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Broadcast and Collision Domain

Broadcast and Collision Domain

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Published by Rohit Sachan

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Published by: Rohit Sachan on Jul 15, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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BroadCast and Collision domains BroadCast Domain

A broadcast domain is a logical division of a computer network, in which all nodes can reach each other by broadcast at the data link layer. A broadcast domain can be within the same LAN segment or it can be bridged to other LAN segments. A broadcast domain encompasses a set of devices for when one of the devices sends a broadcast, all the other devices receive a copy of the broadcast. For example, switches flood broadcasts and multicasts on all ports. Because broadcast frames are sent out all ports, a switch creates a single broadcast domain. Any computer connected to the same repeater or switch is a member of the same broadcast domain. Further, any computer connected to the same set of inter-connected switches/repeaters is a member of the same broadcast domain. Routers and other higher-layer devices form boundaries between broadcast domains. This is as compared to a collision domain, which would be all nodes on the same set of inter-connected repeaters, divided by switches and learning bridges. Collision domains are generally smaller than broadcast domains. Broadcast domains are only divided by layer 3 network devices such as routers or layer 3 switches. However,some layer two network devices are also able to divide the collision domains. A broadcast domain is a set of NICs for which a broadcast frame sent by one NIC is received by all other NICs in the same broadcast domain

Collision Domain

A collision domain is the set of LAN interfaces whose frames could collide with each other, but not with frames sent by any other devices in the network. The collision is happened when to computer in same time want to use bandwidth. The CSMA/CD algorithm that deals with the issue of collisions, and some of the differences between how hubs and switches operate to create either a single collision domain (hubs) or many collision domains (switches). Generally speaking in easy terms, A collision domain is a set of network interface cards (NIC) for which a frame sent by one NIC could result in a collision with a frame sent by any other NIC in the same collision domain. Only one device in the collision domain may transmit at any one time, and

By connecting each device directly to a port on the switch. you might have ten PCs with 10/100 Ethernet NICs. This means . the hub’s performance would be worse and you need a switch . However. you use some form of networking devices— typically switches today—a few routers. a collision occurs. in terms of function and performance. total network bandwidth is shared among all devices. with the same topology. If you connect all ten PCs to ten different ports on a single 100-Mbps hub. Collisions also decrease network efficiency on a collision domain. and possibly a few hubs. no collisions would occur. would create ten different collision domains. depending on which types of devices are used. That may work well and meet the needs of those users. consider the devices in a single collision domain for a moment. When creating any Ethernet LAN.the other devices in the domain listen to the network in order to avoid data collisions. you have one collision domain. The Importance of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design When designing a LAN. Using a switch instead of a hub. These differences then affect a network engineer’s decision when choosing how to design a LAN. either each port on a switch becomes its own collision domain (in the case of half duplex links) or the possibility of collisions is eliminated entirely in the case of full duplex links. and both devices must retransmit at a later time. and the PCs in that collision domain share the 100 Mbps of bandwidth. The terms collision domain and broadcast domain define two important effects of the process of segmenting LANs using various devices. The different parts of an Ethernet LAN may behave differently. Because only one device may be transmitting at any one time. each with 100 Mbps of bandwidth. with higher traffic loads. if two devices transmit simultaneously. when choosing the number of devices in each collision domain and broadcast domain. First. with only one device on each switch interface. Modern wired networks use a network switch to eliminate collisions. Also. For a single collision domain: The devices share the available bandwidth in network. The devices may inefficiently use that bandwidth due to the effects of collisions For example.

that you could enable full duplex on each interface. effectively giving each interface 200 Mbps. . Frankly. Using the switches instead of hubs seems like an obvious choice given the overwhelming performance benefits. most new installations today use switches exclusively.

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