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Cinemagic #24 (1983)

Cinemagic #24 (1983)

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Published by Vinnie Rattolle
Twenty-fourth issue of the glossy revival of the magazine, which instructed readers on how to create movie effects.
Twenty-fourth issue of the glossy revival of the magazine, which instructed readers on how to create movie effects.

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Published by: Vinnie Rattolle on Jul 15, 2013
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Create p o o ~ eyes
that glow in the night
Mist and Fog FX with Filters
Ammator James Aupperlf uses a gauge tor checking ctl3racter movemenl with this crealllre from the TV series Jason of Star Command See Douglas Bortons article
about anrmalron techniques on page 22
Ri ght: Man &Jenca's cast from A Rock
Noise Christmas SeeBlllletln Board 16
lett MotIe!maker JeH PoIllzzotros twin pod lighter IS
a deSign based on the twrn-pOd cloud car Irom The
EmpNe StflkeS Back See Forum on page 10
Bench ___ 4
This year's Short Film Search winners
are revealed and screened at the big.
gestawards screenIng ever.
Filmmakers' 1 0
A regular department devoted to
readers' comments and cor·
respondence about fantasy
Cinemagic 11
Classified advertising and
Spaceships 12
Build ships the quick and easy way In
three hours or less. By Jack Imes. Jr.
Eyes of Fire 18
Create spooky eyes for masks and
special effects makeups that glow in
the night. By Micah Harris
Grip Kit _20
Useful accessories for filmmakers.
_ 21
Valuable sources of information and
technique for the filmmaker.
Issue #24
IVlor 22
Techniques for improving the .. o';"n-,
of both eel and stop-motion
animation. By Douglas Borton.
Easy Effects 26
In-camera mist and fog effects.
By Jack Imes, Jr.
Stop MOtion
30 Studio
Easy armatures-an alternative to
high· priced machine shop armature
constructi on. By John Dods.
_ 32
Mi llennium: A training ground for
talent. Roger Corman's new studio
cont inues his tradition of hiring
young people. By Randy [, Jean-Marc
Norml!ln Jacobs/Kerry O'Quinn
Associ ate Publisher
Rita Eisenstein
Circulation Director
Robert Rachol
As.lstant Publi sher
Milburn Smith
Dl!!vid Hutchison
Art Di rector
W.R. Mohalley
Managing Editor
John Clayton
Associate Art Di rector
Neil Holmes
Seni or DeSi gner
Denise lewi s
Designer s
Marilyn Pierce
Georgia Kanelous
Edi tori al Contributors
Douglas Borton
John Dods
Micah Harri s
Shawn Hodes
Jack lmes, Jr.
Si monI!! Nl!! ss
Jean·Marc LoWcler
Randy LoWcier
Special Projects
Unda Laias
Damon Santostefano
Production Assi stants
Ed 8erganza
Elizabeth Dejesus
Eileen Dempsey
Nicholas "Moe" Dias
Marisol Malinez
Shawn Hode.
Chris Kwiath
Andrea Passes
Financial Manager
Joan Baetz
Founder of CINEMAGIC
Don Dohler
Publi shed by
475 Park Ave. South
New York. NY 100 16
... " •• "1"",,, In101 ..... lon Rit.
(ZI2) 689·28}o
About tho _, Tho! meo""",,,s '" Eno __
Enwpt..e.d MIoml. F\oIIdoo...., tt-..,., M\!he UIP
pt-.1'IO)I_ThlrdPtI ...
this re-. Shor't F1Im s-d> s.... poge IS Bonom II:/'t!
M mo:>deIlfom lAtUoIlII<' I.ntIt. 1...,_
""" _I0I"l artide on J"'II" 22 P!uo ccurtesy d
Gone WIJI_ SWdklo. Bottom !¥'h ... VCIJn!I
.t I!ogr< Coo"",,', new Mollenniurn s....:IQ. $eo: pItgt
32. PhaIo DorvId Iiutc:tlI.-.
Breaking the Format Barrier
he additlon of videos to the Short Film Search creal ed some unforseen prob·
lems for the j udges. Before the close of l he competition a numberof peopl e had
called me to ask If their film could be submitted lisa tape transfer; and i f it was
accepted assuch would it still bejudged asa film. All callers were told that productions
would be judged according 10 their original format regardless of the fact that we were
looking at a transfer.
Several films were submi tted as video transfers. but judged as film. No problem.
What we had not foreseen was the full extent of cross media submissions. For exam·
pie. we had at least one Super·B submission that just looked too good for Super·B, we
suspected that we were watching a 16mm production that had been printed down to
Super-B. One entry was shot in 35mm, printed down to 16mm and transferred to
video. Other video entries were mixed media-part video part film. All of this. of
course. played havock with categories and the judges were forced to makeon.the·spot
decisions regarding the in which an entry was to be judged.
Originally, we had separated the entries into two categories-Super·B and
16mm-for the simple reason that it didn't seem fair to force Super·B productions to
compete with the basically superior look of the 16mm formaL When video was added
last year. we simply added another category. thinking that i t woul d be unfair for
original video productions to compete with the special effects and animation advan·
tages of film. We didn' t even consider the possibility of hybri d productions or
By the time you read thi s the new entry forms and rules for the CINEMAG1ClSVA
Short Film Search 1984 will have been hammered out. Eitheryou will seeverycareful.
Iy set out categories or no categories at aU.
Over the few months. the j udges and sponsors of the competition will consider
the possibility of judging entri es without regard to the look of the format . Irs too early
at this time to make an assessment, but we are frankl y soliciting your opinion.
The CINEMAGIC nlms are judged in six categories: I) script. 2) direction. 3) visual
technique. 4) sound and music, 5) originality, 6) overall Impact. None of these
categories are necessarily format dependent.
The judges are quite aware of the difference in physical production values of the for·
mats involved and may be able to judge a work without regard to the limitations of the
format . Can entries be judged without regard to format? Can we judge on the basis of
how well that format has been utilized? How effective the film Is as a film? How strong
the story is? How well has the story been told? What are the real merits of a given entry
as submitted by the maker as opposed to what might have been done in another for-
If you have an opinion about the judging of your film In a ··category·less" compet l.
tion, please let me know.
-Oaukl Hutchison
[One of the winners of this year's ClNEMAG1ClSVA Short FIlm Search, Yellow
Ranger, will be broadcast January 30th on the Nickelodeon Cable Network's
CIMEJoI .... OIC I. pUbll.he<! bl.monthly byST .... RLOO PRESS. INC .... Soutl\. """ ... YOl k. NY 10016
I.,,,,, · 24 (Vol .. "", 4. No. 6). ISSN · 0090·3000. II 1915) I»' STARLOO f>R"£SS. INC All 'igl\" , ... ,,<0<1
Rep' lnt Of '<jIlOOuctior> 01 any .... 1'1 PII' I Olin ... hole ",It !loul ... flnen pe. mlulon hom lhe publl.he.II.II.oaly IOf·
bidMn. CINUIAOIC KCepi' no lor ..... oHdlfll ""' ..... !I<tlpts. pI>oIOII. a tl o.otke. fTIIlt e.lal. but
oubml.t..lu.e Kcompanl<e<l by • ..,jf·.,t,he .. ed. 1I.omped emeiopO'. lkey ... tll be COfIIkIe.<O<I and.1f nece'""'V. ... no!d
Prod"" .. _<II""",, .,t not __ by C1MEl'V.OIC. _.ny 'ft"O/. v.po-,.,sed In <0<11101 .. ' copy are not
nece ..... ily u- of ClNEMAOIC s...to...-rlpdon $9 98101 ...... )_ ( . .. ;_1 dehvtl"ed In 1M U.S C ....... _
100o:Ign '14 4a I. U 5. lund. only !'It .. S .. b.u1ptlon., send dllt<:lly 10 ClNEl'V.GIC. (1",
ST AAlOO PRESS. INC .. Pa,k A'enloe Scout". Mo-.- Y"" k. NV 100 16. 1'Iot,11<".lIonol c" ,, "se ol " dd.t .. 01 , e ne ... I.
send 10 ClN£Io\ACllC. 5<!bsalp1 lon o.pI. P.O. eo.. 142. MI Mo", •. Il61M4 0142 POllmill l u, Send 101m \0
CINEMAOIC. P.O. Ilc>. 142. M\. MOI,lt. IL 6 1054. AppHc."on 10 ",-II se<:Of\d d ... I, pendlnga l N ..... Yor k. NY .nd 01"'"
tocations PrilltedlnU.S ......
Travel through a universe of wonder, laughs
and chills with these marvelous STARLOG magazines!
The most popular science
fiction magazine in our
solar system, bringing
you all the latest in SF
fi lm, television and fact!
The magazine of motion
picture thrills, chills and
horror, for all you brave
souls with a taste for
If you are a young film-
maker interested in science
fiction, special effects and
the magic of the cinema,
thi s is your magazine!
Explore the outer reaches of fun & imagination!
Look for these exciting publications
at your local newsstand -or subscribe today!
.-----------------------------------------------_ ..
Mail to: STARlOC PRESS, 4iS Park Avenue South, New York, New York, 100'16
_ STARLOC $27 49

Foreign $3649
_ FANCORIA $1 ') 98
Foreign $21 98
_ ClNEMAGIC 59.98
(6 issues/year)
Foreign: $12.98
___ --'-Zi P
Allow i to 9 lOr del!YNy. Forei gn U.S. only.
It's Awards Night!
Young filmmakers come {rom all points across the
U.S. to attend the Fi{th Annual Cinemagic SVA
Awards presentation.
Pubhsher Kerry O"Ownn. SJ)eClal Guesllilm Savini and SVA. ~ m Oeparlment Chairman Charles HlfSCh were 00 hand aftefWlllds WI greel the WInners
nd the winner i s ... .That phrase.
traditional at awards ceremonies
everywhere, was heard seven
times on the evening of November 7
when the fifth annual CinemagiclSchool
of Visual ArtsShort Film Search winners
were revealed. Tom Savini. one of the film
industry's foremost special effects
makeup artists, was on hand to present
trophies and other special prizes to the
lucky winners.
The evening was made even more
festive since almost all of the winners
were able 10 attend the screening. This
year's winning filmmakers came from
Tucson. San Diego, Miami, New York,
Dall asand San Francisco as well as other
points near and rar to meet their fellow
filmmakers and view the winning films
and videos.
Super·a and 16mm rilmswere screen·
ed in the Bruno Walter Auditorium in
Manhattan's lincoln Center lOr the Perfor-
ming Arts, while videos were screened in
the Amsterdam Gallery during a recep·
tion and buffet for the filmmakers and
guests which followed the awards
6 ONEMAG/C -24
Budget CuI
The Boogie \.Voogie Bugle
Boy of Canpany ··B··
Love is Deaf,
Dumb and Blind
Yellow Ranger
Love, Death lind
8n American Guitar
Tummy Vision
Open Line
Dr. Dobermind
First Prize
Second Prize
Third Prize
First Prize
Ti e
Second Prize
Third Prize
Kevin T. Manion,
San Diego, CA
Mark link,
Jim Fall.
Hollidaysburg, PA
Jon Teboe,
Miami, FL
Mar lowe Weisman,
Tucson, Al
Mendel Marks,
San Francisco, CA
Aleksandar livanovkh,
Jackson HIs., NY
Jon Mostow,
Woodbridge, CT
Howard Ueberman accepts for Mendel MarkS Tummy Vision,
First Prize:
Front Projection Screen material,
3M Corp.
Basic Filmmaker's Info Packet,
Eastman Kodak Co.
Microcassette Recorder, K & M Camera,
Second Price:
$100 16mm processing, TVC Film Labs,
Third Prize:
$100 16mm reversal processing,
Cinelab, NY, NY
$150 Umatic Videotape, Proje<:tion
Systems International. NY. NY
First Pri ze:
GOKO NF 4004 Super 8 Editor. Riley
Marketing. Dallas, TX
SILKIT II Sound Blimp Kit, Super.S
Sound, Cambridge. MA
EWA matte box. Pioneer & Co..
Westmont, NJ
500 ft magnetic striping, Magnestripe,
Passaic, NJ
Second Prize:
EWA Underwater Housing, Pioneer [,.
Co., Westmont, NJ
EWA Backwinder. Pioneer [,. Co ..
Westmont. NJ
SILKIT I Sound Blimp Kit, Super'S
Sound, Cambridge, MA
Worker Spl icer. Cine·60. New York. NY
Third Prize:
SlLK1T 1 Sound Blimp Kit, Super·S
Sound, Cambridge. MA
Worker SpliCer, Cine·60. New York, NY
EWA Backwinder, Pioneer C Co ..
Westmont, NJ
ClNEMAG/C" 24 7
If you are: a young filmmaker with a
special Interest in science fiction.
special effects and the limitless
magic of the- cinema ...
How to prcduce orofe5SlOtl<1l t that
rT'ICM!: ch.lnse color, rrTE:1t, sp!'IfklE: burst
m(Q flllrfIeS, zoom 1'1\ 0 space all tor a
few bu::ksl
T fed 01 square sc.eens? Le;lrn about tn
expeflS \Ie lenses dOd devices 10
your po:ture WH)·E·S.C·11 E-E N
8,ec.I<dwllr prov.; foe f"3hl 5CCno
A!1l1T1at 00 on your "'IQfT'Ie!"'lade Sl<lf'lC;l
Build your own I'ClI:X:6 wtn elec:roooc
.,M ""'"
your own !cam knex an fTIGIor>
rnodets, I"lOds and Mmalure ol'ld
Milo.t. them come II !Vel G0ss PiN'!1 nss.
matte bole effects. SQI,!
I!ev>ews of new eqUipment, lel'l$eS "no
00I1C01 fOf creat'!19 spec,al d
teetsl forum-letters lind
QuesllCflS excMf19 ng technques "00
[)(oduaooo secrets'
IUSlI.tted drbcies deta'lllS methods yc:NJ
car" use to create YISll<tI ,....,.eup
a'lCl SO\,;oo fX
.. ------------
O'Ouorv> StudIOS. Ire
p"n .... YeJl.Je Soot" New 1'01\ t4Y 10016
One I'l!M (6 S998
(U,S end C4nada)
One fore'9l' S<Jr'""c S,. 48
""""" ,
rJlOfIO!YOf(Jl!1'(lr __ to
o a.,..", Stuooos. lrIc
\ SlATE liP J
......... ----------'
The CrealOfS 01 'IeHow RiJngerCThrd Plize. Super-8) from lelt 10 nghl
'felloe. Joe 'feboe. SteYe F,iIZJef. RdliJ'd Machowicz and Dan FIalIeI' The film-
makers show off melr tropI'Pf at the A.iISlerdam Galery reception alief the
awards screening
This was the first year that sufficient
numbers of videos were entered to award
a prize in that category. Thevideowinner
and winners of previous year's were
shown on color monitors in the gallery as
guests crowded around to enjoy the
videos while munching refreshments.
In the audience with the ,*inners were
other special guests including Dr. and
Mrs. Isaac Asimov. Miranda Barry from
PBS'sAmerican Playhouse Series. Jerry
Beck of MGMJUA. screenwriters David
and Leslie Newman (Superman). pro·
ducertwriter Ed Summer (Assoc. Pro·
ducer on Conan). Tom Phillips of Para·
mount, Dick Traum of NBC Entertain·
ment. local fi l mmakers and special ef,
fect s artists Arnold Garguilo, Amodio
Giordano and AI Magliochetti and f re·
quent CINEMAGIC contributors Ken
Walker and John Dods.
Speclel gue:;;t Tom Sclvini :;;pokt:dul i/19
the ceremony about his own career and
something of what it takes to make it in
the professional world. Afterwards film·
makers and guests were afforded the op·
portunity of meeting with Savini to com·
pare notes on specific techniques and
trade information on upcoming produc·
tions. Copies of Savini's book Grand lIIu,
slons were made available l othe winners
for Savini to personall y autograph.
Axels Trap
Cure For Folly
Dawn oflhe Dead
Dauida Fade
Effecl!; Unknown
Humanity sEdge
II Was Foretold
Inuasion of the Ral People
l..£d{ DdllCt:
The Lamia
Mind Games
Neuer Say Goodbye
Opera lion: DHIM
Our Friend, The Phludis
Riuer's Revenge
Pal Kerby
Screaming Mad George
Daniel V. Carbone
Michael Cohn
Daniel Karlok
James Trotter
Adam Berger
Jonathan Williams
Diane Green
Brian McKernan
John Gasior
Judy rogelml:ln
Rupert Thompson
Michael Galleges
Brian Hendel
Jeffrey Kimble
Martin Fullel
Roger Nygard
Michael Dal Cerro
Mi tchell S. Kasprzyk
MarlOwe S. Weisman ot Tucson, Al proudly displays
his lor Lewe, Death and an American Guirilf
It wllsthe most successful evening yet
for this annual event jointly co-sponsored
by CINEMAGIC and Manhattan-s
prestigious School of Visual Arts.
Publisher Kerry O'Quinn and Film Chair·
man Chartes Hirsch opened and closed
the ceremonies with inspiring words of
encouragement for the filmmakers-
today's hopeful s, tomorrow's profession.
als-in att endance. (l{
Special elfects makeup artist Tom Savini presides
dunng tile awards presentation while publisher
Kerry O'Quinn assists
5T ARlOG's special ellects wiz-
ard, David Hutchi son, has com·
pi led a spectacular new addition
to the famous ST ARlOG Photo
Guidebook series 01 quality paper·
backs. ln one deluxe volume is a col·
lection of the best articles on 3-D
techniques, movies, comics, and
much more!! !
• Complete Index of 3-0 comics &
• Complete guide to 3·0 movies
(credits, plots. etc.).
• How to make your own 3-0 photos
with any camera!
• Sources of 3-0 equipment and
• 3-0 books section!
• list of 3-D clubs worldwide!
• NASA/Mars 3-0 photos!
• How 3· 0 TV works!
• Hi story of 3-D!
• Movie special effect s In 3· o !
This exciting 96-page oook Includes
articles by 3-0 expert s on stat e-of·the-art
technology and Is Illustrated with hundreds
of photos and special art. " Fantastic 3-0" Is
the one authoritative volume covering every
of this Incredible lIeld.
• ............. .t
W-.tIoob _ ""* SF.
-*to __ book,_
----------- ----------
I Please rush copy(ies) of
" FANTA5TI C3-D" at $ll ,95each, plus
1 __ 3rdClass ....... $1.55ea.
1 __ 1stClass ........ $1.75ea.
1 __ Foreign Air ...... $2.5Oea.
I Total enclosed: $,= ___ _
NYS residenlt muSt _ NIH tu.
I PI6ase allow J..6 weeks lor
Send cash, CfleCk Of money order to:
sr ... TE
475 Pant Ave. South
New Yont, NY 10016
STARLOG Discovers A Conventi on Gal axy
10 riutlt Bob Schcerk, Gary Berman and Adam Malin of Creation
I Convention agreement with publisher O'Quinn.
STARLOG PRESS will be will also rely on the expertise of
host ing ser ies of fan com'en· FANGORIAand CINEMAGIC.
lions in 1984, t hanks to an wi ll focus on SF, comics, horror.
agreement reached bet ween filmmaking and art.
publisher Kerry O"Quinn and The first two Official
Creation The ex_ STARLDG Conventions were an·
d usive licensing tlrrangement nounced by O'Qulnn. Malin and
has four Berman in October. Chic8g0
hosls premiere con Apri114·15
with a Los Angeles gathering to
rollow May 19·20. For Furt her in-
formlltion, see the "Convention
Calendar" in $TARLOG mag.
"Many conventions have
be<:ome routine and un·
inspiring:' publisher O'Quinn
explains. "But this is an exdting
opportunity for us to take sug·
gestions from our magazine
readers clnd create a two.day
weekend format which will be
both entertaining and
educational-fun, worthwhile
whkh and surprising!"
tried I garden
department stores,
II the plasU<: leaves are too
large. 1 need something about
the size of the tree foliage in
Stomar Enterprises' produ<:tion
of IGo Pogo. Please tell me
where I find some realisti c
t ree folillQe.
Davi d Emmeri cks
10 C/NfMAGIC·24
8465 N, 5 1 5t St.
Brown Deer, WI 5 3223
.. /n his arf/c/e on build
min/a/ute sets ("Table Top
Worlds') In ClNEMAG/C "22.
John Dads suggests using
lichen. whiclr is a spongy fungw;
grow/h. Lichen can be purchased
where loy Irain a<;<;;essorles are
sold, or (more economiclllly) can
be found in foresleci areas, grow·
ing on rocks and lree rools.
Ca lifo rnia Film Group
. . If you are interested in mak·
ing sci·fi ilnd fantasy films in
both video and film, contact me.
and we'll work something out if
you live in my area. HELP! Hurry!
I'm already thinking of letting
my dog be lin assistant director
. mllybe a cinematographer.
Leo Le Barre
Cr ypt hi ng Fi l ms
154 Cast lll ion Terr.
Santa Cruz, CA 95061
Okle From
... I'm planning :)f Ii
directory of SF. FantiilSY and
ror Fans in Oklahoma. If there is
enough interest in il there will be
a separate i i
of the fantllsli<:. Anyone in Okla·
Maine Film Club
,I hllve II ml!ljor problem: fin,
ding people in my arell who lire
Interested in collaborating on
making movies. If there is
anyone out there who lives in
New Engll!lnd (preferably Mlline)
lind Is Interested In gelling
together to make films. please
write to me.
Bob DIPletrant onio
66 Jl!Imes St.
Saco, ME 04072
homa who is interested please }--- - ----------
write to me at the address below,
also indudc a SASE for more
George Jones
304 Lawrence
Muskogee, OK 74403
L.I , Model Ma ker
... Greeti"gs from Long Island!
I've been designing and building
models since my last CINEMAGIC
I call this one the "twin·pod
fighter" and as you can see the
design is taken from the "twin·
pod doud<:ar" seen in the The
Empire SUikes Back.
The body halves were vacuo
formed and the rest of the model
fabricated with sheet styrene. The
model features opening
canopies. fully detailed cockpits
and a stained wood base. My
model s have recently appeared in
actor Bob Balaban's short film
Ihat he made as a directorial
demo reel.
That 's about it on this end.
Keep up the good work CIt
Jeff Poll lzzo\to
986 Wlldermere
Frankl in Square, NY 11010
. &-e Jeff Po/lizzollos drlide
aboUI oplic and LED /iglJUng
for Sp<lceslJip models /n
CiNEMAGIC "15. Also see his ar·
tide about creating "llgl1l ship"
UFOs in C/NEMAGIC "/3.
No n-Explosive Bull et
••• For a recent film f was
responsible for <:reatlng a realis·
ti<: gun shot erfed on an actor. I
was reluctant to use explOSives
because of the obvious dangers.
What I devised is <:ommonly
known as a "pull·gag."
The first step was to get
duplicates of the shirt the a<:tor
was to be shot in. I then burned
the bullet holes into the shirts.
Next, I <:ut a pat<:h of fabric out
of the tllil of the shirt large
enough 10. <:over the bullet hole.
Next, I taped a <:ondom filled
with artificial blood to the spot
on the a<:tor that mat<:hed the
bullet hole on the shirt,
I then took a 15·fool length of
ten·pound·test nylon monoma·
ment fishing line. tied one end
to the end of a fishing pole l!Ind
the other toa small dis<:of
The metal dis<: and line were
then threaded thro"oh th,. h"I1 .. ,
hole. The disc was then super·
glued 10 the condom, The fabric
patch, metal dis<:and nylon line
will fly off the screen at a speed
thecllmerll not pi ck up.
Thiswlll provide a bullet hit that
is realistic, inexpensive, easily
re·rigged if necessary. and above
all, SlIfe .
I hope it works as well for you
as it did for me. Good luck and
above all. have fun.
Tom Lauten
11 Bi rch St.
Monsay, NY 10952

Bakersfield, CA
Film Club
.lllve in BlIktrsfield. Califor-
m •.
Pat Thompson
2819 Panoramll Dr.
Bakersfield, CA 93306
Wax Impressions
••• An ei!lsy method fortllking
Impressions of teeth. instead 01
using eelglnate, Is to use peraf·
fin; acheap. non·toxlc canning
wax that am be found In most
grocery stores. First, make a
mouth piece that (i ts inside your
mouth, as John Dods explelned
in CINEMAGrC ·17. Breek upan
emount of pllrllHin that will fill
the mouthpiece and mel t it com·
pletely in II double·boiler.
Remove the plln containi ng the
meJt«l wax and begin to stir un·
ti l it takes up II congealed, glop·
py consistency that you ClIn
touch safely with your fingers.
Scoop an lImount of the wax that
fills the mouthpiece Inl o the
piece, then place It in your
mouth lind bite down lind bury
your teeth (or your subject's) In
the .... ax, up to the gums. After a
couple of minutes the ptl rllffin
will hllrden and you CIIn carefully
remove It from your mouth. You
will have an accurate cast that
you CIIn fill with IIcryllc or
whatever mll i erial you use to
mllke II posltlve. The wa.x is
reUSllble a.nd I found it i n a locIII
grocery store for only 99(: for II
one pound box.
Steve Bydal
2912 Jaffe Rd.
Wilmington, DE 19808
Monster Makeup Magic
.•. Mllkeup artist Ralph Cordero
recently dropped into the
CINEMAGIC «Iitorial office to
show off his Illtesl crelltion - an
articulat«l"Corpse." Ralph is
shown demonstrating the many
movements thllt his dead friend
Is Clipeble of performing. The
eyes open and close by means of
cables inside the helld that con·
!rollhe eye lids. The mouth
opens lind closes in standard
puppet fashion and the IIrms lire
controll«l by wire rods. The head
is capable of turning in virtually
any d rection. Ralph enjoys scar·
ing the wits out of people by sur·
pri sing them with his grizzly
creature crell tions.
Georgia Film
Group Forming
... is rife in Columbus,
gill! 111m very interested In sci·
ence Fiaion and f,mlaS), filmmak.
Ing. I hllve only recently "come
of IIge" liS 1'1 filmmllker lind hillve
just begun to make "Good" fitm$.
largely of CINEMAGIC.
I have improved my speeier ef.
fects abmties ten-fold. r 11m lack·
Ing In only one lIrtll-people. Is
there IInyone in the Georgill who
Is interested in working with me
on milking Super·8 films? If you
would like to work with meon
my nell:\ film (,:md I'll need help),
plell5e wrile to me althe lIddress
below .
Hunter Cressall
32 19 Carden Dr.
Columbus, GA 31907
Scratch-on Lasers
. •• 1 would like to comment on
something lIlmost every
cinemllgician might use some·
day: scfllt ch·on IlI ser effects.
When scratching. with II pin or
X·ecto knife. you should first wet
the tip of your i ndex finger end
lightly wet the frame t o be scrllt ·
ched. Thi s technique mllkes
scrllt ching simpler lind-with II
felt·lipped pen-crelltes In·
teresting results. Good filming!
Johnny Bania
J J 3 1 Washington St.
Douglas, WY 82633 (J/
I " ... ,," all con-espondence 10:
Forum, clo O'Qulnn Studios.
475 plJIk Ave. So., New York,
NY 10016
/0 fhe et'IOfI1lOU5 uoll.llM 0{
For 8sl111leas $15.00
Yortc. NY ' 00 '6
Cash, check 01 order must accompany lid orOer.
(checks payabht 10 Starlog Press. Inc.)
STOP MOTION MODELS' Custom armatliJ'H and
components' 5culptli18 and loam casting tervlces.
Sef'd tOllnformatiOn & priees. Ken Btlmant, 2A San-
ford Rd., East Brunswick. NJ 08816
per II WI' balance S' flpe Rush SeNitI
MAGNESTRIPE. 333 Avcngg Ave . Passa'c, NJ
07055 1201) 733·4633
Scratch-building the easy way!"
ollywood model ships cost
plenty. and are awesomely con·
structed with II variety of materi·
als: wood, plaster, aluminum. epoxy resin,
VlIcuurn-formed laminated acrylic and the
list goes on. Monthscan be spent detailing
the surface of a studio ship. In the end the
finished ship looks great on the big screen.
In my case, however, I didn't have the time
or money (arlhal kind of perfection. This
article tells how to make a quickie ship for
almost nothing in three hours flat! Even if
you don't (jIm the ship it is fun to make and
can lead to all kinds of new ideas "bout
how to make your nexl one.
I needed an explorer-type ship. The ef·
fect I wanted togel wasan almost primitive
look, an early chemical drive for getting
around the planetary system. I visualized
the vessel with an obvious passenger
module with lots of klunky fuel tanks and
st rut-work. With that image floating
around my head I started looking in the
garage, basement. and attic for parts to
use. Half an hour gave me just about every·
thing I needed.
12 C/NEMAGfC"24
I used bottles mostly. One rule of thumb
for making an interesting design: ifsome·
thing has an interesting shape, multiply it.
The repeating forms create a visually
strong pattern for the eye to grab right
away-a must for film images. I used three
empty plastic throwaway bottles that con·
tained anti·freeze. (I obviously didn't throw
them away: a scratch·buildersaves euery·
thing for a rainy day.) I automatical ly
grouped the three bottles side by side: no
rules about it, but it seemed the logical
way to put "fuel tanks," An old plastic
fishing noat slipped in at the top to nicely
supply a "command module"for my intre·
pid space explorers. The module's back·
side mated perfectly to a little cream cup
I'd managed to keep hanging onto. a free-
bie from some restaurant. A drawer full of
empty 35mm plastic film containers gave
me more tanks to add to theship.
After playing with the shapes that I had
gathered, I finally found the "look" that I
Above: Jack lmes's scratch· built spaceship in
geosynchrOflous orb!! Irs an explorer type ship
was after. Notice I said shapes, because I
no longer saw bottles and floats but rather
a variety of forms to be used any way I
chose. That idea of forgetting the "real"
natureof an object is another tip forcrea·
tive thinking and design. By giving up the
real·world label, you can make the object
into anything you want and make it work.
When I got the basic look or the ship I used
ordi nary maski ng tape to hol d it all to·
gel her temporarily. Asa memory jogger,
I drew a quick sketch on notebook paper
so I wouldn't forget what went where.
It's a good idea to clear the plastic, By
this I mean get rid of anything that doesn't
belong on a spaceship: labels, imprinting,
seams. embossed lettering, etc Labelscan
be removed by soaking in hot water to
soflen the glue. Embossed raised lettering
and designs can be scrapped off with a
knife blade or sandpaper. Make sure that
afterwards the plastic is cleaned with
detergent to remove any chemical residue,
dirt. and grease marks.
I use cyanoacrylate adhesive to stick all
the plastic parts together. This adhesive is

Amorlg me parts used tor the model spaceship WCn) an DId IIashltgh! lUbe. tIuM anti-freeze lOllIes.
Super·81ilm reelS, twln·blade razor caruKlges. rtshmg floats. ele<:tncaI twISt caps and mooelparlS
Tile fOc!<ellhruster eml 01 the three·hour-spaceshlp In early stages 01 construction The engine nozzle IS
Ihe cap 01 a bottle 01 Vanish 10ileillOwl cleaner. Super-S film reets provide Ihe cylrndflcal sllape,
""Me them on hand lor easy felere<lte 1(1
eU$lom-cu,tted leall\erl!tle Ide ITIIIg;l.l>ne
bondefs In gold wrth II>eClNEMAGIC
10lIO The!oe handsome ca5O!'Senable rou to
""'de the mel.1 rod b.-.dtrs hold )'OUr eopoes o!
CINEMAGIC toet1he<, ,nl (ltt, hke a large booII,
allowl"i rou to le.allhrougt> .ssue aiter ouue on
chrOtlOlogocal ordef Each bu"oOef or case holds
IYIOO year's IS4UeS'
3101' $17.00& 6ior
SXl 00 Postpaid
Birun: S7 5Oexh. J lor S21 .75and 610f
00 Ptr.;tou:l
US.A. ORDERS ONLY - S,l\tslaCllOllluManleec;l
or II'IOI"Iey gladly relunOed Please aflow 4 to 6
week, lor delIVery
order 10 ind make checks to
..Jones ao.. CuI). P.O ao.. 5120. PntI.1 . PI.
ForeCn Order s: -'dd 12.50 per 00II lor IddrtIOnllI
pesti!!,! ind outside lhe U.S.A. f'tepily.
men! ml4l be on USfurmool)'
Your Film Deserves
The Finest
Super 8 Tape Splicer
avail able in the world today.
Dis tributed in the U.S. by
i-mi§ BIl
630 9th AVENUE
NEW YORK, NY 10036
ClNEMAGIC" 24 13
I drive spaceship is shown near
completion. most of the fine de1aihng,
.. \

' ....

Tile completed model after painting. One rule of deSign: if something has an
interesting shape, multiply il. Note the repealing pattern of the "fuel tanks",
marketed under a number of names. but
you can use Eastman 910, Ross Super·
Glue, or similar, A small one·ounce tube
costs under two bucks and lasts a long
time. Use it drop·by·drop(a drop is really
all it takes because thi s stuff is
Be extra·careful not to glue your fingers
together or to bits of plastic. Don't laugh!
It's not funny when it happens to you, I've
had the unpleasant experience of dealing
wi th the problem. If glue gets on your fin·
gers, don't touch anything! Either wash it
off quickly (if it is still liquid) or let it dry for
a few seconds-in a couple of days the
stuff will flake off. When I used the ad·
hesive I tried to "void holdillY Iny fillY!!!!>
too dose to the pieces being joined, Rub·
ber bands or tapes do a good job of keep'
ing two parts together while a drop of
adhesive is squirted into the contact area,
The drop slides into the seam and dries in
about ten seconds. At places where several
big pieces come together I like to use a lit·
t ie ext ra adhesive to make a st rong bond.
The explorer ship was built up in sec·
tions. I found some old model kits in the
basement and used the left·over pieces for
st ructural details for t he spaceship hull.
The "command module" of the spaceship is a plastiC ",",,,,,II,,,,. ,""",;;; "i",dlh,C'"", wi"',,,,,:·
The long struts seen in the photos are
not hing more t han cheap plastic stirring

sticks I found in the kilchen(a box of 100
sticks can be purchased for a dollar at a
grocery or party store). For more unusual
detail I used several Gill ette Trac II razor
cartridges. Remember, the idea is to repeal
design elements. I layered one group of
details over another unt il] was happy with
the look.
After an hour I had most of the big de-
tails cemented into palce to make the hull
and passenger module. The e ngine sec-
tion was attached at the rearar the hull fuel
bottl es. The engine was assembled from a
few electrical twist caps. model kit smoke·
stack. plastic ice cream st icks and a film
reel. The engine nozzle came from the
inSide-the-cap pieces of a Vanish toi let
bowl cleanser. (Sometimes it pays to look
inside those funny looking product
About half an hour was spent doing the
super·miniature detail work t hat adds a
"realistic" look when the camera comes in
close. I used anything that fit in with my
deSign. but most of the best thi ngscame
from the model kit junk. Finally, when
everything was cemented and in place,the
space ship was ready for a paint job.
Painting requires that you think about
how the colors will reproduce on film. Col·
ors change under movie lights and the
cont rast i s harsher than normal. I suggest
you keep that in mind and paint your ship
with a neutral medium grey or blue tone.
Avoid a pure white because of the difficul·
ty of making a proper exposure meter
readi ng when the model is against a dark
The camera meter, you should remem·
ber, generally exposes for the overall tone,
and if that happens to be a dark backdrop
(or starfield), t he spaceship model will be
badly overexposed. Compensate for this
effect by closing the lens to at least one
f·stop smaller, or use the meter set to a
""spotli ght"" exposure if your camera hasa
manual cont rol.
I first spray painted the ship with a white
primer. Pactra ""Scale Model Flat-Primer
White."" I suggest (lat paint to give a matle
surface that won't shine in the movie
lights. Put your model in a large cardboard
box when spray painting to a1lOid accident·
Iy painting your floor. I rotated the model
after a spraying so I could paint hard·to·see
recesses between the struts. I then gave the
ship a coat of medium grey Pactra matte
enamel. I used a bl ack marking pen to
make some port windows. Afterthe paint
dried completely, I gave the ship a light
once·over wit h Testors ""Dullcote"" clear
spray lacquerto kill any shiny spots. Doing
this reduces any "" hot spot"" glare and seals
the paint surfa ce.
Total elapsed time: three hours. Where
once I had only chaos, I now had a custom·
made space ship ready for filming. All I
had to do was to hang the ship with strong
monofilament(or nylon black fishing line)
and film it in front of a black starfield.
From j unk to ""j unk ship,"" all i t takes is
some imagination. energy and IBO min·
utes. Good lU('k! (7JI
The back end to the completed m o d ~ . showing the ""rocket engines." Note the fine detailing achieved wi th
otd tell·over model parIS and the repeating pattems used throughoulthe construction to create symmetry.
The model was first given a coal of white primer and then finished with a flat 91ey model paint
Close·up shows a ""parabolic commmications dish.""
The Technique of Film Editing: If
you're moving into pro filmmaking, this is
the "standard" on editing. 426 pages;
167 photos; $16.95 + shi pping.
Creating Special Effects fOT TV &
Films: Great how·to book on creating
dozens of mechanical FX. like volcanoes,
qukkStlnd. etc. 160 pages; 70 how·to
diagrams; $11 .95 +shi pping.
Guide To Shooting Animation; Covers
simple & advanced techniques using pur·
chased or homemade equipment. 224
pages : 38 photos (8 color plates); $8.95
+ shipping.
Film Scrlptwrlting: A no· nonsense
book that will show you how to wrile sue·
cessful 1V & movie scri pts. Great! 384
pages: 100 illustrations: $12.95 + shi p·
Home Video: Terrific guide to video use
for entertainment & business, Including
dubbing & editing. 176 pages; 112
photos & diagrams: $9.95 + shipping.
send your order to:
Cinema Enterprises
Catalog Ordera
12 Moray Court
Baltimore. Maryland 21236
Pfr:ll3e (onmvd. announcements 0{ {/1m projects in cumont
producliOll Of near compktloll to ONEM.A.GfC, clo
aQuinn Sludlos, Inc., 475 Pri Auenue SouJJz, New York.
M' 10016. PleAse include a photogr4fih of SOIru! ptwe 0{
the produc:tJon I{ possible.
A Rock Noise Christmas. Find out what a "Rock Noise
Christmas" is with Rocky. the reporter who is looking for
answers on"A Rock Noise Christmas", There is a happy
ending to all of this. An MG Production. Producer/Direc>
tor/Animator: Mi!ltt Guerica. FX include: stop-motion clay
animation. (MG Productions. do Matt Gueriea, 8257 129th
Lane No .• Seminole. FL 33542.)
A Fan's Nightmare. Three amateur filmmakers, while on a
backwoods location scout, gel lost late at night. While at·
tempting to find their way back to civilization. they en·
countel a mysterious UFO-and the terror begins. Pro-
ducer/Director: David Maples. Script: David Maples and
Marilyn Spiteri. FX: David Maples. Co·Producer: Donald
Acord. Cast Andy Tuttle, Cathy Garcea. David Garcea and
Keith Townshend. FX include: day-for-night
cinematography, supered titles, dissolves and blood.
Super·8, color, post·production luped sound. Runni ng time:
15 minutes. (David Maples, 9011 Judith Circle,
Westminster. CA 92683.)
Time's Passenger. A 14 year old space traveller is uninten·
tionally blown into a blackhole in space which sends him
back to the year 1985 on Eanh-the year the Eanh i s going
to be destroyed by a nuclear war. A desperate attempt
follows as he tries to repair his ship and escape the doomed
planet. Twist ending. ProducerlDirectorlWriter: Mark Gergis.
Cast: Mark Gergis. Erik Thomas, Gary Davi, Marc Armstead.
Siamak Shahbazian and Peter Gergis. FX include: laser ef·
fects. spaceship miniatures and explosions. Stunts per·
formed by Gary Davi and Erik Thomas. (Empire Enterprises,
do Mark Gergis. 1825 Del Rio Dr .. Lafayette, CA 94549.)
Blind Anger. Suspense. A blind man is pick· pocketed.
He takes matters into his own hands as he stalks and ter·
rorizes the criminal who robbed him. Twist endi ng.
Registered with t he Library of Congress Copyright Ofrice.
Now in production. To be completed by April. 1984. Pro·
ducer: Insanity Video Productions. Director: John
Manginaro. Writers: John Manginaro. Jeff M. Smith and
Steve C. Gomes. VHS. To be transferred to and edited in
314" video tape. Running time: 1 0·15 minutes. (Insanity
Video Productions, do John Manglnaro. 23-20 31 Rd.
Apt. 113D., U. City, NY 11\06.)
Fl esh Feast. Where will you hide when the dead return to
life to eat the flesh of the living? A smal l group of people
battles for survival against both the zombie rampage and
ProduceriDirectorfWriter/FX: Larry Heffner. FX
include: exploding heads. bullet and squibb effects, disem·
bowlments. biting effects. sli t throats, a knife being driven
through a zombie's forehead, a zombie being burned alive
with iii blow torch. and much more. all of which will be
shown "'on screen:' Super·S, color, sound. Running time: 90
minutes. Currently in Pre· production. (Dragon Film
Studios, 8101 Kerby Pkwy Ct., Fort Washington. MD
Bade Og (The Alternative). An occult thriller about two
private detectives trying to solve a mystery and find a
murderer aboard a ship somewhere In the middle of the
Sahara. Producer/Director: Nicholas Barbano. Script:
Erwin Neutzsky-Wulff. based on his own novel.
Camera/Sound: Ken Raven. Origi nal Music: Benn! Ie Fay.
FX: Mikael Christensen. Storyboards: OI@Chrlstens@n.
Production assistant : Niels Petersen. Super·B. color,
sound Running time: 25 minutes. (Det Danske Filmvaerf·
sted, do Nicolas Barbano. Ryesgade 73A, 2100 Kbh,
Gorilla. Comedy/horror spoof. A mad scientist named
Dr. J. Kill discovers a formula ror genetic alteration. When
he takes the awful stuff he turns intoa gorilla and wreaks
havoc in the neighborhood with his horrible bad breath.
Producer/Director/Writer: Jim Hillaker. Cast : Jim
Hillaker. Cathy Hillaker. Doug Wheeler. FX: Jim Hillaker
and Doug Wheeler. FX include: gorilla transformation
sCl!nes. stop·motion animation and scratch·on laser ef·
fects. Super·B. color. sound on separate cassette. Running
time: 5·10 minutes. In production. (Hillaker Films. do Jim
Hillaker. 6191 Finch Lane, Flint. MI48506.)
The Transmutation Blues. A werewol f in the old west,
his curse and his unexpected end. Animation using paper
and cels. Theme music is Duran·Duran·s "'Hungry like the
WoW'. with portions of the Lone Ranger theme "William
Tell Overture" mixed in. ProducerlDirector/Animator:
Kevin Lindenmuth. Super·B. color, separate soundtr6ck
on cassette. Running time: 5 mi nutes. (Br imstone Produc·
tions, do Kevin lindenmuth, 36038 Crompton Circle.
Farmington Hills, MI4BOI8.)
Exorcist III. A mischievous devil. an innocent boy, and a
dilligent young priest ail combine in this parody of the
70's horror classic. Regan Ommics is confronted by the
Devil himself and is soon possessed by the fiend, and it's
up to Father Carrots to expel Satan from Regan's young
body. Does he succeed? Producer: Skaldun Pictures.
DircctorsIWriters: Stan Skalski. Don Dunn. Cinema·


tographers: Stan Skalski, Don Dunn. Mi ke Greco. Eugene
McKnight, Scott Stahmer, Dave Noble. Cast: Stan Skalski,
Dave Noble, Don Dunn, Luci lle Brereton, Mike Greco,
Eugene McKni ght. FX include: graphic Devil and Regan
makeup, Devi l's voice. African layout, disappearing cross.
statue head falling off, door closing by itself. Filmed on
location at Skaldun Studios and Pennypack Park. Super·B,
color, sound. Transfered onto VHS and BETA video. Run·
ning time: 15 minutes. (Skaldun pictures, 207 Greendale
Road, Phi ladelphia, PA 19154)
The Summoning. After finding an amulet in a mortuary
coffin, a boy gives it to his girlfriend. A monster stalks her
down while killing her friends. Will she live? Producer: Les
Raven. Director: Heath Clemenb. Writer; Matt Goddtlrd
(from his short story.) Cast: Lou Uquidi, Kristin Marlowe,
Britt Clements. FX include: gore effects. monster makeup
and explosions. Super·B, color. sound. Running time: 15
minutes. (Runaway Pictures. cio Heath Clements, P.O. Box
33. Del Mar Station. San Clemente. CA 92672.)
Frontiers. Drama, adventure. World War III has occurred.
No. not a nuclear war, but a biological war. Central
America attacks the U.S. with a viral strain which kills off
the adults. but not the kids. The kids have an immunity
which prevents them from dying unless they eat the con·
taminated food. The story centers around Eric Young and
Fred Russel who must get to a warehouse full of uncon·
taminated dry food. On the way to the warehouse, located
in Queens, NY. they confront gangs of starving children.
Producer: Sheila Crowell. Story/Director: Tom Crowell.
Screenplay: Gwennen Evans. Title [,. Meghan created by:
Jordan Schimmel. Stillman: Oneil Soto. Cast: Boris Kolba,
Meghan Evans. Montclair Film Club Production. Super·B
color, sound with original music by Earl Haupt. Running
time: 45 minutes. (Tom Crowell. 376 N. Fullerton Ave ..
Montclair, NJ 07043.)
No Rubbish. A distorted, surrealist journey through a gar·
bage dump: viewed as a graveyard of human materialism.
Cast Depraved Dave. ProducerlWritetlEditor!Camera: David
Dodge. Original non·music score performed by Depraved
Dave and the Blind Orphans. Super·B. color and Bf.,W,
sound. Running t ime: 10 minutes. (Final Frontier Features
clo David Dodge, 11 Nicholson St., Marblehead MA 01945.)
The Hitchhiker . One summer evening, while trying to
hitch a ride to the beach. along a lonely road, a young man
is pursued by a UFO. Producer/ DirectorlWriter/FX: Steve
Bydal. Camera: Mark Byda1. FX include: miniature UFO
model, overexposure. Super·B, color, possible original
music soundtrack on cassette. In post·production. (In·
dependent Productions cJo Steve Bydal , 2912 Jaffe Road,
Wilmington, DE 19BOB)
Pheathon. Four teenagers start the final battle in a
modern, new wave spy revolution. This action·packed film
takes place around the town of Harlingen, Texas. Producer:
The Harlingen High School Film Production Club. Direc·
torlWriter; Garrett Goodman. FXlEditir"lg, etc.: Thc
Harlingen High School Film Production Club and Good-
man Film. Large cast and production crew. Super·B, color,
sound. Running time: 100 minutes. (Goodman Film, cJo
Garrett Goodman, 2114 S. Parkwood Dr., Harlingen, TX
Starflre. When Top Secret plans are lost in space, Captain
Zurik has to j:Jet the plans back before they fall into the
hands of the evil Zorrians. Producer/DirectorlWriter: Ben
Ozuna, Jr. Cast (all family): Sandra, Robert and Gary Ozuna.
FX include: stop-motion animation, explosions. miniatures
and more. Super·B. color, sound on cassette. Running time:
30·45 minutes. (Ben Ozuna, Jr., 1711 Hunter, San Antonio,
TX 7B224.)
Innocent Fear. An alien comes to Earth and makes his
observation laboratory underneath a house. He scares the
original owners of t he house out but another fami ly
moves in. The new fami ly is poor. the parents are
separated and the children live with their aunt. Because
they are poor, they can't afford to move and so they can't
be scared out by the alien. They must stay and weather
the storm. The al ien is under instruction not to associate
with humans or he will be killed by his leaders. The alien
finds out that the family is broken up and he is very lonely
himsel f. Will he lake a chance and meet one of them? A
touching story wi th a dramatic ending. Producer: United
Family Productions. Director/FX: Roger Heaney. Assis·
tant Director: Ryan Heaney. Lighting: Rosa Ruis. Stage
Manager: Jack Brown. Cast: Ryan Heaney. Laura Heaney,
BTint Stringer. Patty Hanna. Roger Heaney, Oregg Lewis
and Elana Ruiz. FX include: stop· motion animation,
various animation effects, special effects lighting, a
brac:kwinding effects. Spectrum line effect s, a full scale
mechanical alien and full scale sets. Super·B, color,
sound. Running time: 65 minutes. (United Family Produc·
tions. clo Roger Heaney. 570 I Cathy Lane, Cypress. CA
90630.) ()f
CfNEMAG/C "24 11
Eyes of Fire
An easy lechnique for creating
spooky eyes lhallurk in the night.
EverythlfQ yoo need 10 do the "OIOn'lng eyes" PrtlJecI IS shOwn tlere. Mote that a cftp!lasbeen
added 10 make replacmg tile batte'Y faSiel All parts are available at RadIO Shack SlOres.
The completed CIrCUit ready !of inSIde your mask. The Wires hiM! been IlIped do.vn 10 iIIIOld con-
Iuslng sudows Try attaclllnll a IWo-lOot Wife to the negatJYe batterv lemvnal instead 01 a 00f-1oo1
A macro shot of the mini bulb shows a Wile soldered onto the screw part of the bulb.
lowing eyes can add an eerie
dimension to your mask, whether
it is onear your own creation or a
store-bought HallO'Neen specia1. The best
examples of the glowing eye effect are the
Jawas in Star Wars and the lycanthropic
alien seen briefly in the cantina scene of
the same film. You can achieve a similar
effect easily and inexpensively.
Listed below are materials you will
need. Radio Shack catalog numbers have
been supplied for your convenience:
• One 9·volt battery (a good
alkaline costs about $3.00).
• Single pole toggleswitch(cat. no.
275·602) for about 99 cents.
• Two 12·volt sub·mini screw lamp
lights(cat. no. 272.1143) for about
89 cents.
• Wire(RadioShacksell sthreeroll s
of wire-cat. no. 27B·1307-for
In addi ti on. you will need a drill. wire
solder, electrical tape and a 6·' x 2" I(
Cut t he wire into the following lengths:
one 2·foot piece. two 6·inch pieces, and
two I·foot pieces. Strip of insula·
tlon from both ends of each wire.
First. solder the 2·foot piece of wire to
the negative side of the battery. Sol der
the other end of this wire to the metal·
threaded area of one bulb.
Take one of the 6·inch wires and solder
it to the same place on that bulb. Solder
the other end of this wire to the threaded
part of the other bulb.
Run Iheother6·inch wire from the base
of one bulb to the base of the other.
Solder one of the I·fool wires to the
base of the bulb connected to the battery.
Solder the other end of this wire to one of
the metal pol es on the back oflhetoggle
Now. take the other I ·foot wire and
solder one end to t heother toggleswitch
The 'Inal ellect-very scary indefld.
pole. Run lheather end of this wire to the
positive side of the battery and solder it
Now, you are ready to mount your tog·
gle switch onto the board. Drill a to
Ih·jnch hole about 1'h inches from an
end of Ihe board and mount the switch
there. The onloff part of the switch
should be one one side af lhe board while
the part connected to the wires wi l l be on
the other. With the .. IPetrieal tape, mount
the battery directly below the back part of
the swi tch.
Wrap the tape around the areas you
have soldered to prevent a short circuit.
Fit the bulbs into the corners of the
mask's eye slots and secure them there
with the tape.
Placing the switch board in the shirt
pocket will make it easy to flip your "eyes"
off and on. A sudden glareof blood lust in
your creAture's eyes shotila add an extra
chili to your film or spook house.
This method works with
masks. which allow space between your
face and the mask. it is not advi sable to
use this technique with prosthetic ap-
pliances make·ups. which lire applied
directly to the skin and leave np room for
the circuitry lind lights over the eyes.
If you are going to be lurking in the
dark. keep in mind that t he glowing bulbs
willllffect your night vision. Even in the
l ight you may have t rouble judging dis·
tance. So. think before you leap i!lt any
potential victims! C1I
Matte Box
VI<tually eYllfY p<olesslonal P'OdUCllon came ••
15 hned a malle Dul unlll IlOw no
Duailly !TIaue has UI"ed as an accessory
101' Supe< 8 cameras. Mane Dooel a •• used
as a SOI>,,,,IIC .. ,OO<I .-dJu,''''''' lens
SJIaOe 10 ""n,m'le Il!n, lI.ie. sInce only iln
adluSleae un" can snade a len. al ill! local
lengtn! 01 IIIe rncxIefn zoom len,.
SuIltf8 Souna's EWA Mille 80. now PfO'lIOl!S
Int Super 8 wIth InIS very ImllOl1anl
1001 0 1 Ihe p.olelllonil CIMmalogllPhet The
Su1)ef8 Sound Mane eo. provloe, 101' Supe. 8
cameras .... tne capabIlitIes 01 '''' llfolelllOl'lill
mant 000. loclU(llng adluSiabollty. ruggedne ...
anD I ... !(Ie lange 0 1 specl" etitIC" ma<le
posslbl. Dy Ine .UQOlled usortmenl ot • .
The completed proje<:1 taped Into place inside a very scary mask created by makeup artist Kirk Brady
Note !he IDggle SWItch mounted 01 bOard
Tnese s Df!Clilletiects ,oclUOt
• Frlmlng Il'Irougn tllnoculal. Of
WInDOW mas K,: controlleo vlgnelllll9 usmg
custom CUIOUI m.lles. 0 1 gelatin IIHers;
• Fotus DISsolve 10 IllIn on InClua\ll.l gins
SIIOtI; macro IIlmll\9 '2 • '2 Sllae.:
• W,peS 10 black SCleen at 10 a seconD scene
11 carner. nu caOaDlllly;
-Sound Silencer
- Super 8 Rewindsr
-Film and
Video Titling Machine
- Protective Covers for 200
Super-8 Cassettes
-Electric Panning Head for
Movie and Video cameras
-Folding Shoulder Support
oellae.ale Image Ollllo<tion th.ougn sucn For full Info write:
"",,,U\ODS as fUDOt"9 pel'oleum Jelly on
glass 10 aen,eye • sme ... 1!d soll·lotus IOOIt.S
er 8 SoullC!l
The $u-a $cuM 8m C.,.,.... WIln IUlly p
oJOlustatlle D<ace 10 h, Ine '"000 socket 01 all .. o() ....... P-..cnDN
oooul .. Suoe. 8 camtlla. He aellows IS OUlckly FOfI T .. Sunil e ... r"
iIOlustable 10 any tot., leng·n. Tne Matte Boo IS
....PPlled will' 2 gIns .hOes one dWOlt,wld,n
IOf SliDIng WI04l etteelS, and a loll' 01 12 95 Harvey St., Cambridge, MA 02140
commonly uno
Tne M.Ile So. IS tugge<lly eon,"uCleD aeco,alng
10 lhe same standa.os as 16mm eQulomenl. ano
wIll w",hs,and Ihe abuse 01 occaSIonal bumps.
Inul otteflng .d<lIIIon .. 1 o,oltICllon 10 tne
came.a·s lens
(617) 876-5876
ClNEMAGfC-24 19
Panasonlc expands the scope of home
video with the introduction of an all· new
programmable character generator which
not only allows users to type ceplions end
store them In II large memory. bUlal$O pro-
vides II day/date clock. self-timer. al"ld II
time·lapse video recording fUnction.
The PK·G9QO Is II compact, lightweight
accessory designed for use with Penasonic'
PK·903, PK·957,and PK·97J color video
camer!!s. It Is blluery operated, weighs ap·
proximately Va.pound lind measures only
6 "(0)x3 -(W)"O.S"(H). It !!lIsa has en attach·
ment which 111Iows the generlltor \0 be
mounted on the almer.!l" accessory shoe for
easy porUibility. For use lit home, the III·
tllchment clln be removed so the PK·G900
""mile nat on II table.
The keyboard Is designed \0 meke com·
position quick lind ei!lsy.11 is made of II flilt.
pressure· sensitive plete offering the full
IIlphllbet. numbers O·g, lind 10 symbols:
1:·.J&()1There are also four cursor'posltlon
pads which ellow for quick corrections
without hllvlng to bllck over lind erllse other
An lidded attraction of the PK·G900 Is Its
16·page memory with II bullt·l n SIIve func·
tlon. Each page offers 12 chllrllcters per line
lind five Ilnes of information. This lets the
user type captions in edvance. store them.
and then insert thelP when needed ... even
up to a yellr Illter, or for the life of the bIIt·
terie" (The PK·G900 comes with three
LR44H '/rfetch·type /)etteries.) The typed Clip-
tlons c"n even be vldeo·inserted after taping
has been completed.
User, can IIccent or highlight certain
scenes In different ways because the PK·
G900 offers four charllcter si zes: normal, 'h
size, I 'll normlll size, lind double size. In lid·
dltlon, the captions can be presented In
either red, green. or white, seleclllble from a
color s .... ltch on the compatible Pllnllsonlc
The lIutomlltlc dayfdate clock on this
generlltor clln ellsily be inserted onto the
videolllpe, giving a handy point of reference.
The date function keeps the Clliendar ac·
curate up through Ihe yellr 1999
Spectacular tlme·lapse video recording
sequences never before possible with con·
sumer equipment can now be made by us·
Ing the PK·G900·s time· shift function. Users
can sellhe camerll and VCR to record se·
quences ranging five seconds 10 59 minutes,
59 seconds in length with stop intervals
rillnging from five minutes \0 23 hours. 59
minutes In lenght.
Users no longer hllve to be seen running
into the picture when they W""t to be a part
of Ihe &etian. The PK·G9QO hils a bullt·in
self·timer which Clln be set to begin the
recording process from Ont: to 59 se<.:onds
efter ItCtivlltion so the user has plenty of
time to slip Into the scene.
Pricing wl1l be announced.
light-weight and comPllct lens shades for
Super·8 cllmerlls hllve been designed to be
ettllched to the Ambico filter holder. The
sh"des do not Interfere with the use of filters
in the holder. Weighing less then an ounce
and e quarter, the shades add approxil1Ultely
1 'h·inches 10 the length of the filter holder.
In eddilion to serving as e light shield.
these ,hlldes lliso can act lIS II carrier for
specilll effect Ambico mllsks. Slip-in masks
afe available for the creation of unique
fr"mes and for the creation of vignetting
IITOUnd the centrlli l mllge. They "re also use·
ful for split screen lind other mlltting effects.
The filter holder hilS mulliple chllnnel s to
let you use more than one fIItJ!r at the SlIme
time. To achieve varying effectS and precise
filtration plltCement, the holder turns on the
adllpter and also accommodlltes a series of
special rotaling filters. Most filters can be
placed side·by·slde 1n the SlIme holder chan·
nel without slipping. IIlIo.....lng you to gel
dual color or special effects in the same
shot. For more Informetion write: HlIll1UIr
Enterprises. P.O. Box 474. Lewiston. New
York, 14092.
Two new lightweight lind collapsible. yet
extrll solid, very smooth rolling Gluo dollies
accept all Gltzo tripods from Sport to Tele
Studex.lIs weill'll! other tripods, for photo.
cine, video camerllS and other Instruments
up to 65 Ibs. The 3 shoes easilV fix the tr l·
pod legs to the dolly. lind CIIn oe moved to·
ward the insldl!. for different positions.
Two EIIsy·to·use pruvld", tight
locking and release of each Individual
wheel. A screw In the of the
dolly permits mounting of tripod heads and
Cllmerlls for extra low posi tions, or of a pan·
till cradle for tap!! lind videotapoe re<:orders.
monitof3. IIccessorles. etc. Other Gitzo
dollies are available for either very light, or
even hellvier tripods. for CIImerllS up to
The Super8 Sound Editing Benches have
be<:ome the standard for filmmakers who
lire working In double system Super·8 lind
editing on Super·8 f ... llcoat. Their popularity
is PIIrtly due to their low price. but lliso be·
cause the editing benches provide many of
the operating functions lind of
I"Iorizontlll editing.
At the present time the Super8 Sound
Edillng Bench is available in the stllndard
2·gllOg version liS well as in 3·gllng and
4·gllng multiple track versions. The multiple
trllck benches lire filled with the Super8
Sound Reel SpaceJAdllpters to ellow even
take·up of up to four strands without spilling
IIny slrllnd on the bench surface.
For furl her informlltion write SuperB
Sound. 95 Hervey Street. Cllmbridge. MA
SGL WABER Electric. a division of SGL
Industries, Inc .. reo!ntly introduced two new
colors In Its CordGardrM Electrical Cord
Ductlng: Brown lind Safety Yellow. The new
CordGard was deSigned not only for added
safety and convenience, but also for neutrll!
color blending of surroundings. CordGard"rM
was previously IIvllilllble in beige only.
CordGardTM Electrical Cord Ductlng 1$
I1UIde of lough, flexible vinyl. hilS pre·slit
channels for ellsy cord insertion, lind ac·
cepts cord diameters up to 7116 Inches.
CordGard rM is UL·recognized and is
aVllllllble In three convenient lengths of 6
feet , 15 feet. and 50 feet. .... 11 lengths are 3
Inches wide by 91\6 inches high.
CordGllrd™Electrical Cord Dueling Is II
SlIfe, lightweight. and economical mellns of
covering exposed electrical cords. Cord·
Gard™ helps prevent accidentlll tripping
over electrical cords 115 well 115 providing
protection. In511111atlon is a "sn"p" with IIvall·
able double·faced adhesive tape 10 prevent
sliding on smooth or it c"n be
awoch",d with "'poxy cement.
.... dded spe·cilll felltures include ribbed slots
on the bottom of CordGard to prevent
movement on carpet. CordGard7Hcan be
trimmed to exact lengths and can be used
indoors or outdoors.
.... ddltlonal product information Is avail·
IIble by contacting the factory. Outside of
New Jersey dilll (800) 257·8384. in New
Jersey dilll (609) 456·5400. at
The Complete Kodak Animation Book,
by Chal les Solomon and Ron Stark.
Published by Eastman Kodak Co.,
Rochester, NY \9183. Trade paperback,
hx 10, J92pagesS17.95
Thi s new book from Eastman Kodak,
which follows closely on the heels of
their very well·received The World of
Animation, seems 10 cover much of the
same terri tory. There i s a brief history
of animat ion beginning abouI300
years ago right up to the latest
computer·genereted visual effects. It
offers an overview of technological and
artistic developments in animation
around the world. It also discusses the
art f rom the standpoint of television
commercials. cartoon films and comic
Lavishly illustrated in color and
black and white, the 230 pictures in·
clude reproductions of rarely seen
animation eels as well as frame blow·
ups from Disney classics, Betty Boop
and Bugs Bunny.
The art of animati on is broken down
step by step so t hat the entire process
may be understood and examined. My
favorite chapter concerned "00 It
Yourself" animation effects. Thi s
chapter shows us that a good animator
"doesn I have to be a superb drafts·
man:' Following the detailed instruc·
tions, you can obtain results that will
amaze you, particul arl y the sect ion on
flip animation and constructlng a
or course, Kodak takes us into de·
tailed specifications on film types to
use for various animat ion effects. The
book makes a point of advising peopl e
to start with Super·S before graduating
to the "pro" formats of 16mm and
beyond simple because of the good
economy that Super,SlIffords in terms
of price and lIVaiiability. Advantages
and disadvantages of various formats
and systems area discussed.
Though geared primarily for
amateur animators. the book offers
suggestions for pursuing a career,
Some of the sect i ons contai n informa·
tion on collecting art work, animati on
materials lind equipment and a l ist of I
worldwide suppliers, I
There is also a glossary of useful ter· $17.95 hardcover
minol ogy and chapters on 3·0 stop· add $1.70 postage and handling lor each I
motion techniques as well. The reader ordered. I
can make use of f irsthand advice from
such established animators as Willillm 1 1
Hanna, who urges students 10 continue • :::::::--------_______ •
their educaton as "school ing gives you NAME •
and poise:' It also contai ns I
in·depth profiles of many animation ar· I •
tists whose names are not ....ell·known • ADDRESS I
to the beginner.
The wri ting. informative and I I
thorough, concentrates on basics. JI . ::::::-------------_1
lust rations are well pl aced to clarify the 1 CITY
text. Slickly produced by the editors at I I
Kodak, thi s book will prove entertain· ________ -;;;;-___ I
ing and easy to read for both serious I STATE ZIP .
and "armchair" animators. 1_ ' 1O'_"'"'dtIoot<,
-Shawn Hodes and Simona Nass (JI. I
ClNEMAG/C·24 21
Improve your animation and develop your own
style by learning a few simple techniques.
Phil TIppen makes an adjustment to the go-motion cantrolle<! dragon armature from Dragons/ayer
Heavy gauge aluminum armature wire can make a simple and convenient ammalion gauge.
let has been written about stop-
motion animation: How to build
the models, how to photograph
them, how to create miniature sets and
rear projections and mattes. But much
less has been written about the most im·
portant part of the process; how to make
the models come aJive-how to create
smooth, lifelike, dynamic motion-in
short, how to anima Ie.
You might think that animation can't
be taught. that it's entirely a matter of
"hands-on" experience. It's true that con·
stant practice i s required in learning
animation-but there are a few simple
principles. devices and methods which
can help you to learn faster and animate
The first thing to realize is that sue:-
cessful animation depends on your abi l ·
ity to gauge your model's movements
very precisely-and to do this, you have
to rely on more than just your memory,
eyesight and manual dexterity. For pro-
fessional resul ts, you need a tool which
will allow you to measure each incremen-
tal movement. Such a tool exists; it-scali-
ed a ··surface gauge."
Elaborate surface gauges are avai l able
but not really necessary. You can make
your own in five minutes simply by bend-
ing a length of wire into the right shape.
(Diagram I) The tip of the wire acts as a
pointer. After each frame. place the wire
so that irs pointing at a particular feature
of the animation model, sue:h as its eye.
Then, wi th the surfae:e gauge as a guide,
you can move the model and still know
where it was before you moved it. (For
compl ex movements. you often need
more than one surface j:laUj:le, to keep
track of different parts ofthe figure.) Ob-
viously, before you expose a frame you
must remove the gauge(orgauges)from
the set, so as not to get it in t he shot.
Professional animators always use a
surface gauge. And sometimes they even
forget to remove the gauge and acciden·
tally expose i t inoneframe_ When lhefilm
is projected, the gauge appears as a mo-
mentary blip on the screen. This happens.
for example, in the baboon.playing·chess
sequence of Ray Harryhausen's Sinbad
and the Eyeo{lhe Tiger(as the ape leaps
out of its chair).


.............. -
Antlllation gauges lrack every pomt 01 actIOn In thIS fear·proteCbOI'I set·up from Plantl of
The surface gauge, no matter how valu-
able. Isonlya tool; knowing how to use it
requiresan understanding of some basic
principles of motion.
One of the most important of these is
the principle of "graduation of move·
ment," what animatorscaJI'·slow·in" and
"slow-out:' What this means Is that every
action is "graduated" or progressive: it
starts oul slowly and gradually speeds up
then slows down again at the
end ("slow-oufl A car, for example.
doesn'ljurnp instantly from zero to fifly-
five (or vice versa); it Zlccelereltes (and

To apply this principle to animation,
begin each action with a very slight
change in the model's position. then
make a slightly bigger change for the
next frame. and so on....;·accelerating .. up
to tlbout the midpoint of the action. Then
"decelerate" by making progressively
sm"llerchanges. until you reach the last
frame and the action is completed.
(Diagram 2).
Obeying the principle of ""gradutltionof
movement" will make your animation
smoother: but even the smoothest ani·
mtltion will be boring if it seems merel y
mechanical. How do we add the spark of
life? There are two further principles to
When a pitcher throws a ball or a boxer
throwsa punch, hisllrm first draws back.
in anticipation of the throw. then shoots
forward withgrelll force.lt·s theanticipa.
tion. the pulling back. which makes that
great force possible. And after the ball (or
the punch) is thrown. the arm will not sim·
ply stop: it wiJl{ollowlhroughon the curve
of the throw. IIrcing back like a
boomerang. Anticipation and follow·
through are two important ingredients in
strong. violent IIctions.
Your animation model can anticipate
an action by first moving II few frames in
the opposite direction. then springing
back: it can follow through by carrying
the action a few frllmes "too far." then
returning to the right spot. (Diagram 3).
Not every action requiresanticipation
or follow-through: but used sparingly.
these techniques help eliminate the stiff·
ness that plagues some animation: they
make the modelllppetir more elastic. its
movements more lively.
All this is fine for simple. linear actions.
But what if the movement we need is
more complex? In that case. we must
analyze the action. break it down into
separate stages: and to keep It all straight.
we should plot it out in advance. on paper.
Suppose we wllnt our model-a
dinosaur. let's say-to lunge for its prey
and snap viciously. Thi s kind of sudden.
dyna mle movement certai nly ca lis for an·
ticipation and follow·through. So we start
the action by having the dinosaur draw
back. in IInticipation of the lunge; then
the creature moves forward and its Jaws
snap shut. As with the pitcher·sarm. the
dinosaur's body follows through on the
action byspringing back at least partway.
Thereare three steps: I) the head draws
back; 2) the body moves forward: 3) the
body moves back. (Di agram 4). Each of
these is reallyaseparateaction and each
must obey the principle of ""graduation of
movement."" starting and finishing gradu·
ally. But we don't want the dinosaur to
move in a hllillng, stop·and·go mtlnner:
we want the action to bea smooth. contino
uous flow. How can we do it?
The trick is to let the end of each action
oue.rlap the start of the next. Forexample.
while the dinosaur's head is stitl drawing
back slightly(step I). have the bodybegin
to move forward (step Then have the
head follow the body's lead. Similarly. as
the creature's jaws are snapping shut
(step 2). have the body start to spring
back (step 3): again. the head must
""follow:' being ""pulled along."" in effect. by
Ihe automatic recoil of the body. Overlap·
ping allows you to ease in and out of any
parliculllr movement. smoothly and
The Sur1ace Gauge. A length of I'me is bent in·
to Ihe right shape. then used as a pointer to
marl< position N1 01 the model. After
Ihe model is moved to poSlllon 112. Ihe lip of
Ihe wire shO'tvs you where the model had been.
allowlrg you to accurately measure the
distarn:e of the move
.... c-.
C ',f\..
, .,
, ".. '
);.;i -" ::::::;'\

Graduation of Movement. Each sphere represents a difterent poSllIOn of the animation model in suc-
cessive single frames. Note thaI the changes In posilion grow gradually larger till the midpoint of the
action. then progressively smaller till the end. ThiS creates the effect of acceleration and deceleration.
or "slow·in" and ''slow-out''
Antici pation and Follow-Through. The model starts 01,11 In posi tiOn 111 II ''anhCipates'' the action by
mOVing back to pasloon thensprrngs forward to poSition It "follows through" on the action by
mOVing back to POSlhon H4 Use sparrngly. thiS ellect makes your model seem more elastic and lively.
gradually. without having to interrupt the
total flow of action.
There are times. however. when you
wan! the flowof action to be interrupted.
When an animation model freezes in a
certain pose fora moment, i t is said to be
in a hold: ' The effective use of holds i s
another key to quality animation.
There are four main difficulties with
holds-knowing when to use one, how
long it should last, how toget in and out,
and what to do during the hold to main·
tain that all-important illusion of life. Let's
take these one at a time.
t-... Number One: When to use a hol d? A
.... c.
__ -{ held pose should always bean "extreme"
pose. Animators divide actions into "ex·
tremes" and " in·betweens." In the exam·
pie of the dinosaur. the beginning and
end of eoch .stl!lge of oetion ore the "t:lt-
tremes," while the intermedi at e frames,
whi ch link one extreme to the next, are
the " in·betweens." Had we wanted to, we
could have held the action at any elttreme.
For eltample, the dinosaur could have
frozen for a moment after drawing back
(step I). as if hesi tating or preparing to
The dinosaur draws back ("antl clpatron'), then lunges and snaps, then recoils (''follow. through'').
OverlaDping the dmeren! stages 01 acliol! creates a more fluid ellect
NumberTwo: How l ong should a hold
last? Naturally, this depends on the shot
Rarely can a model be held still for as long
asa full second. Most holds last only a few
24 C/NEMAG/C"24
frames. As a general rule, it is better to
make the hold too short than too long.
NumberThree: Howdoyou get in end
out of a hold? The same way you get out
orand into an action-very carefully. Thet
is, you "slow-out," hold, then ··slow·ln."
Number Four: What does the model do
during a hold? Does it just stand there,
motionless? Rarely. Most times, you must
make small, subtle movements to keep
the creatures "alive," Perhaps the monster
blinks it$ (Eyeblinks lire done by
placing latex "eyeli ds" on the creature's
eyes.) Perhaps it clenches its fistsor flicks
Its tail or moves its head or opens its
mouth to roaT. Anyone of these small
touches, or any combination of them. is
enough to keep the from appeliT'
ing to freeze into 8 statue on the screen.
Holds are Important because they
allow you to get the maximum impact out
of your animlltion. By holding on an
especially dramatic pose, you emphasize
that pose and enhance the theatricalityof
the model's performance. Holds also
allow you to extend action which would
otherwise happen too quickly; and last
but not least, holds make animation
easier, by allowing you to squeeze off a
number of frames while making only
minor adjustments in the model's
Graduation of movement, ant icipat ion,
follow· through, overlapping action,
holds. Principles such as these, coupled
with tools such as the surface gauge and
with careful pre-planni ng, can certai nl y
Improve the quality of anyone's anima·
tion. But most important of all is knowing
when and how to use these techniques,
and that requires obserualion. Learn to
observe and analyze the way people and
animals move. And learn to distinguish
between essential and incidental move·
ments. Noanimatorcan reproduce every
subtl e nuance of a living creature's mo·
tion. What he does instead is to recreate
only t hose movements necessary to CliP'
ture the essence of the action; li nd in so
dOing. he simplifies action. streamlines it,
stylizes it.
Animation can have style, and your
own animation should have its own style.
Do you want your f igures to move
smoothly. gracefull y. bal1etically? Then
use very short holds. ease sloy,rly in and
out of every action. and make your over·
lapping seamlessly smooth. Or do you
want your figures to move dynamically.
with less grace but more raw power?Then
hold extreme poses l onger and go more
rapidly from one held pose to t ne next. Or
perhaps yOU'd like different figures to
move in different ways?
The possibilities are endless. All it
takes to realize those possibilities is some
hard work and hard thinking. 01
An anlmnion model lrom Flesh Gordon shown With traditioflal animation
Missing copies? MOVing? Renewals? :
Receiving duplicate Issues? Ques- '
tions about your subscription? Write
directly 10;

P.O. Box 142
Mt. Morris,
Dooot ....
money.nd order
10 lhe.bcmI .d-
dr"s. See
subscrlpllon .d
elsewhere In
Ihls lssue.
Subscription Inquiries addressed 10
, theedilorlal oflices will onl y delay your
: request.
l N ....ME
: ADORESS _ ____________________ _
" ---
IIA'",O""'.;' take-up plus manual opera-
are featured in this editor-viewer
use with Super-8/ Single-8 formats.
5 x 31 /2 color-corrected viewi ng
.. Non-flicker with ultra·slow up
Riley Marketing. Inc,
P. O. Box 29898
Dallas, TX 75229·0898
(214) 247·8899
Creale spooky misl effects wif:houl spending a
forlune on dry ice by making your own fog {iller.
An 8Kolmple of tile effect that can be produce<! with a graduated log tiller. The photo was $hoi on a ctear
daV II an Objecl is clOse to the camera , make sure !\all Isn·1 clear and 11\8 other hall In '·Ia,j·· Under
these 'Ircumstances, 11 lull la,j Iiller should be used Don·1 pan the camera wllh a log tiHer In place
ou're shooti ng a Dracula fi l m on
location in a graveyard, but the
only time your actor can show up
is at high noon on a sunny Saturday. In
your script the shot cal l s for a gloomy, fog-
shrouded sa:ne with old Drac wandering
around the tombstones. So how do you
get the shot on fitm when there's no fog
on IOCl!ltion? Simple, use a fog filler over
the camera lens. Instant fog and gloom! In
this second installment of E·Z effects
fillers you' ll be able to add two useful
fillers to your filter pack: the fog fillerand
the related diffusion (liter.
The fog filter works by scattering a por·
tion of the scene's light into the shadow
areas-a scene with dark shadows takes
on " grey washed·out look. Also. sellt·
tered light gives the illusion of overall
brightness to theentire shot. Because the
fog filter also reduces the sharpness of the
iii subject being filmed, the result is Ilin op-
I tical effect that resembles natural fog.
~ The two photos show the effect: one photo
f with no filter, t he other photo with the
A diffusion rilter i s similar to a fog filter.
but with a much weaker effect. A di ffusion
filter is used to reduce sharp details. The
most common use of a diffusion effect is
to soften the facial wrinkles and blem·
ishes of an actor or actress for a ··glamour
shot:· The filter can also be used to
remove the sharpness in a miniature,
such as a bui lding or model. Diffusion
makes the miniature look more life-like
by Simulating the effect of great di stance
by suggesting an effect of dust. smoke
and other ftoating atmospheric debris.
Before you make the fi l ters, you need to
make 8 plliper filter holder and the filter
lens mount to attach the filters to the
camer8. ·1 hese two parts were described
in detail In the last issue. However, new
readers can refer to the series of drawings
and explanations for III brief summary.
Step I: Purchase an Ambico Adapter
Ri ng matched to your camera lens size
(filter thread size). See Figure 1.
Step 2: Trace the ring onto the Index
card. Trace both inner and outer edges of

the: ring. See Figures2A £, B. Cutout the
finished tracings as in Figure 2C. Fold the
cut t!"lld n9 in half to make the filter holder
seen in Figure 20.
Step 3: When the filter is completed
(see rest of this article) the Ambico lens
r ing will hold the filter holder. Screw the
ring onto the camera lens as shown in
Figure3A. When in proper filter position
the filter holder is easi l y anchored with
ordinary paperclips as seen in Figure3B.
The simpliest diffusion material is a
sheet of cheap clear acetate plastic. A
report cover, photo protector jacket, or
overhead projection transparency sheet
are all suitable. The "sandwlch bag" clear
plastic is perfect for a Grade 1 diffusion.
Grade 1 is the "lightest" diffusion. By
pi act n9 one sheet ave r a nother the diffu-
sion effect increases. each added sheet
makinga Grade 2, Grade 3, and Grade 4.
Withcheap plastic a Grade 4 Is about the
highest or "most diffusi on" grade accept·
able to keep a recognizable subject im·
age. A Grade 4 can also be achieved by
one of the oldest "Hollywood" camera
tricks; a woman's nylon stocking
stretched over the camel'll lens.
The plastic diffusion sheet should be
inserted into the paper holder and
trimmed as seen in Figures 4A fj B. Short
folded strips of tape hold the cut filter in
place as shown in Figure 4C. The filter's
grade number should be marked on the
paper holder for easy identification.
Step 1: Cut a 4 x 4 inch piece of clear
aCetate for each fog filter.
Step 2: Place the acelate on a sheet of
newspaper on the floor ina suitable paint·
i ng a rea (outside or on a workshop floor).
Use a spray paint (white or grey enamel,
or base primer)to lighlly cover the entire
sheet of acetate. The idea is to thinly
"frost" the sheet, not paint it over. The
paint can should be held about a foot
away from the plastic. moved ~ n a con-
stant l eft and ri ght zig. zag action over the
plastic from top to bottom. This move-
ment will give a nice even frosting. Figure
0 0
A ~ ______ L-____ B ~ ____ -L ______
~ ~
. ..
. .
' ..
: :;..
. . :. '.
. ..
. . ' .
. .. ' .
": . . :
5 shows the basic painting action. The ~
proper paint density should be Just i
enough to read this article when the q
plastic sheet is pressed against the page. ! i L ~ ~ _ __ ____ -=-___________________ -'
Any thicker than thi s is too dense for
photography. This density represents the lie flat against the plastic. The correct
"thickest" fog effect for a single sheet. placement is seen in Figure 68.
Lighter spraying gives lesser fog in a Step 4: As before, lightly frost the
range of densities. You should make plastic with the spray paint. except keep
several different densities for a variety of the can at a lower angle to the plastic. As
filter grades. all less than the above you spray. the paper will mask the lower
" thickest" filter. portion of the plastic sheet. The raised
Step 3: Place a fresh 4 x 4 piece of edge of the paper will permit some paint
acetate on the newspaper. Cut a 3 x 5 tospeckletheplasticbehindit.Thispro·
inch paper sheet (or use an index card) duces a " feathered" or gradual blended
and slightly fold about '12 inch to makea edge instead of a hard (sharp)edge line.
raised edge. Place this paper on topofthe Make sure you aim the spray at the nat
acetate at about midway down the plastic. edge of the masking paper and not "into"
The folded edge of the paper (not the the V·shapedgroove by spraying from the
bend itself) should aim upwards and not wrong side of the sheet.
Figure 6C shows the finished result of
the spraying. This partially frosted sheet
Is dear at the bottom and painted at the
lOp with a gradual edge blending the two
areas. This fog filter produces a partial
fogging of the scene and is clliled a
Graduated Fog Aller. Compare Figure 6A
fj B to see the difference between a full
spray (overall fog) and partial spray
(graduated fog). Figure 6D shows the
usual mounting position of the graduated
filter in the paper ring.
The graduated fog filter is used to
simulate the effect of real fog on near and
far subjects. When a subject is close to the
A SC8M shot wUhaol the fog HIler In place over the camera lens.
The same scene shot with the fog fil ter described In this article.
r--------------------------------, camera lens(and in the clear area of the
~ - >
. . ,'
" . . .: .
" , ' , .
'" ..
. .. " " ....
filter) it appears sharp. When it is more
distant (and in the frosted area) it is quite
When the fog filters and diffusion filters
are used there is no need to compensate
the exposure meter. Si nce al l the l ight
travels through the filter (although scat·
tered) t he meter reads t he overall li ght of
the scene as if no filter were used.
However. because of the scattering of
light to grey t he shadows. the optical illu-
sion suggests a luminous image-the
scene looks f latter and brighter on film.
You should compose each shot contino
uously checking the diffusing effect of
the fog filter. especially the graduated fog
filler. This means that the best effects are
achieved by a rather distant and flat com-
position. If a shot requires parts of the
scene(such as trees. people. etc.) be close
to the camera lens, make sure that the
graduated filterdoesn't make an obvious
division such as half a person in fog with
his feet clear on the ground. The Wter can
ei ther be rotated or a full fog filter used.
The camera shoul d not bepanned with
a fog filter on the lens. The pan will reveal
the "grain" ofthe filter-the texture of the
paint frosting-which does not move
when the camera vi ew is changed.
The fog effect is especial ly good when
shooting in early morning or late evening.
i The scene has l ess contrast at these times
and looks like uniform fog " lighting:'
~ Overcast days provide t he best lighling
si tuations for using a fog filter. (JI
Sheet of clear acetate, a )( JO Inches
Index cards, 5 x a inches
Ambico Ad.!!pter Ring, mllted t o climer.!!
Two paper clips
Adhesive tape
Smal l can white spray paint (grey or
Clear sandwich bag("baggies" or Saran
Newspaper sheet
Tools: scissors, pencil, art knife, ruler
Presented by Creation Conventions and the
APRIL 14-15
Saturday and Sunday
11 AM 10 7 PM daily
MAY 19-20
Saturday and Sunday
11 AM 10 7 PM daily
JUNE 23-24
Saturday and Sunday
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Wear Your Free 3-0 Glasses and Watch Cinemagic' s 3-0 In Film Presentation!
Your Special Host for the Weekend will be
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For alilhe complete details on THE STAAlOG FESTIVAL please send a sell-addressed stamped envelope to
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II you wish to stay overnight in the hotel. please call us to make reservations at speCi al lower than normal rates
Call toll-free 1-(800) 645-6579 In New York call (516) 747-2033
Improve lhe qualily of your slop·motion work by
improving the quality of your animation models with
lhese "easy armatures."
'\Ie good news. You don't need ac·
cess to a machine shop and a lot of
fancy equipment to make good arm·
at ures. Whafs more, you might not need
power tools at aiL These photos show
armatures assembled using a type of hinge
joint that is made with nylon washers sand·
wiched between polished metal plates. The
steel plates are drilled. tapped. filed light·
Iy and polished using oil and 000 grade
steel wool. The metal must be thoroughly
cleaned before the parts are assembled
because any particles on the moving parts
will impair the smoot hness of the move-
ment. Here's more good news: This system
Thearmatures pictured are by Ken Bril·
liant and the author. (JI
This ball joint is an aluminum ball sandwiched
between two machine<! stul plates.
30 C/NEMAG/C-24
This hinge-jointed armature (shown here minus its tail) will be the basis lor a plant-eating dinosaur.
The hip Of the armature has been designed III allow for leg movements both lOr ward and SIIle to side
, ,
Ken Bnlllani and John Oods created this array 01 dinosaur armatures lOr their current film p r o i ~ 1
The models rely I\tavlly on the use of nylon washers in hinge·type ioints.
c/NEMAG1C#24 31
A Training Ground for Talent
Roger Corman's new sludio keeps up his l radition of
hiring young people,
ho among the readers of this
magazine has not dreamed of
being involved inthe mllkingof
a science·fiction or fantasy picture? Well ,
the opportunity exists, at Millennium in
Venice, California.
Millennium is Roger Corman's new
studio, or the new name for an old studio.
depending on the way one chooses to
look at it. Earlier this year, Roger Corman.
founder of 13-year·old New World Pic-
tures, created a stir when he sold his
brainchild forthesurn of$16.5 mi l li on to
a consortium of attorneys.
"I started New World in 1970, asa pro-
duction and distribution company for
low-budget films," says Corman. " It was
successful from the beginning and made
a great deal of money in the seventies and
Roger Corman. today. at his neN
Millennium production facility.
32 ClNEMAG/C·24
eighties. But, I could see that the market
was beginning to change as we got into
the eighties. I felt that the thing to do was
to move to bigger pictures. I had to. Yet. at
the same time the risk was getting
greater. While I was mulling over ways to
handle this. a group of entertainment
lawyers came to me with an offer to buy
the company for quite a bit of money."
"As I thought about it. I realized that I
never started out to be a distributor. I
started out to be a producer and director.
primarily a director as a matter of fact. I
felt that I was getting a l ittle bit too far
away from production. This gave me an
opportunity to sell the distribution arm at
a very handsome price. and then be able
to concentrate on production. I could also
take some of the money from the sale of
the company to add to what I already had.
and it gave me that greater supply of
money to make bigger films."
Corman retained the studio facilities.
with its team of craftsmen. and soon
history repeated itself when he an·
nounced that he was once again setting
up a new production company. Millen·
nium Pictures. Quickly. three co·
productions with companies in Argentina
were announced. Deathslalker. a $2.5
million s'NOrd·and·sorcery picture, Kain or
the Dark Planet and W/zaro War.
Corman and his team are located in the
beach city of Venice. California. oneof the
suburbs of Los Angeles. Thesign in front
still says "Hammond Lumberyard" (Cor.
man never bothered to remove the orlg·
inal property sign) but it now identifies
Millennium instead of New World
What makes Corman, and his studio,
unique is his unparalleled record forgiv·
ing young people without any film.
making experience opportun ities to 'NOrk
in the movie industry. Some of Corman's
former employees include directors Fran·
cis Ford Coppola (Apocalypse Now), Joe
Dante (The Howling). Martin Scorcese
(Taxi Driuer), Peter Bogdanovich (Ta'Yels).
Irving Kershner(The EmpireSJ.ri/res Back),
Jonathan Demme (Last Embrace) and
Amy Jones (Humanoids (rom the Deep).
Corman was eager to talk about hi s
philosophy of hiring young unknown
people to work for his company. " Having
been at various times a writer, director
and producer myself, I feel that I am in a
somewhat better position to judge new
talent among writers. producers and
directors. Many of the studios today are
run by accountants. lawyers or e)(·agents.
and they haven't had that speci fic ell'
perience In production. So. such a judge.
ment is a little bit difficult for them."
"Fi rst. I look for intelligence," explains
the fi lmmaker. "I have never meta writer,
producer or director who was good, who
was not intelligent. Then, I look for the
willingness to work hard. This Is a very,
very hllrd line of work to be in, so it's no
place for the dilettantes. Only then, hope·
fully, I will look for some knowl edge or
training in film. Then. thehardestofal1 is
to try to judge creativity. There are no
tests lhtlt I know of that can do that. That's
a matter of my talking to them. maybe
looking at a student's film, or reading a
script or something l ike that. and then
seeing if I can get along with them. I put
all of these things together. Part of It i s
objective and part of it is subjective."
Corman is honest in his advice to aspir.
ing filmmakers. 'This is a factory. We
make motion pictures, and you must be
able and willing to get in there and manu·
facture them. Frankly, the advice I would
give to somwne who wants to break into
movies is to first try to go to film schooL
r think it's essential to have some sort of
background. You can come in and work
your way up, but it's longer and slower. I
think you can get more intense training In
a film school."
However. after talking to the people
working at Millennium, i t is stri king to
note that professional ellperlencecounts
less here than other factors. These other
factors include the genuine desire to
work, and the willingness to put up with
long hours and other people. Tom Camp·
bell. Millennium's studio manager, is an
example of this phenomenon. Tom has
been at New World for over four years.
" Before coming to New World, I was
working first as a motorcycle me<:hanic,
then lisa diesel bus mechanic. The father
of a good friend of mine Invents things for
motion pictures. so my friend recom·
mended me to Chuck Comi nsky, who was
setting up 8 special effects department
here. He hired me as an engineer for
miniatures. J started working in t he model
shop at the very beginning of Baltic
Beyond the Slars. I worked my way up.
photographing interiors and engineering
things. Then. I became Special Effects
Super .. lsor, and later, Studio Manager,"
" I hadn't real ly been interested in mo-
tion pictures before:' Tom cont inues. "but
r didn't like crawling underneath dirty
buses ai l i he time! Irs really great work·
ing here, with all the creative people
around. but ifs hard work. too. We work
long hours. and sometimes I can't think
about anything but work, St ill, it is
refreshi ng, because of the energy that
exist s here,"
Tom, whose responsibi l ities now in,
clude hiring other, similarly motivated
young people, eltplains what he looks for
when interviewing applicants. "I take
resumes first of all. I look for somebody
that's got a good attitude and personality,
I also want people that are able to deal
with other people, t hat are talented, that
have good work habits and are willing to
work, Of course, if they have some film elt-
perience, it's better, Often, however, film
students have gone to col lege for a long Connan has a flair for " ~ : " & : ~ : ~ : ~ O " ;
time to learn about film but have never (Rag'ngBul) lsaJT'lOl1gIhe
Roger Corman ooltle set 01 The Raven wiltl Peter lolfe, WitHam Basion and Vincent Price, Moch 01 Corman's line
reputation lOday endures wiltl his series 01 Poe films which have become classics,
worked a day in thei r l ives and have abso·
lutely no work habits. When we have a big
project, I have to delegate responsibilit y
to gel the job done so it comes in on time,
on the money and looks good. There's no
time 10 develop work habits, or really
train anybody either."
Virginia Aalko. who is a fiberglass ex·
pert in the special effects department at
Millennium. concurs with Tom. " If you're
very young. maybe just out of high
school. you should try to get into a shop
or something and talk to people. meet
people. Usually. the first thing that young
people do is assistant jobs. Sweeping up.
picking up, following along and doing
very lowly assistant·type work. Usually it
only takes once or twice if you know peo-
ple and you're good at what you do and
have the right attitude. They'lI ask you
" I tl1ink Millennium is great," she adds.
" I know that maybe a lot of people com·
plain about the movies. saying that
tl1ey're always low budget-but It is work!
It's like going to school. onl y you' re get·
ting paid to do it. Where else would tl1ere
be that kind of opportuni ty? You couldn't
walk into a major studio and do it. Here.
you can walk tl1roughthe lot and nobody
is going to stop you. You can walk in the
door end talk to these people. If you have
the desire, chances are they' re going to
give ),ou t he opportunity to try. What
more do you want? Of course. It helps if
you have some sort of art background.
I Make Magical I
Special Effects
· So'" 1.1,,,.,
· ',.mo CouMO<
• ... 'nd lOO f,.mo.
' T.' .. s.... .... _
SiIM' rolm
A", P '_"'J .... ....,.. ... 0<. .. p __ "'J ,-V' .
......... "'.-, ... .... . ... , ..... ,- ..... ..... .. , .....
, ... _, ""'.- • • _"11 "" .......... _ .. ...... _ ••
" ••• '., ."", .......... ,,,,,C,._ ... ' 180< . .. . "" " . ... . . 100
,.-q.,,, ........... -c .... _
...... 00'.00'....,..1>0<. ... ..... "'_'0..'" _""'· .... '''1'' ..
90 " ........ <JO 10 ' ... -., • • ••• < ....... ' ..... ,
Com_' _._,,,, "'" ............ ,, "" ,,, _.
co ...... c- .... '" ... "" ... , •. _ ...... OOC'_.
,,,,, .. "9,00 "" .. ''''''''. --=_ ... "', '''e' ...... e",,"' .H .. "
'"""'D" ''' ' 110' "'''0'''' ."" .. OOC" """. ,,,. C, ....
Bo . ... , ....... , ...... , S 52. 95
H.,m., IS t.I"'OO1 '0' 'I. '1'10 1".n,, 'Y seme.
10 mo •• e _,. 0", p'<><Iue,s II. !ully \)"0'0"'"0 '1'10
.. "' ... , ""'Y' ''''' .. me a.y WI '8(:.". '''.
" '<le, VDUD"." 'DYOU'S.'! '" g.""" a.,.,I. or In. HII",.,
,"nge ot ICC ....... 'H VD .. ' n.me 01'1<1 '<lO'HO .",n
12 00 .. ,II I><'ng yOU ." ,MO''''"h ••• "" ... ' ... .,'1'111 ,nr",-
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34 C/NEMAGfC-24
f rom school or somewhere. Bring any·
thing you Nlve to show. a portfolio.
anything. Modify a model from a kit and
bring that in with you and explain how
you designed it. Someone may not be
able to draw. but they may be able to
Mike Jones. heZld of the prosthetic
department. has been with Millennium
si nce December of 1982. Mikeworked on
the opening sequence of The Sword and
the Sorcerer, then on the miniatures for
Beaslmaster and Space Raiders. He is a
good exampleof how Virginia's methods
can work. " I came here because I heard
there might be a job as an assistant. I
came down with my portlolio. I always
carry a little dragon or something else of
mine wi t h me. as a hands·on type of
"There are a couple of reasons why
working here is good for someone just
starting out," he continues. "First. you
learn just about everything that you can
on a very fast schedule. You learn how to
get the best quality, in the least amount
of time. at the lowest cost. You learn how
to work within budgets. and to stretch
that dollar until it screams." Jones laughs.
It also stretches your creat ivity. because
filmmaking is II collaborative art. you
have to create It from somebody else's
work. Your predecessor has made the
sculpture, and you're going to alter an ape
face intoan insect creature. for example.
You have to learn todo it very quicktyand
to make it look good. You learn to make
do with what you have." he concludes.
Jim Belkin. special effects camera·
man. on the other hand. is i!I professional
who has worked on TV. done a documen·
tary and an SF picture called The Quest
for Ray Bradbury and Sollul Bass. He has
been with Millennium for only a few
months, yet he too emphasizes the uni ·
que qualities of the studio.
"[ ClIme here because I liked Roger's
reputation. and I liked the idea ofhaving
freedom. I don't really care forthe union
si tuation right now. because I'm sti ll
young and in a learning stage. So. It's
much better for me to have access to
everything. rather than to be restrict ed to
just one job. Rog!::r give:> you CI chance to
extend yourself beyond where you are
right now. He gives you a chance to take
on responsibilities that you 'NOuldn't nor·
mally be given the chance at. So. In that
respect I'm looking forward to shooting
l1ere. learning and doing things that I
h2lven't done before."
Tom <Ampbell summari zes this ap·
pr02lch to the "Corman school of film·
making" by remembering hi s training on
Sallie Beyond the Slars. "I was never
asked i f I knew how to dosomething. but
rather how long would it take meor how
much would it cost. They'd dream up
some wild idea and say. ' We need you to
build this and 'N€ need it in two days and
you've got thirty dol lars.' And you'd just
do it. You'd figure out a way. call people
you knew. look up places in the yellow
pages. call around. go places. look at
things .. ....
The tradition at the Roger Corman
studios has been one of opportunity. and
learning by doi ng. While such film·
making names as Joe Dante. Martin
Scorsese and Fmncis Ford Coppola al l
got their start with Corman Productions.
there are readers of this magazine who
have gotten jobs at the studio over the
past few years because they had some-
thing to show and the relentless desire to
make films. ()(
Fresh out 01 UCLA Francis Ford Coppola IWrked In Gorman's editing room.
Later he was taken 10 Europe as a soundman lor The Yowg Racers (1963).
The Corman StudfoS became known for creating Quality special effects on a
~ e r y limited budget Here a custom animation camera is prepared for a shot
The animatIOn and eef opaQumg department during the flllTllng of B.8.T.5. . in
the background is Erme farmo. now a producer/designer for The L A Effects
Group. Inc
See the amazing world of miniatures and mode)
animation-from King Kong to Ray Harryhausen and TV's
Land Of The Lost. Special blueprint section includes: the -
Nautilus from 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea, Robby the
Robot, the C-570 flying saucer from Forbfdden Planet.
Behind-the-scenes color photos from Battlest8r;
Galactica, Space: 1999. The Lost Saucer and SF classics
like Close Encounters, Flight To Mars, Thunderbirds, War
of the Worlds, Star Trek .. . morel
Exclusive interviews with masters of matte pai nting.
eftects, make-up and cel animation. A festival of effects
films frc.m space epics to splatter movies-pictured in
color photos and technical diagrams. Special section on
making the giant squid from Disney's 20,000 Leagues
Under The Sea, the Time Machine from George Pal's
movie, and the Enterprise designs-from lV to theatrical.
All this. plus morel
Just published, this newest volume in the
STAR LOG Photo Guidebook series on Special
Effects takes you on a trip into the gleaming world
of modern film wonders-the technologies that
create Hollywood's special effects for science
fiction, horror and fantasy movies. In this exciting
book you'll read about computer animation, robot
cameras and new optical processes. SPECIAL
EFFECTS, Vol. 3 lets you visit the shops of many of
the technical artists who make the "impossible"
their everyday job. Lavishly illustrated with page
after page of photos (many in full color) this new
book takes you on the sets of recent films like Star
Wars, Flash Gordon, ALIEN, The Empire Strikes
Back, Altered States, The Black Hole, TV's Dr. Who,
Cosmos, and more! Discover the innerworkings of
Doug Trumbull's new ShowScan process and the
new double· 70mm 3-D system. If you are interested
in filmmaking, here, in one volume, is your chance
to learn about present-day techniques in special
effects-and also glimpse what the future holds.
Add postage to your order:
Send to:
475 Pork Avenue South
New York. NY 10016
10101 enclosed: $ __
NYS roooloenil rxId 5O!e< 10:<
Pleose allow 4 10 6 w98ks fOI delivery of 3rd Closs
moll. Filst Closs delivery usually lakes 2 10 3 weeks.

Vol. I .... . ..... ' 16.95 .
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