelling thing. Seeing him. men deem loveable pure. being unloveable. was unable to feed himself with his hands. said to his enemies : " Breaking both legs I loathe. void of all purity. 437. even together with my virtue. the world Destroys the way by which heaven is attained. all loathsomenesses To the unseeing." l The precepts of saints quillized precepts of and so on are to be known as " tranpurity" from their tranquillizing of all 1 Jataka ii. am ashamed I. This ailing." like those of the Elder Tissa. putrid corpse. if I die now no doubt about obtained by breaking this virtue would be like the state of layman brought about by renouncing the that. or those precepts which are not misconstrued by way of the lust of average men. . I I will convince you. and attained arose. and was wallowing and rolling about in his own urine and excrement. are to be known as "precepts of purity not misconstrued. sickness falls A Called loveable.I. Exposition of Virtue 55 The precepts of probationers from not being misconstrued by way of views. dazed. a certain young life man said: " Alas. The disease Brings sharp pain and corruption. Yea. There painful are your Lad. being afflicted with disease. Fie on Full of it ! impure thing that . For that senior. Corruptible. desirous of establishing himself in Sanctity through such precepts."  So thought wisely pondering.
. (3) volition is virtue. clinging by retrospection offorsaking. harsh speech. conviction by retrospection of emptiness. sloth the and torpor by perception of light. the perception of the sphere of consciousness by the attainment of the sphere of nothingness. 13) what is to be understood as For it removing life-taking and so on. This is purity of forth. the perception of the sphere of nothing- ness by the attainment of the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception. the clinging to conviction of essence by the higher wisdom of insight into conviction of delusion by the knowledge and discernment of things as they really are. the perception of constancy by retrospection of change. kinds of virtue: Virtue is the non-transgression is virtue. the perception of the soul by retrospection of soullessness.  It is the rejection of sensual covetousness. in sensual conduct pleasures theft of wrong (5) . rapture by the third jhdna. (2) abstention is virtue. ill-will by good-will. ignorance by knowledge. ease and ill by the fourth jhdna. . ill-mil. the perception of density by retrospection of loss. frivolous talk. the i. wrong views. the perception of permanence by retrospection of impermanence. of . desire by renunciation. 46. (4) restraint is virtue. delight by retrospection of disgust. the perception of variety by the perception of aversion. passion by retrospection of dispassion. rejection . . the conviction of attachment by and states. flurry by non-distraction. the sign by retrospection of the signless.56 suffering. the perception of ease by retrospection of ill. the hindrances by the first jhdna. the perception of the sphere of space by the attainment of the sphere of consciousness. . initial and sustained applications of mind by the second jhdna. origination by retrospection of cessation. calumnious speech. doubt by determination of states. hankering by retrospection of the unhankeredafter. the perception of matter by the attainment of the sphere of space. " has been said in the Patisambhida: 1 There are five by way of (1) the rejection of life-taking is virtue. The Path of Purity and from their complete purity. precepts fivefold as limited precepts of purity and so In the second pentad the meaning is (p. reinforcing by retrospection of decay. of false speech. discontent by gladness.
higher knowledge. its manifestation. the subtle corruptions by the path of Never-returning.I. and as non-transgression on the part of one who does not transgress this and that. Exposition of Virtue 57 retrospection of tribulation. unbroken and so forth And being that state of . as volition associated with both (abstaining and refraining). Thus it is fivefold as rejection and so forth. and also owing to their not shaking. the corruptions by the path of Once-returning. In what has been said as " What its purification ? What is its corruption ? and that the state of virtue being its state of what its purification we say is its broken and so forth is its corruption. development. requisites (of concentration). fulness. dispassion. therefore it has been said previously to be virtue in the sense of being virtuous. Such kinds of virtue conduce to absence of mental remorse. rapture. quiet. ? proximate cause of it What 6. the gross corruptions round of births. Nibbdna" And is herein. joy. fulfilment. non-reflection by retrospection of reflection. and so arise. culture. perfect knowledge. volition. already mentioned as supporting and The other four states are mentioned right placing (p. practice." And because the different rejections are  the support. its essence. So is far this is the ? end of the answers to the questions: is it What ? ? virtue In what sense virtue ? What its are its charac- teristics. the right placing of the different moral states. 9). tranquillity. And their being virtue has been mentioned previously. to gladness. cessation. that purification. restraint. virtue is abstention. there is no state whatever that called " rejection. other forth. with reference to the procedure and existence of mind as abstaining from this and that. the conviction of fetters by retrospection of escape from the occupying the same place with views by the path of Stream-winning. are its advantages is its How many kinds ? are there W^hat corruption ?" 7. described above to than the not allowing life-taking. non-trans- gression in regard to all these things. certain disgust. in the sense of basis. as refraining from this and that. adornment. all corruptions by the path of Sanctity.
Again. old age. brahmin. lie is pleased with it. at her . Read ekacco. like a garment frayed at the edges. . is and sport with her . spotted in respect of the holy life.58 The Path of Purity is being broken and so forth ditioned counted as its breaking con- by gain. This. . And I say that he is ciated with the fetter of sexual feelings. And " this is by way of the sevenfold association with sexual : For the Blessed One has said J z Brahmin. And so the state of being broken and so on is due to breaking conditioned by gain and so forth. riddled. is and the sevenfold associaFor a man whose precepts in so on. play. like a garment with holes in the middle. death . he is pleased with it. not freed from birth. . takes delight in it. either on the back or on the belly. and tion with sexual feelings. old age. pledged to be chaste and does not and does not like to have her rub. And whoso has two or three of them broken in a series is known as having streaked virtue. is And he. . . Again. . . . here Again. bathe or massage him. and does not like to have her rub play and sport with her. And ill. here a - monk 1 Anguttara iv. chafe. . old age. ill. 54. . like a cow the colour of whose body is one or the other among black and red colours and so on mixed with other dissimilar And whoso has colours. And whoso has them broken in the middle is known as having riddled virtue. actually to jest. And I . chafe. is being broken. . the group of the seven offences are broken either at the outset or conclusion. but he likes to jest. feelings. said to practise impure chastity. streaked. . . from birth. he is pleased with it. . known as having broken virtue. but he likes to stare and look . and to be assobrahmin. but he likes to have her rub. desires it. bathe. pomp. . say that he is not freed brahmin. or massage him . I say that he is not freed from birth. like a cow variegated by dissimilar colours and spots at intervals. death a monk or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not enjoy a woman. brahmin. ill. them broken at different stages is known as having spotted virtue. brahmin. here a monk or a brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not actually  enjoy a woman. here a monk or a brahmin actually enjoy a woman. death .
. he And I say that he is not freed from . spotted as regards Thus the state of being broken. but he likes to listen to her voice. pledged and does not like to have her rub. . . . but he likes to think about is his it. . and does not like to have her rub to jest . . here a monk . see a householder . hatred. austerity. death . This. . when or a . brahmin. . ridicule. . . or one of the devas . . . old age. ill. . and so on. envy. talks. and the sevenfold association with sexual feelings. craft. . he is And I say that he is not freed from birth. is considered as the not breaking of all the precepts. . the atoning for those to be atoned. sings. streaked. the absence 1 of the fetter of the sevenfold sexual feelings. . jest . . . former laughs. hypocrisy. saying. its and so forth. sportings with her . or cries across a wall or fence . death Again. pleased with birth. old age. . vow. . And the state of being unbroken. 1 Read bhavena cw pzrt of the preceding compound. . or a brahmin and does not actually enjoy a woman. or chastity. here a monk or a brahmin woman. . but he likes to practise the holy to life in the hope of attaining a celestial abode. . . . . riddled. takes delight in it. . . . listen to her voice think about his former laughs  but he likes to see a householder or his son enjoying fully the And I say that pleasures of sense . Again. he is pleased with it. . . listen to her voice . he is not freed from birth. brahmin. and does not like to have . to stare and look at her. brahmin. -old age. . pledged does not actually enjoy a woman. he is pleased with it. pledged to be chaste and does not actually enjoy a and does not like to have her rub to jest is . stare . I shall become a deva. . . . ill. stare . . meanness. . . listen . . wile. . desires it. .. think ' . By this virtue. her rub . talks. a a is to be chaste and here or brahmin monk brahmin. should be understood to be counted as breaking conditioned by gain and so forth. death is ill. . stiffness. . she laughs. pleased with it.I. . . .. . . .' being broken. . the not producing of such evil states as anger. Again. Exposition of Virtue 59 brahmin is pledged to be chaste and does not actually enjoy a woman. the holy is " life. . . stare to jest to be chaste .
simple life. 1 Anguttara iii. a wicked person. and the producing of such qualities as moderation of desires. is outside of both (the pleasures of man and of monk) like a vile creeper not a monk though pledged to be one. feels remorse amidst the praises of the virtuous. or which have been atoned for even though they may have been broken through the fault of negligence." x is Moreover. Indeed those virtues which have not been broken for the sake of gain and so forth. purification. is of little worth inasmuch as he does not produce much fruit to those whose giftsr he accepts is difficult of purification like a pit of excrement that has been collecting many years. on account of his wickedness. and so on. five are the evils of depravity of the fulfilment of virtue. . . Hence their state of being unbroken. and they are conducive to concentration since they conduce either to access concentration or ecstatic concentration. and by seeing the advantages  Of these. and which have not been oppressed by the fetter of sexual feelings and anger. are all said to be unbroken. he is ever alarmed like an enemy of all men.60 The Path of Purity clamour. is ill favoured like a hempen garment on account of his wickedness is in touch with pain inasmuch as those who follow his views . unspotted. intoxication. is not admonished by his fellow-monks. not misconstrued through through being not misconstrued by craving and views. or other evil states. like some dead body. hatred. the evils of the of virtue should be understood according to the depravity " Sutta which begins: Brethren. of the virtue of a wicked man. . unriddled. praised by the wise ' their being praised by the wise. he is as a donkey that follows a herd of cattle. is to be known : as their And evils of that purification is fulfilled in two ways by seeing the the depravity of virtue. contentment. is not worthy to live with. not liked by devas and men. bear the pains of the states of woe for a long time. excessive conceit. And they are ' ' ' liberating ' ' through their bringing about liberation . conceit. negligence. is miserable amidst the scoffings at his wickedness. unstreaked. 252.
forms. do you see this great mass of aflame ?" " fire. the which. . iv. with soft and " delicate hands and feet ? " Lord. an evil destiny. of unclean and hesitating conduct.I. but on the dissolution of his body after death. . any more than a cremation attain distinction as a blind fire by brahmins. For in setting forth the visible result of Karma in all . or a maid of the householder class. that it is better for a wicked man of evil nature. is Exposition of Virtue 61 not worthy to be reverenced by his fellow-monks. " Yea. burning. brethren. burning. " embracing a mass of fire. 54. ablaze. has no more desire for the Good Law than a grave-digger's man boy has for kingship is in pain though he thinks he is happy. Lord. in a place of suffering.  Painful it is. as refuse. . he may die or suffer mortal pain. . . it is better to sit or lie down embracing a princely maid and so on. that a wicked man should sit or lie down embracing a princely maid . of hidden actions. I declare unto you. not a monk but pledged to be one. . But. being a partaker of pain as is said in the Fire Discourse. the Blessed One has said: l Brethren. brethren? Which is better: to sit or lie down embracing this great mass of fire. brethren. offensive fire." " / tell you. brethren. is able to produce heart burning and the spitting of hot blood. it will not make him suffer in states of woe. its men with minds giddy pleasures. to sit or lie down . not a holy man but pledged to be one. . brethren. and the exceeding severe pain which arises to evil with enjoyment of the five sensual and the pleasurable taste of the salutation and reverence and so forth which result from these pleasures. Lord. to sit or lie down embracing a mass of And why ? On this account. . merely in recollection. aflame . or to sit or lie down embracing a princely maid. 128 (correct the reference on p." What do you think. n. is is unable to unable to see objects. 8 of the Pali Text accordingly). . ablaze. even though he may be endowed with such merits as learning. hell. putrid within. a brahmin maid. 1 Ib. flowing with lust.
flaming. flaming . blazing. a gift of faith from great princes. blazing. flaming. man which do you think  his is better: that a strong man should open mouth by means of heated iron tweezers. stomach. a gift offaith from great princes. blazing. great brahmins. and having cut the bones. which do you think is better: that a strong man should pierce the breast with a sharp spear cleansed in oil . that indeed is to his disadvantage and on of woe. or householders? that a strong man Brethren. and comes out from below together with the intestines and the mesentery .62 The Path of Purity and pain for a long time hell. burning. brahmins. which do you think is better : that a strong man should seize one by the head or shoulder and make one sit or lie down on a heated iron bed or a chair. and keeps on now coming up. he goes to a state to an evil destiny. burning. so that it cuts the skin. or that one should acquiesce in the obeisance of great princes. 129 /. or that one should eat food. blazing. blazing. rubbing them. or that one (the wicked man) should acquiesce in the salutation of great princes. a place of suffering. feet upward and head down- ward. which do you think is better : that a strong should cover the body with a heated iron-plate. and then the bones. a gift of faith from great princes. burning. or that one should use a bed or chair. remains chafing the marrow . which do you think is better: that a strong man should twist a strong hair-rope round the shins of both legs and pull it. and then the nerves. or great householders ? Brethren. or that one should use a robe. . now going sideways i . and then the thick inner skin. Having thus by the simile of the mass of fire made known the pain caused by enjoying the five pleasures connected with x women. now going down. and throw into it a heated iron ball. throat. the Blessed One in the same way said : ''Brethren. so that one is cooked giving rise to bubbles. which do you think is better: should seize one. brahmins. or householders ? Brethren. the dissolution of the body after death. so that it burns the lips. flaming ." . flaming. burning. and throw one into a heated iron pot. and also the mouth. and then the flesh. or great householders ? Brethren. burning. tongue. brahmins. or Ib. great brahmins. or householders ? Brethren.
to one who hath no virtue It is Shall as virulent poison wheref or he mouth in hell a red-hot iron ball. Exposition of Virtue from 63 great 'princes. . iron chair. that one should use a dwelling. robe. bed. did the Blessed One set forth the pain caused by the enjoyment of salutation. iron bed. a rubbish heap. iron pot. Evil. iron plate. who doth not forsake Sensual pleasure. Thus the world-Teacher blameth him for one Of hesitating conduct. iron ball. no monk. food. yielding sharper pain Than to embrace a mass of living fire ? What happiness is there to him whose virtue Hath been depraved. what delight To dwell within a house. Wherefor he should be punished long in hell. faithful. : Though deemed a joy. accepting salutation. Suffering pain more galling than the pain Of  flesh What tormented with strong ropes of hair happiness to one who hath no virtue. Whence can Of broken there be true happiness to him virtue. Fie on the harmful and destructive life Of him who knoweth not restraint. Being bound upon a blazing iron plate ? Though sweet the food. passionate. a gift of faith ? 'Mid blazing iron vessels should he dwell. him be racked long time on beds And blazing chairs of iron. the use of is bed and chair By one who hath no virtue let Wherefore a pain. And to him Whose virtue is perverted. dwelling (by the unworthy). or householders ?" Thus under the similitudes of hair-rope. sharp spear.I. chair. ? Accepting the obeisance of the The root-condition of a sharper pain Than pain of piercing spear ? Or what to him Who knoweth no restraint in use of robes. obeisance. a gift of faith brahmins. putrid within.
From every hope of of hell The way Heaven's door is closed. Is pitiable to the piteous ? Perverted virtue many faults begets. He is not freed from fears but freed I . so fear Of self -blame enters not that brother's heart is purified. Whose virtue As in the sky By the fulfilment of her rays the moon Shines. The virtuous dig up The root of future ills. Avoided is by the virtuous and good. As dung by those who would be beautified. Whatever of attainment among men. good brother's bodily scent Brings gladness even to gods what need to tell His scent of virtue ? For it overcomes The attainment of all other kinds of scent: Unchecked in all directions it is borne. The intoxicants Of the conditioning present do not vex : The A The virtuous. Further:  His virtue pure. Thus the virtuous dispense Honour and reverence. in the wood of his austerities By the fulfilment of his virtue shines brother. his bearing bowl and robe Pleasing. Or corpse. he hath taken. And the advantages of the fulfilment of virtue should be taken as the opposite of the description here given (of the former). Deeds to the virtuous done. his ordination not unblessed. Are fruitful. Whatever of prosperity there be 1 Read khatam attanam va hautassa for cbatam .64 The Path of Purity But wearing a monk's guise and suffering Austerities 1 For what to him is life. Who but he bliss. though they be few. As darkness enters not the sun. Thus by retrospective knowledge are to be understood the evils of the depravity of virtue. .
in the Path of Purity. and inclines towards its fulfilment. multiform. it is not hard By one fulfilled in virtue. one should purify virtue with due respect. root all Show Of attainments." in the stanza. Thus should the wise forth the benefits of virtue. 65 Among the gods. Exposition of Virtue to gain will.I. various. composed for the purpose of gladdening good folk. . concentration. seeing the evils of the depravity of virtue and the advantages of the fulfilment of virtue as spoken of above. on virtue planted firm. and wisdom " The man discreet. Thus is ended the first chapter called The Exposition of Virtue. Therefore. if he The attainment of : Nibbana takes away his mind seeks after it untold Burning Whose virtue is fulfilled. And so the mind of him who shows them forth trembles at the depravity of virtue. So far has virtue been explained in the Path of Purity set forth under the heads of virtue.
of attaining to delight in culture. to wit. he may be worthy of being established in the three ancient orders of Ariyans and. characteristic. As moral In groups and in detail decision shall Be made on these ascetic practices. Therein: As to the meaning. Because a religious meditator who cleansed has kept his virtue should. contentment. therefore we will begin the discourse on the ascetic practices. austerity life. (13) sitting-man's practice. (5) onesessioner's practice. (10) open-spacer's practice. are eager to make fitting progress. 66 . (6) bowl-fooder's practice. practice. loss of sin. the Blessed Thirteen ascetic practices namely have been permitted by One to be kept by those well-born youths who have put away worldly needs of the flesh and who. the different kinds of which have been described. grade and breach. regardless of body or life. as differentiated. solitude. and may have his vows fulfilled. (11) burning-grounder's practice. And eke the benefit of this and that. strenuous energy. They are (1) the refuse-ragman's practice. And so being absolutely pure in conduct through his qualities of faultless virtue and ritual. observe the ascetic practices. (8) forester's practice. (12) any-bedder's practice. so that he (who observes them) may have his virtue washed and purified by the waters of of such qualities. to be proficient in those qualities. (9) tree-rootman's. (3) alms- man's house-to-house-goer's practice. contentment. triad. fourthly. (4) practice. CHAPTER II EXPOSITION OF THE ASCETIC PRACTICES Now is virtue. fewness of wishes. and so on. by means of such qualities as fewness of wishes. (7) afterfoodrefuser's practice. Observance and directions. easiness of support by others. (2) three-rober's practice.
With unbroken series is by this sdpaddna (sa-apaddna). which practice of such 5. Practice is said to mean reason. An unbroken series (apaddna) is without interruption. It to be the said falling into the bowl of morsels of food given others. 3 is The an one is house-to-house-goer's practice. it has been said. upper garment. . 2. is the falling of morsels as food for the flesh. refuse-rag practice means the wearing of a refuse-rag so denned. p. and which. in the sense of covering-up is like the heap of dust in them.  1. where to roam is to wander. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices meaning: 67 Of these. rubbish-heap. a second 2 Or. food that falls into a single bowl. A broken series (ddna) is said to be an interruption. one whose duty it is to roam for alms is an alms-roamer.II. it reaches the loathsome state. 4. is the same as sdpaddnacdrika. the shoulder-cloak. uninterrupted is the meaning. it gets to a loathsome state like the dust hence refuse-rag. that is. The practice of a three-rober 3. with the addition of the suffix ka. is Bowl-food 3 I. Alms 2 One who gathers alms and seeks it by approaching and that family is an almsman. In the same threefold robe way one who has the habit of wearing the namely. factor (angam). from house to house without One whose habit it is to go from one house interruption. 37. Or. One who has The practice him 6. as to the refuse-rag is one which is placed on a refuse-heap in such places as a chariot-road. as. One who has the habit of wearing The practice 1 of a refuse-ragman it is refuse-ragman's practice. is is three-rober's practice. Cf.e. sapadanacari. burning-ground. The practice of such an one is almsman's practice. Alms-roamer is the same as almsman. above. is a refuse-ragman. is One-session food taken at one the habit of taking such food of a one-sessioner. Or. and the waist-cloth is a three-rober. 1 is one-sessioner' s practice. Therefore this practice should be regarded as a synonym for whatever observance by reason of which one becomes a refuse-ragman. A and so on. to another in an unbroken series is a house-to-house-goer. sitting.
said in the (Great) Commentary Khalu a fruit in its beak. is The 8. 11. but when that falls : ' But it is a bird which takes down does not take another fruit. afterfood. or. The practice of a tree-rootman is tree-rootman' s practice. knowledge. A sitting-man is one whose habit it is to refuse to lie is down and to live sitting. Tree-root is a dwelling at the foot of a tree.68 bowl being such food The Path of Purity refused. Khalu is a particle with the meaning Food that is got later by one who refuses  further offerings while eating his first meal 1 is called afterfood. Any-bed is any lodging that is allotted. is given to the taking of such food. Now f coder's practice. forester. Such is the man. afterfood. The name. practice of such an one afterfood-refuser's practice. is One who has the habit Afterfood-refuser is of taking afterfood an afterfooder. allotted for a first thus This is available dwelling synonym for you. 10. One who has the habit of dwelling in the forest is a The practice of such an one is forester's practice.' One who has the habit of living in whatever place The practice of such an one is allotted is an any-bedder. The partaking of that afterfood is afterfood-taking. And the same with the practices of the open-spacer and the burning-grounder (or charnel -fielder).' namely the afterfood-refuser. One who has the habit of dwelling at such a place is a tree-rootman. 13. The practice of him is bowlof denial. acceptance of such food. 9. is the name bowl-food is given to the One who has the habit of accepting a bowl-fooder. All of them are the practices (or factors) of the brother who the corruptions through the observance of this and that practice. . It is a 12. 1 is of shaking-ofE by reason of its shaking off the the factor for (or reason of) these practices The meaning of pavaritena sata is brought out in these two clauses. 7. one who does not take It is a name is for one who by virtue of his observance refuses additional food. ' : is any-bedder' s practice. which has acquired the has shaken off common name corruptions. The practice of such an one sitting-man's practice.
Or. Ekagamassa. He. 66. meaning the same as the preceding. was one who never lay down. sit on the hams. the freedom from such lust as manifestation. 1 the will to observe is the characteristic of them ' all.II. but none knew of it. 4 said. but afterwards resumed the habit. the story of the senior of the two 4 is brothers. observe them also by oneself. and others. through fewness of wishes by reason of his ascetic practice. One night as he sat . at once lay down.flash and asked if he was practising the habit of the sitting-man. Elders living on Mount Cetiya. should be told. master of the ascetic practices and in the absence of this last person one should sweep the shrineyard. Mind and mental properties are the states by which he observes. This so far 1 2 3 the general discourse. So It far is the decision to And is be known from the meaning. off.  Thus is known from the characteristic and so on. stream-winner a scholar of the three Pitakas 3 a scholar of two Pitakas a scholar of one Pitaka a scholar of one Agama a scholar of one Nikaya a teacher of commentaries a . under a saint purged of the intoxicants and so on. all of them have the It is the physical basis that is rejected. Dhutanga: from dhu: to shake See the verse on p. The Elder. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 69 hence ascetic practices (or factors). and observe the practices as though uttering them under the But it behoves one to tuition of the Supreme Buddha. Tikd. Disciple he being absent.' And slaying of worldly lust as function. it is is omitted by the 'Ilka. It is the ascetic practice that is the will also said (in the Commentary) : It is to observe. As to the five topics their observance. on a bench his brother saw him by lightning. the person that observes. And here as regards fewness of wishes by reason of the ascetic practices. 2 in the lifetime of the Blessed One all the ascetic practices had to be observed under him after his decease. again. directions. they are ascetic because they shake off the hostile corruptions and they are the factors of moral attainment hence ascetic practices. and such Ariyan states as fewness of wishes and so on as proximate cause. under the Chief the decision to be : . under a never-returner a once-returner a .
ocean-rag. spirit-rag. So far this : the (formula of) observance. . and wear it after removing his old householder's robe. rag. the refuse-ragman's practice is observed with one or other of the two expressions I refuse a robe given by a householder. is a rag cast away in the a burning-ground. Read nahapita. Shop-rag rag thrown away at a shopdoor. And first. rubbish-heap-rag. as in footnote. and advantage shall set forth. After-return-rag is a cloth which men. street-rag. road-rag. Tearing the rag he As to these. and had it Road 1 in the hope that refuse-ragmen it thrown on the Talaveli would pick it up.torn-rag. the observance. Burnt-rag is a cloth partially 1 2 3 A road in Mahagama and in Anuradhapura. burning-ground-rag is  a rag is thrown away at a rubbish-heap. bathing-place-rag. of each in order. Bathing-place-rag is a cloth thrown away at the river bathing-place. shop-rag. directions. monk's-rag. consecration-rag. grade. I observe the refuse-ragman's practice. border. is burning-ground-rag. mouse-gnawedoblation-rag. flag-rag. side-torn-rag. Childbirth-rag a cloth thrown away after wiping the impurities of the womb at childbirth. bath-rag. namely. the brethren took of heads and bathed themselves. wind-blown-rag. The Path of Purity The Refuse-Ragman's Practice. after-return-rag. Rubbish-heap-rag is psychic-power-rag. cattle-bitten-rag. should throw away the rotten parts and wash the good parts and make a robe of them. Street-rag is a rag thrown into the street from a window by those who desire merit.70 1. And he who observes this practice should pick up one or other of these rags. ant-bitten-rag. Now we breach. and 2 just enough for mending purposes. So as to leave some for others. they have washed their when. It is said that the mother of Tissa the minister had the impurities of her womb wiped with a cloth worth a hundred coins. on their return from the burning-ground. throw away after their bath. 3 a is which sick Bath-rag rag people throw away as inauspicious with the advice of exorcists. childbirth-rag. burnt-rag.
But that robe which is Spirit-rag is a cloth given given with the expression. like the one given to the Elder Anuruddha. by mice. 173/. But that which.II. Oblation-rag is a cloth which is wrapped round an anthill and offered to Monk'sspirits.' or that who go to receive a gift of cloth As for a robe given by a refuse-rag. is offered him into the by ragman's hand. But one should wait awhile before picking up that cloth.  That which. 214. ii. ' !' the oldest formula of admission 3 Dhammapada Corny. brother Vinaya iv. rag white ants. having given into the brother's hand. blown-rag afar. That banner planted on the battlefield by soldiers one may also take. 2 Ehibhikkhus.e. Koad-rag is a cloth thrown away (or fallen) on the road. which is obtained by monks and alms seniority. rags bitten by cattle. That which regard. torn at the side. i. been having placed at a brother's feet by donors. carried by the wind. not for the ragman's seniority (but.e. which the owner dropped through inadvertence. I. is by him placed at (the ragman's) feet is half pure. rag is a robe belonging to a brother. . As regards the flag-rag sailors embark on a boat after planting a banner (at the port) one may take it when they get out of sight. is by him given to the ragman in the same way 3 is wholly pure. by Those also men throw away. burnt by . i. that which is or that which monastery is not a refuse-rag. seniority). has fallen That also one may take when the owner is not in sight. 1 Psychic-power-rag is a robe made by a newly initiated brother. Consecration-rag is a robe thrown away at the place where the king was anointed. 2 Ocean-rag is a cloth thrown up on to the land by the waves of the sea. Come. is not a we give it to the Order. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 71 fire. is given out of for the donor's a refuse-rag. That also been which. and at the border. is indeed half pure. given out of regard for (the ragman's) is offered to (the inmates of) a is ' brother.e. Cattle-bittenand the next four are obvious. And here also that robe which. when both armies have marched away. by placing it at his feet. is Wind- a cloth which. That also men throw away. is by him in been the hand. (brother's) having placed placed 1 to the Order. having been placed at the brother's feet. by devas.
the institution of a precedent for future generations of monks. 4 This herein is the Now these are the advantages: ' The state of his having behaved in accordance with the superior) as said thus: spiritual guidance (of his resource for clothing 5 . 26. there is no breach. Vinaya 58. . These herein are the directions. and 1 The particle yeva is used in a collective sense to include the other twenty-two strict view that he is a because. not proper for a monk to accept a robe which a layman has placed at his feet requesting him to receive it as a special favour.72 The Path of Purity in the (ragman's) hand is indeed not a robe. i.e. the absence of danger from thieves. the development of right conduct. and soft. Thus knowing the different kinds of refuse-rags the refuse-ragman should wear his robe. 6 Anguttara ii. through his request. own wish by or through submission to a a householder. as Ananda accepted a robe from ' It is King Pasenadi for another. the fitness of the rag as a monk's robe. 6 the yielding of the fruit of fewness of wishes so forth. its delightfulness. easy to get. of the discarded nature of the rags themselves. moderate. But if the donor goes off dropping it with indifference at the monk's feet " saying He will not take it even when I offer it so. Now this is the grade. 3 He who accepts a rag placed at his feet (by a monk) is a soft man. the absence of the lust for enjoyment. a robe given breach. the absence of the trouble of looking after his robe." it is proper to pick rags. the independence of livelihood.' Culatikd. And the ascetic practice of any of them is broken the moment he ' : ' accepts. 4 But if he accepts it out of regard for the donor's faith and with the intention of presenting it to another.' 5 Ganthi. 3 But the Visuddhimaggadipam inclines to the man ' it up.' He is a monk having a refuse-rag as Ms his establishment in the first order of Ariyans. and faultless ' . in the case of rags gnawed by mice and so forth or burnt by fire. of the loathsomeness of the place and. 2 I. Of them he who picks up a rag thrown 1 away in the burning-ground is a strict man. any of the twenty-three kinds. in the case of the burning-ground. There are three ragmen: strict. He who picks 2 the up a rag which was placed with the verbal expression monk will pick it up is a moderate man. the state of its being a requisite praised by the Buddha as ' cheap.
breach. But in his forest-abode he may wash both the garments together and dye them. and advantage 2. the strict man. put it by as long as he or cannot find one who knows how coarse. on getting a cannot make to cut is it. For the moderate man there is in the dyeing hall a yellow dyeing robe which he should wear or put on and do the work of dyeing. Kejecting fairest robes of Kasi silk. piece of cloth. it new no fault in putting it by.II. practice. 2. Who will not wear ? Let Brethren take delight In the old clout befitting hermit ways. 74.  He who observes this practice should. But he should not put on the shoulder-cloak. There are also three grades of men here. waist-cloth or upper garment. The soft man may wear or put on the robes which are for the 1 I. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 73 in the battle shines the mail-clad prince. which is per- See below. the setting forth of the observance. And having put on his upper garment he should dye the shoulder-cloak. in case he should see any one. should wear the one he has for the purpose of wearing either as It does not refer to a robe missible. The Three-Rober's Practice. In so doing he should sit in a place near enough for him to be able. directions. cast-off clout that the world's The Remembering This so far is their vows. He would then become a thief of the ascetic These are the directions. As So Teacher wore. grade. thrown over the shoulder. to drag the yellow robe and cover himself with it. an inner or outer garment. n. . in the refuse-ragman's practice. When the time for dyeing comes. in the routing of the Tempter's ranks Shines the ascetic in a cast-off clout. This is his duty in a village-monastery. There or lacks any of the articles such as a needle. But he should not put it by once it is dyed. 1 1 observe the three-rober's practice. Next comes the three-rober's practice observed with one or other of the expressions: I refuse a fourth robe. having first dyed either his dyed and then dye the other. p.e.
the yielding of The wise recluse. Tlkd. 73). 2 Sea note 1 (p. . But the moment a fourth garment is accepted by these three men. Forsakes a craving for an extra cloak. through a limit being set for what fewness of wishes and so forth. therefore he takes it about with him as a bird carries its wings. the setting forth of the observance. food given 1 by invitation. for the Nor may he wear off and on a robe which common use of the brethren. It must be one span in breadth and three cubits 3 in length. He who observes this practice should not accept these fourteen kinds of food. The Almsman's Practice. . Should note with joy the rule concerning robes.74 The Path of Purity a bed-cover 1 there common Even it is use of the brethren and do the work of dyeing. but he may not take about with him. breach. He knows what taste contented bliss bestows. and advantage in the three-rober's practice. So he. 3 used as a bed. simplicity of life : . to one or more particular monks. This herein is the breach. who loves to roam With his three robes. namely. I observe the almsman's practice. And : Now is such advantages as these are attained little need of tendance the not having to treasure up clothes lightness in travelling abandonment of the lust for extra robes. the good recluse. rober these are the advantages The brother who is a threecontented with the body-protecting robe. . food A shoulder-cloth (not usually worn as a garment) for self or another. Read ti-hattham. the ascetic practice is broken. To one who is observing the three-rober's practice a yellow shoulder-cloth as a fourth 2 piece is permitted. The almsman's practice also is observed with one or other of the expressions: I refuse an excessive amount of food. by tickets. is proper for him. who wears the threefold robe. as flies the bird with wings. grade.sheet in the monastery. directions.  is proper. No other clothes he needs to treasure up . food offered to the Order as a whole. is This 3.
I have been made to sit for a meal by such and such a man. Food obtained from the Order and distributed by tickets for purposes 1 other than the gratification of fleshly needs. to those who minister to the sick.' One of them replies: Sir. But he does not accept food (that has been promised) by sitting for the whole day long. This herein is the breach.' and the other says Sir. let us go to hear the Law. These are the directions. . food given in honour of a monastery. food given by donors in turn. There are also three grades of men here. may you also partake of it. and food cooked in a monastery are also permissible. but does not consent to a meal for the morrow.II.' it is proper to accept such food. But if ' donors do not use the expression Partake of food that has been offered to the Order. to monks about to travel. on the first day of the moonlit fortnight.' but say. strict Of them the man accepts food brought both from in front and from behind. The Order partakes of ' food in our house. The soft man consents to a meal for the morrow and also for the day after. Suppose there is (a sermon on) the lineage of the Ariyans in a certain village. Asanasalayam bhunjanatthaya nisinne adds the Cu/af'ihl. to the sick. on a sacred day. The latter two men do not get the bliss of independent life. He also accepts food given after he has sat down it to eat in the dining-hall 2 after his almsround. But the strict man goes early for alms and enjoys the taste of the Law. ' ' ' : their ascetic practice is broken. The moderate man accepts food sitting and waiting for it the whole day.' Thus both of them fail to hear the Law. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 75 given on a day of the waning or waxing of the month. the strict man gets it. The strict man says to the other two: Friends. I have consented to to-morrow's meal offered by a certain man. such as food for the Order and so on. He gives the bowl to the people who receive it outside their door.  The moment these three men accept extra food. food given to guests. Now these are the advantages: The state of his having behaved in accordance with the spiritual guidance (of his superior) as said thus 1 2 ' : He is a monk having morsels of alms Such as medicinal purposes. at a principal house.
1 5 . 26. I observe the house-to-house- Standing at the village-gate he 2 who observes Vinaya i. the state of not being nourished by others. 4 development of right conduct. . and faultless . A brother going on Supporting self. grade. the fulfilment of his probationary conduct. 3 rejection of conceit. conduct in conformity with few wishes and so forth. freedom from offence against the precepts concerning a meal for several monks. tions. And And independent in his life.e. for he is This is his begging round. greediness shown in passing over houses from which one does not expect to get food. directions. 58. His livelihood is purified. In providing them with a precedent. 5 I. goes at will to any place. And For such The going round so the wise should ne'er despise to beg for alms. breach. and personal behaviour. as his resource for food establishment in the second order of ' Ariyans. the state of the food being a requisite praised by the Blessed One as cheap. easy to get. a meal subsequent to the acceptance of a previous one. the purity of livelihood. favour to future generaContented with his lumps of alms. the setting forth of the observance. practice of the house-to-house-goer also is observed with one or other of the expressions: I set aside greedy be- The haviour in alms-gathering goer's practice. Admire. give much. the doing favour to the poor (donor). His idleness he drives away. 3 * Who is thus not put to the trouble of having to Anguttara ii. independence of livelihood.' 2 the state of his having overcome idleness. 4. The House-to-House-Goer's Practice. checking of the lust for tasty food. and advantage in the almsman's practice. and going to those houses which offer good food. The monk forsakes a lust for food.76 The Path of Purity 51 . not others him the gods free from gain and fame.
The moderate man accepts food offered either before he reaches a house or after he has left a house. he should accept it. he should not go past it. In this ascetic gives up his bowl practice there is indeed none like the Elder Mahakassapa. if he gets no alms there he should go away and not count that place as a village. the being cool like the moon. . three The moment greedy behaviour their ascetic practice is broken. as well as food that is brought after he has sat down to eat in the dining-hall on return from his almsround.e. The brother should enter the village quite early.II. the familiar. These are in his almsround he reaches a the directions. horse. Of them the strict does not accept food offered before he reaches a house or 2 after he has left a house or food given after he has sat down man to eat in the dining-hall on return from his almsround. When village. arises in these is men This herein the breach. but does not been In this he is the strict almsman. He 3 at the donor's door. or men meeting him on the road take his bowl and give alms. Whether it be at the door of a house or on the road or in the village itself. The like promised.  If alms be given him in his monastery. gets nothing he should go from one village to another in order. sit He also gives up his bowl at the donor's door. * So that food may be put into it. he or Whether something from that village. not Cf. I. so that he may have time to leave any place he finds unpleasant and go elsewhere. almsman's practice. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 77 this practice should see that there is meet with. are the advantages The being ever fresh 4 in his relations with the families. respect soft man sits waiting the whole day for food that has been waiting for food that has promised. There are also three grades of men here. he should leave that place and go elsewhere. : Now these 1 2 3 Such as an elephant. and other animals. the occasion on which he gave up his bowl is well known. no danger 1 he is likely to If there be any such danger in the road or village He should not forsake that place in which he has obtained something (abas).
impartial favour. breach. rich ' and poor alike. once he has it little be 1 or much.  5. he should rise But Tipitaka-CFilabhaya the Elder said respects. If The strict man hand on the food. has not finished eating may not resume the here: will There are also three grades of not accept more. meal. but find such a suitable seat as will be available for him. A prudent man. If. men bring butter and so forth saying. conduct in conformity with few . He who : observes this practice should not sit at the place reserved for the Elder in the dining-hall. I observe the one-sessioner 's practice.' 3 I. And faultless in regard to families. The One-Sessioner''s Practice. The practice of the one-sessioner also is observed with one or other of the expressions I refuse to eat food at more than one sitting. and ever fresh. before he finishes his meal. wishes. grade. In coolness like the moon.e. and advantage in the house-to-house-goer's is This practice. directions. And go for alms from house to house. but he directions. absence of wish for a meal to be brought. keep his seat and eating. and so on. And free from meanness and partiality This brother is a house-to-house-almsman. 2 the absence of evil or fault such as familiarity with the donors' finish his families. the setting forth of the observance.78 The Path of Purity 1 rejection of meanness for the families. All greediness of conduct put away. 3 keep his seat or his meal. his teacher or preceptor arrives. or rise up if he has not com- menced . should look With downcast eyes the distance of a yoke. absence of disadvantages that arise to monks who eat together with the families 2 non-acceptance of invitations.' and pay his These are the respects. and pay ' : his He should He who may rise meal. who wishes here on earth To lead an independent life. men laid his To Or.
And because he may eat until he rises up he is by his sitting. And he should eat nothing that is loathsome. ' as he does not rise up. And these are the advantages: Freedom from sickness* freedom from bodily ailment. comfort. ' Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 79 The Elder has not eaten anything. directions. as long as he has not finished the food in the bowl he is indeed known as limited by food. Inasmuch as he may eat until he takes the bowl to wash it. This is the setting forth of the observance. if he were to put into it 1 the curry. The moderate man will accept more. which makes For comfortableness and is the source Of joy in purity and simple life. in which there might be rotted fish 2 and so on. strength. lightness in movement. the not committing of ofEence through his refusal of excessive food. Not greedy for sweet tastes he does not let His work slacken. This herein is the breach. not as food.' he may accept them as medicine. and so on. But the moment these three men eat food at more than one sitting. I observe the bowl-fooder's practice. The practice of the bowl-f ooder also is observed with one or other of the expressions: I refuse a second bowl. the ascetic practice is limited broken. grade. he who observes this practice should first eat the curry or drink the rice-gruel. conduct in conformity with few wishes. and advantage in the one-sessioner's practice. When at the time of drinking rice-gruel curry is offered in a vessel. he is limited by the water with which he washes the bowl. * Read maccha . But Read yaguyam. The rice-gruel would become loathsome.' The soft man will eat as long . Diseases caused by eating do not harm The monk who at one sitting eats his food.II. A monk should gladly take Delight in eating so his food. The Bowl-Fooder's Practice. Therefore concerning such curry the above statement was made. the repelling of craving for tasty food. breach.  6.
He should eat green vegetables. Except in chewing man may not throw away 1 even such things as he cannot eat. The Path of Purity sugar. and so forth. undistracted eating. This herein these are the advantages: The repelling of a craving for taste of various kinds. conduct in conformity with few wishes.' them with one hand. directions. in the bowl-f coder's practice. These are the directions. The bowl-food-eater.' Whatever he can put into the bowl he may separate with his hand or teeth. 2 Lest he should relish the individual taste of each. forsooth. the seeing of the purpose and measure of food. He should take just enough for his consumption. and so forth.80 any honey. fish. ia not permissible. The moment these three men accept is a second vessel. and eat. 1 Into a second bowl. even for the purpose of receiving such things (like fish-bone. holding them in his hand. With joyful heart He Can This breach. He may not eat separating the lumps of rice. the ascetic practice the breach. as one does not eat. is broken. the repelling of desire for taste in more than one bowl. and so on). he has refused a second men here. with eyes 3 Of downward gaze. and cakes. grain. which are not loathsome may be put into the rice-gruel. eat his food as does the bowl-foodman ? Who and advantage the setting forth of the observance. it were A thing else. disciplined enough To delve the roots of taste-desire. which. . since vessel. meat. 2 The moderate man may eat There are also three grades of sugar-cane the strict separating ascetic. 3 Read locano. he the soft is known as a ' as a ' hand- And man is known bowl-ascetic. the absence of the trouble of carrying various dishes And and so forth. grade. is not distracted by More dishes than his own. is bears contentedness as though that's visible. or else put them into the bowl. Any other tree-leaves are not permitted.
The Forester's Practice. The practice of the afterfood-refuser also is observed with one or other of the expressions I refuse extra food I observe the afterfood-refuser's practice. grade. he tions. To shake off faults ascetics should observe This practice. He makes no storage of his fleshly needs. who any more food that may be observes this practice should not eat offered. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 7. conduct in conformity with few wishes. knows not the pain of search. I observe the forester's practice. these are the advantages: Distance from the offence as to extra food. This is the setting forth of the observance. These are the direc- There are also three grades of men here. and so on. He who observes this practice should leave a village-dwelling and be in the forest at dawn. Once he has made his vow : . The moment these three men accept and eat after their vow any more food that may be offered. He suffers not his stomach to be full. And The wise ascetic.II. and advantage in the afterfood-refuser's practice. 8. directions. man This herein is the breach. therefore the strict man finishes the who has made first. absence of search for fresh food. absence of absorption in the fleshly needs. 81  The Afterfood-Refuser's Practice. (pavdrand). Because his vow applies not to the first almsfood but to the refusal of more food while he his is eating it. But the soft man eats as long as he does not rise up. the ascetic practice is moderate broken. and is praised By Him the Happy One. is The practice of the forester also observed with one or other of the expressions: I refuse a village-dwelling. absence of a full stomach. Here 6 . breach. i. who refuses food Additional. which produces qualities Such as increased contentment. vow does not eat a second almsfood after his The meal on which he has made his vow.
provided these are far from the monastery. may or may not have a wall. The Vinaya scholars decide the boundary by taking the characteristic (standard) throw to be the fall of a stone. In the Abhidhamma explanation 2 it is forest when one goes out by the gate pillars. or from the first stonethrow if the village has no wall. an outward stonethrow of a strong man of middle height from between the two pillars a village. 3 Lit. be inhabited or uninhabited.e. permanent assembly hall. And in the Vinaya explanation a forest is said to be all that is outside of village and village-precinct. The Path of Purity is A village may consist may is a (dwelling in a) village including its of one or more houses. is village precinct. dining hall. inhabited by unhuman beings. But the Suttanta scholars say that the boundary is the fall of a stone thrown to drive away a crow.' Vibhanga 251. 46. But regarding this ascetic practice in the Suttanta explanation this is the characteristic measure : a forest-dwelling is at least 500 bow-lengths (or fathoms) distant. 1 Even a caravan that is encamping for more than four months  Supposing a walled village has two gatepillars like those of Anuradhapura. 4 I. throws water from a jar. a strone-throw to drive away a crow. In a village which has no wall a woman. the place where the water falls is house-precinct. . 2 master-bow. That distance is to be measured and fixed by means of a drawn standard bow 3 from the gate pillars. Tree of Wisdom or shrine. thrown by young men stretching out their arms in a display of strength. standing at the door of the house which is outermost of all. 1 On the definitions here see Or. ' 6 One to fix the monastery-precinct and the other the village- precinct. Another stonethrow (from the village) is the village precinct. 5 This is the measure to be taken here. the limit of the no the two stonethrows.82 a village-dwelling precincts. if the monastery has measure is the first dwelling. Vinaya iii. if the village has a wall. as far as the monastery-wall. whence a stonethrow in the way described above is a village. But the Majjhima Commentary says that after fixing the precinct of the monastery as in the case of the village 4 the measure is to be made between The Vinaya Commentaries say that wall.
' and the dawn breaks. This herein the breach. And these are the advantages: The forester-brother who attends to the perception of the forest can acquire concentration not yet acquired or keep that which has been acquired. if the dawn breaks while these three men. rivers. moderate man allowed to live in the village for the four months of rain. These are the directions. so that at dawn the requirements of his he may fulfils practice. Improper Anguttara iii.  he may then take the sick man to a village-dwelling and look after him. But if after the preacher has risen up they go to sleep saying We will lie down awhile and then depart. so that the requisite measure may be fulfilled. It is not broken though the dawn may break. But he should depart be in a place which in good time. or if out of enjoyment they let the day dawn upon them in the village' dwelling. and if the natural means of approach be to cross by a boat. The teacher I am also is pleased with him. And if the forester's preceptor or teacher be ill and the necessary medicine cannot be obtained in the forest. The ascetic practice is not broken. while they are still on their way back from the sermon. listen to the Law in a villagedwelling. then the measure of 500 bow-lengths is to be taken by that (watery) path. and yet it could not be reached by a straight path on account of such obstacles as hills. is a thief of the ascetic practice.' ' : Ndgita. There are also three grades of should find the men here : The strict man The dawn break is in the forest at all times. the soft man for the four months of winter as well.II. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 83 If the village be so near that those in the monastery could hear the voices of the villagers. Whosoever blocks the way here and there.life. and so on. having come from the forest during their terms of forest. If at dawn their illness increases. 343. he should do his duty by them and pay no heed to the purity of his ascetic practice. then the ascetic practice is is broken. as He has said 1 pleased with the forest-life of that brother. .
a tree growing in the middle of a monastery. delighting in A border-dwelling. . He may dwell under a tree after removing with bis foot the fallen leaves. a resinous tree. and advantage in the forester's practice. The moderate man is allowed to cause those soft who arrive at the tree to make a clearing. : on There are also three grades of men here The strict man is not allowed to resort to any tree he pleases and make a clearing underneath it. he puts away a craving for life. a fruit tree. He should resort to a tree the oustkirt of a monastery. The the monastery-lads and ask them to make a clearing. So should the wise delight in This is forest-life. he is free from fear. enjoys the taste of the bliss of solitude. Whose taste even gods with Inda do not get. The Tree-Rootman's Practice. a tree on which bats live. solitary. to level it. On a feast 1 man may summon Read yudho as part of the preceding compound. a hollow tree. he gets that bliss. should avoid these trees: a tree which grows on the border between two countries. breach. to make an enclosure and to fix a door. grade. These are the directions. and may dwell there. a sacred tree.  9. by his forest-life The monk endears himself unto the Lord. the setting forth of the observance. Alone in forest-life. 1 At the forest battle-ground He conquers ere long Mara and his hosts. directions. and others are also agreeable Secluded. The practice of the tree-rootman also is observed with one or other of the expressions I refuse a covered dwelling I observe the tree-rootman's practice. He who observes this practice : .84 The Path of Purity objects and so forth do not distract the mind of him who lives in a border-dwelling. The signs of other practices he wears As weapons. the practices of the refuse-ragman to him. to scatter sand on it. The refuse-rag he wears as coat of mail.
conduct in conformity with few wishes.II. easily and faultless permanence by the absence of meanness the production of the perception of imseeing the constant change in tender leaves j . directions. take delight in culture of the mind. Anguttara ii. On the five kinds of meanness see Expositor 480. sees the this And fall as sere leaves to the ground. From He learns the lesson of impermanence. As regards care. all man. Subdues meanness He change that comes o'er tender leaves. for a dwelling-place.' for a dwelling 4 and of delight in new work. Reciters of the Anguttara Nikaya say that breach. by the Blessed One 3 ' thus. extolled By Buddha best of men as requisite. the setting forth of the observance. and so forth. 2 1 3 4 Vinaya i. This herein is the it is : Now these are the advantages Attainment in accordance with the third requisite as expressed in. breach. broken the moment they consciously let the day dawn upon them in a covered dwelling. In isolation at the foot of tree. 26. duty. . And which is equal to the root of tree The well-controlled ? A  lonely place. Therefore the wise should not despise to dwell The Buddha's Who This is heritage and home of those. ?1 the possession of requisites ' praised got. 58. Which turn from deep red into indigo. or tendance. and advantage in the tree-rootman's practice. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices of the tree 85 but day the ascetic should not remain at the foot go to some other hidden place and sit down. They are 2 trifling. who lives at such protected by the gods. A monk depending on a dwelling at the foot of a tree . these three The moment men make is ascetic practice a dwelling in a covered place. grade. intercourse with tree-deities. their broken. Where is the lonely man's abode.
He may cause to be brought inside invite the Elders As an bedsteads and stools which are badly kept outside. Now these are the advantages The cutting off of the nuisance : an abode.86 The Path of Purity 10. worthiness of the praise bestowed as. I observe the open-spacer's practice. Cf. If the rain while he is going along carrying a requisite that belongs to his seniors. and brethren in the dining-hall to instructor (of the Pali) or as a pupil he may enter a covered dwelling. a hut in the field deserted by field-watchers and so The moment these three men enter a forth. the dispelling of sloth and torpor. Like the deer the brethren live untrammelled in their walks. or houses without entering them. Kindred Sayings I. homeless. 253. The moderate man may dwell depending on trees. The Open-Spacer's Practice. may There are also three grades of men here: The strict not dwell depending on a tree. a cloth-cover for a chair. but going with his ordinary steps he may enter and remain till are the directions which the rain ceases and then depart. Reciters of the Anguttara Nikaya say that it is broken the moment they consciously let the dawn break upon them in such places. he may not hasten with the intention of entering the hall. man He should dwell beneath the open sky in a hut made of leaves. For the soft man a cave not covered with a roof. . If he is not falls carrying any such thing. These also apply to the tree-rootman. n.  the ascetic practice is broken. mountains. The practice of the open-spacer also is observed with one or other of the expressions: I refuse a roof as well as the root of a tree. roof or beneath a tree to dwell there. 199. He may a meal. He may enter the dining-hall or the fire-hall to do his duties. 3. n freedom from attach of ' 1 Samyutta i. he may enter a hall on the way. This herein is the breach. or house. a pavilion of branches. mountain. are permissible. He who observes this practice may enter the sacred house either to listen to If the rain falls while the is Law or to do the sacred duties. he inside he should not go out in the rain but wait till it ceases.
A lamp that lights the vault of starry gems. daylight. grade. and live there teaching the Law. practice. .II. water and food brought. directions. and live free from In walking to and fro he should do so looking negligence. breach. and so forth. Therefore in order to quell any danger that might arise he should tell the Elder of the Order or one connected with the king. bedsteads and stools arranged. 1 As free in mind as is the antelope.  In going to the burning-ground also he should leave the main He should note any object there by may not appear to him fearful at night. though has been deserted for twelve years since a dead body was burnt there. the place is not known as burning-ground. It is a burning-ground. so that it 1 To houses and so forth. conduct in conformity with few wishes. He who observes this practice should not dwell in a place which village-builders fix as burning-ground. The practice of the burning-grounder also is observed with one or other of the expressions I refuse (to dwell in) a place that is not a burning-ground I observe the burning-grounder's : . 11. and advantage in the open-spacer's practice. life Therefore the wise should take delight in Beneath the open sky. ment. The Burning-Grounder's Practice. The tasteful essence of his solitude. it This ascetic practice is indeed heavy. Though unhuman beings may roam about uttering loud cries. he should not throw anything to hit them. This is the setting forth of the observance. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 87 the going (at will) in the four directions. For when a dead body has not been burnt on it. He road and go by a side path. with half-closed eyes at the burning of dead bodies. His torpid sloth he drives away and takes Delight in culture presently he finds . The brother lives an easy homeless life Beneath the open sky lit by the moon. But he may not have there promenades and pavilions and so forth built.
Because so many corpses he beholds. even while he sleeps. acquirement of the outward sign of the foul. He should not partake of such foodstuffs as sesjanium. oil. milk. a life free from negligence. The faults of negligence. Reciters of the Anguttara Nikaya say that after spending the middle watch of the night at the burning-ground he may depart in the last watch. Therefore with heart Nibbana follow hard The burning-grounder's practice.88 The Path of Purity should not pass a single day without going to the burningground. This herein is the Now these are the advantages : Attainment of mindfulness regarding death. that are dear to unhuman beings. These are the directions. nor take them to the houses of donors. and advantage in the burning-grounder's practice. He makes a right effort To win tranquillity. grade. When these men make their abode in a place which is not burningground. freed from lust's dominion. and so forth. rice. and continual weeping. continual man may dwell where soft man may dwell in three smell of dead bodies. such is The power of his mindfulness of death. peas. meat. respect paid by unhuman beings. The a place which just fulfils the require- ments of a burning-ground as given above. rejection of the pride of health. overcoming of fear and fright. Touch not the burning-ground-recluse. There are also three grades of men here: The strict man should dwell where there are continual burning. breach. growth of agitation. directions. . is broken. fish. dispelling of sensual lust. flour. Inclined unto This is the setting forth of the observance. The moderate there is one of these present. His mind is Great agitation seizes him and leaves Him without pride. molasses. conduct in conformity with few wishes. their ascetic practice breach. the perpetual seeing of the intrinsic nature of the body. which bestows Such manifold merits and qualities.
such questions. seeking the : good of one's fellow-monks. distributor He who observes this practice should be content with whatever dwelling is allotted to him by the who for you. he should not make another place for himself. or whether it is hot or cold. The soft man may go and examine it. is not perturbed because Of an inferior bed. the setting forth of the observance. And by This is the Bull-sage fittingly extolled. directions. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 12. is Now these ' as: One should and are the advantages Obeying the advice given. 1 be content with what one gets. and so forth. . The practice of the any-bedder also is observed with one or other of the expressions: I set aside greedy behaviour regarding dwellings. their ascetic practice broken. and advantage in the any-bedder's practice.II. Or. and so The moderate man may ask on. 1 ' strict 2 man must it is not ask concerning a dwelling he has come far or quite near. The moment greedy behaviour in regard to dwellings arises in these three men. the of covetousness. rejection of approval and disapproval. So a wise man ought To be content with any bed. abandonment of thought of what superior.' He should not oust any man These are the directions. says. snakes. 89  The Any-Bedder's Practice. grade. breach. This herein is the breach. gets. does not long Even though they be He For what is best. To younger monks He shows compassion. troubled to. There are also three grades of men here The :. whether by unhuman beings. is I observe the any-bedder's practice. 1 - Or. the Content with what he Recluse lies any-bed- down in careless ease of grass. This from his place. and if it does not please him he may take another. but may not go and examine it. conduct in conformity with door closing is inferior few wishes. allotted to him. a rule Of constant practice with the Ariyas. on beds.
2 MajjJiima i. illumining grove of his ascetic practices. . practice of the sitting-man also is observed with one or other of the expressions I refuse to lie down I observe the . a seven- limbed seat. The moderate man may use any one of these three. He who observes this practice should rise up and walk to and fro for one watch out of the three is watches of the night. 103. becoming a never-returner. but wakes his energies joyfully sits up. a pillow. In lying down. men accept a bed to lie on. The moment these three is broken. The sitting-man's practice. is the setting forth of the observance. The Path of Purity The Sitting-Man's : Practice.  is There are also three grades of men here: The strict not allowed a plank with a back support. And The As bliss and rapture. keeping straight The body. Reward the monk. their ascetic practice This herein is the breach. the pleasure 2 fitness for application to all subjects of meditaof torpor. or a bandage-cloth. for lying down is the only posture that not permitted to him. development of right attainment. grade. or a cushion of cloth for squatting on. a cushion of cloth for squatting on. the pleasure of lying on one's side. entered parinibbana. of turning from side to side. 1 Or. It is said that people made such a seat for Mllhabhaya the Elder. The soft man is allowed man a plank with a back support. cleansed of earthly things. agreeableness for strenuous effort. these are the advantages: The cutting off of mental ' bondage described as: He lives devoted to the pleasure of 1 lying down. so one should steadfastly Perform the duty of the This sitting man. These are the directions. A seat with a five-limbed seat.90 13.' Now tion. doth disturb the Tempter's heart. directions. breach. The monk who sits cross-legged. and advantage in the sitting-man's practice. a five-limbed seat. He takes no pleasure in the torpid state. who. satisfied state of the postures. a bandage-cloth. A seat with a back support to lean against is a back support and a hand support on either side is a seven-limbed seat.
the practices (or factors) of the brother who has shaken them off are called ' ascetic Or. is no an ' ascetic practice that is immoral. (p. as differentiated. Else we should speak of ascetic practices of which the factor is immorality which ascetic on account shakes off ness for robes nothing and immorality does not shake off greediand other evil states. 219. ascetic practice that is immoral. ascetic practice in the ultimate sense to those is There There is is no no whose ascetic off practice of what does this imaginary thing become ascetic practice ? They would also fall into opposition with the saying He goes ' : freed from the moral triad. practices may and of saints average persons purged of the intoxicants. Because the corruptions are shaken off through this and that observance. 66) : Now this is the elucidation of the verse As moral In groups and in ' triad. For whosoever makes his abode in the forest is a forester. knowledge which has obtained the common practices. it as a concept.  There says. it has been said that because these observ' off the hostile corruptions they are ascetic. as these ascetic practices. attainment. But the sectary ascetic practice may also be immoral because of the saying: There is a forester of evil desires. is the factor of these observances factor). Because they consider - Read bhaveyyum for bhaveyyani. or little. Exposition of the Ascetic Practices Ascetic 91 Of and Other Terms as Moral Triad. or no desire. because it shakes off the corruptions. .' is well said. nor is it a factor of moral .' name of asceticism. Therefore what has been said ' as. detail decision shall Be made regarding Therein. who may have evil desires. not free from desire? 1 We reply that we do not say that one may not dwell with an immoral thought in the forest. thus ' ' ascetic practice (or Or again. and are factors of (moral) attainment thus ascetic practice.II. 3 From the shaking 1 3 Anguttara iii.' they No one whose observances are 2 such factors is known as ances shake of his immorality. ' moral triad means that all the ascetic moral or be unmoral as those of probationers.
The Path of Purity
on keeping the ascetic duties.' Therefore their saying should not be accepted. This so far is the elucidation by way of the moral triad.
and Other Terms as
Ascetic should be understood,
(2) ascetic doctrine should
states should be understood, should be understood, (5) for whom (4) ascetic practices is the practising of the ascetic practices suitable ? this
should be understood.
Of these points
who has shaken
the corruptions, or a state for the of the corruptions. ascetic doctrine (2) In
ascetic preacher, there is
not ascetic but ascetic preacher, there is one who neither ascetic nor ascetic preacher, there is one who is
Of these he who has shaken of his means ascetic practice, but does corruptions by not admonish nor instruct others regarding ascetic practice, 1 is an ascetic but not ascetic preacher,like Bakkula the Elder;
both ascetic and ascetic preacher.
as has been said
This venerable Bakkula
is ascetic not ascetic
 has not shaken
of ascetic practice, but just admonishes, instructs others regarding it, is not ascetic but ascetic preacher, like 2 Upananda the Elder; as has been said: This venerable
Upananda Sakyaputta is not an ascetic but ascetic Whoso is deficient in both respects like Laludayl 3
ascetic nor ascetic preacher; as has
Ldluddyi is neither ascetic nor ascetic preacher.' Whoso like the captain of the Law 4 is fulfilled in both respects is ascetic
as has been said:
is both ascetic
states should be understood
these five attendant states of
the volition of ascetic practice fewness of wishes, contentment, austerity, solitude, desire-for-these-states are known as
from the expression, depending on fewness of so on.' and Of them fewness of wishes and contentwishes,
123, 446 /.
Exposition of the Ascetic Practices
ment fall under non-greed; austerity and solitude under the two states: non-greed and non-delusion. Desire-for-thesestates is knowledge. By means of non-greed one shakes off
greed for forbidden things, by non-delusion one shakes off delusion which covers faults in them, and by non-greed one shakes off devotion to the pleasure of sense which arises from
resorting to things allowed. By non-delusion one shakes off devotion to self-torture, which arises on account of excessive
austerity in ascetic practice. Therefore should these states be understood as ascetic states. (4) By ascetic practices
should be understood the thirteen, namely, the refuse-ragman's practice sitting-man's practice. They have been stated as regards their meaning, characteristic and so forth. (5) For whom is the practising of ascetic practice suitable ? for one walking in lust and one walking in delusion. Why so ? Because the practising of ascetic practice is of painful progress and means a life of austerity; and through painful progress
calmed, through austerity the delusion of a non-negliis put away. Or, herein the practising of the
practices of the forester and of the tree-rootman is suitable one walking in hate, for hate ceases in one dwelling without
society in the forest or at the foot of a tree. This is the elucidation of ascetic and other terms as differentiated.
In Groups and in
In groups these ascetic practices are eight three chief and five unmixed (separate) practices. Of them the practices of the house-to-house-goer, one-sessioner, and openspacer are the three chief practices. For whoso keeps the house-to-house-goer's practice will also keep the almsman's practice. And whoso keeps the one-sessioner's practice, for
practices of the bowl-fooder and afterfood-refuser be easy to keep. Whoso keeps the open-spacer's practice, what need is there for him to keep the practices of the treerootman and the any-bedder ? Thus these three are the chief
eight with these five: practices of the
The Path of Purity
grounder. Again, they form four classes: two concerning the robe, five concerning the alms, five concerning the dwelling,
one concerning energy. Of these the sitting-man's practice one that concerns energy; the others are obvious. Again,
are of two kinds by way of dependence: twelve depending on the requisites, one depending on energy. They are also of two kinds as to be resorted to and as not to be resorted to. For they should be resorted to by him whose subject of meditation increases with such resort, but not by him whose subject of meditation decreases with it. He whose subject of meditation increases and does not decrease, whether he resorts to them or not, should also resort to them out of compassion for For the sake of habit in future they should be reposterity. sorted to by him also whose subject of meditation, whether he
or not, does not increase.
to be resorted to
and as not to be resorted
to, all of
of volition ; for ascetic practice as the volition to
It is also said in the commentaries: which is volition is ascetic practice.' They say that thirteen for brethren, In detail they are forty-two
eight for sisters, twelve for novices, seven for female student If there were novices, two for lay-disciples male and female.
a burning-ground fulfilled with the forester's practice in open space, a single brother would be able to enjoy all the ascetic
practices at once. But the two practices of the forester and the afterfood-refuser are prohibited for sisters by precept;  and the three practices of the open-spacer, tree-rootman,
for a sister to live
burning-grounder are difficult to carry out, for it is not proper without a second person and in such places 1
hard to get a second with similar wishes. Even if one was obtained, the sister would not be free from a life shared with others. This being so, the purpose for which she resorted
to the ascetic practice would not be fulfilled. So, owing to impracticability, five of the practices are left out for the sisters, and only eight are to be taken.
Excepting the three-rober's practice from those mentioned
on such occasions, under such circumstances.
Exposition of the Ascetic Practices 95 and sisters. contentment. For lay-disciples male and female the two practices of the one-sessioner and the bowl-fooder are suitable and practicable. such as fewness of wishes. and seven for female novices. Thus on the ascetic practices to be observed for the fulfilment of those qualities. the remaining twelve are to be male novices. in the ended the second chapter called The Exposition Path of Purity. LTD. for the brethren known as for Thus This in detail they are forty-two.. GUILDFOKD AND ESHKR . and understanding in the stanza : The man discreet on virtue 'planted firm. concentration. is the elucidation in groups far is told the discourse and in detail. composed for the folk. the different kinds of which have been shown in the Path of Purity under the heads of virtue. Thus is of Ascetic Practices.II. by means of which there is cleansing of virtue. purpose of gladdening good BILLING AND PRINTED IK QKEAT BRITAIN BY SONS.
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