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At the Right Hand
by Hans Boersma Ascension Theology
BY DOUGLAS FARROW T&T CLARK, 177 PAGES, $27.95
imply put," writes Douglas Earrow, "our choice is between a doctrine of the Ascension that truly affirms our humanity in Christ and one that secretly or openly denies it." In this book, a sequel to his much acclaimed Ascension and Ecclesia, Earrow, a Catholic theologian who teaches Christian thought at McGill University, presents what he hopes is a "more accessible sketch" of the relevance of the doctrine of the Ascension. He tries to "reach out to the less-specialized reader, including the adventurous undergraduate"— though my hunch is that the undergraduate would have to be rather adventurous indeed. Earrow's book is not an easy read, and some chapters require particularly careful scrutiny. Earrow is a widely read and deep thinker, and the book evidences a deeply passionate commitment and engages, in an often feisty manner, the many issues at stake in modernity's gnosticizing attacks on the gospel. After presenting the theme of ascent and descent in the biblical narrative, Earrow takes his readers through the history of Christian thought. He begins with Origen, who focused on "ascension of the mind rather than of the body." This sharp distinction set in motion the body-denying tendencies of much of the early Church. Though St. Augustine was sometimes a critic of Origen, he and many leading theologians through the Middle Ages failed to take seriously the particularity of the human being.
Jesus of Nazareth. In discussions of Maximus the Confessor, Luther, and many modern thinkers—including Immanuel Kant, Eriedrich Schleiermacher, David E. Strauss, and Rudolf Bultmann—Earrow details this otherworldly, spiritualizing trajectory. Earrow holds up St. Irenaeus' Against Heresies as the antidote to their gnosticizing tendencies, since Irenaeus "very definitely understood the ascension to be bodily ascension, ascension in the flesh." He also redeems Augustine at this point, pointing out that he affirmed the Lord's bodily ascension as well as gendered existence in the life of the world to come. However, the liberal tradition (Teilhard de Chardin, for example) has reduced the ascended Lord to the dynamics of history. In contrast to this optimistic faith in progress, Kierkegaard and Bonhoeffer affirmed the particularity of Jesus as the God-man. Today's challenge, as Earrow sees it, is to "recognize our age for what it is—a test—and reject the seductive vision of Origen's modern heirs." Earrow is right to emphasize Irenaeus' anti-Gnostic convictions. It is much less clear to me that this needs to be done by means of a sharp critique of the Platonically informed theologies of much of the Christian tradition. Earrow too easily dismisses large chunks of the tradition that he believes have fallen prey to Origen's gnosticizing tendencies. At one point, while acknowledging Schleiermacher's decisive break with the past, he states that "it is nonetheless true that it involves a genuine extension of the Origenist tradition as mediated by Augustine." He draws back at points, asking: If the Eathers had no difficulty holding bodily and spiritual ascension together, "should we have any difficulty? Is the contrast between an Origenist and an Irenaean approach overdrawn, if not actually mistaken?" I am convinced that the contrast is overdrawn. Henri de Lubac's recently
translated History and Spirit places Origen in a rather different light than does Earrow. I am also convinced that, in our materialist age, we could do with a good dose of Origenist (or Augustinian) otherworldliness. I doubt that Earrow would entirely disagree. At one point, he presents a quite helpful elucidation of the Ascension as involving a "transformative relocation into a time and space and mode of life defined by full participation in the Trinitarian economy." The eschatological "location" of heaven does not allow us to identify where Jesus "is going on any map of ours," although this "location," as Earrow explains, remains integrally related to the times and places of this-worldly existence. Clearly, for Earrow, thisworldly understanding of time and space is at best analogically suitable for speaking about that astounding reality for which we aim. arrow presents a strong plea to take the Ascension seriously in the doctrine of the Eucharist, arguing that the Eucharist is not only a celebration of the presence of Christ but a presence in absence, since we are still waiting for the return of the ascended Christ. While Christ is present, he is "present in a manner distinct from the parousia that is yet to come." And so, although he rejects the Pelagianism inherent in memorialist views of the Eucharist, he finds himself wishing that "the western tradition had paid more attention to the eschatological features of the Eucharist." As he explains, "The real presence effected in the Eucharist that is celebrated on the earthly altar is, as the liturgy indicates, a presence in and with Christ in heaven, where he stands before God as our great high priest." It's a sentence that Calvin could have written, and in some ways Earrow is close to the Genevan reformer. The eschatological focus, the notion that the Eucharist takes us to the heavenly places, and the belief
Hans Boersma isj. I. Packer Professor of Theology at Regent College.
" In the Eucharist we come together "to participate in the ultimate political reality. His theology—essentially a theology of martyrdom—takes on a distinctly apocalyptic tone when he refiects on the various embodiments of the "man of lawlessness. He articulates an eschatological realism in line with the broad Christian tradition. The author's knowledge of Bonhoeffer and his familiarity with the massive amount of research that has been done over the past 50 years are readily apparent. 13 NEWMAN New Short History of the Catholic Church Norman Tanner Here is a one-volume history of the Christian people from Pentecost to the present day. from which its authority derives." I cannot help but think that his discussion of the Eucharist displays a real tension in Earrow's thinking." which he describes as present in the German Christian movement at the time of the Third Reich. or how.95 I 280pp I 9780860124559 Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1906-1945 Martyr.I a n Ker. Earrow ends up aligning himself with the part of the tradition that puts the greatest emphasis on the transcendent difference that Christ makes. He rightly reminds us that Christ's "cleansing of heaven produces trauma on earth. in John Stuart Mill's prioritizing of liberty over truth. St. Uzziah-like. he might more freely acknowledge that transubstantiation cannot do justice to the absence or—since I think the term absence is unfortunate—the provisional nature of Christ's presence in the Eucharist. Again. "but a real man there will be. with his own creaturely interests and responsibilities under God. Newman and his Contemporaries is a useful introduction to this essential quality of the man and will send readers back not only to Newman's published works but to his wonderful letters. Edward Short shows how Newman." This starting point allows him to relativize as provisional all forms of secular government.FIRST THINGS August/September2011 that the Eucharist "is not explicable in terms of the old creation" are all affirmations shared by many Protestants. I must admit that it is not clear to me why Earrow still insists on using the unhelpful language of transubstantiation for the Eucharist.95 I 472pp I 9780567034007 continuum www. before God" and who "attempted to rule over the souls of his subjects that he might rule also over their bodies. Oxford. Earrow refiects on the continuity and discontinuity between this world and the next. and a real garden too. the kingdom of God. Our future involves incalculable transformations. man is no longer merely man. When judged by this criterion." Despite his overdrawn fears of Origenism in much of the history of Christian thought. particularly in its arbitrary invention of marriage without sexual coinplementarity or procreative purpose. Nor do I understand why he criticizes William Dix for the phrase "faith believes. who "exalted himself. Earrow even insists that the Eucharist cannot be understood within Aristotelian categories of substance and accident. he does describe lucidly the world-transforming.95 I 544pp I 9780567026897 T F arrow is at his most articulate and passionate when he speaks of "the politics of the Eucharist.continuumbooks." . Ferdinand Schlingensiepen's new book is without peer. Man is now an internal communicant in the very life of God." At the same time. Perhaps if he were to follow through on the thought patterns of John Calvin and Herbert McCabe. far from being the selfabsorbed introvert as some have claimed. state's increasing appropriation of power. for God has made himself internally communicant in the life of man." Despite Earrow's sometimes harsh judgments on the tradition. Christ causes us to ascend with him and so offers up the whole creation to be the kingdom of God. Having passed AD 2000 it seems appropriate and necessary to have a new short history of the first two millennia of the Christian era. work and witness." New from Continuum Newman and His Contemporaries Edward Short "In this wellresearched book. logic of the Christian witness through the centuries. nor questions how. since the "bread does not turn into the body by acquiring a new form in its matter. with principal focus on the Catholic Church. Thinker. His affirmation of deification is unambiguous: "Since God has invested himself in man. HC I $22. and in the he final chapter presents a wonderful discussion of "ascension and atonement." Earrow discusses Christ's ascension and its implications from the viewpoint of the purification of the heavenly things (Hebrew 9:23-24). Earrow has particularly harsh words for King Henry VIII.com 1-800-561-7704 63 ." for Earrow himself insists that the coming of the Word in the consecration is not "explicable in terms of the old creation. and they result in a clear and compelling picture of Bonhoeffer's life." In view of this theological analysis of the implications that Christ's ascension has for Eucharistie theology. author of John Henry Newman: A Biography (1988) PB I $32. Benet's Hall. had a wide circle of friends who benefited from his extraordinary powers of empathy." —The Christian Century HC I $29. rather than world-denying. though we know not what will grow there. Man of Resistance Ferdinand Schlingensiepen "One measure of a good biography is the degree to which it keeps this anachronistic tendency in check.
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