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natural law and enlightenment classics
uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu i i i i i i i i natural law and i i enlightenment classics i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i Translated by Francis Hutcheson and James Moor i i Edited and with an Introduction by James Moore i i i and Michael Silverthorne i i i i The Collected Works and Correspondence i i i i of Francis Hutcheson i i i i i i i i i i liberty fund i i Indianapolis i i i i i i i i uuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus .
Michael. 1740–45). index ᭧ 2008 by Liberty Fund. cm.—(Natural law and enlightenment classics) (The collected works and correspondence of Francis Hutcheson) Includes bibliographical references and index. 2. Ethics—Early works to 1800. University of Glasgow. Inc. p.” It is taken from a clay document written about 2300 b. Reproduced courtesy of the Hunterian Art Gallery. Title.This book is published by Liberty Fund. isbn 978-0-86597-510-1 (hardcover: alk. 121–180. Emperor of Rome. in the Sumerian city-state of Lagash. Conduct of life—Early works to 1800. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Marcus Aurelius. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frontispiece: Detail of a portrait of Francis Hutcheson by Allan Ramsay (ca. 1934– II. Moore. The cuneiform inscription that serves as our logo and as the design motif for our endpapers is the earliest-known written appearance of the word “freedom” (amagi ). paper) 1. a foundation established to encourage study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals.c. III. annotations. or “liberty. I. edited and with an introduction by James Moore and Michael Silverthorne. Suite 300 Indianapolis. Silverthorne. Inc. [Meditations. b 580. Introduction.. 8335 Allison Pointe Trail. Indiana 46250-1684 . English] The meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus/ translated by Francis Hutcheson and James Moor. paper) isbn 978-0-86597-511-8 (pbk. oil on canvas.: alk. inc. James.h 88m 3713 2008 188—dc22 2007037857 liberty fund.
contents Introduction A Note on the Text Acknowledgments ix xxxi xxxiii the meditations of the emperor marcus aurelius antoninus Endnotes Bibliography Index 1 165 193 203 .
3 Pray try your critical faculty in ﬁnding what parts I did & what he did. I hope if you like it that it may sell pretty well with you about Belfast I am sure it is doing a publick good to diffuse the Sentiments & if you knew Foulis you would think he deserved all incouragement. 1742. 2. MS Gen 1018 no. and an Account of his Life (Glasgow: Printed by Robert Foulis and sold by him at the College: 1742). Robert Foulis (1707–76) was appointed printer to the University of Glasgow in 1743. Another “4th ed.4 1. Thomas Drennan in Belfast. 1742.” was printed in Dublin for Robert Main in 1752. Glasgow. Moor and the Foulis brothers witnessed Hutcheson’s will on June 30. he was responsible for the publication of many attractive and accurate editions of classical texts.). I did not translate books in a suite. The Meditations were reprinted in Glasgow by Robert and Andrew Foulis in 1749 (2nd ed. 11.2 but I don’t let my name appear in it. James Moor (1712–79) was appointed university librarian of the University of Glasgow in 1742 and professor of Greek in 1746. but I one or two.). was my amusement last summer. MS: Glasgow University Library. Hay takes over some copies of a new translation of Antoninus. Robert Foulis married Moor’s sister Elizabeth in September 1742. for the sake of a singular worthy soul one Foulis. I hope that you’ll like it. May 31. 4. In partnership with his brother Andrew. & he one or two.introduction On May 31.). the greater half of which and more.1 The letter that accompanied the dispatch of the books contained the following intriguing account: The bearer Mr. Francis Hutcheson in Glasgow sent to Thomas Drennan in Belfast some copies of The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly translated from the Greek: With Notes. Letter of Francis Hutcheson to the Reverend Mr. ix . 3. 1752 (3rd ed. 1746. He edited many of the classical texts published by Robert and Andrew Foulis. and 1764 (4th ed. nor indeed have I told it to any here but the Man concerned. the rest was done by a very ingenious Lad one Moore.
The ﬁrst is Hutcheson’s letter to Drennan. . . “one or two”. 6.6 It has the merit of consistency with Hutcheson’s claim that he had done “one or two books. ﬁnally. apart from his announced desire to be of assistance to Robert Foulis and the Foulis press? (3) What might be the signiﬁcance of Hutcheson’s notes to the text? Do they make up a coherent set of ideas concerning human nature. Notices and Documents. and religion? And what may be the relevance of these notes for our understanding of his other writings? (4) Why was Hutcheson determined that his name should not appear in the volume and that no one in Glasgow and its environs apart from Foulis should know the identity of the persons responsible for the translation and the notes? (5) And. morals. and it leaves Hutcheson with responsi- 5.x introduction Hutcheson’s letter raises a number of questions: (1) Which books of The Meditations contain Hutcheson’s translations and notes and which books should be attributed to Moor? (2) What considerations prompted Hutcheson to undertake this translation and edition. where it is reported that the ﬁrst two books were by James Moor and the remainder by Hutcheson. 1777). Francis Hutcheson.” Clearly Hutcheson was reluctant to be speciﬁc and preferred to make a game of it with Drennan. with his claim that he had done “the greater half . 49. Hutcheson. what was the signiﬁcance of Hutcheson’s adaptation of The Meditations for the Enlightenment in Scotland? 1.” and Moor. and more”. The second bit of evidence is found in The Foulis Catalogue of Books (Glasgow. a claim complicated by the circumstance that Hutcheson originally wrote “the ﬁrst half and more” and then struck through “ﬁrst” and substituted “greater. On Human Nature. and they do not agree. 144. Hutcheson and Moor: The Division of Responsibility There is a prima facie problem concerning the respective contributions of Hutcheson and Moor to The Meditations. There are three pieces of external evidence. Scott. Duncan. . politics.5 This record of the matter has been accepted by many later scholars. 176.
introduction xi bility for the “greater half.” 213–14. that might be expected of someone like Moor. Daniel Carey for bringing this item to their attention. with the exception of the ﬁrst book. 1. In light of these considerations. The style of the translation of books IX and X lacks the characteristic ﬂow of Hutcheson’s prose. bk. IX. there is an abundance of citations to writers of the New Testament: fourteen in all. 7. as he had originally written. “Francis Hutcheson and the Early History of the Foulis Press. In every one of the other books there are extensive notes that expand upon and interpret the philosophy of the Stoics. Dr. Francis Hutcheson the rest. Dr. There is another account of the matter. Moor. “Nature” or “the nature of the whole” is referred to as “she” (for example. we conclude that Reid’s record of his conversation with Moor may be taken as the most authoritative of the three pieces of external evidence: books IX and X by Moor. Thomas Reid entered the following note in his own copy of the 1764 edition of The Meditations: “Dr.”7 We believe that Reid’s note is the most authoritative of the three versions of this matter. twice as many as are found in the notes to all of the other books combined. who was renowned for the accuracy of his command of ancient Greek. Finally. This information I had from Dr.” although not for the “ﬁrst” half. See Stephen. A preoccupation with the original Greek of Marcus and with the quality of the translation by Gataker is not a conspicuous feature of the notes found in the other books. . The editors are grateful to Dr. art. however. Oxford. It is a concern. Books IX and X differ from the other books. in books IX and X. Hutcheson wrote the Preface and Dr. These two books also contain a number of phrases not found elsewhere in the text. pp. The term Stoic is never used in books IX and X. Moor translated the 9th and 10th books. which is concerned not with ideas but with individuals who inﬂuenced Marcus (many of them Stoics). Moor collected [sic! ] the Proofs.” In the notes for books IX and X there are a number of references to Greek terminology and to Thomas Gataker’s translation of The Meditations from the Greek into Latin. 107–8)—the Greek phusis is a feminine noun—whereas elsewhere in The Meditations nature is referred to as “it. Vet A4 f. Bodleian Library. 505 (9). the rest by Hutcheson.
published in 1701 (and reissued in 1714 and 1726). 11. The Glasgow Edition in Context: Other Editions and Inﬂuences What prompted Hutcheson and Moor to undertake this translation and edition of The Meditations? One of their expressed motivations was stylistic.” 11 An enlarged version was published in London in 1697. was by Jeremy Collier (1650–1726). One was the translation by Meric Casaubon (1599–1671) published in 1634. The other translation. They were dissatisﬁed with the two translations then available in English. xlix. It is this 1697 edition of The Meditations that Hutcheson and Moor used as the basis for their edition.” Hutcheson tells us that his translation is “almost intirely new” and has been made “according to Gataker’s edition of the original.9 This edition was described by Hutcheson as an exercise that “seems not to preserve the grand simplicity of the original. the principal authority for any one undertaking to study or edit the Meditations. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 (1697). because of the intricate and antiquated stile” (“Life of the Emperor. His Meditations Concerning Himselfe. Hutcheson informs the reader that the “short abstract” of the life of the emperor prefaced to his edition is “taken from 8.xii introduction 2. who maintained good relations with Presbyterians and was a member of the Westminster Assembly. ed. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. Gataker’s edition of The Meditations 10 in Greek. Farquharson. has been described by a modern classical scholar as “a monument of vast and fastidious erudition. .” p. Thomas Gataker (1574–1654) was an Anglican clergyman with Puritan sympathies. a nonjuring Anglican clergyman best known for his attack on the English stage. xlvi. 10.8 described by Hutcheson as “the old English translation”: it “can scarce be agreeable to any reader.” which “has long been and will always remain. by Andre ´ Dacier (1652–1722). 3).” p. with a translation and commentary on the text in Latin. The Emperor Marcus Antoninus His Conversation with Himself. 9. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 (1652). Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor. and his Latin version” (“Life of the Emperor. 4). 12.12 with a dedication by George Stanhope (1660–1728) to Lord John Somers and a translation into Latin by Stanhope of a life of Marcus Aurelius. composed in French.
Arrian. Hutcheson was also sensitive to the challenge of translating the technical Stoic vocabulary employed in The Meditations: such terms as hegemonikon (“ruling principle”) and hypexairesis (“reserve clause”) were part of this vocabulary. in the 1701 edition. Oxoniensis (thought to be Richard Ibbetson). with the Old Academicks. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 (1704). A. Epictetus. published by the Foulis Press.16 While Moor’s particular talent was his mastery of ancient Greek.” appended to the Hutcheson and Moor edition.” which “is in our own affections. that Hutcheson donated to the University of St. “Hutcheson’s LLD. in 1744. are brieﬂy examined. the governing part of the mind may exercise a reservation upon desires for external things and then redirect the mind to the pursuit of “our sole good. Seneca. is a noted one among the Stoics. L. and actions. IV. with the Greek text and Latin translation by Gataker on facing pages.” As Hutcheson explained it.” 10–12. In Jeremy Collier’s English translation (1726 ed. he wrote of the term hypexairesis: “The word here translated reservation.15 It was one of a dozen classical texts. Andrews in 1746.17 Hutcheson called attention to the difﬁculty of ﬁnding English words that would convey the meaning of these terms.introduction xiii the collections made by Dacier and Stanhope..” It will also be evident that the language of Hutcheson’s translation remains very much his own. In which the Principles of the Stoics are compared with the Peripateticks. 17. and particularly those of our Emperour Marcus Antoninus. 47. was excerpted from Gataker’s “Praeloquium”:13 it had been included in the 1697 edition and. 1–30) the title of Gataker’s “Praeloquium” reads: “Gataker’s Preliminary Discourse. Farquharson.” and in a note to bk. I. the Epicurean Sect: The remaining Writings likewise of the Stoick Philosophers. An abbreviated version of the 1697 edition was published in Oxford in 1704. Hadot. 16. 15. in Glasgow. often used in Epictetus. and more especially. in English translation. I. The Inner Citadel. See Moore and Silverthorne. the editor of The Medi- 13.14 This edition. and Simplicius. p. with emendations by R. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 (1744). purposes. art. .” 14. pp. S. was republished by Robert and Andrew Foulis. 52. He translated hegemonikon as “the governing part. discusses the signiﬁcance of these technical terms in the vocabulary of the Stoics.” The “Maxims of the Stoics.
an insolent.” in Characteristics of Men. posed no obstacle to Hutcheson’s discovering in The Meditations a moral philosophy very much congenial to and in harmony with his own. obligingness. an Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour. treacherous. Opinions. and the natural equality there is among those of the same species. See n11. Manners. in the notes and commentaries on The Meditations by Meric Casaubon and Thomas Gataker. he tells us. Farquharson. to affect the hearts of those who have any sense of goodness”. 33). or an envious. art. 1. violent. or our little interfering worldly interests” (p. and Seneca “to signify sense of public weal and of the common interest.20 It was in the glosses of those commentators on the term translated by Hutcheson as “an unsociable. Marcus’s reﬂections are designed to directly affect the sensibility of the reader and excite a desire to contribute to the happiness of others. in short. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. n19. humanity. or that sort of civility which rises from a just sense of the common rights of mankind. Marcus’s soliloquies. p. or an unsociable selﬁsh man” (p. ed. and yet most striking considerations. as follows: “I shall meet today inquisitive. II. uncharitable men. superior to all the force of anger or envy.”19 Hutcheson translates the same sentence in his own idiom: “to day I may have to do with some intermeddler in other mens affairs. Shaftesbury. and good-will and compassion toward our fellows. with an ungrateful man. envious. vol. Marcus’s language. love of the community or society. . Shaftesbury went on to account 18. selﬁsh man” that Shaftesbury recognized that sensus communis had been used by Juvenal. His reading of The Meditations may also have been inﬂuenced by the recognition that moralists whom he very much admired had discovered in the reﬂections of Marcus Aurelius insights of great relevance for themselves. they cannot fail to inspire in us “a constant inﬂexible charity. natural affection. above. as that phrase had been used by Roman moralists and satirists. ungrateful. or a crafty. As Hutcheson presents The Meditations. Times. 3). Horace. “contain some of the plainest. Shaftesbury declared that he had discovered the proper meaning of sensus communis.. 21. 48–49. Ibid.xiv introduction tations. “Sensus Communis. 19.”21 In the same essay. 20. 21. 48. 1.18 renders the ﬁrst sentence of bk.
Shaftesbury.XVI.”24 Another moralist whom Hutcheson held in high regard. Shaftesbury.”28 More. p. I. Hutcheson’s concern for “universal happiness” has more in common. II. .25 More was particularly impressed by Marcus’s concept of the rational soul.VII.” in Characteristics. was attempting in these citations to reconcile Stoic and neoPlatonic ideas concerning virtue with a reading of Aristotle’s ethics in which Right Reason was ultimately nothing more than the promptings of an “Inward Sense. 29. and to practise Truth and Justice. “Miscellany IV. Chapter I. to urge readers to withdraw their admiration and desire from objects that are merely pleasurable and direct them instead to “objects. cited sayings of Marcus repeatedly throughout his handbook of morals. An Account of Virtue.2. Shaftesbury elsewhere considered Marcus “one of the wisest and most serious of ancient authors. however.VII..”29 22.26 that “in the Judgment of that wisest Philosopher . that is in God. . 120. as we shall see.”22 In this respect. that there is a universal happiness or good that all mankind may share. and had its Original from him”. . of inward worth and beauty (such as honesty.27 “that it was highly estimable to live benignly. 26. integrity.3. Henry More. Ibid. Dr. it may be added. to obey the common Reason.”23 And he cited sayings of Marcus. or the interest of the world in general. clans. art. Ibid. 17.. “Soliloquy. pp. societies. More’s Enchiridion ethicum (1667) was translated in 1690 as An Account of Virtue: or. which is little less than God himself. and tribes in a manner similar to Marcus (bk. 95. Ibid. 423. is .VII. together with excerpts from the works of Epictetus and Horace. faith. nay. 109–10). 25.. 143. Shaftesbury did not draw the conclusion formed by Marcus. or Advice to an Author. 27. Ibid. . That greater community falls not easily under the eye. 9.” in Characteristics. . friendship. 28. Instead. 113. honour). Henry More’s Abridgment of Morals. For he is the living Law”. whatever they are.. Enchiridion ethicum. p.5. I. More. II.introduction xv for the origin of families. of the idea that there is a divinity within us: “that every Man’s Mind is a God. is a kind of remote philosophical object. IX. 24. p.8. p. 23. to acquiesce in Nature’s common Law. he thought that “Universal good. 52. with Marcus and with Stoic ideals.
XII.. pp. who had argued. 182. and wholly free from any confused uneasy Sensation: except. mercy and good-will which is due to all. 31. that desire arises from the need to relieve uneasiness of some kind.”30 A similar appeal to the reader to enlarge the scope of our desires was made in A System of Moral Philosophy (1755. . . that of universal Happiness. is generally calm. we must ﬁnd a sacred tye of nature binding us even to foreigners. . sec.) or p. vol. but composed in the 1730s). . as well as religion. . See this often inculcated in Marc.”31 Again. tranquility.”32 In this connection it may be recalled that 30. True piety was not to be found in the asceticism of the early Christians nor in the perpetuation of their “melancholy notions of sanctity” in the absurd provisions of the canon law: “piety is never more sincere and lively than when it engages men in all social and kind ofﬁces to others.VII. worse. He proposes that “we enlarge our views with truth and justice. may be practiced even in a court or camp. . I. II. could teach that true devotion. p. in A System of Moral Philosophy. 40 (2002 ed. . as he understood it. out of a sense of duty to God: and just philosophy. who. in which Hutcheson explains the diversity of moral judgments by the tendency to conﬁne moral approval to one’s own countrymen or. in some warm Tempers.5.1. to members of one’s own party or sect or cabal. and observe the structure of the human soul. Hutcheson drew upon the work of Marcus to explain the meaning of true piety. Antonin. . A System of Moral Philosophy. pretty much the same in all nations. III. . See Marc Antonin in a variety of passages. by a lively Imagination and frequent Attention to general Ideas. . 44 (1728 ed. in many places. raise something of Passion even toward universal Nature. vol. Hutcheson replied: “the noblest Desire in our Nature. after Locke. p. 2. An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections.xvi introduction Hutcheson’s earliest reference to the work of Marcus Aurelius appears in An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections with Illustrations on the Moral Sense (1728) in the course of a response to John Clarke of Hull. Ibid. .). . and a sense of that justice. See Marcus Aurelius. I. art. as well as in a wilderness. and recollection too. resignation. 5. . 93–94. 32.
This will become evident as we consider his treatment in The Meditations of Stoic theories of human nature. a natural desire to perform good ofﬁces for others. in An Essay and in A System of Moral Philosophy.” had made provision for the passions and affec- 33. note). “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind. 5. as it was often mentioned already. He was at pains to remind readers. and makes such dispositions our chief satisfaction and happiness” (bk. it was circulated only privately in his lifetime. p. p. 134.introduction xvii Hutcheson was also difﬁdent about revealing his authorship of the System. in a word—that disposes us to be naturally sociable. the rational soul. art. all men are recommended to the affectionate good-will of all: which would always appear. art. 42. the law. or so Hutcheson reminds the reader of The Meditations: “The Stoics always maintained. III. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind. 3. The Signiﬁcance of the Annotations How should we understand the signiﬁcance of Hutcheson’s notes to the text? Hutcheson’s notes typically provide short explanatory discourses or exegeses of the ideas of the Stoics. 5. and divine providence.” in Logic. that the Stoics. Metaphysics. had been that human nature is so constituted that mankind is naturally sociable. A central theme of Hutcheson’s moral philosophy. Hutcheson had maintained. It is remarkable that the same notes also illuminate Hutcheson’s own moral philosophy. XI. This theme was the subject of his inaugural lecture following his appointment as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. in his inaugural lecture and elsewhere in his writings. . were it not for the interfering of falsely imagined interests” (bk. God. from the earliest to the last of his publications. that by the very constitution of our nature. In a passage of the text where Marcus writes of “the peculiar structure and furniture of human nature. “the avowed enemies of the passions. public spirit—benevolence. is such as both recommends to us all pious veneration and submission to God.” Hutcheson notes: “This. note). and all social affections. the citizen. that it is the presence of kind affections.33 It was also the professed position of the Stoics.
bk. art. must be subordinated to the more noble desires. without your own approbation? What now is my intellectual part? Is it fear? Is it suspicion? Is it lust? Is it any such thing?” (bk. or pp. pp. vol. 148). The intellect or the soul was “the governing part. p. too.” And he understood “the heart” to be the moral and spiritual equivalent of “the rational soul. I. 61. than that which raises the several passions.xviii introduction tions. notably in Illustrations on the Moral Sense.V. III. Hutcheson.” the hegemonikon. they failed to focus upon the only quality in human nature that could properly be considered good: benev- 34. 58–59. of contemporary rationalists who attempted to discover moral good and evil in the relations of things (Clarke). 19. An Essay (1728).VI. Hutcheson discovered this “governing part” in “the heart. in truth (Wollaston). 2. at last. mov’d by others. vol. the rational soul. the intellect. X. 19. art. recognized that there was a governing part in human nature. A System I. These efforts were misdirected. the spark of divinity within us. 34). art.” Marcus invoked the puppet metaphor later in the text (bk. the appetites of the body. perceive. 148). as the wires do a puppet. art. 132.35 Hutcheson found a similar ordering of the passions and affections in the thought of Marcus Aurelius. in Marcus’s mind.1. that you have something more excellent and divine within you. which he called diversely the moral faculty or conscience but most often the moral sense. 49–50 (2002).4. p. or moved about by unsociable passions. p. 38.” Hutcheson had been critical in his earlier writings. Hutcheson noted that Marcus was employing “a metaphor from puppets. XII. for desire and aversion. without its own approbation” (bk. joy and sorrow. p. Balguy). . p. and moves you. or in a notion of absolute and inﬁnite perfection (Burnet. the kind affections. Such are men when led by their passions against what their higher faculties incline to and recommend. “Won’t you. etc. p. 35.34 But the Stoics had also recognized that the lower passions. sec. II. The “noble part” that must direct the passions and not be enslaved by them was. 8. I. XII. desires for external things. A System I. Marcus had reminded himself not to be misled by the passions: “suffer not that noble part to be enslaved.
The rational soul was conceived by “the Stoics. art.introduction xix olence or kind affection. . 87. . VII. attracted.38 But in a note on The Medi36. the doubledaggered note). perceived moral good and evil: considered in this light. the intellect. V. the daggered note). 19. IV. Hutcheson provided the following note to a reference by Marcus to “that divinity which is within us”: “Thus the Stoics call the rational soul. p. p. XI. “the rational soul” was synonymous with “the heart”: “they [the Stoics]. 55. 13. II. that the perception of moral distinctions.” (bk. 12. 137. This article and note are cited elsewhere (e. in which are the sensations.36 There were other rationalists who recognized the fundamental importance of benevolence and sociability in the general scheme of things (Cumberland. .). Hutcheson. who created and still pervades all things. III. and the animal soul. . Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725.. . Also. The rational soul so conceived was the faculty that distinguished virtue and vice.” (bk. 38. . 176ff. . after Plato . “the most important practical truths are found out by attending to the inward calm sentiments or feelings of the heart: And this constitution of heart or soul is certainly the work of God. (2004 ed. lower appetites and passions” (bk. Marcus Aurelius among them. I. and the Platonists too. I. Hutcheson had maintained. 94. to be a being or substance distinct both from the gross body. II. Pufendorf ). . p. the seat of knowledge and virtue: deeming it a part of the divinity. 65. Illustrations on the Moral Sense. and inspired by it to all moral good. VII. 75– 76. note). art. pp. maintained that there is a law of nature and that this law is known by reason. Inquiry.g.). 2004 ed. note). when the lower passions are restrained” (bk. 37. Now the Stoics. art. 24. and bk. 28. of virtue and vice. . VII. p. but the reasoning required by these “metaphysicians” was beyond the abilities of many who were undoubtedly virtuous or capable of virtue and goodness. in the Inquiry and elsewhere. . p. the rational soul. moral good and evil. art. VI. p. . at bk. secs. 37. sec. of rights of various kinds. art. endeavoured to make virtue eligible. art. pp. ever pervaded. did not depend upon a law. sec. from the very feelings of the heart.37 The Stoic conception of reason and the rational soul was not subject to those objections: it was a faculty capable of immediate perception of virtue and vice. 90). art. .
and in forming in it all holy affections. note). [art. But Hutcheson had earlier observed that God is also present in every human being: “such is the divine goodness that he is ever ready to communicate his goodness and mercy. indeed. art. to all minds which by earnest desires are seeking after him” (bk. at bk. p. note). art. note.’ ” Hutcheson agreed (bk. X. 6. it is a gift from him” (bk. Hutcheson acknowledged that human beings are governed by a law of nature: “all intelligent beings are. in the supreme Being. and just apprehensions of himself. 1. condemned by St.] 31. 56. in the renovation of the heart. too. 133. which every good man feels in his own breast: ’Tis conforming our selves to the law of God written in the heart: ’Tis endeavouring a compleat victory over the passions. art. 95. note. 2. the law is God. p. note).” It may be remembered here once for all. Moor. who confounds this with the natural man’s life. 1. bk. (bk. VII. XI. A man must read Antoninus with little attention. Paul. This.] VII.xx introduction tations. art. obedience to which is the supreme happiness. art.” Moor noted that “this passage clears up many others where the same word occurs obscurely. appointing to every one what is proper for him. he wrote of “these things which are ordered by him who governs all: Who is the law. and a total conformity to the image of God. and kind affections to our fellows” (bk. p. art. how we come to know the law of nature is not problematic: it is quite simply “the law of God written in the heart. Moor refers to the “grand law of promoting the perfection of the whole. art. Hutcheson was employing the scholastic language of the communicable . 91. [bk. which goes under Aristotle’s name. according to Marcus. under the same immutable eternal law of promoting the good and perfection of the whole.” In Hutcheson’s mind. by their nature. the life according to nature. See. in Antoninus. IX. p. 25. 110. ‘For our law. 105. p. p. entire resignation to the will of God in all events. is taken in a very high sense: ’Tis living up to that standard of purity and perfection. ﬂows essentially from his nature: in created beings. VIII. 144. X. and. note) The law of nature is the law of God.” He also referred the reader to “the book de Mundo. VIII. in his notes on books IX and X refers to the “law of our nature. p. 127. exactly impartial to all. p. In bk. 10. is God. 125. 54. XII. chap. art. the double-daggered note). 13.
A mind entirely conformed and resigned to God.” is “seeking after him” is consistent with the Stoic idea that there is a part of God. VII. p. and goodness. for of what other common city are all men citizens?” (bk. a spark of the divine ﬁre. 57. (bk. and when it is united in will with God. IV. as he loves all his works. and is destined by providence for you. art. V. the piety that should govern relations between citizens and their ruler in the city of God. cannot imagine any event to be hurtful to the universe. He was also contending that the notion that God is present in the heart or soul of everyone who. note) Marcus and Hutcheson were in basic agreement concerning the obligations. and. the sense of duty. Everyone. “by earnest desires. can never be disappointed. 65–66. must be that city. must be really best for the whole. must be the best foundation for the practice of the maxim here recommended. art. a man who desires only what God destines him. since inﬁnite power. pp. X. “who ﬂies from his master is a fugitive-slave. “We are all fellow-citizens: and if so.introduction xxi attributes of the deity: that God communicates to or shares with human beings some but not all of the attributes of divinity. Marcus had written: “Love and desire that alone which happens to you. must always accomplish its designs. Hutcheson endorsed this maxim unreservedly: For. Now. art. p. 57. or devotion. and persuaded of his wisdom. as they are occasions of exerting the noblest virtues. every event ordered by him. and goodness. and for the individuals to which it happens: An intimate and permanent conviction of this. note) . that is present in every human being. for. then. Marcus also described all who live under the law that is common to all rational beings as fellow citizens of the universe or the world. which are its supreme good. the great governour of this city. power. Hutcheson endorsed this idea of citizenship and expanded upon its implications for the relationship that should pertain between the citizens of the universe and its ruler: This city is the universe. 127). 91. art. 25. 22. VII. the law is our master. 91). 4. 48–49). we have a common city. art. what can be more suitable?” (bk. (bk. Marcus declared. pp. wisdom. The universe. and so the transgressor of the law is the fugitive” (bk. it must acquiesce in all that happens. and can make all events good to itself. p.
Paul). “The author of this advice. it was as a result of bad education. if you be always digging in it” (bk. p. love of fame: these were the dispositions. note). By recollection we ﬁnd the dignity of our nature: the diviner powers are disentangled. The dissipating pursuits of external things. VII. which is ever springing up. 91). The crucial difference between Hutcheson and more orthodox Calvinists did not turn on predestination: it was rather that Hutcheson.” part III. the pursuit of external things. XI. p. good. confused imaginations. He thought that mankind was naturally kind. and the soul has an inexpressible delight in them” (bk. and exert themselves in all worthy social affections of piety and humanity. did not think that mankind was naturally sinful. according to that original disposition of nature which God had given him” (bk. stupify the nobler powers. VII. that it has ordered for every good man that station of life. p. had the best opportunities of trying all the happiness which can arise from external things. .xxii introduction Hutcheson’s enthusiastic acceptance of Marcus Aurelius’s conception of divine providence is consistent with the views expressed in A System. property and riches. art. Hutcheson had not replaced the Stoic doctrine of fate or predestination with benevolence. unlike Calvin (and St. art. which inﬁnite wisdom foresaw were ﬁttest for his solid improvement in virtue. benevolent. within is the fountain of good. note). He considered it “an amiable notion of providence. he had placed particular emphasis on the state of innocence. 91. Insofar as men were presently to be found in a condition of sinfulness and depravity. this “original disposition of nature” applied to every human being. In Hutcheson’s mind. the passions which were productive of moral evil. Hutcheson considered this excellent advice. 59. Augustine and St. and those circumstances. Marcus had written: “Look inwards. 7. A Short Introduction. One may see in the Stoicism of Marcus Aurelius and Hutcheson’s enthusiastic endorsement of it the possibility of a benign redescription of the predestinarian doctrine of Calvinists and the Presbyterian or Reformed Church. He thought rather that acting in a manner consistent with the divine plan was the most effective way to promote benevolence. which Reformed theologians attributed only to Adam and Eve before the Fall. 59. art. 135. In his inaugural lecture. and in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics.
XI.” which similarly discovered an equivalence between the ethical teachings of Christ and the reﬂections of Marcus Aurelius: “All these same precepts [of Christ] are to be found in Antoninus. Their references to the writers of the New Testament typically provide conﬁrmation and endorsement of the Stoic morality of Marcus and Epictetus. They were also pleased to enclose “Gataker’s Apology. the version represented in The Meditations. . service to God. that whatever we do in word or deed. 68. that Marcus had given the same advice to himself and to anyone who might read his Meditations. in which the original or natural constitution of human nature contains something divine within: a heart or a soul that is oriented toward affection for others. . art. 31. in every case. Moor also perceived in Marcus’s pleas that we should attempt to imitate the gods “the same with the grand Christian doctrine of the divine life” (bk. X. about the advantage of ‘being always straight and upright. 162). benevolence. piety properly understood as service to God and mankind in general. “A continued innocence of manners is preferable to even the most thorough repentance after gross vices. the asterisked note). p. They celebrated again and again in their notes the exhortation of Christ to his followers to return good for evil. 8. forgiveness. art. 8. art. Hutcheson and Christianity It is clear then that Hutcheson was refashioning Christian doctrine. p. He was unimpressed by the Christian doctrine of repentance after vice. by substituting for it a particular variant of Stoicism. He was pointedly critical of what . . rather than one rectiﬁed and amended’ ” (bk. just as if he had habitually read them” (“Gataker’s Apology. 136. At the same time. 123. notably the Presbyterian or Reformed doctrine of original sin. p. note). however. They were also observing.introduction xxiii 4. To this refer many thoughts in the former books. V. Was it a view consistent with the life and teachings of Christ? Hutcheson and Moor clearly thought so.” below. p. Hutcheson and Moor were pleased to discover in the teachings of Christ expressions of kindness. Hutcheson thought that Marcus’s reference to his own “publick service to the Gods” expressed “the same divine sentiment with the Apostle. we should do it as to God” (bk. note). good ofﬁces. there is much that Hutcheson found objectionable in the doctrines and in the conduct of Christians.
(p. 18–23) in the larger “Life” by Andre ´ Dacier.xxiv introduction he took to be the desire for martyrdom among the early Christians: “It is well known that their ardour for the glory of martyrdom was frequently immoderate. abhor all Christian persecutions. those philosophers who quibble about liberty and predestination and. that it makes a sufﬁcient apology for this weakness. for different opinions. but those. and the stable persuasion of a future state. or forms of words. those who would consign their neighbors to eternal damnation for failure to subscribe to the correct dogma concerning sin and redemption. and pieces of outward pageantry.” There is no counterpart to these pages (pp. art. which all sides own to be quite incomprehensible by us. about some metaphysical attributes or modes of existence. p. note). Here Hutcheson retorted upon Christians the charge against Antoninus that he had been guilty of persecuting Christians: Let none make this objection to Antoninus. And there is something so noble in the stedfast lively faith. and gives the strongest conﬁrmation of the divine power accompanying the Gospel” (bk. 3. either in pardoning of their sins. XI. or deem them excluded from the divine favour. scholastics of all denominations who insist on their understanding of the divine attributes.” He goes on to make an apology for their weakness. . who. most seriously. or renewing them in piety and virtue. or for exceeding in them. from their hearts. 134. for the different opinions about human liberty. Christianity could not have been expected to “extirpate all sort of human frailty. which must have supported this ardour. and was censured even by some of the primitive fathers. who cannot hate their neighbours. 21) The number of churchmen and churches who are included in this indictment of Christian practices and Christian dogmas would appear to be very extensive indeed: ecclesiastics who insist on rituals and pageantry and dissenters who oppose them. even though one of those attributes of God was widely deemed to be his incomprehensibility. about which the best men who ever lived have had opposite sentiments: for different opinions about the manner in which the Deity may think ﬁt to exercise his mercy to a guilty world. Hutcheson’s most scathing criticisms of Christian practice appear in the closing paragraphs of his “Life of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. But it was particularly the dogmas and practices of the Church of Scotland. either for neglecting certain ceremonies.
Rivers. 2. Even the Glasgow translator of Hutcheson’s A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (Glasgow. pronouncing eternal damnation on all who are not within the pale. or hold not the same mysterious tenets or forms of words” (p. they are cursing one another in their synodical anathemas. a Creature more 39. p. against ideas and practices to which he was deeply and passionately opposed. it is indeed understandable that he should have taken pains to ensure.” 5. See also note 47. that no Man can enter into his Soliloquies without becoming a greater and better Man. arrogantly. The concluding paragraphs of Hutcheson’s “Life of the Emperor” may be the ﬁnest illustration in his writings of his ability to turn his eloquence. inasmuch as it indicates a connection between the systems of Hutcheson and Marcus that was rarely made explicit by Hutcheson’s followers or by his critics. of philosophy at Marischal College in Aberdeen. 69) referred to chapter numbers in The Meditations (I. 1747. and in their creeds. p. 1748) a glowing description of Marcus Aurelius as a philosopher. 48) that do not appear in the Hutcheson-Moor translation. Reason. . Given the force and the directness of his indictment. vol. and Sentiment. and his Maxims of Virtue so stupendously great and commanding.introduction xxv as Hutcheson knew it from direct acquaintance. 160. in its churches and in its universities that appear to have been foremost in his mind as he penned his concluding peroration: “Christians may be ashamed to censure our author on this account. as he told Thomas Drennan. also published by the Foulis Press in 1744. that he would not allow “his name to appear in it. below. 22). 17 and IX. Grace. The term badge seems particularly apposite in this connection. The Meditations in the Scottish Enlightenment It has been said of Hutcheson and Moor’s edition of The Meditations that its inﬂuence in the Scottish Enlightenment was both great and lasting: “Its educational inﬂuence can be judged from the fact that it was reissued three times after his death and that devotion to Marcus became a badge of Hutcheson’s followers. wrote in his Dialogues Concerning Education (1745. The reason seems clear: Hutcheson and Moor and the Foulises were careful to preserve the anonymity of the translators and editors of the Glasgow edition of The Meditations.”39 David Fordyce (1711–51). a regent. usually expended upon extolling the virtues and the goodness of human nature. considering how rashly. and presumptuously. or teacher. “whose Principles are so sublime.although these chapter numbers do appear in Gataker’s Latin translation.
H[utcheso]n’s works.” 44. S[haftesbury]. or elevate mortal man to a resemblance with the divinity.44 Hume was reluctant to 40. 188–89. Hume’s Stoic was a “man of action and virtue” like Marcus and Hutcheson. “because an eminent person. says. and Sentiment. should have come under forceful criticism from Scots Presbyterians who adhered to a more orthodox. p. when he looks within. 42.” the Platonist complained.”42 But criticism of Marcus Aurelius and the kind of Stoicism represented by The Meditations. See Rivers. II. III. p. pp. and let the Heathen philosophers be set up as the great patterns and promoters of it.” in The Philosophical Works.” particularly Marcus Aurelius. 43. vol. Grace. . was not conﬁned to the theologically orthodox. p. his Meditations is the best book that ever was written for forming the heart. the most sublime love of virtue.. John Witherspoon wrote a satirical critique of those who preferred The Meditations to the Westminster Confession of Faith: “let religion be constantly and uniformly called Virtue. Hume. particularly the manner in which Marcus’s thinking had been represented and interpreted by Hutcheson. “The Stoic.”41 Witherspoon’s satire on all this in Ecclesiastical Characteristics (1753. of the moderate character. The softest benevolence. the most undaunted resolution. Reason. Hume. pp. Hume’s depiction of “The Stoic” (1742) was not a description of an ascetic philosopher obsessed by the importance of extinguishing all passion and affection.43 Hume’s Platonist (1742) was critical of the Stoic for claiming (like Cato. Reason. in the form in which it had been cast by Hutcheson. II. and the perpetual duration of Mr. Dialogues Concerning Education. vol. What satisfaction. 212. notwithstanding their present tendency to oblivion. 209: “In the true sage and patriot are united whatever can distinguish human nature. the saintship of Marcus Antoninus. the tenderest sentiments. III. 41.”40 It is understandable that The Meditations. “The Platonist. anti-Moderate position in theology and philosophy. all these animate successively his transported bosom. and the Whole of Things. 2. vol. reissued four times in the next ten years) includes “The Athenian Creed”: “I believe in the divinity of L. 340–41. 189. and more enlarged in his Affections to Humankind. Ibid. 181–84. and Sentiment.xxvi introduction elevated above the World. in Lucan’s Pharsalia. invoked by Hutcheson) to have a God within him: “Thou art thyself thy own idol. vol.” in The Philosophical Works. Fordyce. and see Rivers. pp. Grace. the perspicuity and sublimity of A[kensid]e [?].
like all the other Stoics (except for Panaetius. on whose work Cicero’s Ofﬁces was modeled). 288–91 (1982 ed. published in 1790. their friends William Robertson and Hugh Blair found in Marcus Aurelius’s and Hutcheson’s ideas of virtue and divine providence an early and. is the best school of heroes and patriots. p. “Natural History of Religion. catastrophic. indeed. 60n).” This second paradox. and. VII. pp. . . to stop the motion of the universe. Robertson had begun his own translation of The Meditations in the early 1740s.2.). The Theory of Moral Sentiments. which Smith found in the fragmentary writings of “the independent and spirited. Smith. so far as in him lies. I. contempt for life and death and complete submission to the order of providence. It is. however painful.” The latter was the paradoxical position that whatever befalls us in life. In earlier editions (from the 2nd ed. in auguries and divinations.2. IV. for some little convenience of his own.” The Philosophical Works. . a believer in lesser gods.” 46. He had completed his translation. from the Greek. the paradox of Antoninus. He was. “wishes.”46 In contrast with David Hume and Adam Smith.1. Smith considered “too absurd to deserve any serious consideration. . but often harsh Epictetus”. should be regarded as part of the divine plan and should be embraced. the second paradox he traced to “the mild. to disorder and discompose the whole machine of the world. appalling. an abiding source of inspiration. except that they teach us to aim at a perfection altogether beyond the reach of human nature” (Theory of Moral Sentiments. Hume.45 Adam Smith devoted several paragraphs to the Stoic system of Marcus in The Theory of Moral Sentiments. A philosophy which affords the noblest lessons of magnanimity. and to the greater part of whose precepts there can be no other objection. then he abandoned it when Hutcheson and Moor’s 45.iii. whoever wishes otherwise. Smith identiﬁed two basic paradoxes of the Stoics: one. so very absurd that one can scarce help suspecting that it must have been in some measure misunderstood or misrepresented. p.introduction xxvii grant Marcus the title of theist. 350: “Marcus Antoninus tells us that he himself had many admonitions from the gods in his sleep. the benevolent Antoninus. up to book VIII. the humane. This summary dismissal of The Meditations is taken from the 6th ed. published in 1761 to the 5th published in 1784) Smith had concluded his discussion of the Stoics on a more positive note: “Such was the philosophy of the stoics. vol. in Blair’s case. he declared.
in a review of English translations. 1862). and C. the Loeb translator.48 Blair had endorsed an understanding of the law of nature based upon the moral sense and the benevolence of human nature. p. translated by George Long. Indeed. A late Victorian translator of Marcus. Dissertatio philosophica inauguralis de fundamentis et obligatione legis naturae. ﬁnally. for the light they shed on Hutcheson’s other works on moral philosophy. iii). In them we ﬁnd one of the most forceful statements of one of his most central themes. not uncritical.” 50. it may not be fanciful to see in Hutcheson’s introduction and notes a way of understanding Presbyterianism. 9–23. The Hutcheson-Moor translation of Marcus Aurelius was reprinted a number of times and retained its reputation into the twentieth century. and we cannot but agree with the author of the preface. that “our sole good is in our actions and affections. declared it to be “certainly the best translation previous to Long’s. The review concludes: “His philosophy tends to inspire generous sentiments and amiable views of human nature. Blair adumbrated and echoed the main themes of Hutcheson’s notes to The Meditations: the union of piety and morality. It is particularly calculated to promote the social and friendly affections. perhaps Calvinism itself. his reference is to The Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Untitled manuscripts: National Library of Scotland MSS 3955 and 3979. Sermons. .51 47.xxviii introduction translation was published. Rendall. that it has the air of being dictated by the heart. Church and University in the Scottish Enlightenment. no less than the head. the divine government of the passions.50 Hutcheson’s translation and edition of The Meditations are important. as a religion of kind affection.47 In a thesis published in Edinburgh in 1739.” p. and the compassion and beneﬁcence of the deity. 30 and 181. the mixture of bad men with the good in human society.” pp. pp. of public spirit and benevolence.” “Account of the Life and Writings of William Robertson. 51. a religion of social virtue for men and women of an enlightened age. R. review of Hutcheson’s System of Moral Philosophy in 1755. D.49 In his Sermons.” One may also return to his other works with a deeper understanding of his theory of the soul and the manner in which the rational soul is understood to be synonymous with the heart. and superior to that in spirit” (The Communings with Himself of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. See also Sher. He wrote a generous.D. Blair. 106. Dugald Stewart reported that Robertson had been preparing his own translation of The Meditations “when he was anticipated by an anonymous publication at Glasgow. Haines. described it as “the choicest alike in form and contents” (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to Himself. p. Gerald H. 49. “Hutcheson’s Moral Philosophy. xviii. for accuracy and diction. 48..
The same press in 1744 published the Greek text of The Meditations established by Thomas Gataker in 1652. and similar symbols. by asterisks. Hutcheson and Moor used single square brackets to indicate the insertion of words in the text that were not in the original Greek. Page breaks in the 1742 edition are indicated by the use of angle brackets (for example. together with Gataker’s Latin translation. page 112 begins after <112>).a note on the text The translation of The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus that is reproduced here is the ﬁrst edition published in Glasgow by Robert Foulis in 1742. The 1742 edition was the only edition of the English translation published by the Foulis Press in the lifetime of Francis Hutcheson. as they were in eighteenth-century editions. The notes to the text and to the footnotes that have been provided by the present editors are marked by numbers and are gathered at the end of the volume. The footnotes provided by Francis Hutcheson and James Moor for the 1742 edition remain at the foot of the page and are designated in the text. daggers. .
Andrews. in 1746. brought to our attention the copy of The Meditations. Aaron Garrett. we are indebted to Knud Haakonssen for his encouragement and for his sense of urgency. Moira Mackenzie and Elizabeth Henderson. Finally. “as a testimony of his Regard for the Honour they had done him” in conferring upon him. Keeper of Rare Books at the University of St. that was presented to the university by Francis Hutcheson. and the librarians of Concordia University who assisted us in various ways. . published in Glasgow in 1744. the degree of LL. Donald Baronowski. along with other classical texts. We are particularly grateful for the contributions of Edward Andrew. David Weston of the Department of Special Collections of the University of Glasgow made available to us the text of the Glasgow edition of 1742.acknowledgments In the preparation of this volume we have enjoyed the cooperation and assistance of many individuals and institutions. to the Special Collections Library at the University of Exeter. Wendy Knechtel. A number of our fellow scholars have provided assistance and advice. Frederick Rosen. Daniel Carey. and to Judy Appleby. a quality that contributed in no small way to bring our work on this volume to a conclusion.D. Sandy Stewart. and Luigi Turco. We are also obliged to Raynald Lepage and the staff of the Department of Rare Books at McGill University.
the meditations of the emperor marcus aurelius antoninus .
. Hamilton and Balfour. GLASGOW: Printed by Robert Foulis. Clements Church. London. and by Andrew Millar. by Mess. over against St. and sold by him at the College. MDCCXLII.THE MEDITATIONS of the emperor MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS. in Edinburgh. Newly translated from the Greek: With Notes. and an Account of his Life.
Containing some of the MOST MEMORABLE PASSAGES, Preserv’d, of the Life of the EMPEROR MARCUS ANTONINUS.
The authors of this translation, judging that these divine sentiments of Antoninus ,1 may be of some advantage to many who have not access to them, while they are kept in the learned languages, undertook to make them as plain as the subjects would admit. Some of these meditations cannot well be apprehended, without a considerable acquaintance with the philosophy and stile of the Stoics: Some of them are only memorial hints this great man intended only for him-<2>self, the design of which, the commentators cannot pretend certainly to explain; and the true text of the original is not always certain: but, there are many of them obvious to every capacity; which contain some of the plainest, and yet most striking considerations, to affect the hearts of those who have any sense of goodness, and warm them with the noblest emotions, of piety, gratitude, and resignation to GOD; contempt of sensual pleasure, wealth, worldly grandeur, and fame; and a constant inﬂexible charity, and good-will and compassion toward our fellows, superior to all the force of anger or envy, or our little interfering worldly interests. The old English translation2 can scarce be agreeable to any reader; because of the intricate and antiquated stile. The late translation3 seems not to preserve sufﬁciently the grand simplicity of the original. This translation,
life of the emperor
therefore, is almost intirely new; according to Gataker’s edition of the original, and his Latin version.4 ’Tis quite foreign to our design, either to shew art and ingenuity in drawing a character of this great man; or in making encomiums upon him; or <3> to display our diligence or knowledge, in making an history of his life. His own meditations, to every judicious reader, will present a great soul; adorned with the soundest understanding, the most amiable sweetness and kindness of affections, the most invincible meekness, steddy justice, humility, and simplicity, and the most entire resignation to GOD. And the history of his life, even as ’tis imperfectly preserved to us, will shew his great capacity, and penetration, in public affairs, and his strength of mind, calmness, and intrepidity amidst the greatest dangers. To give these meditations the greater force upon the mind of the reader; as well as to gratify his natural curiosity; and, to remove what prejudices may possibly occur to him; we subjoin the following short abstract of his life, taken from the collections made by Dacier and Stanhope.5 Marcus Aurelius 6 was born in the year of our Lord 121, during the reign of Adrian.7 By his father Annius Verus, he was of one of the greatest families in Italy, descended, as ’tis said, from Numa.8 His grandfather had been thrice Consul and Prefect of the city, and sur-<4>vived Annius Verus. His aunt by his father, Annia Faustina, was married to Antoninus Pius the Emperor. Marcus Aurelius’s mother was also of an eminent consular family, the daughter of Calvisius Tullus.9 Our Emperor’s ﬁrst name was Annius Verus, the same with his father’s. Adrian, who had loved him from his infancy, called him Annius Verissimus; probably, from the early appearance of candour and veracity in his temper. When he was adopted into the Aurelian family, he took the name of his adoptive father Marcus Aurelius. He was but a child when his own father died; but was educated by his grandfather; who procured for him the best instructors in pronunciation, music, geometry, Greek, and rhetoric, or, oratory. But his soul was soon intent upon something still greater than these ingenious accomplishments; and he shewed no high taste for them. He was instructed in the Stoic philosophy by Sextus Chaeronensis, Plutarch’s grandson,10 Iunius Rusticus, Claudius Maximus, and Cinna Catulus; and in the Peripatetic, by Claudius Severus.11 Philosophy was his favourite study. <5>
He shewed his perpetual gratitude to these good men; not only by promoting them in the world, to dignity and wealth; but by a continual respect for them, even when he was in the highest elevation of fortune. And, in the very beginning of his meditations, he has perpetuated their memory, his own gratitude, and his honest humility, in ascribing all his virtues to their instructions, and nothing to himself; in a manner truly original, and peculiar to him. He studied also the laws of his country under Volutius Mecianus, the most celebrated lawyer of that age.12 He was dear to Adrian, so early, that he was advanced to the equestrian dignity at six years of age; and made one of the priests of Mars at eight. He was even intrusted with some great charges, before he was twenty; and acquitted himself with as great decency and dignity, as any of the old magistrates. He had some taste for painting, in his youth, and practised it for some time. But he more admired wrestling, racing, tennis, and hunting, as the natural means of health and vigour, for the discharging all honourable ofﬁces. <6> He often encountered the ﬁercest boars, with safety and honour. But, his chief delight was in the Stoic philosophy; and that in practice, as well as speculation. He lived up to all their austerities, in spare diet, plain dress, and abstinence from all softness, effeminacy, and luxury; even from his being twelve years of age. Nature had formed him for the greatest dignity and constancy; with a singular ﬁrmness of soul; not to be moved by any accidents; so that most of the historians assure us, that scarce ever did joy or grief make any change in his countenance; and this gravity was ever easy to others; being free from all moroseness or pride.13 He gave up all his father’s, and his mother’s estate too, to his sister Annia Corniﬁcia, who was married to Numidius Quadratus. a.d. 139. Adrian, upon the death of his former adoptive son Cesenius Commodus, inclined to have adopted Marcus Aurelius to be his successor, then about 18 years of age; but deeming him too young, he adopted Antoninus Pius, on condition that he should immediately adopt Marcus, and L. Verus, <7> the son of the same Commodus. ’Tis said that Marcus had dreamed, the preceeding night, that his shoulders and arms were of ivory, and that he found them much stronger than formerly. The news of his adoption seemed to afﬂict him; and he spoke a great deal, on that occasion, about the evils and dangers which always attend supreme power.
“You must give him leave to be a man: neither philosophy nor im-<8>perial dignity can exstinguish our natural affections. even higher than on any of his predecessors. soon after. or. tho’ truly the sec- . But. She soon bore him a daughter. As soon as he was settled in the supreme power. 140. Antoninus Pius his successor betrothed his daughter Faustina in marriage to Marcus Aurelius. and each of the <9> new Emperors made a funeral oration upon him. he married Faustina: a wife no way suited to such an husband. and seemed to pay still greater deference to Antoninus the Emperor. These things increased his keenness in the study and practice of philosophy. After this. 161. They both took the name of Antoninus. to raise any distrusts or suspicions between them. conferred on him the honours of the successors to the empire. About this time. as indeed it was intirely contrary to his principles and inclination. always promoting men solely on account of their merit. and when some about the court. he could not refrain from tears. with the greatest magniﬁcence. Upon Adrian’s death. and. 147. and Antoninus Pius brought Apollonius the Stoic from Athens. in his notes upon Eusebius. On this occasion. and. the senate obliged Marcus Aurelius to take upon him the government. the funeral. and he assumed L.d. that the apology of Justin Martyr called the ﬁrst. the ceremonies of which are told by all antiquaries. and raised him to the consulship. for leave to persecute the Christians. who had had the constant charge of him from his infancy. and he ever employed them for the good of the state. application was made from all quarters. to assist him. Verus as partner in it.6 life of the emperor a.d. Antoninus Pius replied in his defence. philosophers.” a. we have no assurance that it was authorised by the Emperor. perpetually attending him. and doing him all manner of kind ofﬁces. ’Tis even denyed by Valesius. and governors of provinces. Marcus’s old tutor died. put him in mind of his usual constancy and steddiness. by the heathen priests. a. whatever persecution there might be in the remoter provinces. apotheosis of Antoninus. so that their mutual friendship was inaccessible to all the attempts of designing men. and Marcus betrothed his daughter Lucilla to Verus.d. they celebrated. in the same year. Upon the death of Antoninus Pius. the senate conferred on him all manner of honours and powers. At the age of 25.
throwing away their lives rather than do what you require of them. you are harassing and persecuting to death. let the person prosecuted be acquitted. to my divine father. must easily convince us that he never could authorise such persecution of men. to compare your conduct with theirs. and lenity of temper. under such accusations. on such occasions. To them it must be eligible. This letter. and that extraordinary character which the Christian writers. that there have been some considerable persecutions. and all the worship due to that immortal Being. was addressed to this Emperor. during his reign. whose horrid vices were. for some time past. they say. Your harassing them with charges of Atheism. Eusebius preserves to us a letter of this Emperor’s. conﬁde more in their God.marcus antoninus 7 ond. ’tis proper to admonish you. It was directed to some general council of Asia. probable. merely as Christians. and he prohibited their giving the Christians any disturbance. which yet continue. all this time. for justice. To the assembly of Asia. the Christians. I am sure the gods will take care that such men as you describe. In this ﬁrst year of his reign. only conﬁrms them more in their sentiments. He brings several reasons to prove that both these apologies were wrote and presented to Antoninus Pius. &c.15 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. when they had been terriﬁed by some pretended prodigies and earthquakes. merely for christianity. tho’ it should appear he were a Christian. than to live. upon applications made by some of the heathens. as well as the heathen. tho’ some ascribe it to his predecessor. or to the senate. such as inun- . but you. in several parts of the empire. during his reign. however. and <10> carries along with it many characters of this author. As to those earthquakes. If any shall still persist in prosecuting them. Many of the go-<11>vernors of provinces wrote about these matters. should not be hid. Thus they always defeat you. They. I wrote to them in the same sentiments with my father. and let the prosecutor be punished.14 ’Tis. than you. fore-boded by several dismal prodigies. through your ignorance. unless they were found making some attempts against the Roman state. rather to die for their own God. neglect the Gods. as well as other things. give to this Emperor. his son Commodus was born. greeting. Many have applied to me about the same matter. for leave to persecute the Christians. whose worshippers. and it suits themselves much better to punish such as refuse them worship.
Verus. by the invasions of the Parthians. He plunged again into all sort of debauchery at Daphne. Antoninus went thither to see him. He wrote to <13> the several * proconsuls and governors in her way. and. offered him in marriage his daughter Lucilla. a princess of singular beauty. or. into Ger-<12>many. when the victorious army. upon an insurrection of the Germans. and sent her to him. Calphurnius16 Agricola was sent to command in Britain. and committed the war to his lieutenants. upon his recovery. Upon the success † of this war. or her character. Antoninus. Antoninus shewed his wisdom and steddiness on this occasion.8 life of the emperor dations. 168.17 and Verus went against the Parthians. About this time. as she passed through their provinces. by the bravery of the Emperor and his army.d. to be at no vain expence in her reception. either unapprised of his returning to his vices. Auﬁdius Victorinus to oppose the Catti. as far as to the country of the Grisons: the Britons too revolted. made him one of his lieutenants. and never had reason to repent of his choice. and was no longer overawed by the authority and virtue of Antoninus. but was not reformed by his sickness. 167. earthquakes. † a. he gave himself up to all debauchery. for whom he was accountable to God. .18 who afterwards was raised to the empire. demanded an augmentation of their pay: he refused it. lest any should imagine he aimed to share the glory of these conquests. The Emperor was immediately engaged in wars on all sides. while he was in Syria. and of the Catti. and from his own judgment of the abilities of Pertinax. hoping to reclaim him by all the ties of affection. But as soon as Verus left Rome. the two Emperors had a triumph. This war was also successful. pleased with the success. continued his march. M. and the burning of several cities.d. and gave him his best advice as to his future conduct. telling them that “he could not do it but at the expence of their brethren and kinsmen. He declined going with her himself. which they managed successfully.”19 <14> * a. all the way to Syria. and fell sick at Canusium. Antoninus marched against them in person. but to let her perform her journey in a private manner. This princess shewed as little regard to virtue. The Germans were defeated. one of the suburbs of Antioch. after their great and dangerous services. as her husband. after their many vigorous efforts.
a more dangerous war arose from the Quadi and Marcomanni. There is no other evidence of the Emperor’s authority interposed. in his return. and the shepherds in Egypt took arms. But the Emperor rallied them at Aquileia. at that rate. and defeated the enemy. given him by his wife Lucilla. he ordered. assisted by the Sarmatians. probably. taking Verus along with him. but abroad. should be put to death.23 About this time. by poison. upon this ambiguity.marcus antoninus 9 a. whether they were guilty of the crimes laid to their charge. the governors of some remote provinces renewed the persecution against the Christians. for. there was. in some provinces. his beautiful and just defence of the Christians yet extant. made more terrible efforts than ever. such <15> as treason and sedition. and eating them. upon ﬁnding an incestuous intrigue of his with his own sister. The year following. when Justin Martyr is said to have suffered. and drove them out of all Pannonia.22 insisting for less ambiguous orders. that Athenagoras composed. the murdering of infants. About this time. and then went against the enemy.”20 Now. The Marcomanni and Quadi. but only upon a fair trial. asking what the Emperor inclined should be done with some Christian prisoners. The Emperor used great variety of sacriﬁces and religious rites. for this purpose.21 It was probably on this occasion. and not all such as confessed that they were of the Christian religion. during the rest of this reign. and gave the greatest disturbance to the Romans in that prov- . <16> and put the Romans to ﬂight. while the plague also raged in Italy. that none should be punished for the name of Christian. and incestuous debaucheries in their assemblies. that only such should die. Verus died of an apoplexy at Altinum. scarce any would have been released. in answer to a letter of the governor of Gaul. a violent persecution.d. and. with a great slaughter of near 20000. and yet. and vindicating the Christians from them: This. procured them peace. as some suspect. who rather inclined to have continued in his debaucheries at Rome. the Moors ravaged Spain. or. attacked Antoninus’s army. Vandals. “that such only as confessed.except. as confessed these crimes. Christians were ordinarily accused for other crimes than any religious tenets. 169. and sent to the Emperor. or countenance given. and the rest released. to appease the Gods. ’Tis very credible the Emperor intended by this order. that. Antoninus soon conquered the enemy. and other nations. ’Tis thought that Antoninus was not at Rome in the year 166.
and the speedy administration of justice. which the Emperor’s compassion for his people kept very low. He supplied his treasury. sharing his power with the Senate. He was particularly inquisitive about the censures past upon his conduct. to all the great ofﬁces. his aim being only that he might reform whatever was amiss in it. perﬁdiously renewed their hostilities. by selling. that they were inclosed on all sides. The enemy. He discovered the greatest penetration. in the administration of justice. He at ﬁrst gave them a defeat. that he omitted no public business on that account. toward the public. under a clause of redemption. When peace was restored. After the battle. even by employing the gladiators. the most valuable moveables of his palace. This expedition proved more tedious and dangerous <18> than any of the former. all the passes being possessed . He would admit of no lofty titles. the grateful love of his soldiers protected him. The old enemies of the Romans. scarce ever losing one moment of his time. as well as ﬁdelity. soon after. but both were quelled by the vigilance of the Emperor. by skirmishing parties.24 while he was heading the armies in the north. and could not escape. and consulting in the Senate about public affairs.10 life of the emperor ince. for some years. where he forced at last the barbarous nations to submit to his own terms. and his army. in searching out and promoting men of ability and integrity. having exposed himself to the utmost hazard. then seven years old. Before he marched against the enemy. nor that impious ﬂattery of building altars and temples to himself. feigning a ﬂight. led the Emperor and his army into such straits amidst mountains. which he bore with the greatest meekness. the Emperor was continually employed for the good of his people. and endeavouring to preserve all that could be cured or relieved. he lost his second son Verus. and the bravery of his lieutenants who commanded there. and reforming all abuses. the Emperor himself went to the ﬁeld. watching their opportunity. and the treasury much exhausted. and the greatest patience and constancy. that his health had. weeping over the slain among the enemies. from which. the Marcomanni. been exceedingly impaired by the great fatigues he had endured. for prevention of frauds. and bore it with such fortitude. making wise laws. when the Roman troops were diminished by a plague. His assidui-<17>ty was the more surprizing.
and thunder. going himself into the woods and marshes. in consequence of this. deprived of all water.27 ’Tis told indeed conﬁdently. had he not . All the Emperor’s efforts to rouse the spirits of the fainting soldiers. employed no doubt. and clemency. sometimes. in the days of Augustus. that there has been such a letter. and that he did so. He is said to have committed himself and them to God. and possessed himself of all their fortresses. tho’ the one now bearing that stile. and found the surprizing event immediately answering upon their prayers. so near the time of that event. for a quite different reason. than to convince them that they were reserved sacriﬁces to the fury of the Barbarians. were vain. while all the lightning fell among the Barbarians: With this. in the pursuits. because they had thunderbolts engraved or painted on their shields. At last. but without other effect. in like supplications to God. the Romans take courage.marcus antoninus 11 by the enemy. That name was given to this legion. Here they were like to perish with heat and thirst. and put them to ﬂight. conduct. and the enemy are dismayed. with the greatest bravery. with a most plentiful shower. by many perilous encounters.25 and the Christians universally to the prayers of the legion of Mitilene. refused nothing to their prayers. Antoninus pursued this war. appealing to God for the innocence of his conduct in life. to stop all prosecutions against them. that the Emperor was advised by the captain of his guards. where the poor Barbarians were lurking.26 which some ignorantly averred had on this occasion got the name of the Thundering Legion. and protecting them from the fury of his own soldiers. <19> In the event. from these bold afﬁrmations of Christians. such a letter would be suppressed by an heathen Senate. ’Tis not improbable. He had added all these countries as provinces to the Roman empire. with great slaughter. is reputed by many to be a forgery. The Romans attack them in this confusion. who. to employ the Christians of his army in prayer to their God. he wrote to the Senate. clouds suddenly arose. enraged with the fresh remembrance of their late danger. and give them full <20> liberty for the exercise of their religion. with the most ardent prayers. The heathens ascribe this deliverance to the Emperor’s piety. he defeated them intirely. by Christian writers near those times. They made some vigourous efforts to force their way. There were also many Christians in the army. he said. and that.28 No doubt.
and Arabia. had suspicion of his ambitious designs. You know what your grandfather Adrian used to say. On the account of these good qualities. pretended to draw his pedigree from the old Cassius. we cannot dispatch him.29 and talked much of restoring the old common-wealth. warning him to prevent his designs against him and his children. You know your great grandfather’s proverb. they are never credited about conspiracies formed against them. but prodigal. and he was much recommended by the Emperor to the governors of these eastern provinces. He revived the antient strict military discipline. which shews more of an anxious and timor<22>ous spirit. courage. Verus. is more shown than by his glorious military atchievements. and suits not my government. To which. and necessary to the state. deserves to be more particularly related. <21> Cassius had been endeared to the army. and wrote his suspicions to Antoninus. tho’ we would. the author of the observation. of this revolt. tho’ he could well conceal his vices.” But if ’tis not decreed him. and kept the army sober. and dissolute. He was a man of great art. contracted under Verus. than they had formerly agreed to. because the best sayings of Tyrants have not the weight they may deserve.12 life of the emperor been interrupted by the revolt of Cassius. and constantly employed. as by it his temper. The Emperor’s conduct in the whole affair. we are deemed to have injured even those persons who are fully convicted. “The lot of sovereigns is hard. in cases of treason. he formed high designs. from his conduct. till they fall by them. If the Gods have decreed him the empire. rather than Domitian. Cassius was employed by the Emperor to recover the army quartered in Syria from their luxury. and whom the army loves. this was Antoninus’s answer. than of that becoming an Emperor. by his early atchievements in Armenia.30 I have read your letter. then. since he is a good general. he will perish without any cruelty of ours. with great rigour. especially. before his death.” I cite him to you. There is no condemning a man whom no body accuses. Let Cassius take his own way. and his jests upon Antoninus’s studious disposition. and the greatness of his soul. When he was thus promoted. keeps strict discipline. is brave. by putting him to death. And. and patience. “no prince ever killed his successor. Egypt. and even forced to accept of less advantageous terms of peace from these Barbarians. .
either raised a report of Antoninus’s death. if Cassius better deserves the love of <23> the Romans than they. the corruption of men. but. the ingratitude and perﬁdy. 175. and the decay of antient rigour and severity of manners. when he had formed the ambitious design. He wrote also to the same purpose to the Senate. He gave all places in the army to his friends. inveighing against the corruptions in the administration. and concludes. and the common-wealth shall regain its antient dignity.”31 Martius Verus. which immediately declared Cassius a traitor. that Cassius should live. let my children perish. not to imagine that all faith and integrity were gone out of the earth. therefore. and that the army in Pannonia had elected himself for Emperor. “Let the Gods favour the Cassii. to assume the sovereign power. and conﬁscated his estate to the city.32 to this effect. from Syria to mount Taurus. or took occasion. supported both by his own innocence. by dispatching him. he addressed the army. (as Dion Cassius relates). and caused all to submit to him. “Verus’s account of Cassius was true. even toward Cassius. under the protection of the Gods. and it be more the interest of our country. the matter was soon divulged: Upon this. He had still many faithful and brave friends: He had no fear of success. the extortions of the proconsuls and governors. and that preserving his life. since the Emperor would not take it to himself. and he endeavoured to conceal them from the army. as a manifesto. that we may consult about these affairs. would be to him more joyful than any triumph. and pardoning him. who neglected public affairs. He subjoined the tenderest expressions of clemency and pity. Cassius. He <24> ﬁrst expressed the deepest regret for the impending misery of a civil war. from this report.” She returned this answer. under a bookish Emperor. discovered by those to whom he had done the kindest ofﬁces. He sends a letter to his son at Alexandria. sent accounts of all these things to Antoninus. and in whom he had conﬁded: But he exhorted his soldiers. that he designed to usurp. He wrote also to Faustina this letter. You have heard what the fortune-tellers <25> have told him. without fear. “I will go to Alba to mor- . and his experience of the ﬁdelity and bravery of these he addressed.d.marcus antoninus As for caution about my children. 13 a. to Alba. than the children of Marcus. his knowledge of the dastardly disposition of these dissolute troops and nations who had revolted. Come.
then.—I shall send you accounts.”35 Cassius succeeded no better in soliciting some other provinces to revolt. my mother advised Antoninus Pius. are grown very seditious. unless you prevent them. contrary to her expectation. by the sickness of her daughter. but I am resolved to spare his children. but she was detained at Rome. On this occasion. that they make no rigid proscription. My dear Faustina. I shall speedily follow you. who commanded in Greece. if they were victorious. he returned him this short answer. They will cut you off. Our son-in-law Pompeianus is old. and. and his wife. what Cassius’s wife and children. <27> You shew a most dutiful concern for me. and our children. before he left Formiae. was dispatched by some of them. where he was to embark. to extirpate these rebels. to engage him to join against Antoninus. and a stranger. and then to others. You are mad. if you love your children. that before he had read out all Cassius’s letter. A prince cannot be deemed to have the just fatherly affection to his people. who would not. “Herod to Cassius. the Emperor wrote to her to meet him at Formiae.14 life of the emperor row. as you order. and his head was sent to Antoninus. than clemency. Consider. Both the ofﬁcers and soldiers. ’Twas for this virtue that Cesar and Augustus were .” Faustina being detained. I have read your Letters to me at Formiae twice over. nor our children. Nothing can more recommend a Roman Emperor to the love of all nations. ﬁrst. and began to lose his credit with the army. nor me. he wrote to her thus.34 a man of good abilities. You see the tender years of Commodus. to shew his tenderness and goodness to his own. In a like revolt of Celsus. who neglects his wife and children. Don’t spare <26> those. his son-in-law. But Herod had such veneration for the Emperor. He wrote a long letter to Herod. at last. pressing me to be severe toward the conspirators with Cassius. are talking about you. and shall write to the Senate. nor any cruel punishments. and wrote him this Letter. spare you. and had fallen under Antoninus’s displeasure for some maladministration. but must advise you. if I don’t overtake you. Fadilla’s sickness hindered me from meeting you at Formiae. how you ought to treat Cassius and his associates. about three months after his revolt. and son-in-law. or had returned an answer to Faustina’s last letter.33 Cassius made all efforts to strengthen his party.
Let them live secure. I must request you further: defend all the conspirators of the Senatorian or Equestrian order. Let them live on the fortune of the family given up amongst them: Let them enjoy their gold and silver plate. and all manner of vexation. that. and of your’s.37 Of his letter to the Senate. and carry with them. why say I par<29>don? they have committed no crime. I beseech and obtest you. You must. Don’t be afraid. Fathers. infamy. and at their full liberty to stay or go as they please. had not some brave worthy persons intervened. nor the blood of any eminent person be shed. for the honour of my government. Let no Senator be put to death. and restore the estates of the proscribed. and his wife. and feel they live under Antoninus. how he thought Cassius would have treated him and his family. shewing. you have made my son-in-law consul.36 15 Some thought this clemency too great. It appears too severe. is but a small matter. or punished. even when very just. among all nations. Allow it. that I had reason to fear <28> the Gods would allow Cassius to conquer me”: And counted over most of the Emperors who had been dethroned and assassinated. that. you would act suitably to my clemency. may be deemed justly slain.38 . But. whose years seemed long ago to have claimed it. the marks of my clemency. popular odium. One used the freedom to ask him. pardon the sons of Cassius. Had the war ended as I would have wished. therefore. for my victory. Would to God I could recall to life many of the dead. that their own tyranny or folly occasioned their fate. This clemency to the wives and children of the proscribed. My fatherly affection to mankind must be acceptable to them. Conscript fathers. and your own. and furniture: Let them live in wealth. proscription. and security. Cassius himself had not died. in this case of usurpation. those who were killed in the suppressing of the tumult. I have made Pompeianus our son-in-law consul for next year. from death. As to the revolt of Cassius. This obtained your father the title of Pius.marcus antoninus reputed Divinities. or lived in such a manner. this part is yet preserved: In gratitude. Let the banished return. fear. The Gods protect me. laying aside your rigour. therefore. to whom that debt was ﬁrst to be paid by the state. had he been victorious? He replied. “I have not served the Gods so ill. I never can like an Emperor’s resentment of any injury aimed at himself. his son-in-law.
and reformed many abuses. to prevent entertaining suspicions or hatred against any. upon the ﬁrst notice of it. this had been done by his faithful friend Martius Verus. he wrote the most pressing letter to the Senate. expressing no small grief for the loss of such a man. having settled the East. The Senate paid extravagant honours to Faustina. he could willingly die. after eight years absence. if it was not. and son-in-law. a. to shew their zeal for him. 176. renewed their severity against the late conspirators.d. 177. The Emperor buried Cassius’s head decently. returned to Rome. The Scythians took arms again. justly presuming. concluding. to save the lives of so many of his fellowcitizens. to stop these proceedings. out of mean ﬂattery. . When he came to Syria. having extended his liberality to Athens.”39 Cassius’s eldest son Mecianus was killed in his government at Alexandria. His daughter. heard Aristides the orator40 at Smyrna.d. Faustina died in this expedition. dissuade him from it. the old seat of learning. and attacked the Emperor’s lieutenants. thinking it would be some alleviation of the Emperor’s sorrow. resolved upon another expedition: Nor could his friends of the Senate. He marched immediately to the East: soon appeas<30>ed the revolt. on the very day in which Cassius was killed: His other children were only banished to an island. it would be pleasing to the good Emperor. and saying. tho’ old and inﬁrm. But. and having been initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries:41 On this occasion he gratiﬁed the Romans * with magniﬁcent shews. Some say. continued in Rome. “If I cannot obtain from you the lives of all the conspirators. The Senate. He spent three days in discoursing with them. with the greatest clemency. who were exceedingly solicitous about his life. The peace of the empire was soon disturbed by new commotions in the North. indeed. I shall wish to die. Antoninus.16 life of the emperor This letter was read with innumerable acclamations and blessings. before his arrival. And he. and advising them about state affairs. and great liberality to the distressed. and were treated in a friendly manner by Antoninus. retaining all <31> their estates. near mount Taurus. he burned all the papers of Cassius without reading them. and about the great principles of * a.
and giving him good counsels: For. and were always suc-<32>cessful. yet the examples of Nero and Domitian made him dread that any good instructions he had received.marcus antoninus 17 philosophy. therefore. nor any guards protect them. and spoke to this effect. his sickness and pains recurred more violently the last day of his life. and then set out for the army. which. Such alone. But. he be intirely shipwrecked among vices. through want of experience. so many fathers in my stead. no treasures can satisfy the luxury of tyrants. Be you to him. and. and. to be moved with any sufferings of their fellowcreatures. for me to discern that the honours I have conferred on you. Now is the opportunity. These princes only have had safe and long reigns. put an end to his glorious life. to make grateful returns. but an hearty love by their goodness. you are under more peculiar tyes to me. lest. and to shew you have not forgot the favours you received. I presume you have the like to me. they excite a deeper compassion. tho’ the particulars of the wars are not preserved. would not be able to withstand the temptations he would be exposed to in that dangerous elevation. But. he called for his principal ofﬁcers. made him easy. and other provinces not sufﬁciently established. his strength of mind and resignation to the divine will. being carried aside. It is natural to mankind. he was seized with a distemper. and made him aware of his approaching end: Upon this. who stood around his bed: He presented to them his son. needing prudent pilots. as to his own death. and the long series of kind ofﬁces done. who was educated by your selves. or at Sirmium. who have infused into the minds of their people. exerting all his strength. when they have lost the affections of <34> their people. In this expedition. Tho’ his son had not disclosed his vicious dispositionsduring his life. just entring into manhood. <33> I am not surprized that you are troubled to see me in this condition. With all these cares oppressing him. always watching over him. or any dispositions of his to virtue. at Vienna in Austria. You see there my son. when they are before our eyes. were not employed in vain. and for you. When he apprehended there was no hope of his recovery. He saw his northern conquest very unsettled. in a few days. as obey with good-will. his prudence and valour appeared invariably the same. and not from . From my consciousness of the most sincere affection to you. like a ship in a stormy sea. not any dread by their cruelty. he sate up. but his affection to his country gave him considerable anxiety.
As to the ﬁrst. he fell down on the bed. except when they are forced into it by insolent oppression. or suffer for him. even zealously sacriﬁsing to false Gods. Now. his continuing in the Pagan religion. of all. are these two: First. you will make him an excellent prince to yourselves. for what christians called Angels and . even from the 5th to the reformation. without any proper evidence. during his reign. or prove refractory. and admitting the like honours to be paid to Verus and Faustina: and. and died next day. or their brother. original cause. or. that all Wise men in the heathen world. from the author’s character. to whom. this very doctrine generally prevailed. Never was there a more universal undissembled sorrow. are to be conﬁded in. for many centuries. the heathens using the words God. their protector. nor will such ever rebel. their father. without ﬂattery and dissimulation. If you suggest such thoughts to him. Daemon. as it was full of ridiculous superstitions. assure us. according to old traditions and custom. they also believed there were many inferior created spirits. who loudly bewailed his death. secondly. The only prejudices which can obstruct the most favourable reception of these divine meditations.18 life of the emperor necessity. their general. Maximus Tyrius. let us not imagine it worse in the wiser heathens. yet. or. the government of certain parts of na-<36>ture was delegated by the supreme God. than what ensued among all ranks. and to all the state. than it truly was. agreed in this.42 As he was thus speaking. without any other difference than that of sound. as by this alone you can make it immortal. deifying his predecessor.44 We see that Antoninus. and that honours were to be paid to these presiding spirits. But. tho’ no man of sense can vindicate the heathen worship. both in the eastern and western christian churches. ’tis hard to set proper measures or bounds to men’s passions. believed only one supreme God. in the 59th year of his age. with all possible encomiums of his virtues: All which <35> were no more than his due. and all the Stoics.43 and many others. and will obey their prince. and with the dearest appellations of their good Emperor. and do the most grateful ofﬁce to my memory. In unlimited power. and keep him in mind of what he now hears. his suffering the Christians to be persecuted. that the souls of some good men were advanced to this dignity. his voice failed.
seeing all such worship prohibited in the holy scriptures. who have been guilty of some very bad actions. To extenuate this fault in the Emperor. that. I. they universally abstain from it. Nay the protestants allow that created beings may have delegated powers from God. who himself persecuted with <38> great fury. they were represented as a confederacy for the . according to what he then thought his duty. is not so great as we commonly apprehend it. Verus too had his virtues. nor how they are employed. beside the multitude of civil affairs in so vast an empire. let us remember. sincerely. of persecuting the Christians:45 Let us remember. Let us shew an impartial candour in this matter. 14). (See B. by almost continual wars. have had only such views of the Christians as the zealot pagan priests and magistrates presented to them. who had very little real virtue. that is. whatever better knowledge the inferior magistrates might have of the matter of fact. Some men of little constancy in their conduct. and condemn it. tho’ a great fault. were. the moral evil of such practices. generally. he had served God with all good conscience. The persons denoted by these names in the heathen and christian religions. As to the second charge. about the dead. indeed. different. and both often raised to this dignity. and. But. in those who have had no prohibitions by revelation. in not making a strict inquiry into the cause of the Christians: This. that we have no proof of his giving orders for it: We can only charge him with the omission of his duty. nor any evidence that they can know our devotions. ’Tis a small fault to err on the charitable side. having no particular knowledge who these Angels or Saints are. and be employed as ministering spirits to the heirs of salvation. remembring what mixed characters are recorded of some Jewish and Christian authors whose works we read with veneration. as it generally has a bad tendency. in their several nations. or expressions of gratitude to them.marcus antoninus 19 Saints. and many of his vices have been hid from our author. But. and the christians their own heroes and martyrs. the princes must. our <37> prayers. not to mention his perpetual avocations. The heathens worshiped the old heathen heroes and princes. and yet could afterwards truly say. Now. the souls of persons. and superintend the civil affairs of them. have had also some eminent virtues not universally known. Nay ’tis probable the vices of Faustina were never known to Antoninus. is less than that of the apostle Paul.
avowed atheism. grant he had persecuted the Christians upon their religious opinions. This last is the common charge. and their rites of worship: Let such as make this objection to his character. that the smaller mistakes in opinion or wor-<40>ship. and those of the persecuted. since he ought to have made a more thorough inquiry into the matter. notwithstanding their hearty intention and desire to please him. in every thing almost. made by all persecutors. impiously to invade the prerogatives of God. between the religious tenets of the persecutor. a prince of great goodness might even directly order a persecution against them. and the protestant persecutions in England and Scotland. when the clergy have once persuaded the legislator. his intention might be only the suppression of the most odious crimes. and forms of worship as are no way hurtful in society. and conﬁrmed by a philosophy which espoused a good deal of the popular superstitions. such as. and refused any sort of joint worship with them. and from all compassion or mercy. the early Christians averred them all to be impure devils. which he thought chargeable on the Christians. the christian religion was intirely opposite. to be so much provoked for such small differences. that any persecution is the more odious. can exclude his creatures intirely from his favour. Now. all incestuous impurities. and feeding on them. It rejected all their popular Gods: Nay. indeed. But. to conceive him so furious and captious.20 life of the emperor most monstrous wickedness. over the consciences of <39> men. consider. as far as they know what is acceptable to him. and his ignorance could scarce be wholly invincible. not. the murdering of infants. as it shews a greater insolence of pride and ill-nature. A devout heathen. the blaspheming all the Gods. to the Pagan. in favour of these popular Gods. catholic persecutions in France. . without the guilt of a great omission of his duty. by penal laws about such religious opinions. against such as differ from the established orthodoxy: As we see in all the defences of the R. And it shews also the baser sentiments about the Deity. the smaller the difference is. and that their worship was instituted by such devils. deeply prejudiced by education. But. Under these impressions of the Christians. their rejecting and reviling the heathen Gods. would be under strong temptations from his very devotion. and rebellion against the state.
and useful to every attentive reader. or deem them excluded from the divine favour. from their hearts. as if because the author was not a Christian. who have no partial attachments to their own parties. and our neighbour as ourselves! Let none make this objection to Antoninus. either for neglecting certain ceremonies. for different opinions. about some metaphysical attributes or modes of existence. or renewing them in piety and virtue. on account of the author’s having persecuted. for the different opinions about human liberty. reject these noble devout sentiments. I hope. to prevent another silly prejudice. But such men will easily see. either in pardoning of their sins. opposite to what they in their own wisdom have pronounced sound and orthodox. Those who ﬁnd the simple. abhor <41> all Christian persecutions. and diminishing their glory <42> and popularity. and humble love of truth alone. meek. and a calm uniform charity operating in their hearts toward all men. and so detracting from their superior penetration. that these pious and charitable meditations and suggestions must be valuable for their own sakes. no vanity or pride exciting any anger at the different opinions of others. But. even those who despise and affront their religious sentiments. of loving God with all our heart. what shall we say of Christians persecuting each other. which all sides own to be quite incomprehensible by us. who. and their uniting in the same cause. who cannot hate their neighbours. or forms of words. even those whom they think mistaken in such points. whatever were the sins or failings of the author. and the same Saviour. to suppress Christianity: This is a great extenuation of the Emperor’s guilt. and own the same grand practical rules of life. peaceful. or for exceeding in them. and a perpetual love to God. he could have no real piety or virtue acceptable .marcus antoninus 21 while under these mistakes. may with some shew of decency. but those. persons of this character. ’Tis needless. and pieces of outward pageantry. from prejudices of education. or suffered others to persecute during his reign. who yet believe in the same God. about which the best men who ever lived have had opposite sentiments: for different opinions about the manner in which the Deity may think ﬁt to exercise his mercy to a guilty world. As for these who are conscious of such sincere undissembled good-will to all. inﬂuencing their sentiments.
No doubt. we may . Christians may be ashamed to censure our author on this account. unless the patient be ﬁrst instructed in the whole art of medicine. not only as weak and illiterate. or hold not the same mysterious tenets or forms of words. men can either be justiﬁed or sanctiﬁed. in a constant course of public business. sure. were conﬁned to such as knew the christian history. and were by profession in the christian church. they maintained that it is by the merits of our Saviour alone. that. The earliest Christians and martyrs were of a very different opinion. and know particularly the physical principles by which the several medicines operate. yet they never denyed these blessings could be conferred on any who knew not the meritorious or efﬁcient cause of them. they are cursing one another in their synodical anathemas. pleasure. immoral. ’Tis but a late doctrine in the christian church. and that for very honourable tenets. the early Christians believed the spirit of Christ operated in Socrates. and represented. against rashly entertaining ill-natured representations of whole sects or bodies of men. and other virtuous heathens. he keenly embraced the scheme of philosophy most remarkable for piety. How little probability could there occur to him. However. spirited up by the pretended embassadors of the meek Jesus.22 life of the emperor to God. or any better motives to virtuous actions. considering how rashly. without the historical knowledge: And. and how long christian magistrates. Nay. arrogantly. he is not to be defended in his neglecting to examine the evidences of christianity. let men consider the power of education. which allowed little leisure. To maintain they could not. which we are taught are necessary to every good work. have been persecuting their fellowchristians with ﬁre and sword. none of these divine inﬂuences. Plato. and in their creeds. Let this be a warning to all men. that a physician cannot cure a disease. and luxury. austerity. and all divine inﬂuences purifying the heart. and presumptuously. in a sect at that time universally despised. But. and ﬂagitious. and disinterested goodness. is as absurd as to assert. but most horridly impious. in not embracing it. than what were among the philosophers? We see with what a just contempt of ease. and that they were Christians in heart. that the grace of God. <44> pronouncing eternal damnation on all who are not within the pale. he should ﬁnd any better instructions in theories of religion. or. often much better than those of the persecutors. and how much he was employed from his <43> very youth.
14. IV. all those virtuous dispositions. * acknowledges that he owes to God’s preventing grace. in his providence about him. 40. who plainly depended on God for such sanctifying inﬂuences. B. IX. with the deepest humility and simplicity of heart. I. B. and in many other places. 26. and recommends them as the matter of our most earnest prayers. in which he had any delight or complacence. and often.marcus antoninus 23 charitably judge the same of this <45> Emperor. . <46> * B.
I learned to be religious.§ grandfather. not to need * Annius Verus. From1 my grandfather * Verus I learned to relish the beauty of manners.3 †† The keenness of these contentions among the Romans in that age. far different from the softness and luxury so common among the wealthy. but to have good and able teachers at home. § Probably by the mother. and for things of this nature. ‡ Of my mother. not only against evil actions. who had been thrice Consul. taught me not to be fondly attached to any of the contending parties †† in the chariot-races. From the fame and character my † father obtain’d. † Annius Verus. He who had the charge of my education. ‡ Domitia Calvilla Lucilla. ** ’Tis not certain whether the negative particle should be here or not. and liberal. who died when Antoninus was a child. ** not to frequent public schools and auditories. 2. who had been twice Consul. and a manly deportment. and was made a Senator under Vespasian. to content myself with a spare diet.2 He taught me also to endure labour. or in the combats of the gladiators. Catilius Severus. and to restrain all anger. <47> and to guard. 25 . is abundantly known. viz. to account no expence too great. daughter of Calvisius Tullus. Of my great.the meditations of the emperor marcus aurelius antoninus u book i u 1. but even against any evil intention’s entering my thoughts. modesty.
To Rusticus6 I owe my ﬁrst apprehensions. which he wrote to my mother from Sinuessa. or after the loss of a child. To him I owe my seeing in a living example. that I did not affect any airs of grandeur. as soon as any of them inclined to be reconciled. and their expelling Demons. not to rest satisﬁed with a light and superﬁcial knowledge. as occasion requir’d. In him I saw an instance of a man. nor quickly to assent to great talkers: Him also I must thank. I observed also the simplicity of style in his letters. 4. to read with diligence. or incantations. not to fret when my reasonings were not apprehended. or of sorcerers. that I met with the discourses of Epictetus7 which he gave me. . about their <48> charms. and always to remain the same man. Not to keep * Quails. either in writing upon the sciences. parti-<49>cularly in that. to serve myself. not even in the smallest degree. and invariable stedfastness. poetry. and Marcianus. or exhorting men to philosophy by public harangues. From Apollonius8 I learned true liberty. Of Diognetus. and that I gave over the study of rhetoric. that my temper needed redress and cure. Him also I must thank. who esteem’d his excellent skill and ability in teaching others the principles of * For ﬁghting. nor to be keen of such things. but right and reason. 5. and took a liking to the philosopher’s little couch and skins. as also. by walking at home in my senatorial robe. not to credit the great professions of such as pretend to work wonders. and to apply myself heartily to philosophy. or in long diseases. and that I did not fall into the ambition of the common Sophists. and not easily to admit of accusations against them. or of activity and application. and the like. and the elegance of language.26 meditations many things. 3. not to intermeddle with the affairs of others. that it was possible for the same man to be both vehement and remiss. that I never affected to be admired by ostentation of great patience in an ascetic life. without troubling others. and such other things. and to regard nothing else.4 not to busy myself about vain things. or by any such things.5 that I wrote dialogues in my youth. I learned also from him an easiness and proneness to be reconciled and well pleased again with those who had offended me. which by the Grecian discipline belong to that profession. to allow others all freedom in conversation. then Tandasis. whether in the sharpest pains. for my hearing ﬁrst Bacchius. I learn’d of him.
nor thus under pretext of urgent affairs. and hypocrisy. the great maxims necessary for the conduct of life. solecism.book i 27 philosophy. or any false pronounciation. so as neither to be on that account subjected to them.14 . approving. and Athenodotus. or any other passion. and that generally those we account nobly born. 10. He taught me by his example. 7. to observe sagaciously the several dispositions and inclinations of my friends. to decline or defer the duties. without ostentation. to suppress even the least appearance of anger. not to be offended with the ignorant. but dextrously to pronounce the words as they ought. and more pleasing than any sort of ﬂattery. and yet with-<51>out noise: to desire much literature. or write to any man in a letter. * There are no other memorials of these two persons. and arranging in exact order.12 not often. but still. which. deceit. No man was ever more happy than he in comprehending.13 not to contemn any friend’s expostulation. nor without great necessity. we owe to those among whom we live. what are thought <50> favours. or by some other such courteous insinuation. and to be apt to approve and applaud others. Of Catulus. yet he was at the same time highly respected and reverenced. without taking direct notice of the mistake. ﬁnding out. and of a family. upon any oc-<52>casion. for tho’ his company was sweeter. tho’ injust. nor yet seem insensible and ungrateful. in my answering.10 to avoid censuring others. but to strive to reduce him to his former disposition: freely and heartily to speak well of all my masters. 9. governed with true paternal affection and a stedfast purpose of living according to nature. or ﬂouting at them for a barbarism. to possess the tenderest and most affectionate heart. to be grave and venerable. to say. Of Alexander the platonist. Of him also I learned how to receive from friends. according to our various ties.11 to be sensible. From Sextus9 a pattern of a benign temper. how much envy. or arguing the matter. From Fronto. surrounds princes. or with those who follow the vulgar opinions without examination: His conversation was an example. not withstanding this perfect tranquillity. the least of all his endowments. 8. and to love my children with true affection. as it is reported of * Domitius. without affectation. have somehow less natural affection. From Alexander the critic. 6. that I am not at leisure. how a man may accomodate himself to all men and companies.
it was with a good intent. which chieﬂy regards the liberty of the subjects. or some cousin whose memory is not otherways preserved to us. and of a monarchic government.28 meditations 11. or who could ﬁnd in his heart to think himself a better man than him: Nor did he ever affect the praise of being witty. to forgive. without presence of mind. From my brother * Severus. as he thought. to appear rather like one who had always been straight and right. in the two preceeding ages. and yet grave deportment. never to seem in a hurry. and to love truth and justice. nor was there any. to maintain a kind. Helvidius. To him I owe my acquaintance with † Thraseas. all men believed. whom he calls his brother from his strong love to him. and constancy. to be little solicitous about the common honours. nor yet to be dilatory. who thought himself undervalued by him. he spake. without wavering in those things. to be bountiful and liberal in the largest measure. a just * This either the philosopher Claudius Severus. <54> 13. or perplexed. which after a due examination and deliberation were determined. without the trouble of conjectures. who offered any thing tending to the common good. fretful. and in all this.16 † These were eminent characters. and to be ready to do good to others. and readiness to hear any man. and administred with equality of right. I observed in him a candid openness in declaring what he disliked in the conduct of others. . founded upon equitable laws. 12. than ever rectiﬁed or redressed. From Claudius Maximus. and to speak truth. He gave me also the ﬁrst conception of a republic. Whatever he said. Cato. He taught me. and Brutus. disengaged. what he liked or <53> disliked. to execute my designs vigorously without freting. so open and plain was his behaviour. and to be unsuspicious about the affections of my friends. and that whatever he did. and uninterrupted study and esteem of philosophy. Dion. an inﬂexible justice toward all men. his father by adoption.15 in all things to have power over myself. sweet. and assiduity. as in sicknesses to have an easy command of my own temper. always to hope the best. patience of labour. and in nothing to be hurried away by any passion: to be chearful and couragious in all sudden accidents. to maintain a constant. not to be easily astonished or confounded with any thing. and that his friends might easily see.17 ‡ Antoninus Pius. or suspicious. or dejected. Of him I learned likewise. to love my kinsmen. ‡ From my father I learned meekness. angry.
I further observed the great honour he paid to all true philosophers. or shewing any foolish fondness. his contentment in every condition. nor an ambitious pleaser of men. never affecting novelties. his gracious and delightful conversation. complete man. He was not celebrated. for that in which he excelled. to any who had obtained any peculiar faculty. but sober in all things. As to these things which are subservient to ease and conveniency. Thus he left his friends at liberty. <56> without cloying. he seldom needed any internal medicines. He never quitted the search. he used them without pride. and bore patiently the censures of others about these things: How he was neither a superstitious worshipper of the Gods. experienced. enjoyed them without affectation when they were present. or the like. and elegancy. His regular moderate care of his body. well-skilled in what was honourable. that every one of them might be regarded and esteemed.book i 29 apprehension when rigour and extremity. his chearfulness. and altho’ he observed carefully the ancient customs of his fore-fathers. I observed his zeal to retain his friends. and when absent. of which his fortune supplied him with great afﬂuence. yet it was without ostentation. one who could not bear to be ﬂattered. without noise. and how he concurred with them strenuously. neither like one desirous of long life. stedfast. or one of a sharp wit. or of ancient customs. and yet with all freedom. or the knowledge of the laws. to sup with him or not. his sociableness. without upbraiding those who were not so. <55> his exact care even about small matters. or as a great declaimer. able to govern both himself and others. he found no want of them. and managed accurately the public revenue. nor studious of popularity. but a wise. as either eloquence. through his own care. I learned of him accuracy and patience of inquiry in all deliberations and counsel. abstinence from all impure lusts: and a sense of humanity toward others. . or outward applications: But especially how ingenuously he would yield without envy. without cloying them. and they still found him the same. as they inclined. or when remissness and moderation were in season. or over studious of neatness. satisﬁed with the ﬁrst appearances. How he restrained all acclamations and ﬂattery: How vigilantly he observed all things necessary to the government. to go abroad with him or not. either as a learned acute man. after their affairs had hindered them to attend him. and yet not as one who despised it: Thus. his forethought about very distant events.
resolutely. had no vanity in building. cloath made at Lunuvium. or incivility. His conversation was far from any inhumanity. he returned fresh and vigorous to his wonted affairs. a good sister. that it was not * This was a proverbial expression. he acted distinctly. in want whereof most men shew themselves weak. but by the goodness of the Gods. either about his meat. A man might have applied that to him which is recorded of Socrates. had occasion offer’d. such as that he chose to wear at Lorium. as at leisure. Again. such as appeared in him during the sickness of Maximus. largesses. no such concurrence of circumstances happen’d as could discover my weakness: that I was not long brought up with my father’s concubine. and in the fruition. even longer than was necessary. . good domesticks. and shewed a perfect and invincible soul. tho’ I had such a temper as might have led me to it. and refrained from all venereal enjoyments. affectionate kinsmen. His apparel was plain and homely. in all things. <58> with a just self-government. never doing any thing with such keenness that one could say * he was sweating about it. To the Gods I owe my having good grand-fathers. and friends. intemperate: He remained ﬁrm and constant in both events. or impetuosity. and parents. sometimes making apologies for the plainness of his dress. that he knew both how to abstain from or enjoy those things. 14. and almost all things good: and that I never thro’ haste and rashness offended any of them. and how after his violent ﬁts of the headach. nor often. that he neither had many secrets. in public buildings. that I lived under the government of such a prince and father. and convinced me.30 meditations Again. how he was not ﬁckle and capricious. who took away from me all pride and vain-glory. and gracefully.18 and at Tusculum. or about the nice workmanship or colour of his cloaths. that I retained my modesty. was never solicitous. and the like. good masters. without confusion. He never bathed at unseasonable hours. In all these things he acted <57> like one who regarded only what was right and becoming in the things themselves. but on the contrary. or about the beauty of his servants. and such only as concerned public matters: His discretion and moderation. and not the applauses which might follow. regularly. he wore a short cloak. but loved to continue both in the same places and businesses. in exhibiting of shows for the entertainment of the people.
but that he may reduce himself almost to the state of a private man. that I was no great proﬁcient in the studies of rhetoric and poetry. torches. and yet by his respect and love delighted me. without guards. I owe to the Gods that ever I knew Apollonius. as for the Gods. for which afterwards I had occasion to repent: that since it was my mother’s fate to die young. had I found myself successful in them. that my children wanted not good natural dispositions. as might be expected from them. * as by his disposition might stir me up to take care of myself. by whom I was brought up. yea. that I prevented the expectations of those. that I was soon cured. by not observing the inward motions and suggestions.book i 31 impossible for a prince to live in a court. or fallen into some distress. or such pieces of state and magniﬁcence. ’tis possible they have been remarkably dangerous to the youth at court. and yet not become more <59> mean or remiss in those publick affairs. and ’tis certain Verus had a great esteem for Antoninus. in promoting them to the places and dignities. that I did not put them off. yea. when I fell into some foolish passions. I might have already attained to that life which is according to nature. they seem’d most to desire. so that. . Rusticus and Maximus. and afterwards. nor were distorted or deformed in body. that I have had occasion often and effectually to meditate with myself and inquire <60> what is truly the life according to nature. statues. which might have engrossed my mind. I never did any thing to him. extraordinary apparel. I was never answered by the managers of my revenues that there was not ready mo<61>ney enough to do it. and in other faculties. hath been able to hold out so long. and was a man of ability. that I never had to do with † Benedicta and Theodotus. in the common way. helps and inspirations. wherein power and authority are requisite. with hopes and excuses that since they were but young I would do it hereafter. † These two persons are unknown. That I have had such a brother. she lived with me all her latter years: that as often as I inclined to succour any who were either poor. and that I myself never had occasion for the like * Probably Verus. having been often displeased with Rusticus. that. and it was my own fault that I did not sooner. or perhaps Antoninus did not know his vices for a great part of his life. and such suggestions. and almost plain and apparent instructions of the Gods. that my body. in such a life. whose vicious passions might rouse this excellent man’s attention to himself.
. B. that by dreams I have received divine aids. how I might stay my spitting of blood. so. nor spent my time in reading many volumes. II. that I had choice of ﬁt and able men. that I have such a wife. in particular. nor embarrassed myself in the solution of sophisms. as. 3. nor dwelt upon the study of the meteors. I did not fall into the hands of some sophist. and. art. which happen’d successfully to me at Cajeta. These things in the country of the Quadi near Granua. so loving. that. and cure my vertigo. when I ﬁrst applied myself to philosophy. for other things. so obedient. All these things could not have thus concurred.32 meditations succour from any other.19 <62> * See. to whom I might commit the education of my children. without the assistance of the Gods and * fortune. so ingenuous.
as * only what is beautiful and honourable. Quit your books: Be no longer distracted with different views. These bad qualities have befallen them through their ignorance of what things are truly good or evil. and the contrary the sole evil. spirit. But I have fully comprehended the nature of good. or a crafty. and that I cannot be <63> hurt by any of them. like that in beasts. taken from that inﬁnite intelligent aetherial nature. and body: many ancients conceived in men two principles distinct from the body. not of the same blood or seed. an insolent. and the nature of those persons too † who mistake their aim. since none of them can involve me in any thing dishonourable or deformed. and of evil. We were formed by nature for mutual assistance.u book ii u 1. one the animal soul or life. 2. You have it in your own power. but of the same ‡ intelligent divine part. despise * This. which pervades and surrounds all things. the eyelids. the hands. I cannot be angry at my kinsmen. 33 . they placed all the sensations and passions. that as all error is involuntary. that virtuous affections and actions are the sole good. that it is always deformed and shameful. 16. according to the high style of the Stoics. that they are my kinsmen. or hate them. by partaking. the upper and lower rows of teeth. or an envious. with an ungrateful man.1 † This is the meek sentiment of Socrates. as the two feet. III. In the former which they supposed to be air. As one who is shortly to die. like the divinities or angels. or an unsociable selﬁsh man. or the governing part. as a part of the divinity. Say thus to thyself every morning: to day I may have to do with some intermeddler in other mens affairs. Opposition to each other is contrary to nature: All anger and aversion is an opposition. so no man is willingly unjust or wicked in his actions: Since all desire truth and goodness. Whatsoever I am. or the animal spirit. the other the rational. ‡ The Stoics spoke of the rational soul. is either this § poor ﬂesh. See B. art.2 § The apostle Paul alludes to this notion in praying that we may be sanctiﬁed in soul.
Let this be your stedfast purpose to act continually. breathed forth and drawn in again. kindness of heart. and that always changing. without its own approbation. the necessity of these events. freedom. and these changes were always going on in the universe. arteries. You shall thus disentangle yourself. which the nature of the whole requires. or moved about by * unsociable passions. nor without a connexion and intertexture with the things ordered by providence. by the changes of the complex forms. it will pass away. Let these thoughts sufﬁse. the universe is preserved. meek.34 meditations this ﬂeshly part.4 . that must always be good to a part. in all affairs. Think thus: you are now old. this putrifying blood. and you along with it. with true unaffected dignity. 4. too. if you perform each action as if * A metaphor from puppets. and well satisﬁed. air. by the † changes of the <65> Elements. let them be your maxims. The third part is that which go-<64>verns. nor dread what may befall you hereafter. and the net-work texture of nerves. happens not without a presiding nature. What we ascribe to fortune. Consider. if you don’t employ in making all calm and serene within you. 5. and bones. and their utility to that whole universe of which you are a part. Now. air condensed became water. Remember how long you have put off these things. as becomes a Roman. mov’d by others. veins. Repine no more at what now befalls you according to fate. and never more return. and a man. and which tends to preserve it. produced air. suffer not that noble part to be enslaved. and who that President in the universe is. as a small stream from a great fountain. laying aside that thirst after multitudes of books. is full of wise providence.3 † The Stoics supposed that aether condensed. Whatever the Gods ordain. Thence all things ﬂow. In every regular structure. as. water into air. from whom you ﬂowed. Such are men when led by their passions against what their higher faculties incline to and recommend. There is a certain time appointed for you. and air into aether. and disentangle your soul from other solicitudes. and how often you have neglected to use the opportunities offered you by the Gods. and justice. and water thus too became earth: That earth was rariﬁed into water. 3. so. that you may die without repining. and sincerely grateful to the Gods. which. Consider the nature of mere animal spirit or life. It is high time to understand what sort of whole you are a part of.
book ii 35 it were your last: without temerity. must necessarily be unhappy. to which. Theophrastus. without having a settled scope or mark. or their affections. 10. Go on. that in comparing crimes together.5 as becomes a philosopher. should continually endeavour to behave suitably to their dignity. to learn something truly good. and of that temper of soul. Now. You see how few these maxims are. Seldom are any found unhappy for not observing the motions and intentions in the souls of others. o my soul! to affront and dishonour thy self ! yet a little while. “Reverence or stand in awe of thyself ” which is the most remote from any encouraging of pride or vanity. art. and the time to honour thyself shall be gone. conscious of the dignity of their nature. For there are some too who triﬂe away their activity. Wander no more to and fro. But such as observe not well the motions of their own souls. See. that men. and practising such actions. Remember these things always: what the nature of the universe is: what thine own nature: and how related to the universe: What sort of part thou art. 7. If a man observe these things. And B. and be ashamed to act unsuitably to them. by wearying themselves in life. to which they may direct all their desires and all their projects.6 † It was one of the paradoxes of the Stoics. go on. to be inﬂuenced by views of glory from men. or freting at what providence appoints. It means. that all crimes were equal. Each man’s life is ﬂying away. with-<66>out hypocrisy or selﬁshness. and so no occasion for comparisons. may live a prosperous and divine life. . III. of which thou art a part. in preserving that temper. having hitherto made thy happiness dependent on the minds and opinions of others. 6. and course of action which they must approve. the Gods require no more of him. † (for in a popular style they may be compared) * ’Tis one of the most ancient maxims or precepts. or any passionate aversion to what reason approves. 8. and take leisure <67> to thy self. 9. and thine is almost gone. with such dignity and such endowments. says justly. and others. Let nothing which befalls thee from without distract thee. and of what sort of whole: and that no man can hinder thee to act and speak what is agreeable to that whole. before thou hast paid * just honour to thyself. 16 of this book. with a sincere simple view to answer the end for which God created them. and guard also against this other wandering. art. whoever adheres. 6. is what Antoninus here reckons among the dishonours or affronts done to ourselves.
Undertake each action as one aware he may next moment depart out of life. both to good and bad men. or. be said to make a man’s life worse? And it could neither be from any ignorance. For the angry man seems to be turned from right reason. The Gods will involve you in no evil. than that committed from the impulse of pain. as that good and evil should happen confusedly and promiscuously. One in the latter case seems like a person who is forced into anger by injuries ﬁrst received. . especially <70> those which ensnare us by pleasure. or want of skill. But he who sins from lust. moral evil. if there be really Gods. 12. why should I desire to live in a world without Gods. vice. Such are all sensible things. How the corporeal forms. ’Tis the ofﬁce of our rational power. or terrify us by * That is. either from want of power. like him who ﬁrst injures another. they are therefore neither good nor evil. To depart from men. and as becomes the dignity of a philosopher. and effeminate in his vices. by a sort of pain and contraction seizing him unawares. which men are incited to. to apprehend how swiftly all things vanish. We cannot ascribe such gross misconduct to it. by <68> lust. glory and reproach. all these happen promiscuously to the good and bad. deserves an higher censure. pain and pleasure. but one in the former. Were there any real evil in other things. and the memory of them in the tide of ages. when it knew them. weak. to prevent or rectify them. 11. that <69> we should not fall into what is * truly evil. are swallowed up in the material World. conquer’d by pleasure. But as they are neither honourable nor shameful. or want of power. death and life. that the crime committed for pleasure. at the instigation of some lust of pleasure. undoubtedly. riches and poverty. than those which ﬂow from anger. they would have also put it in the power of man to have avoided them altogether. If there are no Gods. or desire of pleasure. if they have no regard to human affairs. Now. But how can that which makes not one a worse man. that the nature presiding in the whole has overlooked such things.36 meditations these are greater. and they regard human affairs. He says justly. or. seems more dissolute. and have put it wholly in our power. can have nothing terrible in it. and without providence? But Gods there are.
with pity. and dives even into things below the earth. the seat of knowledge and virtue: deeming it a part of the divinity. that ’tis sufﬁcient for a man to dwell and converse with that * divinity which is within him. or as many myriads. and that he now lives no other life than what he is parting with. what is parted with. how dead are they! What sort of creatures are they. Our rational power should apprehend. ever pervaded. <71> It is then worshipped and honoured. is too subtile and frigid. ﬁrst. who dreads what is natural. That all things which have happened in the continued revolutions from * Thus the Stoics call the rational soul. 14. is venerable for its excellence. this blindness. than by that which hinders them to distinguish between black and white. Nay. and yet is not sensible of this. attracted. what is lost or parted with is equal to all. says one. when the lower passions are restrained. how perishable.book ii 37 pain. and from repining at any thing done by Gods or men. How mean. but useful to nature. † If thou shouldst live three thousand years. that no man loses any other life than that he now lives. . yet remember this. † The ﬁrst sentiment in this paragraph. and pay it the genuine worship. as proceeding from their ignorance of good and evil. come to one effect: since the present time is equal to all. when it is kept pure from every passion. and by what part. would he not see it to be a work of nature. 13. sometimes. What ﬂows from men. and the shortest. what is either past or future. Whatever is done by the Gods. and strives by conjectures to discover what is in the souls of others around him. every instant. And for the same reason. since they are our kinsmen. it is not only a work of nature. than he who ranges over all things. and by close thought strip it of those horrible masks with which it is dressed. how a man is related to God. we should entertain with love. and in what state this part shall be. and folly. or are celebrated with such vanity. The longest life. or. how sordid. They are not less pityably maimed by this defect. No man at death parts with. when it returns to him again. how despicable. too. Nothing is more miserable. whose voices bestow renown? What is it to die? Would one consider it alone. For how can one take from a man what <72> he hath not? We should also remember these things. is deprived of. and nothing else? He must be a child. or. is only a moment. and inspired by it to all moral good.
when it does or says any thing hypocritically. Again that the longest and the shortest lives have an equal loss at Death. or falsly. All depends upon opinion. are of the same kind with what we behold: And ’tis of little consequence. what belongs to the animal life. is making itself an abscess from that nature. 16. Freting at what happens. and smoak. it affronts itself. superior to pleasure and pain. from whom itself was derived. 15. The end therefore is acting the part God has appointed to us by the constitution of our nature. which can conduct us honourably out of life. the end of rational beings should be this. To sum up all. surviving fame is but oblivion. The usefulness of his sayings appear. or an inﬁnite duration. as far as truth conﬁrms them. and. or insincerely and hypo-<74>critically. . and opposes him with intention to hurt him. independent on what others may do or not do: embracing chearfully whatever befalls or is appointed. and a journey in a strange land. 17. A man cannot part with what he has not. doing nothing either inconsiderately. when it has aversion to any man. And this consists in preserving the divinity within us free from all affronts and injuries. when it does not <73> direct to some proper end all its desires and actions. The duration of human life is a point. What is it then. and accompany us in our future progress? philosophy alone. Whereas. since that is all he has. Again. is a dream. but exerts them inconsiderately. Now. even the smallest things should be refered to the end. Fourthly. and fame injudicious. and all things related to it. The soul affronts itself. * By this country or state is understood the universe governed by God. as coming from him. without understanding. an abscess or wen in the universe. when it becomes. its substance perpetually ﬂowing. are like a river. as the sayings of Monimus7 make evident. when conquered by pleasure or pain. feignedly. if one attend to his pleasantries. The present moment is all which either is deprived of. the senses obscure.38 meditations eternity. whether a man beholds the same things for an hundred years. life a warfare. fortune uncertain. And thirdly. which contains all other parts. as wrathful men do. to follow the * reason and law of their most antient and venerable city or country. the body. and the compound body tending to putrefaction: The soul is restless. as far as it can. Fifthly.
8 <75> * Earth to water. air to ﬁre. why should one suspect any harm in the changes and † dissolution of them all? It is natural. † Perhaps he intends the universal destruction of this world.book ii 39 above all. and nothing natural can be evil. and so backwards. 7. This at Carnuntum. expecting death with calm satisfaction. water to air. And if no harm befalls the elements when each is * changed into the other. . as conceiving it to be only a dissolution of these elements. of which every animal is compounded. See X.
Thus. the stern brow of the lyon. have nothing comely. and delight the spectator. and many other things. and the remainder grown less. considered apart. the laden’d ear of corn hanging down. We should. not only because death is every day so much nearer. Thus. some parts of a well baked loaf will crack and become rugged. and all other powers which require a well exercised vigorous understanding. and of judging well this very point. but the true power of governing himself. that such things as ensue upon what is well constituted by nature. and exert the low appetites. tho’ he should live longer. For if one begin to dote in these things. have also something graceful and attractive. and invites the appetite. their approach to putrefaction gives the proper beauty to the fruit. to receive nourishment. and penetration into the constitution of the whole. he may. whether he should depart from life or not.u book iii u 1. Thus. perhaps. to one who has a deep affection of soul. and for those theories which make one skilled in things divine and human. This also should be observed. therefore. 2. the real vast jaws of savage 40 . whether his understanding shall continue equally sufﬁcient for his business. yet because of their connexion with things natural. of performing completely the duties of life. must be intirely extinguished in him. they begin to crack. What is thus cleft beyond the design of the baker. each day. to have vain imaginations. but because the power of considering well and under<76>standing things. Thus in full ripe olives. a part of his life is spent. not only that. of considering distinctly all appearances which strike the imagination. often leaves us before death. Thus. continue to breathe. make haste. One ought to consider. So when ﬁgs are at the ripest. and the foam ﬂowing from the mouth of the wild boar. looks well. they adorn them. scarce any thing connected with nature will fail to recommend itself agreeably to him. but that it is very uncertain.
the guarding of his own soul. With like pleasure will his chaste eyes behold <77> the maturity and grace of old age in man or woman. The Chaldeans foretold the fatal hours of multitudes. except where it is subservient to some public interest: conjecturing what such a one is doing. and Caius Caesar. we could freely answer. yielded to a disease at last. Hippocrates2 after conquering many diseases. what are we now musing upon. therefore. which is often enslaved to it. suspicion. this attention to the affairs of others. and bedaubed with ox-dung. and all sensual enjoyment. who despises pleasure. died swollen with water. and such like. what he is thinking.3 Alexander. Is not the soul. and the inviting charms of youth. Heraclitus. to exclude from the series of our thoughts. We ought. much more excellent than the body? The soul is intelligence and deity. at last departed from this life themselves. if we were of a sudden examined. and is free from emulation. what he is saying.6 [the inventor of the atomical philosophy:] and another sort of vermin destroyed Socrates. made your voyage. and with what view. and fate afterwards carried themselves away. but only to those who have the genuine affection of soul toward nature and its works. such as becomes a social being.7 To what purpose all this? You have gone aboard. such or such matters: so that all within might appear simple and goodnatured. go ashore. A man <79> thus disposed wants nothing to entitle him to the highest dignity. Spend not the remainder of your life in conjectures about others. as. The body. and cut off in battle so many myriads of horse and foot. earth. Pompey. makes one wander from his own business. and putrifying blood. whatever is superﬂuous or vain. envy. If into another life and world. no less than the imitations of them by painters or statuaries. 4. the Gods are also there: if into a state of insensibility. not credible to all. Vermin destroyed Democritus.4 who so often razed whole cities.5 who wrote so much about the conﬂagration of the universe. and much more every thing intermeddling and ill-natured. what he is projecting. Many such things will he experience. or any other passion that we would blush to own we were now indulging in our minds. and enure ourselves to think on such things.1 3. of a priest and fellow-worker with the Gods.book iii 41 beasts will please him. at least you shall be no longer disturbed by sensual pleasure or pain. or be in slavery to this mean cor<78>poreal vessel. who rightly employs . arrived to your port.
inaccessable to reproach. embracing with all his heart whatever befalls. or any injuries from others: A victorious champion in the noblest contention. and persuaded that what providence orders is good. fortitude. truth. who regulates his life. an independence on the services of others. as waiting for the signal to retreat out of it. and not as amended or rectiﬁed. a Roman. 6. a good citizen. Seldom solicitous. to obtain tranquillity. and thinking continually on what is appointed to him by the governor of the universe. or hurried into it by any passion. And let the God within thee ﬁnd he rules a man of courage. Thus. Seek not to set off your thoughts with studied elegance. how they live at home. all men are recommended to the affectionate good-will of all: which would always appear. were it not for the interfering of falsely imagined interests. For others. Join also a chearful countenance. Be neither a great talker. which can make the man undeﬁled by pleasure. how in the light. what another says.42 meditations the divinity within him. but only from those who live agreeably to nature. each one’s lot is brought upon him by providence. a mind which needs not retirement from the world. still remember. either the tie of an oath. If you can ﬁnd any thing in human life better than justice. how in the <80> dark. 5. Making his own conduct beautiful and honourable. one won’t value the praise of such men. whatever is rational. or forgetting the * kind social bond. than to have your mind perfectly * The Stoics always maintained. to sum up all. that against the passions: deeply tinctured with justice. who needs not for a bond of obedience. and that not without some generous public view. or intends: Solely intent on his own conduct. that by the very constitution of our nature. and with what a wretched mass they are blended. Do nothing with reluctance. without reluctance at his dissolution. an aged man. but can maintain it without the assistance of others. and is advantageous to him. for they cannot please or applaud themselves. nor undertaker of many things. or. that. does. Remember. One should rather ap-<81>pear to have been always straight and right. or is appointed by providence. or the observation of others. is a-kin to thee. and that it suits human nature to take care of every thing human. Nor ought we to desire glory from all. temperance.8 . or without full inquiry. invincible by pain. how abroad. For.
renounce it. riches. or to desire any of these things which need walls or curtains to conceal them. guarding in the whole of life against this alone. retain it. that his soul should ever decline. accomplished. All these things. and the sacred mysteries of its virtues. he is as ready for it. with liberty. He needs neither solitude nor a croud. And preserve the judging power unbyassed by external appearances. and enjoy the noble discovery. you will not be able. but if only to the animal. or imprecate evil on any one. and. and hold to it resolutely. if you once give way. . or sensual enjoyments. But if nothing appears more excellent than the divinity seated within you. or be averse to any thing which becomes the rational and social nature. chuse what is most excellent. to hate. power. to dissemble. when it hath subjected to its self all its passions. and simplicity of heart. and. and with honour. if we allow them even for a little to appear suitable to our nature. which may force you to break your faith. gives him no solicitude. If so to the rational nature. that any thing of a different kind withstand the proper good of the rational and <82> social nature. that it may make a just and impartial inquiry. Never value that as advantageous. he lives without either desires or fears of death. the divinity within him. But do you I say. or sense of honour. What is most excellent is most advantageous. examined all appearances which may excite them. complaints. to preserve the preference of esteem and honour to your own proper and true good. and what providence orders independently of your choice: if you ﬁnd any thing better. He who to all things prefers the soul. for a longer or shorter space. For it is against the law of justice. makes no tragical exclamations.book iii 43 satisﬁed with what actions you are engaged in by right reason. without distraction of mind. and lean towards any thing else. turn to it with all your soul. I say. what is greatest of all. as for any other work. Were he to depart this moment. has torn itself off from the attachments to sense. to quit your modesty. and has an affectionate care of mankind: If you ﬁnd all things mean and despicable in comparison with this. give place to nothing else: for. such as the views of popular applause. suspect. immediately become our masters and hurry us away. which can be gracefully. or groans. And whether the soul shall use this surrounding <83> body. as Socrates expresses it. 7. has subjected it self to the Gods.
this happens according to that destined contexture and connexion of events. my kinsman. other things. such as meekness. of what compounded. nothing which needs correction or concealment. fortitude. than a methodical true examination of every thing which may happen in life. for what use they are ﬁt. be inconsistent with the nature and constitution of the rational animals. Our natural constitution and furniture is intended to secure us from false and rash assent. Quit. Remember also that each man lives only the present moment: The rest of time is either spent and gone. To the former subjoin this further rule: To make an accurate deﬁnition or description of every thing which strikes the imagination. <84> 10. and in all its parts considered distinctly. Fate can never surprise his life unﬁnished. that no opinion thy soul entertains. or the rest? We should therefore say of each event. to engage us in kindness to all men. and while you consider them. truth. this comes from one of my own tribe. my friend. into which also it must be resolved. so as to view what sort of thing it is in its own nature. this comes from God. and this conveyed through a succession of poor mortals. impure. Cultivate with all care that power which forms opinions: All depends on this. 11. to revolve at the same time. and what virtue it is ﬁt to exercise. of what importance they are to the whole. therefore. each presently a-dying. In the well-disciplined and puriﬁed mind you will ﬁnd nothing putrid. or subjected to others by any partial bond. ﬁdelity. or unsound. men who neither knew themselves. of <85> which the other cities and states are but as families. perhaps. or is quite unknown. by any hatred. contentment. and in a small corner of the earth. To examine what that is which affects the mind. as one says of a tragedian who goes off before he ends his part: You will ﬁnd nothing servile or ostentatious. how long it can endure. ignorant. It is a very little time which each man lives. its proper name. nor the persons long since dead. and the longest surviving fame is but short.44 meditations 8. and give it. nor yet broken off from them. with thy self. and retain these few. of what is agreeable to nature: . Nothing is more effectual for giving magnanimity. 9. and in obedience to the Gods. the citizen of that higher city. in what sort of regular universe they happen. or by conjunction with them in fortune. and to all the parts in its composition. of what to man. simplicity.
For. at the same time. B. 14. 13. then. As to things * indifferent. and in the heroic sincerity of all your professions. IV. ‡ to steal. but would not call them absolutely good or evil. and keep unviolated and pure the divinity within you as if just now about to restore it to the Gods who gave it: If you adhere to this without further desires or aversions. completely satisﬁed in discharging your present ofﬁces according to nature. as aware of the connexion between these two. Men don’t understand how many things are signiﬁed by these words. ‡ The Stoics made frequent use of these words metaphorically in their moral reasonings about the virtues and vices of their conduct. even the most minute. to discern what’s to be * Thus the Stoics call all the goods or evils of fortune. See. and for doing every thing. if. resolution.9 † The same person was physician. or the actions of the ancient Greeks and Romans. in consequence of right reasoning upon natural principles you discharge your present duty with diligence. to sow. 12. 15. . and benignity. so have you always at hand the grand maxims requisite for understanding things divine and human. Make haste. and. therefore. chirurgeon. or importance. you will live happily. relating to our bodies or estates: Which they allowed to have some value. which you have been storing up for your old age.book iii 45 but I am not ignorant of what is so. nor any duty to God. according to the natural and social law. Quit your wandering: for you are neither like to read over again your own commentaries and meditations. or estimation. without any <86> bye views. for one Instance. neither will you rightly discharge any duty to men. you regard not the connexion between things human and divine. and apothecary among the antient Greeks and Romans. and the natural events in the universe. 36. to purchase. you may at present. or the collections you have made <87> out of the writings of others. to be in tranquillity. I pursue them according to their real estimation or value. As † physicians have always their machines and instruments at hand for sudden occasions. to your proper end: cast away vain hopes and speedily succour yourself if you have that care of yourself. Now your doing this none can hinder. If. I must behave toward him with good-will and justice.
he neither takes this amiss from any one. The body. undisturbed by a croud of imaginations. ready to part with life. pure. And. to preserve the divinity placed in his breast. 2. To be moved. <89> * See above. The bodily eye sees not these things: another sort of sight must discern them. Phalaris. nor quits the road which leads to the true end of life. with atheists. tho’ no man believe he thus lived. the appetites and passions: to the intellectual. 16. B. to have the intellectual part governing and directing him in all the occurring ofﬁces of life.11 If these things. and with traitors to their country. is common to us with the wild beasts. the maxims of life.46 meditations done. by appetites and passions. like puppets. are common to the lowest and most odious <88> characters. . To have sensible impressions exciting imaginations. is common to us with the cattle. II. art. and ever calm and well-pleased. at which he ought to arrive pure. never speaking against truth. and tranquillity. the intellectual. or acting against justice. and to follow with a graceful reverence the dictates of it as of a God. To the body belong the senses: to the animal soul. then. with simplicity. modesty. this must remain as peculiar to the good man.10 and Nero. and accommodated to his lot without reluctance. the * animal soul. to love and embrace all which happens to him by order of providence. calm. with the most effeminate wretches.
Have also at hand some short elementary maxims. or mountains: you too used to be fond of such things. As a ﬁre. the view of which immediately gives him the fullest tranquillity. and are not in our power. It goes about what seems preferable. <90> 2. and Simplicius. Arrian. it can easily change and adapt itself to whatever occurs as the matter of its exercise. A man may any hour he pleases retire into himself. which remain in our power. with a proper * reservation. I mean the most graceful order. when it masters the things which fall on it. purposes.u book iv u 1. 47 . good-will toward even such as oppose us. we may still retain our own proper good. and sufﬁse to wash away all trouble. Allow yourself continually this retirement. and send you back without freting at any of the * The word here translated reservation. 3. and even thence increases its own strength. on the sea-coasts. is a noted one among the Stoics.1 And if any thing contrary be cast in. Let nothing be done at random. makes this also the matter of its proper exercise. and no where will he ﬁnd a place of more quiet and leisure than in his own soul: especially if he has that furniture within. which may readily occur. It is not fondly set upon any one sort of action. and can exert proper affections and actions upon these very obstacles. that we be still aware that all external things depend on fortune. and by persisting in any good ofﬁces. They seek retirements in the country. and that our sole good is in our own affections. By tranquillity. tho’ they would have extinguished a small lamp: the bright ﬁre quickly assimilates to itself and consumes what is thrown into it. patience under injury. and actions: If therefore we meet with external obstacles to our outward actions. but according to the complete rules of art. and refresh and renew your self.2 It means this. When the governing part is in its natural state. often used in Epictetus. by resignation to God. But this is all from ignorance.
from such passions. and therefore that reason also. whence we are called rational. then. who <92> are to praise us! For the future. The intellectual part is the same to all rationals. how ﬁckle and injudicious the applauders. have <91> been stretched on their funeral piles. when you consider. Or will you be touched with what regards your body. is not concerned in the impressions made on the animal soul. and shall be no more. under one polity. life is opinion. how few are they. Recall. even there. is common. whether grateful or harsh. as a man. Or shall the little affair of character and glory disturb you. as a mortal. that “all rational beings were formed for each other”. What vice of mankind can you be chagrined with.” and that. when you reﬂect how all things shall be involved in oblivion. or recollect how many have proved the universe to be a regular state. All your perturbation comes from inward opinions about them. that “all these things presently change. Have these two thoughts ever the readiest in all emergencies: one. how narrow the bounds within which our praise is conﬁned: the earth itself but as a point in the universe: and how small a corner of it the part inhabited: and. and intense desires. and quarrels. which shews what should be done or not done. and turned to ashes?” Cease. that the intellectual or governing part.48 meditations affairs to which you return. hatred. Retain your freedom. we are all fellow-citizens: . “all mistakes and errors are involuntary. and the vast immensity of eternal duration on both sides. when you renew in your remembrance that disjunctive maxim: “either it is providence which disposes of all things.” The other. suspicion. still and motionless. that “the things themselves reach not to the soul. when you recollect the maxim. If so. but stand without. The world is a continual change. keep yourself from distraction. and that. is common to all. and knows its own power. and of how little worth. consider every thing as a man of courage. how empty the noisy echo of applauses. we have all a common law. all you have heard and assented to. remember to retire into this little part of yourself: Above all things. then that commanding power. or atoms”. as a citizen.” Frequently recollect what changes thou hast observed. If so. If so. “bearing with them is a branch of justice. then. when it once recovers itself. too.” and “how many of those who lived in enmity. about pleasure and pain. Will you fret at that distribution which comes from the whole. 4.
From such men such actions must naturally and necessarily proceed. 9. to be ready to change your conduct. 11. nor hurts him either without or within. nothing can arise from nothing. my aerial part from its proper fountain. What makes not a man worse than he was. happens justly. and. like our birth. . when any one present can rectify you.book iv 49 and if so. The universe. but also according to justice. for of what other common city are all men citizens?3 Hence. You should always have these two rules in readiness. one. and the warm or ﬁery part from its proper fountain too. If you attend well. Our intellectual part hath also come from some common fountain of its own nature. must be that city. or return into it. the other a resolution into them: In neither is there any thing shameful. For. our law. Go on in observing this. you will ﬁnd that whatever happens. the other. and make you quit any of your opinions. too. that in a very short time both you and he must die. and you have removed the complaint. that nature acts in this manner. we derive our intellectual power. even from this com-<93>mon city. to act only that which the reason of the royal and legislative faculty suggests for the interests of mankind. the one a commixture of elements. 6.” Remove “I am hurt. Take away opinion. we have a common city. 10. therefore. as my earthly part is derived to me from some common earth. makes not his life worse. then. ’Tis for some advantage in the whole. “I am <94> hurt. a little after. do it so as you may still remain good. He who would have it otherwise. I don’t mean only in an exact order and destined connexion. 12. or unsuitable to the intellectual nature. you should always remember. or wishes you to entertain: but look into these things as they truly are. my moisture from some common element of that kind. as you have begun: and whatever you do. according to the intellectual and true notion of goodness. and from one who distributes according to merit. not even the name of either shall remain.” and you remove the harm. may as reasonably expect ﬁgs should be without juice. a mystery of nature. This. our reason. 5. Observe this in all your actions. or contrary to the intention of its structure. Death is. Don’t entertain such opinions as the man who affronts you has. 8. 7.
Death hangs over you. what is that to the dead? but what is it to the living. returning into your source. and its excellence rests in itself: its being praised is no part of its excellence. And there’s no difference.50 meditations But let this <95> change be always made upon some probable species of justice. except as it gave opportunities of more extensive good ofﬁces. While you live. or public utility. you shall disappear again. 18. or glory to yourself. Grant your memory were immortal. 20. except * for some further view? In the mean time. rather. while you may. or intend. till at last this remembrance be extinguished. which is handed down through a series of stupid perishing admirers. What agreeable leisure does he procure to himself. yet what is that to thee? Not to say.4 that there be nothing black or ill-natured in his temper? He ought not to be looking around. must soon die himself. what more do you require? 14. Whatever is beautiful or honourable. Why don’t you use it? When it performs its proper ofﬁce. as if you were to live a thousand years. Don’t form designs. and to reverence your intellectual part. and. you unseasonably quit what nature hath put in your power. that his own actions be just and holy. without turning aside. is so from itself. 15. 13. 17. This holds too in lower beau* The Stoics denyed fame to be desirable. into that productive intelligence from whence you came. who retain it. then another. do. if you turn to observe the moral maxims. by grasping at something else dependent on another.5 . Within ten days you’ll appear a God to them. and so must his successor a little after him. considers not that each one of those who remember him. whether sooner or later. according to Agathon. who takes no notice what others say. It is neither <97> made better nor worse by being praised. but running on the straight line. 19. who now repute you a wild beast or an ape. 16. but at-<96>tends to this only. or. or such like. by a change shall be resumed again. The man who is solicitous about a surviving fame. Have you reason? I have. and not any view of pleasure. Many pieces of frankincense are laid on the altar: One falls. You have arisen as a part in the universe. become good. and these immortal.
and works of art. benevolence. Whatever is agreeable to thee. and buried in the bodies of those who feed on them. and resumed into the original productive spirit. after remaining a while in the earth. 22. purple. and what the reason of the creature formed for social life and public good recommends. the bodies of so many beasts. diffused.book iv 51 ties. Some make the active principle to be meerly the form. and the active or efﬁcient principle. in thee they subsist. shall be joyful fruits to me. upon supposition that the souls survive their bodies. * The author’s sentiment here is not well known by the critics. mind only what is necessary. Don’t suffer the mind to wander. shall be agreeable to me. a dagger. “thou dearly beloved city of Cecrops!” And wilt thou not say. O nature! From thee are all things. are changed. “thou dearly beloved city of God!”6 <99> 24. rekindled. how hath the aether contained them from eternity? How doth the earth contain so many bodies buried. which is seasonable to thee.” He might rather have said. is gold. and yet the same places still afford room. made worse on this account? 21. called so by the vulgar. truth. after they have remained some time. to make room for other bodies. are dissipated and changed. Could one say. ivory. or too late. What a multitude of them is thus consumed. by the changes into blood.7 . Keep justice in view in every design. air and ﬁre. so the animal souls removed to the air. 23. The true account of all these things is by * distinguishing between the material. a ﬂower. Are any of these made good by being praised? Or. would they become bad. whatever thy seasons bear. If the animal souls remain after death. What is truly beautiful and honourable. preserve the judging faculty safe. a sense of honour. “Mind few things. a shrub. needs not any thing further than its own nature to make it so. if it is not praised? Or. We may consider. And in all imaginations which may arise.” said one. This may be answered. if they were censured? Is an emerauld made worse than it was. to thee they return. and give place to others in like manner to cohabit with them. Thus. “if you would preserve tranquillity. beside <98> the human bodies which are buried. during so long a time? As in this case the bodies. which we and other animals feed on. in material forms. O graceful universe! Nothing shall be to me too early. the law.
Hath any thing succeeded <100> with you honourably? Whatever befalls you was ordained for you. Don’t perplex yourself. He is the seditious . 27. with conspiring harmony?8 28. who always needs something from <101> others. the foolish. who ﬂies from the governing reason in this polity. and has not from himself all that is necessary for life. make an orderly composition. is this necessary? But we ought to quit. You have seen the other state. but that also which arises from having few things to mind. the black or malicious.52 meditations and in the way it directs. diverting us from our purpose. whose intellectual eye is closed. or a mixture of parts cast together. You must make the best use of the present time. the crafty. can there subsist in thee a regular structure. He is blind. and by justice: and retain sobriety in all relaxations. the faithless. yet. superﬂuous actions. but even imaginations. life is short. who knows not what ordinarily happens in it. the savage. who knows not what is in it. the childish. He is the beggar. by repining at what befalls: That same nature produces this event which produced thee. the effeminate. the buffoonish. try also this. and. and the benevolence of his dispositions. He is a foreigner. Or. as unnecessary. He is an abscess of the world. the tyrannical. 29. the beastly. He is a deserter. And this will not only secure the tranquillity arising from virtuous action. and satisﬁed with the justice of his own actions. by a true estimation of things. and yet no regular constitution be in the universe? and that when we see such very different natures blended together. Would we cut off the most part of what we say and do. and he too. To sum up all. we should have much leisure and freedom from trouble. Either there is an orderly well disposed universe. and not a citizen of the world. Consider the deformity of these characters. Has any man sinned or offended? The hurt is to himself. thus. which. of one who is pleased with the lot appointed him by providence. without design. Make trial how the life of a good man would succeed with you. by the providence of the whole. 26. 25. not only unnecessary actions. who withdraws or separates himself from the reason which presides in the whole. and spun out to you by the destinies. We should suggest to ourselves on every occasion this question. would not ensue.
in each action. and a third half-naked. dying. * All vice is such a separation. presently fell. that. wishing the death of others. ﬂattering. and is no more. ﬁghting. since our constitution was framed by God. and yet I adhere to it. sickening. the times of Vespasian. suspicious. the common nature presiding in the universe. I have not even the spiritual food of instruction. Says one. feasting. and yet I adhere to reason. trading. But you must also remember. Come down to Trajan’s days. repining at their present circumstances. and neither acts the tyrant or the slave. I have not bread. and were dissolved into their elements. and the individual or proper nature in each one. Recollect. about matters of less value. we at once conform to both the common nature and the proper. pursuing consulships and kingdoms: This life of theirs is past. They tell us this nature is two-fold. as one who with all his heart commits all his concerns to the Gods. as the Stoics deﬁne virtue to be an agreement or harmony with “nature” in our affections and actions. toward any of mankind. and acquiesce in <102> it. undermining their neighbours. for example.book iv 53 citizen. 32. hoarding up. not adhering to it. courting mistresses. that you are not allowed to be employed longer than is proper. after their keen pursuits of such kinds. and other nations. bringing up children.9 you will see all the same things you see now. there is a <103> care suited and proportioned to the importance of the affair: And thus you’ll not be disgusted. or the deity. and see how many. One acts the philosopher without a coat. who * separates his private soul from that one common soul of which all rational natures are parts. Says another. We conform to the common nature. especially the governing part of it. Men marrying. the common nature. Consider other periods of time. nor contented with it.10 you’ll see the same things again: That life too is past. by acquiescence in all events of providence. 31. and by acting the part which the structure of our proper nature requires and recommends. Delight yourself in the little art you have learned. and another without any books. But chieﬂy represent to your mind those whom you yourself knew vainly distracted with such pursuits. 30. and quitting that course which suited the structure of their nature. obstinate in their own will. And spend the remainder of your life. farming. .
but for a day. that our souls be just. both those who remember. and in like manner. that all things exist in consequence of changes. shall speedily seem old fables. Caeso. You may conceive that there are no other seeds than those that are cast into the earth or the womb. Resign yourself willingly to your destiny. About what then should we employ our diligence and solicitude? This alone. and persons remembred. And then. allowing it to involve you in what matters it pleases.11 All things hasten to an end. what is this eternal memory? ’Tis wholly vain and empty.12 † This is designed to abate our desire of esteem from weak injudicious men. or acting according to the will of God. Scipio. not.54 meditations 33. as it were. <104> 34. nor do you place your <105> true wisdom solely in a constant practice of justice. such as. Cato. 36. nor have you that kind affection toward all. the names of such as were once much celebrated. 35. and as ﬂowing from such springs and causes. All things are transitory. Camillus. 38. nor to that freedom from all suspicion of hurt by external things. as well known. that part he has pointed out to be good and suited to the dignity of our nature. and their cares. * This simplicity is one constant stable purpose. and then be buried in oblivion. The things now existing are a sort of seed to those which shall arise out of them. The rest of men. and the things. Words formerly the most familiar are now grown obscure. and in producing others like them. to recommend a prying into the business or characters of others. our actions social. as being necessary. are unknown and forgotten. and our disposition such as may chearfully embrace whatever happens. You must die presently. but such a mistake shews great ignorance. and. Observe continually. Volesus. and what they pursue. as soon as they expire. and then Augustus. † Look well into their governing part. and need explication. soon after them. and Antonine. Leonnatus. what things they study to avoid. Hadrian. . Enure yourself to consider that the nature of the universe delights in nothing more than in changing the things now existing. 37. after him. are now become obscure. and yet you have not attained to the * true simplicity and tranquillity. This I say of those who have shone in high admiration. our speech entirely sincere.
3.” says Epictetus. have not barely a necessary succession. See. and how it’s will accomplishes all things. what may equally befall a good man or a bad. such things are neither agreeable nor contrary to the nature of the rational soul.13 <106> 40. and how the whole concurs to the production of every thing. and customary. and this the Stoics strongly assert against the Pyrrhonists. c. can be neither good or evil. 6. and all is well. Time is a river. or the divine part: nor are they either its good or its evil. nor against it. each one. 44.book iv 55 39. Where. Such are diseases. And as things now existing are joined together in the most apposite contexture. l. but they are in a regular connexion. or violent torrent of things coming into being. as a rose in the spring. Thy evil cannot have its subsistence in the soul of another.15 . can neither be * according to nature. those which ensue. For what equally befalls one who lives according to nature. There is no evil befalls the things which suffer a change. be cut. made up also of an animal soul and a body. and one spirit. 41. and all which gives fools either joy or sorrow. deaths. treache-<107>ries. and how all things are referred to the sense of this spirit. carrying a dead carcase about with thee. nor any good in arising into being from a change. Cicero de ﬁnib. then? In that part of thee. is swept off and disappears. Let this part form no such opinions. and known. so. which is nearest to thee. and is succeeded by another. as soon as it has appeared. Consider always this universe as one living being or animal. let it judge that. or fruit in summer. these things are agreeable or contrary to this compound. But when one speaks of the whole animal. is as natural. with one material substance. 45. “Thou art a poor spirit. yet necessarily succeeding. 43. nor in any change or alteration of the body which surrounds thee. let the opinionative power be quiet.14 42. which is swept away in its turn. and what a connexion and contexture there is among all things. which forms opinions concerning evils. but a wonderful suitableness and afﬁnity to what preceeded. * That is. and one who lives against it. or burned. Things subsequent are naturally connected with those which preceeded: They are not as numbers of things independent of each other. Tho’ this poor body. Whatever happens. calumnies. but they would not call them good or evil. that is. or mortify. or suppurated. 5.
if I may so speak. who had often knit their brows on discovering the prognostics of death in their patients. Then run over those whom. without any ﬁxed view or end in life: or to such as in pursuit of apparent goods. merely because we have been so instructed by our parents. nay.17 and others innumerable. that of water its becoming air. you have known. that “the * death of the earth. And so back again. how many whole cities. is its becoming water. how many warriors. you would little matter whether it were to morrow or the day after. † This person or proverbial expression. is unknown. after they had slaughtered multitudes. in general. and which governs the universe: and are surprised at those things <108> as strange. ’Tis applicable to such as either live extempore. That we ought not to speak or act like men asleep. after foretelling the deaths of others. and but for a day. Consider frequently how many physicians. and how many philosophers. all human affairs are mean. with which they have always to do.56 meditations 46. unless you were exceedingly mean-spirited: for how triﬂing is the difference? Just so. after they had made many long dissertations upon death and immortality. as if they had <109> been immortal. one taking care of the funeral of another. as the full ripe olive falls of its own accord. nor like children. II. B. and depart contentedly. are involved in great miseries. If any God would assure you. with great ostentation of their art. by their want of consideration. (for even in sleep we seem to speak and act). and thankful to the tree that bore it. . and all this in a short time. or ashes. how many tyrants. that of air. or the next day at farthest. after they had exercised their power of life and death with horrid pride. 48. * See above. in a series. and then buried by a third. its becoming ﬁre. 4.”16 Think of † him who forgot whither the road led him: And that men are frequently at variance with that reason or intelligence. What yesterday was a triﬂing embryo. Remember always the doctrine of Heraclitus. Herculanum. which they meet with every day. 47. Pass this short moment of time according to nature. or to morrow. applauding the earth whence it sprung. And. you should repute it of small consequence. are dead: Helice. Pompeij. to morrow shall be an embalmed carcase. you must die either to morrow. whether you are to die in extreme old age. have at last yielded to death themselves: And how many astrologers.
and of true liberty. It not only keeps its place. but the bearing it courageously is a great felicity. or hinder it to attain its end. Why should the event be called a misfortune. or from meriting those other characters. possessed of a sense of honour and modesty. The shortest way is that according to nature. Lepidus. Ever speak and act what is most sound and upright. for enabling us to despise death. that this event is not a misfortune. ’Tis a vulgar meditation. remember the maxim. Caedicianus. Doth this event hinder you to be just. Stand ﬁrm like a promontory. Nay. rather than this strength of mind <110> a felicity? But. prudent. <112> . to consider the fate of those who have been most earnestly tenacious of life. say you. which whoever enjoys. tho’ this has befallen me. and of three ages like Nestor’s?20 51. how small is the difference of time! and that spent amidst how many troubles! among what worthless men! and in what a mean carcase! Don’t think it of consequence. which is not contrary to the will or purpose of his nature. What have they obtained more than those who died early? They are all lying dead some where or other.book iv 57 49. This resolution will free you from much toil. cautious of rash assent. to a man. Look backward on the immense antecedent eternity. How small is the difference between a life of three days. and artful management. In sum. can you call that a misfortune. [Wretched am I. Fabius. who. What is this will or purpose? Sure you have learned it. as its proper perfection? And then. hath all his nature requires. and yet a very effectual one. have been carried out <111> themselves. and forward into another immensity.]18 50. who carried out the corpses of multitudes. can still remain without sorrow. and enjoyed it longest. which does not frustrate the intention of his nature? Can that frustrate the intention of it. temperate. neither broken by the present. says one. Julian. and warring. that this has befallen me. and dissimulation. magnanimous. but stills the fury of the waves. upon every occasion of sorrow. upon which the waves are always breaking. free from error. nor dreading the future. Haste on in the shortest way.19 and such like. happy I. The like might have befallen any one. but every one could not have remained thus undejected. and ostentation.
say you. in a morning. don’t more desire to eat or sleep. the covetous man his wealth. averse to rise. and deserving less diligence and application? 2. you are far within the bounds of your power: you don’t then love yourself. All these when struck with their several objects. the bees. the spiders. This state is the pleasanter. beyond what is sufﬁcient: but in action. and its proper will or purpose. and exercising your powers? Don’t you behold the vegetables. otherwise. and forthwith to enjoy perfect tranquillity? 58 .u book v u 1. and for which I was brought into the universe? Have I this constitution and furniture of soul granted me by nature. And do social affectionate actions appear to you meaner. who love their respective arts. When you ﬁnd yourself. on their part. In rest you are going beyond these measures. How easy is it to thrust away and blot out every disturbing imagination. Other artiﬁcers. can even emaciate themselves by their several labours. not suited to nature. as it has to eating and drinking. the ants. you would have loved your own nature. the little sparrows. or the dancer does his art. you have <113> not come up to the measure. have this thought at hand: I arise to the proper business of a man: And shall I be averse to set about that work for which I was born. say you. that I may lye among bed-cloaths and keep my self warm? But. must we not take rest? You must: but nature appoints a measure to it. each of them adorning. than to improve in what they are fond of. without due refreshments of bathing or food: but you honour your nature and its purpose much less than the Turner does his art of turning. as far as their powers can go? And will you decline to act your part as a man for this purpose? Won’t you run to that which suits your nature? But. or the vain man his applause. this comely world. Were you then formed for pleasure. and not at all for action.
and in true grandeur of mind. Others are not apt thus * The reading of the text here is uncertain. breathing out my last breath into that air I daily drew in. till I fall down to rest. which you are not to regard. of a slow and tardy understanding. . 5. 4. But if the speaking or acting thus be honourable. Don’t <115> you observe what a number of virtues you might display. One charge. a temper unsolicitous about superﬂuities. and so many ways abusing it. Does any natural defect force you to be querulous at providence? to be tenacious and narrow-hearted? to ﬂatter? to complain of the body.book v 59 3. They both direct you to the same road. I walk on in the path which is according to nature. and be not dissuaded from it. when they have done you a good ofﬁce. shunning even superﬂuous talk. * nor taken a mean pleasure in it. who. for which you have no pretence of natural incapacity? And yet you voluntarily come short of them. and bears me walking on it. contentment with a little. freedom. are apt to charge it to your account. contempt of pleasure. as a great obligation. sincerity. that earth which supplied me for so many years with meat and drink. my nurse her milk for my nourishment. perhaps. and charge your own faults on it? to fawn on others? to be ostentatious? to be so unsettled in your purposes and projects? No. don’t undervalue yourself so much as to think you <114> are unworthy to speak or act thus. and the common nature of the whole. of which you can’t pretend you are naturally incapable. might have helped the defect. or be diverted by. These censurers have their own governing parts. an heart never repining at providence. gravity. and their own inclinations. There are some. my mother her blood. 6. if you had not neglected it. But there are many other qualities. diligence and exercise. you could not well avoid. but in this. falling into that earth whence my father derived his seed. Approve yourself in those which are in your power. which is according to nature. good-nature. by the Gods! you might have escaped those vices long ago. by any ensuing censure or reproach of others. Judge no speech or action unsuitable to you. patient diligence. But go on straight in the way pointed out by your own nature. You cannot readily gain admiration for acuteness: be it so.
by some probable specious reasons. Well. But if you desire fully to comprehend what I said. so the universal destiny or fate of the whole. whatever befalls any one. in a manner. is made a complete cause out of * sumbai ´nein. hath prescribed to one a disease. and the Man. say you. when ’tis said. by Jove! to desire too. to fall or join together. and as the regular universe is formed such a complete whole of all the particular bodies. when he has followed the track. The word “prescribed.” in the former case. that its partners and fellows should be sensible it acts thus? What you say is true. but go on to repeat the like actions. as the vine in its season produces its new clusters again. and suit each other in a certain position. when he hath done good to others. “rain. there is one grand harmonious composition of all things. As. imports that he enjoined it as conducing to health. is appointed as conducive to the purposes of fate or providence. and seeks no more when it hath yielded its proper <116> fruit. don’t be afraid that it will ever retard you in any social action. rain. to understand that it acts the social part? nay. Aesculapius1 hath prescribed to one a course of riding. Now. are said by the workmen. a loss of a child. you shall remain in one of the former classes. or walking bare-footed. that the nature presiding in the whole. don’t make a noisy boast of it. or such like. or the cold bath.” We should either not pray at all. Yet if you misapprehend what I said above. but are like the vine. which produces its bunches of grapes. a maim. or pray with such simplicity. kind Jupiter! upon the tilled grounds and pastures of the Athenians. 8. so it may be said. but ought we not. as the squared stones in walls or pyramids. and <117> such kind affections of free citizens toward our fellows.60 meditations to charge it to you. and know sufﬁciently the value of what they have done. We ought to be among those. seem not to understand what they have done. to go together appositely. and in the latter too. that. who are led aside from the highest perfection. when it has made its honey. the bee. when he hath run his course. This is a prayer of the Athenians. Our very word for * happening to one. The horse. yet secretly look upon you as much indebted to them. is. the hound. who. to understand this point? Is it not the property of the social being.2 . 7. A third sort seem not to know what they have done.
if you broke off any part of this continued connexion. ﬂies to the * sponge and the egg. the other. and this was prescribed or appointed for him. The very vulgar understand what I say. “fate ordered this event for <118> such a one. But you are often wanting something different. and adapted for you. to be in the universe. and rest yourself in this. For. despond. he prescribes many harsh disagreeable things. but as to your medicine. that it was formed. We see not any particular nature aiming at or admitting what does not suit the little private system. which are agreeable to <120> nature? Sensual enjoyments by their pleasure insnare * A common medicine for tender eyes. one is. Should you not on these two accounts embrace and delight in what ever befalls you. He never had permitted this event. 9. that it is subservient to the prosperity.book v 61 all the particular causes. as another ﬂies to plaisters. to the prosperity and felicity of Jupiter in his administration. either of parts or causes. yet. as far as you can. and thus embrace whatever happens. of acting according to the right maxims. the whole would be maimed and imperfect. when you repine at any thing which happens. which. Remember that philosophy requires no other things than what your nature requires. a third to fomentation. the accomplishing and completing the purposes of the universal nature. in which it presides. and content yourself that your actions are generally such as become a man. and complete administration of that mind. then. You should require no more than being conscious that you have obeyed reason. if you have not always opportunities as you desire. which governs the whole. had it not conduced to good. and prescribed. and destined originally by the most venerable causes. Don’t return to philosophy with reluctance. we embrace willingly. by Jupiter! to the stability and permanence of <119> the whole. Conceive. Don’t fret.” Let us understand this even as when we say. what your health is to you. “the physician has ordered such things for the patient”: for. altho’ it should appear harsh and disagreeable: because it tends to the health of the universe. . and destroy it. return to them again. you break this off. as one who has tender eyes. What can be easier and sweeter than these things. nay. and rejoice in these good ofﬁces to which you return. They tell you. for the sake of health. as to a severe tutor. Now. If you are beat off from them. or murmur.
which many repute as good. 11. The natures of things are so covered up from us. or a savage one? 12. they would not be offended with the application of that . justice. but are often angry with themselves. as we call it? What sort of soul have I? of what character? Is it that of a triﬂing child? of a passionate youth? of a timorous woman? of a tyrant? of a tame beast. what are the views and purposes of that governing part. fortitude. and these no mean ones. they are scarce tolerable to the most courteous and meek disposition. I see nothing worthy of our esteem or solicitude. The Stoics themselves own it to be very difﬁcult to comprehend any thing certainly. how transitory are they. To what purposes am I now using my animal powers? This should be matter of frequent self-examination: As also. and will with pleasure entertain as proper to the subject. the hopes of our natural dissolution should be our consolation. of time. that known raillery of the comic poet. But one thinking of what the vulgar repute as good. All our Judgments are fallible. that nothing can befall us but what is according to the nature of the whole: and then. simplicity of heart. and make us bear with patience the time of our sojourning among them: refreshing ourselves with these thoughts. to many philosophers. and this perpetual ﬂux of substance. he cannot bear any thing attributed to them which does not naturally agree to the true <122> kinds of good. But consider. that it is always in our power. of <121> motions. Amidst such darkness and ﬁlth. Where is the infallible man. If one previously conceives the true goods.62 meditations us.3 And thus even the vulgar conceive the preeminence of the former. meekness. and of the things moved. Of what value the things are. liberty. all things seem uncertain and incomprehensible. or a robber! Review again the manners of your contemporaries. ﬁrst. purity? What is sweeter than wisdom. otherwise. temperance. or of a whore. can there be any thing sweeter than magnanimity. can patiently hear. that. never to counteract the Deity or Genius within us: to this no force can compell us. not to mention that few can well comport with their own manners. when you are conscious of success and security from error in what belongs to the intellectual and scientiﬁc powers? 10. On the contrary. or self-command. and how mean! how often are they in the possession of the most effeminately ﬂagitious. prudence. who never changes his opinion? Consider the objects of our knowledge. you may judge from this.
and my parents too. were from eternity: and from the one to the other. “that he has such abundance of ﬁnery around him on all sides. was the great philosophic year. then. or straight. and go straight forward to the end set before them. The supreme end or happiness of man. acting according to our nature. and reject it as unworthy of the subject. and thus to eternity? By such changes I came into being.” 13. be the external event what it will. which the structure of his nature does not undertake for. every part of me be disposed. we can yet deem it proper raillery to apply to the possessor. when ’tis applied to riches. We may assert this. and recreated again out of this eternal original substance: and that these alternate creations and conﬂagrations. and their progenitors. are powers which are satisﬁed with themselves and their own proper action. (without the aid of what is external or foreign to them). None of these things should be deemed belonging to a man as his perfection. it would never be a suitable perfection in him to despise and oppose them.book v 63 jest to them. Reason. he can ﬁnd no place where he can ease himself. again. therefore. nor would he be commendable for making himself independent of them. when we consider. which. Shall not. Did any such things belong to man as his perfection.4 14. then. The actions are called right. Go on. which they deemed to be the Deity. and that. * tho’ the world be governed by certain grand determined periods of dissolution and renovation. See. be changed into some other part of the uni-<123>verse. cannot. from another eternity. were rariﬁed and absorbed again into the pure aether. upon its dissolution. by which the material world and the grosser elements. which don’t belong to him as he is a man. B. and all the possessions subservient to luxury. † Viz. which can’t be demanded <124> of him as a man. They act from their internal principle. I consist of an active and a material principle. . † 15. and the art of the rational agent. 37. into the correspondent part of the universe. * The Stoics seem to have believed a series of great periodical conﬂagrations. IV. consist in such things. from their straight road to their end. the jest. as they were not made out of nothing. nor be completed by them. and which do not perfect his nature. and ask yourself. from all eternity. But we all relish that jest. as being suitable to the subject. are these things to be honoured and reputed as good. Neither of these shall return to nothing. and humourously expressed.
that these imperfections and evils are prerequisite to the exercise of the most divine virtues.64 meditations and not needing them. some more. wherever one may live. And a Stoic allows the vicious could refrain from their vices. In this end consists his advantage. was it not manifest. either through ignorance that the event hath happened. that the inferior kinds were formed for the superior.5 17. one may live well in it. dispositions. The like events have befallen others. But the more one remits of his share of certain things reputed good. ’Tis the part of a mad-man to pursue impossibilities. in the more perfect orders of beings. and. therefore. ’tis * im<126>possible the vicious should act another part than that we see them act. such will be the disposition of your soul. some less perfect. The soul receives a tincture from the imagination. and the merely animated are inferior to the rational. and his supreme end is placed in that to which he is thus carried. it would never be the part of a good man to quit or abate his share of them. Tincture thy soul deeply by such thoughts as these continually present that. and the superior for each other? Now. Again. the inanimate are inferior to the animated. Nay. if they heartily inclined to do so. which inﬁnite wisdom originally concerted for the most excellent purposes. 18. but don’t hinder our discerning the misery and deformity of vice. we have long ago demonstrated. that we were formed for society. whatever one’s natural structure and powers are ﬁtted for. Now. that many particular evils must be connected with the necessary means of incomparably superior good. The good of a rational creature is in society. ’tis for this purpose he is designed. Such as the imaginations are which you frequently dwell upon. 16. Nothing can befall any man. or through ostentation of magnanim- * That is. and his good. and by <125> a natural impulse is carried to it. which he is not capable by nature to bear. which must be the ground of their eternal joy: and that many evils are even requisite means of reclaiming the less perfect beings from their vices. he may live well: one may live in a court. Were they truly good. the more patiently he bears being deprived of them by others. . seeing it to be necessary. Such thoughts must repress ill-will and all anger against the vicious. during these their present opinions. the better we must esteem the man to be. and confusedimaginations: all which they have fallen into according to that plan. habits. and setting them upon the pursuit of their truest happiness. for. and they. that there should be very different orders of being.
and such judgments or opinions. reverence that which is most excellent in yourself. and the animal soul. to be a being or substance distinct both from the gross body. power. of its most excellent beatiﬁc exercises. Reverence that which is most excellent in the universe. natural. nor can they turn or move it. <127> as she condescends to entertain. or imprisonment in them. Now. Make use of this rule upon every conception of any thing as hurting you. capable of performing its proper. but. 1. What is not hurtful to the ‡ state or city. the occasion. 21. such she will make all occurrences become to her self. In one respect. and calm purposes of action subsist. by being stopped in it. as they sometimes obstruct us in our proper ofﬁces. and your whole life is governed by it. ‡ This city is the universe. and of commanding all their motions. in which. they are to be reputed among things indifferent. and goodness. Strange! then. the great governour of this city. which befall them. and it advances in its road. none of them can obstruct our purpose. capable of subsisting separated from the other two parts. cannot imagine any event to be hurtful to the universe. 22. is the man. after Plato. say they. as it <128> is what employs and directs all other powers in your nature. opinions. The things themselves * cannot in the least touch the soul. during this union with them. † See. As also the note upon the preceeding section in this book. stand ﬁrm and unhurt by them. for. cannot hurt the citizen. lower appetites and passions. The soul alone can turn or move itself. nay. any of these may obstruct us in the discharge of our proper external ofﬁces. no less than the sun. into a more excellent object of action. and thus ’tis for its advantage to be obstructed in action. beatiﬁc ofﬁces. IV. and persuaded of his wisdom. of misery. or. that ignorance or ostentation should have more power than wisdom! 19. or matter. nor have any access to it. in which are the sensations. the seat of true perfection and happiness. and governs all. B. seem to conceive the rational soul. or our dispositions. and when it is united in will with God. of making the adverse accidents. as we are ever obliged to do good to them: but in another respect. or a savage beast. the wind. A mind entirely conformed and resigned to God. lovely. * The Stoics. our judgments. men are the most dearly attached to us.6 20. For the soul can convert and change every impediment of its ﬁrst intended action. because of that † reservation and power of turning our course. it . The rational soul. which employs all parts of it as it pleases. this is of a like nature with the former.book v 65 ity. and of a durable nature. In like manner. independent of these lower parts.
66 meditations If the city is not hurt by it. Consider frequently. according to the Stoic opinion. Their substance is as a river in a perpetual course. art. in which all things are swallowed up. and his own work. pleased with all they appoint for him. and how † small a part you are of the object of universal fate. 27. and the causes subject to ten thousand <129> alterations. And the vast eternities. * This is an impossible supposition. He lives with the Gods. but circumscribe and seperate itself. or providence. Scarce any thing is stable. who is either puffed up with success in such things. Remember how small a part you are of the universal nature. of this book. When they ascend into the soul. But let not the governing part add also its opinion concerning them. which are its supreme good. or how he has done wrong. and to that plan of providence. yet we should not be angry at him who hurt it. how small a moment of the whole duration is appointed for you. and act that part. which is ﬁttest for the whole. as they are occasions of exerting the noblest virtues. see the note on art. Must he not. and let it <130> not blend itself with the body. 26. by means of that sympathy constituted by its union with the body. be a fool. to those of the great universe. but * shew him what he has neglected. ‡ See. He hath his own disposition. who displays before them his soul. and conﬁne these passions to those bodily parts. or is distracted. and full of complaints about the contrary. but the sentiment just. We should live a divine life with the Gods. 17. past and ensuing. and carried off. which my own nature recommends to me. which the common president nature wills me to have. 19. . 25. Their actions are in perpetual changes. must acquiesce in all that happens. I have that disposition. of this book. If the city should receive hurt by it. Does any one injure me? Let him look to it. then. as if they were good or evil. or arise. are swept away. as if it could give disturbance of any duration? 24. Keep the governing part of the soul ‡ unmoved by the grateful or painfull commotions of the ﬂesh. I cannot be hurt. how swiftly all things which exist. and can make all events good to itself. † And thence you’ll see how just and merciful it may be. there is no withstanding of the sensation which is natural.7 23. to subject your little transitory interests. are close upon it on both hands.
whose arm-pits or whose breath are disagreeable? How can the man help it. 724. Deum namque ire per omnes Terrasque tractusque maris.] Well. IV. who has such a mouth or such armpits? They must have a smell. armenta. dixere. to act as the rational and social nature requires. I go out of it. which Jupiter hath * taken <131> from himself. and given each one as the conductor. like that of harlots. and then there is no occasion for anger. genus omne ferarum. I stay as <132> free. therefore. Horace. If he listens to you. But. viros. instruct. you have cured him. 30.9 See also. what is right. * The Stoics conceived the divine substance. suggest to him. and yet without conceiving the quiting it as evil. you have this reason too. [these may justly raise anger. discern what is injurious in his actions. and leader of his life. nor a base concurrence with them. If my house be smoaky. man has reason: he could by attention. Let us have no tragical exclamations against the vices and injuries of others. 220. 29. when you knew your death was approaching. coelumque profundum: Hinc pecudes. The soul of the universe is kind and social.8 Esse apibus partem divinae mentis. the seat of all wisdom. and co-ordinated. & resoluta referri Omnia ——— Virg. Can you be angry at one. deinde. And this is the intellectual principle and reason in each man. then you may quit life. 28. Geor. by your rational dispositions. to 746. Divinae particulam aurae. more immersed and entangled in the grosser elements. You see how it hath subordinated. & haustus Aetherios. God bless you. says one. Quemque sibi tenues nascentem arcessere vitas: Scilicet huc reddi. It has. and who can hinder me to act as I please? But my pleasure is. Aeneid. power and goodness: and that our souls were small particles of this aether: and that even those of brutes were particles of the same. and has suited the superior beings for each other. You may live at present in the same way you would chuse to be living. Rouse then his rational dispositions. made the inferior orders for the sake of the superior. to be an inﬁnitely diffused and allpervading aether.book v 67 and doing whatever is recommended by that divinity within. If you are hindered to do so.10 . and where is the great matter? While no such thing forces me out. VI.
then. little dogs snapping at each other. your domestics? Have you never said or done any thing unbecoming. ** “From the wide range of earth have soar’d to heaven. your friends. perhaps. modesty. and governs the whole universe by § certain determined periods. But integrity. [Examine yourself thus:] how have you behaved toward the Gods. your wife. toward your parents. rotten. What beautiful and honourable things are seen in your life? What pleasures and what <133> pains have you despised? What occasions of vain ostentation have you designedly omitted? Toward how many perverse unreasonable creatures. Why. is the true wisdom. ** Hesiod. 13. toward any of them?11 Recollect through how many affairs of life you have past. but the returning good for evil. should you not wait patiently for either your extinction. and a name. and what ofﬁces you have been able to sustain and discharge. that whatever we do in word or deed. then. 31. your teachers. and apt to admit false appearances: The animal life. your children. but an exhalation from blood: To have reputation among such animals. 195. and of your * publick service to the Gods. or translation into * Observe here the same divine sentiment with the Apostle. 33. B. and presently weeping again. or echo. your intimates. A name is but a certain noise or sound. the intelligent. should detain thee here? Since all things sensible are <134> in perpetual change. children squabling and vying with each other. have you † exercised discretion and lenity? 32. or. not even a name. ‡ The knowledge of God and his providence. and engaged the nobler beings into a mutual agreement and unanimity. is a poor empty thing. The history of your life.68 meditations and distributed to each according to its merit. I. and that reason which pervades all substances in all ages. your brothers. is not completed. without any stability: The senses themselves but dull. † Here he is recommending not only forgiveness. and skilful soul be disturbed by the rude and illiterate? What soul is truly skilful and intelligent? ‡ That which knows the cause and the end of all things. those who educated you. justice. Presently you shall be only ashes and dry bones. and truth. we should do it as to God.12 . mean. § See above. Why should the instructed. The things most honoured in life are but vain. laughing. V.” What.
neither good. in right opinions and actions. tho’ he knew well it was a childish toy. others contrary to nature. 253. bearing with their weakness. as what are not thine. viri. pro talibus ausis. Et mens sibi conscia recti. I. IX. if you go on in the right way.16 ‡ The Stoics called all external advantages or disadvantages. . who can hurt the whole? 36. nor evil. that they can * be hindered by nothing external. But.13 and considering external things subservient to thy poor body and life. why am I disturbed by it. 35. moresque dabunt vestri. to men. Aeneid. Don’t let your imagination hurry you away incautiously in any seeming distress of your friend. Nay. V. respecting the body or fortune. § This comedy is not known. quae digna. nor be hurtful to the whole. as in the § comedy. and actions. that some were according to nature. nor any action from any vitious disposition of mine. without extending further. and to do good to men. with great earnestness.book v 69 another state? And. things indifferent. but they allowed this difference among them. and can make their desires terminate and cease here. Praemia digna ferent. IV. and to be rejected. but. as far as he deserves in these ‡ indifferent sorts of things. Aeneid. These two advantages are common to Gods. and preferable. till the proper season for it comes.15 Di tibi. man. When you are vehemently declaiming from the rostrum. 19. B. what should sufﬁse thee? To reverence and praise the Gods. Praemia posse rear solvi? pulcherrima primum Di. 1. just so. 34. “What. abstaining from injuries. have you forgot the nature of these things you are so keen * See above. don’t imagine that he has sustained any evil. as a token of his love. should one say to <136> you. his top. If this event be neither any vice of mine. and B. There is no evil in such things. one. the other. 607.14 the old foster-father asks from the child. that they have their † proper good or happiness in their just disposi-<135>tions. and every rational soul. nor in thy power. Assist him to the utmost of your power. &c. You may always be prosperous. † Quae vobis. you must act in life about the toys which others value.
and good actions. who distributes one to himself. that. But take care you don’t in your own sentiments become a fool. because others are fools. He has the happy lot. good desires and purposes. yet I know these are matters of serious concern to others”.” Nay. therefore. You may so manage.70 meditations about. and. in whatever place or time one comes upon you. “tho’ I have not forgot it. The happy lots are good dispositions of soul. you do well to act thus. <137> . say you. you may be found a man of an happy lot.
1 8. of any thing. either * by exhaling <138> and rarifying. 6. nor is any one hurt by it. whether in good report. whether drousy through long watching. with remembrance of God. as it executes all things. Look narrowly into things. whether you do it shivering with cold. whether by dying. or by any other action. to be going from one kind social action to another. or refreshed with sleep. 4. Delight thy self in this one thing. dying is one piece of the natural business of every living creature. and forms itself. The governing part is that which rouses.u book vi u 1. The governing mind in the universe. and into which they were resolved. 71 . escape your observation. 13. 3. then. The matter of the universe is obedient. as it inclines. of doing evil to any. 5. For. not to become like the injurious. nor can it do any thing maliciously. or agreeably warm. It has no malice. All things now existing shall speedily be changed. Provided you act the part that becomes you. or bad report. It is the cause of all that happens. B. * See above. if it be well performed. which governs it. or dignity. such as it chuses to be. let it be of no account with you. is. 2. Let not the proper quality. Others of the antients believed. and the nature of that matter it is acting upon. and rest in it. The best sort of revenge. and turns. out of which all compound bodies were formed. if all be one substance. has no cause in itself. or be dissolved and dispersed into the several elements. 7. knows its own dispositions and actions. ’Tis sufﬁcient. and easily changed: the intelligence. there were four original immutable elements. V. and makes every event appear such to itself.
13. and explaining the nature of these subjects. Either the universe is a confused mass and intertexture. a step-mother. in all parts of life: when things occur. tho’ you respected the former. then I adore the governour of the whole. or externally annexed to it. Return often to your true mother. a hog: about wine. and view their meanness. and refresh yourself: She will make the affairs of the court tolerable to you. if the latter be the case. or contained as distinct within it. why should I wish to stay longer in this confused mix-<139>ture. at ﬁrst. this is the wool of a sheep. by having frequent recourse to it. how powerful are they to display to us their despicable value? Thus2 we should employ the mind. or be solicitous about any thing. this is the dead car-<140>case of a ﬁsh. than what is absolutely unavoidable. would be the latter: Such to you is the court and philosophy. You may revolve such thoughts as these. steeped in the blood of a little shell-ﬁsh: about venereal enjoyments. soon to be dispersed. are great sophisters. either surrounding it without. a fowl. If the former. about the nicest delicacies of sense: about food. by which they seem so glorious. yet your constant resort and refuge. under a providence. nor can they be inﬂuenced by any other. I stand ﬁrm. 12. and cast aside these pompous descriptions of them. and most impose upon us. which. and a mother. and make you tolerable to those about it. 10. and trust in him.3 . philosophy. When you ﬁnd yourself forced. 91. External pomp and high language. they are the attrition of a base part of our body. Had you. return into yourself as speedily as you can. But. All things are accomplished by the nature presiding in the whole. this is the juice of a little grape: about your purple robes. by surrounding objects. 7. seem worthy of high estimation: we should strip them naked. These conceptions. at once.72 meditations 9. as it were into some confusion or disturbance. 11. touching so nearly. or one orderly whole. why should I be disturbed about any thing? The dispersion will overtake me. when we are employed in matters commonly reputed of * Homer Iliad. You shall acquire greater power of retaining this harmony. and a convulsive sort of excretion of a mucus. further than “* how to become earth again”? Or. do what I please. and depart no more from the true harmony of the soul.
vines. Thus. about the solemn gravity of Xenocrates. and the note upon it.4 by our several passions and appetites. First. which you are presently to breath out again every minute. music. or in being nourished. but inanimate structure. since it can never be stopped or retained? As if one should grow fond of one of the sparrows. olive-trees. painting. when you were born. yesterday. sculpture. ‡ See. Remember * what Crates said. may be reduced to some general classes. and wild beasts do. such as stones. or. These ﬂuxes and changes renew the world. when it shall be immediately out of sight. <141> a rank higher. with a more elegant taste. in the same purpose. ‡ or a breathing in of air: and such as it is to draw in that air. and. There is little valuable. and must presently restore again to the source whence you derived it. such as are preserved by mere cohesion. timber. as universal. that one can value. The objects of vulgar admiration. are already extinct. and merely on this account. and even medicine. * This saying is not known. such as ﬂocks and herds. 2. regular. in this universal city. In this vast <142> river. But he who honours and admires the rational soul. Men. II. like vegetables. which you received. numbers of † slaves are valued. ever present to us new parts of the inﬁnite eternity. such also is this whole power of breathing. but as artiﬁcial. above all things. or in mere herding together. he will study to preserve his own rational soul. and social. B. Some things hasten into being: Some hasten to be no more: Some parts of things in being. or public-spirited. 14. turns upon what is accomplished by a rational soul. an exhalation from blood. statuary. † Slaves were chieﬂy valued. The admiration of a third and higher class of men. according as they had Genius for. he will despise these other objects of admiration. 16. acting.book vi 73 great dignity. not as it is akin to the universal spirit. ﬁg-trees. as it were. admire things preserved by an animal soul. or breathing. as cattle. or in having sensible impressions made upon the imagination. in these social dispositions and affections. or the day before. and co-operate with those souls which are akin to it. 15. either in perspiring. . as it ﬂies by us. and were instructed in the more elegant arts. among the things swept away with it. or organisation. and otherwise ingenious. as the constant ﬂux of particular periods of time. and acute. or in being moved like puppets. what is there. Such is the life of each man.
At what does all education and instruction aim? In this. is placed all that is valuable. self-contentment. you must be enviously and suspiciously vying with those who can deprive you of such things as you highly value. cease to value other things? If you don’t. IV. laying snares for those who possesss them. in all desires or pursuits. or tranquillity: for. will make you agreeable to yourself. and B. If you have. * See. one would thence imagine. and the vine-dresser. harmonious with your fellows. * to move. the planter. is valuable? To be received with claps of applause? Not at all. then. and the notes. then. downwards. Won’t you. 37. quit the pursuit of this triﬂing sort of glory. 14. But. This. according to the proper fabric or structure of your nature: For. when you want them. The praises of the vulgar are nothing but the noise of tongues. The motions of virtue are like none of these. then. This seems as foolish. 18. or stop yourself. are in quest of. . nor shall see. this is all its aim. IX. 17. the horse-rider. praising whatsoever they distribute or appoint to men. whom they never saw. with whom they live. 6. you need not be solicitous to acquire any thing further. Nor is the applause of tongues <143> more valuable. and pining with vexation. should be adapted to the work it is designed for. V. and 19. therefore. I imagine. they could not value being praised by them. and the note upon it. you’ll never attain to freedom. 12. what remains as valuable? This one thing. If you succeed well in this. and in a perfect concord with the Gods. going on in a way not easily discerned. What strange conduct is this! Some men cannot speak a good word of their contemporaries. and the breeder of the hound. and ‡ ever prosperous. as to be concerned that we cannot obtain the praises of the ages which preceeded our existence. II. † B. [and. The elements are tossed upwards. but are of a more divine sort. What.74 meditations There is nothing in this superior to the discharging again what is superﬂuous of the food we have taken in.] and yet are very solicitous. independency. <144> the † reverencing and honouring your own intellectual part. about gaining the praises of posterity. and even accusing the Gods. ‡ B. and all around. this is what all design and art is tending to. that the thing formed by art.
<147> * The Stoics spoke doubtfully about a future state. which never hurts any man. and the Platonists too. Let us. in the dignity of Gods.book vi 75 19. who enjoy reason as I do. or conduct. ’Tis truth I am searching for. implore the assistance of the Gods. But men are often hurt. If. by remaining in error and ignorance. toward my fellow-men. but without suspicion or enmity.]5 24. if you see any thing possible to <145> man. to do my duty. and a part of his proper work. They were either * resumed into the original productive causes of all things. which the Stoics opposed. or a person suspected. and what becomes me. nor do we suspect him for the future. or were absorbed in the divinity. to use the brute animals. but with a good-natured caution. and his muleteer. one has torn us with his nails. that my sentiments. 22. or shew me. Let us thus behave in all parts of life. we are not offended. as in the exercises. with delegated powers of governing certain parts of the universe. or wandering from the right way. we express no resentment. and ignorant of it. as I said. In all things. I endeavour. as one possessed of reason. as a person secretly designing our destruction: and yet we are on our guard against him. If any one can convince me. I endeavour. for eternity. Other things don’t give me solicitude: They are either inanimate. I will joyfully alter them. conclude that you also may attain to it. don’t conclude it to be impossible to all men: but rather. which we would call that of angels. Alexander of Macedon. or irrational. or bruised us accidentally with his head. and <146> all other irrational objects. when they died. and repute it of no consequence. imitating Socrates’s manner. not as an enemy. If any thing seems exceedingly difﬁcult for you to accomplish. or † dispersed into the atoms. But they. and of the eminently virtuous. be upon our guard. for what space of time you shall continue thus employed. is the Epicurean doctrine. and to act the kind and social part. † This later branch. Three hours of such a life is sufﬁcient. for our own safety. in the exercises. Many believed a separate existence of good souls for a thousand years. has been wrong. generally propose this alternative. 23. 20. and conceive many things thus done. with magnanimity and freedom.6 whether the rational souls subsisted as separate intelligences. [As well as the three ages of Nestor. . were in a like condition. 21.
since they are of short duration. go straight on in executing what is our present business? 27. to restrain men from desiring. And they endeavoured to make virtue eligible. and sustain its part. in each one of our bodies. without anger at those who are angry with us. ’Tis very dishonourable in life. Take care you don’t degenerate into the manners of the Cesars. support the interests of mankind. all are carried toward what appears to them their proper <148> good. piety. it is not their proper good. say you. 30. and in our souls too. Consider. there is no evil in death. would you not distinctly pronounce to him each one of the letters? Should he turn into any angry dispute about it. Endeavour earnestly to continue such as philosophy requires you to be. at the very worst. abstracting from these their incertain tenets about futurity.7 . would you also turn angry. that all things which now happen. or be tinctured by them. when you are angry at the mistakes. in the very same moment. in our present business. while the body can hold out. that all external things are but mean. kind affection. and teach them better. integrity. The sole enjoyment of this terrestrial life. and. is in the purity and holiness of our dispositions. what appears to them as their proper good or advantage? And yet you seem chargeable in a certain manner with this conduct. of the toilsome reasonings. Reverence the Gods. or pursuing. and you will the less wonder. and in kind to shew that. and of the servitude to the ﬂesh. and not rather mildly count over the several letters to him? Thus.76 meditations 25. love of justice. from the very feelings of the heart. 28. and wrong actions of men: for. stedfast ﬁrmness in your duty. Should one desire you to spell the name Antoninus. good nature. gravity. we call the world. and are no preservatives against death. nay. that the soul should fail and desert its duty. or elements: [according to the many different relations and obligations of each person:] ought we not to observe all these calmly. 26. But. then. and don’t be angry with them. of the impulses of the appetites and passions. at once exist in this one universal system. goodness. 29. that far more. freedom from ostentation. Well: instruct them. how many different things are done. Death is the cessation of the sensual impressions. Life is short. Preserve your simplicity of manners. Is it not cruel. our duty consists of a great many numbers.
well aware of it. and call yourself up. Its past and future operations are to it now indifferent. and. and of these. till he had thoroughly examined it. as it came on him. and understood it. dress. without superstitious dread: that thus the hour of death may come upon you. through his great abstemiousness. by parricides. and a soul. as of a like nature with those which disturbed you in sleep. his sanctity. consider the things which may disturb you. how hard to be provoked. and all its own operations are in its power. Act as it becomes the scholar of Antoninus Pius. 33. by tyrants? [Can the happiness of man consist in them?] <151> . Labour is not contrary to the nature of the hand. how stedfast and evenly he was in his conduct to his friends. as he is man. What great sensual enjoyments may be obtained by robbers. and his close attention in examining every thing. I consist of a mean body. 31. that these were but dreams which disturbed you. when you are awake in the business of life. without easing himself. and how he bore those who accused him unjustly. his serenity of countenance. No more is labour contrary to the nature of man. without making any angry returns. when you are fully <150> roused. or the foot. and. so.8 Imitate his constant resolute tenor of rational actions. attendants. 32. and how joyfully he received any better informations from them. or sophistry. To the body all things are indifferent. table. how he discouraged all accusations. how religious he was. all things are indifferent. it cannot distinguish them. and patient of their opposition to his sentiments. his equability on all occasions. it is only affected by what are present. his contempt of vain glory. Awake.book vi 77 actions. he could persist in business till the evening. how cautious he was of reproaching any. as to his habitation. by the most infamously dissolute. and prepared to meet it. how he was ever calm without hurry. for. how free from fear. how accurately he inquired into the manners and actions of men. while the hand is doing the proper work of an hand. and the foot what is proper to the foot. and if it be not contrary to his nature. while he is doing what suits the nature of a man. how he was contented with a little. <149> his sweetness of temper. as you see. to the intellectual part. it cannot be evil to him. Remember how he never quitted any subject. furniture. 34. suspicion. how patient he was of labour. which are not its own operations.
Consider frequently the connexion of all things in the universe. <152> 37. Asia. an utensil. All things are. in a natural series. for. yet still adhere to the rules of their art. 39. how common artiﬁcers. are the consequences of those venerable and lovely things you admire. but consider well the fountain of all things. that the architect. All things are but little. mutually friendly. and are. the horrid jaws of the lion. either by direct and primary intention. has seen all things which either have been from eternity. all things are as you <153> should wish. tho’ they may comply to a certain length with the unskilful. either by connexion of place. Don’t you see. even tho’ the artiﬁcer who formed it be gone. or the physician. according to its inclination. therefore.78 meditations 35. 38. He who sees things present. entangled with each other. An instrument. or. and similar. and that with a sincere affection. therefore. and can’t endure to depart from them? Is it not grievous. or shall be to eternity. or mutual conspiring to the same end. and whatever is pernicious. the artiﬁcial power which formed them. or by necessary consequence and connexion with things primarily intended. and conduct yourself according to the intention of this artiﬁcial power which formed you. Europe. as mire. All the time of this present age is but a point of eternity. This is a natural consequence. All things proceed from the universal governing mind. Thus. with whom it is your lot to live. that. changeable. all are of the like nature. 40. as thorns. Thus. with the other. . is then right. poisons. rules which are common to him with the Gods? 36. But. are but little corners of the universe: The whole ocean is but a drop of it: Athos9 but a little clod. when it is ﬁt for its work. therefore. remains and resides within them. than the man [as he is rational] shews to the rules of human life. and to judge. and the relation they bear to each other. should shew a greater reverence to the rules of their peculiar arts. Adapt thy self to those things which are destined for you by providence. imagine them foreign to that constitution of nature which you reverence. as it were. in the artful works of nature. Don’t. You ought. or by continuity of substance. if you are disposed. a tool. and love those men. all things are to the whole. and presently to vanish. to reverence them the more.
or to the universe. with knowledge and understanding. Think. either to themselves. who attempt to oppose the course of nature. have they not different courses. and another. then. Whenever you imagine. the events of the universe. Does the sun affect to perform the work of the rain. and hate those men. A God without counsel and providence is inconceivable.book vi 79 41. and the things to befall me. to love. one way or other. about which they are chieﬂy concerned? If they have not taken counsel about me in particular. Thus.”11 43. or are disappointed of such goods. The presiding mind will certainly make a right use of you. to be good or evil. a silly ridiculous sentiment expressed by a fool in a comedy makes. † IX. who.13 . Don’t chuse to be such a part. “of its self is very silly and vitious. in what class you would wish to rank yourself. there remains no further cause of accusing the Gods. even the querulous and the murmurers. you deem. that “men asleep are also then labouring. Chrysippus says. or suspect will be causes of such misfortunes. We are all co-operating to one great work. Our solicitude about such things leads to a great deal of injustice. But. too. 42. 1. therefore. or Aesculapius that of Ceres?12 The several stars. as. † the world must needs have within it such persons also. were the causes. on their part. Nay. or of any hostile disposition against men. 42. any of these things which are not in your power. if we judge only the things in our power. One contributes to this one way. another way. * you must necessarily accuse the Gods. If the Gods have taken counsel about me.”10 accomplishing.] some. and to <154> obstruct what happens. Heraclitus says. what could move them to do me any mischief ? What advantage could thence accrue. I ought. I fancy. they certainly have about the <155> common interest of the universe. ignorantly. and. and will inlist you among his labourers and fellowworkers. which. are good or evil to you. what’s beyond expectation. others. contribute also to this purpose: for. [The intention of the universal mind in the world. the result of their counsel is certainly good. if you fall into such imagined evils. and chearfully * IX. but yet is an agreeable part in the play. but all jointly contributing to the same end? 44. and undesignedly.
is Rome.80 meditations embrace.16 and his brethren. from a persuasion of their presence. grant they took no thought about our affairs. then. Consider that all these are long since in their graves. so many venerable philosophers. that is the true interest of every one. are just the same. of all sorts. for. which is but for a day. therefore. ﬁtted for civil society. and so many heroes. . to relate to things indifferent. earlier or later. and concern in the affairs of human life: but. artful. of all nations. that. prayers. If. Hipparchus. <156> in a more popular sense. My natural constitution is that of a rational being. then. My deliberation must be about my true interest. ’tis the universe. and from the same causes. Now. all things. and so many generals and princes have followed. which we now perform. which it would be impious to believe. at last cloy us. Whatever happens to any one. I may deliberate about myself. if you attend. or * See. we must all remove to that place. Phoebus. And. 1. Eudoxus. the same happens in the whole of life: for. Heraclitus. but. as I am Antoninus.15 and other acute. certainly. indeed. II. B. and swearing by them. such as Menippus. have died. have gone before. as I am a man. yet. always presented. 45. Socrates. Consider frequently. can we desire to stay gazing on them.14 Go to other tribes. you will see this also holds universally. here. such as have wittily derided this fading mortal life. Pythagoras. But. That alone. which is proﬁtable to those cities. Let the word proﬁtable be * taken. My city and country. they take no counsel about any thing. 47. what happens to any one man. that the same and like things. of all kinds of studies or pursuits. that which happens in consequence of what is well ordered for the universe. Return back to Philistio. How long. As it happens in the theatre and such places of the shows. that all men. 46. what is there calamitous in this to them. and arrogant genii. is proﬁtable also to others. This is enough. we might quit sacriﬁsing. is proﬁtable to the whole. and all acts of devotion. whither so many great orators. laborious. Archimedes. yea. which is agreeable to the structure of his nature. Add to these. and Origanio. sublime. can be good to me.
in the manners of those we converse with. and * humanity. as with the quantity of matter. and not to a greater. frequently occurring to our view. 49. consider the several excellencies and abilities of your acquaintances.17 † See above. IV. the liberality of a third. 53. Nothing rejoyces the heart so much as the appearances or resemblances of the virtues. altho’ you don’t obtain what you ﬁrst aimed at. * Here again the divine sentiment of returning good for evil. <158> Should one oppose you with superior force. in others. The vain-glorious man places his good in the action of another. When you would chear your heart. Enure yourself to attend exactly to what is said by others. is not the interest of the bee. The external things themselves have no power of causing opinions in us. and remember.book vi 81 <157> even to such obscure men. Be content. with the space of time appointed for you. and thus to keep your soul undisturbed. so. but the sensual. that you were never to aim at impossibilities. is. in his own suffering or passive feeling: The wise man places it in his own action. and not three hundred weight? No more reason have you to be grieved that you live to such an age. 1. whose names don’t remain? The one thing valuable in this life. What is not the interest of the hive. have them ready to reﬂect upon. B. 52. the activity of one. 50. the high sense of honour and modesty in another. and other virtues. . let us ourselves act what is just. and your tranquillity. such as. whether they will or not. What. toward even the false and unjust. and improve this obstruction for the exercise of some other virtue. then. Let us study to convince others of what is just. to have no such opinion. 51. then rouse your resignation to providence. but. and to enter into the soul of the speaker. 48. Let us. Are you grieved that you are only of such or such a small weight. 54. You have it in your power. In this you succeed. did you chieﬂy propose? To make a good attempt. your former purpose was taken up with this † reservation. to spend it in a steddy course of truth. therefore. justice.
Examine well.82 meditations 55. contrary to the plan of the universe. whom will they attend to. and water is formidable to those who are bitten with a mad-dog. honey seems bitter. How speedily eternity will sweep them away into obscurity! and how many it hath already swept away! <160> . Why am I angry? Has error in the mind less power than a little bile in the man who is in the jaundice. what sort of men they are. are gone off before me? 57. 59. and by what actions they expect to please them. or a little poison in the man who was bit? 58. how will <159> the one procure safety to the sailors. or the other to the patients? 56. and with what views. And nothing can befall you. whom they study to please. and obey? And. and the patients the physician. No man can hinder you to live according to the plan of your nature. To men in the jaundice. How many of those who entered the world along with me. If the sailors revile the pilot. To boys the ball seems beautiful and honourable.
earlier or later. why. the toiling of Ants. Have this thought ready on all emergences that they are such things as you have often seen: you’ll ﬁnd all things. little bones cast in for contention among little dogs. in the latter. unless it be some way incumbent as duty upon me. the ﬂuttering of affrighted ﬂies. am I disturbed? What is external to my soul.u book vii u 1. What is vice? ’Tis what you have often seen. <161> skirmishing. I execute it as well as I can. just the same. I can always have the sentiments I ought to have about such things. ﬂocks and herds. 4. as is the value of the things he pursues. This is reviving again. How can the grand maxims of life ever become dead in the soul. 5. as you have done formerly. The vain solicitude about shows. Such matters as ﬁll all histories of the antient. we should give good heed to what is said. by directing my 83 . in that case. Every thing is ordinary. unless the opinions suitable to them be extinguished? And it is still in your power to revive and kindle again these true opinions. In Conversation. and their carrying of burdens. and be persuaded that such is the worth of each person. baits cast into a ﬁsh-pond. and in business. 3. Nothing is new. Be thus persuaded. then. all cities and families are full. who. to what end it is refered. or middle. 2. that we may understand what is signiﬁed. I either give place in this work to those who can better execute it. or present ages: of such things. and. to what is done: in the former. Consider things again. and of short duration. scenical representations. taking the aid of those. I use it as an Instrument given me by the universal nature for this work: If it is not. You may revive when you please. and. without storming at them. Is my understanding sufﬁcient for this subject or not? If it is sufﬁcient. and you stand upright and ﬁrm. is of no consequence to it. the involuntary agitations of puppets by wires! We ought to persist amidst such things with good-nature.
10. Every thing material shall soon vanish. 9. If you merely call yourself a * part of mankind. <162> ought to be directed to that. How many of those. As the several members are in an organised body. And the memory of every thing shall soon be buried in eternity. Your design should be to discharge your duty. Either shew yourself as one always upright. There is one orderly graceful disposition of the whole. since both are ﬁtted for one joint operation. What if. and one reason common to all intelligent beings. as there must be one sort of perfection to all beings. tho’ distant in place. or as one well corrected and amended. which is useful and suitable to the public. alone. 13. Be not disturbed about futurity: You shall come to encounter with future events. such are all rational beings. and jointly adorn the same world. Don’t be ashamed to take assistance. and be swallowed up in the matter of the whole. you cannot mount the works alone? you may do it with the assistance of others. I am a member of that great rational body or system. one law. 12. This thought will more deeply affect your heart. They are all arranged together in their proper places. as it is a soldier’s to storm a breach in a wall. are now entirely gone? 7. 6. because of your lameness. are now delivered up to oblivion? and how many of those who sung the praises of others. There is one substance. For whatever I do. the same conduct is agreeable to nature. or with the assistance of others.84 meditations mind. if you often speak to yourself thus. and agreeable to reason. A member refers to a regular . and bound together with a sacred bond: Scarce is there one thing quite foreign to another. Every active principle shall soon be resumed into the intelligence and cause of the whole. who are of <163> the same nature. 8. can accomplish something seasonable and useful to the public. you don’t <164> yet love mankind from * Thus a stone may be called a part of a rude heap. All things are linked with each other. There is one God in the whole. and one truth. whether by my self. possessed of the same reason you now employ in your present affairs. and partake of the same rational power. who were once much celebrated. In the rational being. 11.
according to the old custom: I am not angry with you. too. an organised body. without further views. may be equally necessary to the nature of the whole? whole. 19. it may be free from all disturbance and obstruction. To have good-fortune is to have a good divinity governing our lot. The † soul which is ter-<165>riﬁed or dejected. You only do good. can any thing useful be accomplished. Just as if the gold. But if I can prevent any apprehension that the event is evil. The governing part is free from all indigence or dependence. And it is in my power to prevent it. or a good divinity. You came. 17. † See. if it can. its sorrows. let those complain of them which suffer by them. B. Let the despicable body take thought. * See. B. then. Does one dread a change? What can arise without changes? What is more acceptable or more usual to the nature of the whole? Can you warm your bagnio. I must be a good man. within. for it self. or which is struck with imaginations or opinions about such things. V. . the greatest good to yourself. ’Tis in its own power not to be moved by opinions about such incidents. without changes? Don’t you see. as matter of duty and obligation. then. the * things which can be affected by them. that your undergoing a change. let it do so. I am not hurt. 14. Be gone. its desires? If any other thing can raise its fears or sorrows. and not as doing. and the note upon it. if it don’t make it self indigent. Let external things affect. V. In like manner. as they please.book vii 85 your heart. or the purple were always saying. 19. 18. would suffer nothing. if you would not give it up to such imaginations. let men do or say what they please. nor does the doing of good yet ultimately delight you. unless your food is changed? Or. I must continue an emerauld. Let any one do or say what he pleases. 16. be gone. Is not the governing part the sole cause of its own disturbance? Does it not raise in it self its fears. in which the safety and prosperity of each member depends on that of the whole. at the same time. imagination! Go. if it don’t disturb and obstruct it self. unless wood undergoes a change? Can you be nourished. 15. and the happiness of the whole requires that of each member. only. lest it suffer any thing. the emerauld. and complain when it suffers. governing us. and retain my lustre. by the Gods! as you came: for I have no more use for you.
that they offend through ignorance. and this one may do. or such as injure us. its beauty dies. and then. out of its matter forms a tree. If the sense of moral evil is gone. and each of these forms subsisted a little while. and cannot be revived again.86 meditations 19. 22. † and unwillingly. and afterwards. and that. as there was nothing dismal in it’s being at ﬁrst joined together. what reason could one have for desiring to live? 25. 29. or in a time not suitable. L.1 hath the course of ages swallowed up? Let this thought occur to you. shall the nature presiding in the universe change. that they have done thee no dammage. as through a torrent. as the same members of our body co-operate with each other. of the same nature. There can be nothing dismal in a chest’s being taken asunder. about every person. something different. 34. changing that again. a man. 1. and Epictetus. By this very thing you may ‡ apprehend that it is against reason. About this alone I am solicitous. aut voluptate nimia gestiunt. both we and they must die: and especially. aut eorum qui libidine aliqua. When the countenance is often thus deformed. † Luke. 24. and out of their substance make other things. The presiding nature forms out of the universal substance. A wrathful countenance is exceedingly against nature.3 . and fellow-workers with the whole. and be forgotten by all. and event. that I may not do any thing unsuitable to the constitution of a man. c. and then.2 ‡ See the like sentiment in Cicero de ofﬁc. <167> sometimes a colt. in a little. aut metu commoti sunt. ﬂow all <166> particular bodies. they cannot make thy soul worse than it was before. 20. 21. XXIII. The time approaches when you shall forget all things. as out of wax. or in another manner than it requires. and others. Licet ora ipsa cernere iratorum. * Here the divine precept of loving our enemies. ’Tis the part of a man to * love even those who offend him. if he would consider that those who offend are our kindred by nature. All things you behold. Through the substance of the universe. How many a Chrysippus. for. &c. that the universe may be always new. all. out of theirs. 23. again. and Socrates.
Distinguish between the mate-<169>rial and the active principle.” † But what if all be elements and no more? ’Tis sufﬁcient that even in that case.—“all things by certain laws. or evil.book vii 87 26. 30. 27. by doing so. how earnestly and anxiously you would desire them. lest. 19. nor angry. a vanishing.4 ‡ He means probably these which the Stoics say. 33. an extinction. Concerning death. you yourself may imagine the same thing. . 32. The fault another commits there let it rest where the guilt resides. and apprehend well the nature of every thing which happens. and the thoughts of the indifference of all things between virtue and vice. When you <168> discover this. and. ’Tis either a dispersion. and be obedient to the Gods. B. about some good. And consider the things you enjoy. † The intention here is very doubtful. which are dearest to you. Wind thyself up within thy self. Concerning pain. Don’t let your thoughts dwell upon what you want. to others. enjoying tranquillity. hath led him into this misconduct. Says one. to be good. so that if you should lose them. V. or done any thing wrong. When one has offended. The rational governing part has this natural power. by its opin* See. or some such like thing. you enure yourself to value them too much. except ‡ a very few things. by your delighting in the enjoyment of such things. upon what you have. Blot out all imaginations. or. in acting justly. If you don’t at all look upon such things as good or evil. and neither be surprised. The understanding can preserve a calm. What is intolerable must soon carry us off. 31. as. Consider well the last hour. Stop the brutal impulses of the passions. Circumscribe the present time. Rejoice yourself with simplicity. either. consider what opinion of his. all happens by an inevitable law. you would be much disturbed. love mankind. modesty. What is lasting is tolerable. Perhaps. and enter deeply into what is done. or a translation to another state. if you wanted them: And yet be on your guard. 29. that it * can fully satisfy itself. and into those who do it. or atoms. are in our own power. 28. you can easily be indulgent and gentle to those who are in a mistake. Apply your mind attentively to what is said in conversation. to yourself. so much. you will pity him.
judging it the ﬁttest for him. the part of a good or of a bad man?”11 45. “Me and my children. V. is the following divine sentiment of Epictetus. “In truth. O Athenians! wheresoever one has placed himself by choice. 35. The * parts which suffer by pain. It is for some good reason. <170> 34. Arrian. thy will is my will. or ‡ wheresoever he is <172> * B.”7 <171> 40. while yet the soul cannot conform and adorn itself. II. let them determine about it if they can. “Give joy to us.”9 42. 38. 19. and a view of the whole of time. He says again.12 ‡ Of the same kind. And some must fall. as heaps of sand are driven upon one another. Can then such a one conceive death to be terrible? ’Tis impossible. —”6 39. 36. if the Gods neglect. This from † Plato. ’tis truly royal to do good and be reproached. “I would give him this just answer. cut down. nor be inwardly moved.13 “For the future. what they shun? and what they pursue? And. You are much mistaken. 2.88 meditations ions. II. “For life is. 6. Concerning Glory. says he. Don’t sorrow along with them. the latter bury and hide the former: Just so. man. that our countenance should be obedient to our soul. whether he acts justly or unjustly. “Vain is all anger at th’ external things For they regard it nothing. the former ages are presently buried by the ensuing. B. according to its own inclination. To the man who has a true grandeur of soul. 16. and some unreap’d remain. and change and compose itself as the soul directs. in life. 44. and of all substance. ’Tis unworthy.5 37. † Republic. “For I keep right and justice on my side. Consider the understandings of those who confer praises. and the governing part becomes no worse. to think that a man of any worth makes much account between living and dying. can human life appear a great matter? ’Tis impossible.”8 41. like the loaden’d ear. ’Tis thus in Plato. ’Tis a saying of Antisthenes.”10 43. O God! Use me as thou pleasest. and B. and to th’ immortal Gods. Ought he not to consider this alone. I am equally ready .
and thence you may foresee what shall happen hereafter. By meats and drinks and charms and magic-arts. whether what is truly noble and good. Death’s course they would divert. but vice. also. remain in my own country. various barbarous nations.18 for whatever thou orderest. be poor. in being preserved. births. or some such dispersion of immutable elements. divorces. he ought to stay at all hazards. or any other evil. Hence. Lead me whithersoever thou willest. all <173> things terrestrial. such as herds. ’tis much the same to view human life for forty or for a myriad of years. nor ought he to love it much. be not placed in something else than preserving life. Nor is it so very desirable to one of a truly manly disposition to continue in life a long time. Cloath me in what dress thou willest. or rich? In all these will I vindicate thee before men. Such extensive thoughts purge off the ﬁlth of this terrestrial life. armies. 48. either the disentangling again of the entangled atoms. But. pray. or. as thinking that you revolve along with them. the tumults of courts of justice. nor can they break off the harmony or concert now begun. or a private man. “But. a medley of all things. desolate lands. the revolutions of so many empires. “When we consider human life. in marriages. Toiling. the changes of the elements into each other. I think. Consider things past. Again.’ and study how he shall pass. I plead not against any thing which thou thinkest proper. or in exile. for.”15 47. men employed in agriculture. markets. feasts. for they shall be just of the same nature.” . consider. what further can you see? 50. he should rather commit this to the will of God. Consider the course of the stars. and thus escape. as virtuously as he can. 51. making no account of death. To earth returns whatever sprung from earth. <174> The gale that blows from God we must indure. This is beautiful in Plato. in a system adorned by contrarieties. deaths.17 Euripides intends by this. consider. that ‘no man can avoid his destiny. Is it thy will I should be a magistrate. continually. there. wailings.”16 49. But what’s of heav’nly seed remounts to heaven. assenting to the maxim of even our old women. as from an high tower. but not repining ———. the time destined for him.”14 46.book vii 89 placed by his commander. we should view.
Let * This examination of the images of fancy. 55. there. as all inferior beings are subordinated to the superior. whither it is that nature leads you: The nature of the whole. He is not more social and kind. under some colours of virtue. the moral turpitude of bad actions must determine us to reject them. but look well into this. For. there we should suspect no hurt. The third ofﬁce pointed out by the <176> constitution of the rational nature. is a social communication of good. to † circumscribe itself. so often mentioned by Antoninus. next to this. common to the brutes. V. ’Tis the proper work of the rational and intelligent power. and have just dispositions toward your neighbours. What the structure of human nature is chieﬂy adapted to. Wherever one can act according to that reason which is common to Gods and men. 54. and employ all these lower powers. is to guard against rash assent. nor more modest. and your own nature.90 meditations 52. you may devoutly acquiesce and be satisﬁed with what befalls you. both these are inferior faculties. but. when the will is not suffer’d to give its consent to any of the propositions of fancy. by suggesting what part you should act. and considered according to their own real value. ﬁtted to command. Where we can have the advantage or enjoyment of acting prosperously. and thus preserve innocence and integrity. Don’t be prying into the souls of those around you. . Other beings are ﬁtted to be subservient to the rational. and the rational are formed for each other. 53. until they are stript of all disguise. and that. be it so.19 † B. till you thoroughly comprehend them. The intellectual part claims to itself this power over them. according to the structure of our nature. 19. He is a better wrestler than thou art. In all places and times. under the disguise of some apparent good. there’s nothing terrible. by external events. and not to be subjected to them. is the command over all bodily appetites and passions. that none may insinuate themselves. Each one should act the part he is ﬁtted for by his nature. and to be unconquerable by the appetites and passions. and error. nay. nor more gentle toward the offences of his neighbours. very justly. and * skill-<175>fully examine all arising imaginations. and. nor better prepared to meet the accidents of life. by its own nature. Vice ﬁrst enters the soul. as. is one of the most excellent means for preserving purity of mind.
But where are they now? They are gone for ever. what can be more suitable? † <177> 58. 59. <178> * It may be remembered here once for all. * 57. The dissipating pursuits of external things. is taken in a very high sense: ’Tis living up to that standard of purity and perfection. Only attend well to yourself. of meekness and goodness toward these very men. must be really best for the whole. that the external things. escaped them. would produce the most perfect tranquillity of mind: For. if you be always digging in it. of manly fortitude and patience. and a total conformity to the image of God. What little surplus there is beyond expectation. are indifferent. and complained. and are changed. They stormed at the event. keep in view those to whom the like hath happened. See the citation from Epictet. which is ever springing up. in the note at 46. § The author of this advice. Love and desire that alone which happens to you. stupify the nobler powers. 56. must be the best foundation for the practice of the maxim here recommended. can never be disappointed. thought it strange. spend it according to nature.20 † The practice of this great maxim. wisdom. which every good man feels in his own breast: ’Tis conforming our selves to the law of God written in the heart: ’Tis endeavouring a compleat victory over the passions. condemned by St. Why would you act the like part? Leave these unnatural changes and commotions to those ﬁckle men. had the best opportunities of trying all the happiness which can arise from external things. every event ordered by him. in Antoninus. and is destined by providence for you. Those who storm’d and fretted at such accidents have not. who confounds this with the natural man’s life. as he loves all his works. of ﬁlial love. and for the individuals to which it happens: An intimate and permanent conviction of this. A man must read Antoninus with little attention. By recollection we ﬁnd the dignity of our nature: the diviner powers are disentangled. how to make good use of such events. Look inwards. and the soul has an inexpressible delight in them.21 ‡ Viz.22 . and goodness. and go straight on in her course. about which your actions are employed. You may make an excellent use of them. the life according to nature. § within is the fountain of good. and she has all her own good or perfection. Paul. for. by all their efforts. And still remember. a man who desires only what God destines him. must always accomplish its designs. Upon every accident. Be you intent upon this. who thus change.book vii 91 the governing part retain these things. they may be matter of ‡ virtuous action. since inﬁnite power. Consider your life as now ﬁnished and past. who are the causes of such external misfortunes. and submission to God. and exert themselves in all worthy social affections of piety and humanity. and resolve to be a good man in all your actions. and.
62. it should in the whole body. 66. either as it is rational. We should study also a stability of body.26 or that when he <180> was ordered * to apprehend the innocent Salamin- * He had received these orders from the thirty tyrants. if you remember the narrow bounds within which it is conﬁned. Recollect this.23 You may say the same of justice. ’Tis against its will. The art of life resembles more that of the wrestler. free from loose inconstant motion. who intended to put Leo the . says Plato. that many other things fret us.25 and an excellent disposition? ’Tis not enough that he died gloriously. Upon any pain. being too warm. drowsiness. <179> 64. tho’ they truly are: Thus. But these things are to be observed without affectation. what sort of souls they have. Whence do we conclude that Socrates had a bright genius. or social. in a wise and graceful air. Revolve often what sort of men they are. and every virtue.92 meditations 60. and the want of a natural appetite. that there’s no moral turpitude in it. For. “that it cannot both be intolerable and lasting”: especially. as the soul displays itself by the countenance. too. when one would be lively. so. 63. which we don’t repute of the same nature with pain. recollect. the maxim of Epicurus24 may assist you. since the wrestler must ever be ready on his guard. as they have toward their fellows. nor will you require their approbation. Thus. that any soul is deprived of truth. and don’t add opinions to it. or destroy it. nor does it make the soul the worse. 61. good-nature. Entertain no such affection toward the most inhuman of your fellows. than of the dancer. by saying thus to yourself: What? Do you yield yourself as vanquished by pain? 65. or that he kept watch patiently in the Areopagus. and stand ﬁrm against the sudden unforeseen efforts of his adversary. When you are fretted with any of these things. ’Tis highly necessary to remember this continually: You will thence be made gentler toward all. if you look into the springs of their sentiments and affections. whose approbation you desire. temperance. rouse your mind. you will neither accuse such as unwillingly mistake. As to the far greater part of those pains we are subject to. or argued acutely with the sophists.
“it was such an event as thou art. V. too. Remember this always: and this also. or naturalist. is to me § matter of rational and social virtue. which. VII. “such is thy real nature. <181> that the happiness of life consists in very few things. Socrates at all hazards disobeyed them. For whatever occurs. and seize his estate. 58. nor yielding up his soul to be affected by the passions of the body? 67. or the rational soul. And tho’ you despair of becoming a good logician. and yet be unknown to all. but well known and easy. Nature hath not so † blended the soul with the body. the intellectual part. 68. § See.” Salaminian to death. he gallantly disobeyed at all hazards the unjust command. † See. in all tranquillity. tho’ thou appearest otherwise. B.book vii 93 ian. nor servilely ﬂattering them in their ignorance. one may justly disbelieve: [tho’ charged on him by Aristophanes:] ’Tis this we should look to. not vainly provoked by the vices of others. in the height of their power. and in one of his letters. in being * just toward men. kind and social. in just judgments about the things which surround it. as that it cannot circumscribe itself. nor sinking under it as intolerable. 19. One may be a most divine man. pious toward God. and suited either to the <182> purpose of God or man. possessed of an high sense of honour and modesty. may say. you need not therefore despair of becoming free. and execute its own ofﬁce by itself. that I wanted. 11. and resigned to God. This Plato mentions in the apology. which has been nourished along with you. were all men loudly to rail against you as they please. You may live superior to all force. and in a proper use of what is cast in its way? So that the judgment may say. and of the proper art of man or God. without further view. in the highest delight.27 * See the note at X. tho’ wild beasts were to tear the poor members of this corporeal mixture. or because of any stately airs or gate he assumed in public. . what sort of soul he had: Could he satisfy himself. ‡ That is. Whatever occurs is familiar.” The ‡ faculty which directs how to use every thing. and is not new nor untractable. What hinders the soul to preserve itself amidst these things. counting nothing strange which was appointed by the President of the universe. B.
or must say. and all who are not completely wise and virtuous. why should you be weary of such a course of action? 75. and another is proﬁted by it. 73. with those excellent things primarily intended. and keep himself always calm. they always take care of it. it just-<183>ly deems inferior to itself. the vulgar. they must always bear with such a numerous wicked world: Nay. must be fretted and tired with it. * Yet you who are presently to cease from being. who are immortal. are called fools and mad-men. No man is tired of what is gainful to him. happen. but are still striving to restrain it in others. and avoid the effects of it. When you have done a kind ofﬁce. further. The Gods. 72. Cambray’s dialogue of Socrates. † like the fools. and ﬂy from all vice in yourself. 47.28 † In the high language of the Stoics.94 meditations 69. 45. ’Tis ridiculous that you don’t endeavour to repress. 70. are not fretted. near the end. Your gain consists in acting according to nature. without sloth or hypocrisy. The remembring this will make you much more serene on many occurrences. and below its regard. nor of social dispositions. tho’ you are one of these wretched creatures yourself ! 71. there was no rational intention or design. require any thing further. 46. V. and thus want also the reputation of beneﬁcence. which you can never do. And now either we must allow. that all things. even the worst we see. <184> * The most powerful motive to forgiveness and to return good for evil. 28. Whatever the rational and social power observes. The presiding nature of the whole once set about the making this universe. Alcibiades. which yet appear to be the peculiar objects of intention in the universal mind. why do you. which you have in your power to do. The perfection of manners can make one spend each day as his last. § See. IX. 42. § according to a necessary consequence or connexion. Since the gain is yours. See.29 ‡ See. IX. in a long eternity. Matth. See. . that. 48. as neither subservient to any improvement of the understanding. in the production of these things which are most excellent. and Timon. and to get returns? ‡ 74.
as well as to your own conscience. ﬂows essentially from his nature: in created beings. This. the grand purpose of your life is opposite to this view of reputation. Be satisﬁed with this. temperate. subject to the same law with the Gods? * * As. How shall you act thus? By retaining ﬁrmly the great maxims from which our desires and actions ﬂow. and free: and that nothing can be evil to a man. then. nor in fame. it is a gift from him. from your youth. About every action. under the same immutable eternal law of promoting the good and perfection of the whole. that what remains of life. What further. then. thus examine yourself. be it more or less.” 2. in the supreme Being.1 95 . nor in sensuality. appear such as became a philosopher. Study this point exactly. and be solicitous about nothing else. nor in riches. ’Tis not found in philosophical arguments. should I desire. is it to be found? In acting the part which <185> human nature requires. You have experienced many wanderings. This will repress the desire of vain-glory. Where. What maxims? Those concerning good and evil: “that nothing is truly good to a man. all intelligent beings are. and the opinions of others. if my present action be such as becomes an intellectual and social being. If this be your aim. that you were far from true wisdom. and all these things gone. but knowing what your nature requires. without ﬁnding happiness. ’Tis known to many. that you cannot make the whole of your life.u book viii u 1. What sort of one is it? Shall I never repent of it? I shall presently be dead. courageous. which gives him not the contrary dispositions. Nay. by their nature. Not at all. If you know wherein true excellence consists. away with this affair of reputation. and acting accordingly. you must be full of confusion: It can be no easy matter for you to gain the reputation of a philosopher. be spent as the constitution of your nature requires. which does not make him just.
All are changes. † See. if you don’t merely compare one circumstance of one with the corresponding circum- * See. tho’ you should burst with indignation. and yet with calm good-nature and modesty. IX. indeed. This nature distributes. . 3. 5. Such men † will go on doing such actions.3 Heraclitus.6 And. and materials: And thus their governing parts were employed. Caius. and the note. ’Tis the constant business of the universal nature. what were they in comparison with Diogenes. 17. of powers. while it embraces contentedly whatever is appointed by the universal nature. 6. 7. Alexander.4 and Socrates? These latter knew the natures of things. In a little time you shall be gone. of active principle. and their causes. The rational nature is prosperous. you need not fear any thing new. 1.5 and Augustus. into another place. all are customary. and is intelligent and just. to be transferring what is now here. suitably to all. to be changing things. All are subjected to the same law. Every being is satisﬁed while it continues prospering. and placing them elsewhere. the note on B. and its desires and aversions turned toward these things alone which are in its power. and carrying them hence. attentively consider the nature of what occurs to you: Remember you must persist in the purpose of being a good man. of that it is a part. § This you will ﬁnd. be not disturbed or put into confusion. and has its affections directed to something social and <187> kind. ‡ See. Act. as a leaf is a part of a tree. which can be obstructed in the intention of its nature: but the human nature is a part of that universal nature which ‡ cannot be obstructed.96 meditations 3. then. their proper portions of time. the leaf is a part of an insensible irrational system. IV. while it assents to no false or uncertain opinion. In the ﬁrst place. as Hadrian. IX. and events. In these. then. what a multitude of <186> things were the objects of their care? To how many were they enslaved? * 4. and speak always what appears to you just. For. As to the former. All things happen according to the nature of the whole. V. 29. of matter. and without Hypocrisy.2 Pompey. inﬂexibly what suits the nature of a man. § See.
pleasure and pain. 11. When you are averse to be roused from sleep. 10. and pain. must be useful in some sort. V. as it would be silly to be surprized that a ﬁg-tree bears ﬁgs. [Ask yourself thus about every thing. When you have to do with any one. is neither good nor proﬁtable. about glory and infamy. and the causes of them. that he acts such a part. 8. because we have neglected something useful. And then we shall recollect too. there is nothing wondrous or strange. 13. of keeping yourself superior to pleasure. ’Tis silly in a physician. that. and of restraining all anger against the insensible. so is it equally. Whatever is good. and worthy of the care of a good and honourable man. Remember. and its effect upon our affections.] What is the nature of it. What is peculiarly suited to the nature of each species. say thus to yourself: What are this man’s maxims about good and evil. <189> 14. to be surprized * See. even of retaining an affectionate concern about them. consider that it is according to your constitution. IX. therefore. opportunity for reading. continually endeavour to apprehend its nature. Let no man hear you accusing either a court-life. but consider the whole nature and circumstances of one. But never did such a man repent of his neglecting some opportunity of sensual pleasure: Such pleasure. death or life? If he have such maxims. 17. that must be most familiar. and to reason well about it. VI. and that of human nature. . But you never want opportunity of repressing all insolence. most adapted. is common to us with the brutes. To sleep. <188> 9. nay. 15. Upon each occurrence which affects the imagination. and vain-glory. and most delightful to it. to be employed in social actions. that he is under * a necessity of acting thus. perhaps. or your own life. as to its active principle? What is its business in the universe? How long shall it endure? 12. You want.book viii 97 stance in another. and the ungrateful. 27. Repentance is a self-reproving. according to its constitution and end? What is its substance or matter? What. to be surprized that the universe produces those things of which it was ever fruitful. and compare them with the whole of another. 42.
to change his course. it equally becomes a man truly free. and planets. or in a pilot. for this is also your own action. 17. or dead? The applauded and the applauder. Every thing is formed for some purpose: the horse. If not. There is nothing therefore to be accused or blamed. and don’t murmur at it. Many Christians believed the same general tenet. not only intends its motion and direction. For what end are you formed? <191> For sensual enjoyments? See if the Sentiments of your soul can bear this thought. it returns to those elements. when extinguished. if you can. and judgment. yet they conceived great numbers of superior natures. and understanding. These too are changed. If this matter is in your own power. 21. The heathens called those superior beings Gods. residing in the sun. The heathens imagined these inferior Gods or Angels. the stars. 16. whom do you accuse? It must either be the a-<190>toms.98 meditations that one is fallen into a fever. of himself. Why do you wonder at this? The sun too is formed for a certain ofﬁce. or the Gods. 20. 18. If that which is dissolved stays here. What better is the ball while ascending or descending. to what purpose complain? Now. and is changed. or sickly. when he thinks ﬁt. Remember. but with very great natural excellencies. and invested with great powers of government. What dies is not gone out of the verge of the universe. and keenly opposed. the nature of the whole intends the ceasing of each being. and to follow the advice of another who suggests better measures. but the place where it should stop. than when fallen or stopt? What good is it to the bubble in water that it continues? or evil. so. * Tho’ one supreme original deity was acknowledged by almost all the better sects of the heathen philosophers.7 . This the Christians justly denied. Turn out the inner side of this body. created indeed. Why do you act thus? If it is not. Correct the matter. in certain parts of the universe. and so are the * other Gods. as it had occasioned much superstitious and idolatrous worship in the heathen world. As he who throws the ball. 19. and view it: What shall it become when it grows old. and Christians called them Angels. nothing should be done to no purpose. that it is broken? The same you may say of the lamps. no less than its commencing and continuance. that the wind has turned against him. To accuse either is a piece of madness. accomplished according to your own desire. of which the world and you too consist. the vine.
* These two are Antoninus Pius10 and his wife Annia Faustina. The joy of man is in doing the proper ofﬁce of a man. Some scarce remembered for any time after their death. that either this corporeal mixture <193> must be dispersed: or that the spirit of life must be either extinguished. toward our neighbours with whom we live. and then Celer followed. All of us stand in three relations: the ﬁrst. 24. from whom all things are ordered in a ﬁxed series. and then Secunda herself was buried. the ﬁlth of the skin. Does any thing befall me? I accept it. 26. and of some. Epitynchanus buried Diotimus. few agree with themselves. as referring it to the Gods. the third. Remember these things. What things occur in bathing? How do they appear? Oil. all the objects before us. or species. some gone into a fable. the rememberer and the person remembered: And all this. dirt. and the things which happen according to it. and would rather become a good man to morrow. because you neglect your present business. who foretold the fates of others. the second toward the divine cause which effects all things. 27. or removed. and soon after was buried herself. sweat. Eudaemon. Lucilla buried Verus. 22. * Antoninus buried Faustina. all nauseous. in considering the nature of the whole. too. than to day. in a little corner of one climate. Am I in action. Such are all parts of animal life. I refer it to some beneﬁt thence to accrue to mankind. where. And this whole earth is but a point. Celer buried Hadrian. water. and are gone long ago. an action.book viii 99 are of short continuance. Secunda buried Maximus. ’Tis just you should suffer. 25. even the old fable itself is vanished. Demetrius Platonicus. or were swoln with pride. the fountain of all things. or a speech. in contempt of sensual impressions. toward the present immediate causes. in distinguishing the proﬁtable appearances. and then Antoninus was buried. whether it be a maxim.9 and such others? All were but for a day. nay. . all don’t agree in the characters they give. and this consists in good-will toward his own tribe. Attend well to what is at present before you. where are they now? Charax. too. and then Epitynchanus was buried. and brought into another place. <192> 23.8 All go the same way: Those artful men.
there may arise another action of your’s. and. as I discern the natures of things. desire. his sister. Maecenas. to the soul: But. Now. whether in the senate or elsewhere.100 meditations 28. * See. then. 19. 1. B. And yet. I can use them <194> all in proportion to their value. All judgment. the wise part. Remember this noble power granted you by nature. but.11 his physicians.14 . equally suited to this regularity and orderly composition of life. † Make yourself regular.” And then think. what solicitude the ancestors of such men have had. by regulating your several actions. daughter. his kinsmen. and what we meet sometimes inscribed on tombs: “This was the last of his family. to which no evil can ascend. or. grand-children. and your calmly converting yourself to that conduct which is in your power. then. you may be satisﬁed. sacriﬁcers. and let your speech ever be sound and virtuous. B. aim rather at a decent dignity. 30. the temperate. 31. we are speaking of. say you. nothing can hinder you. and aversion. his wife. Blot out the false imaginations. let the body pronounce it to be evil. But. one by one. ’Tis now in my power to preserve my soul free from all wickedness. Pain is either an evil to the body. and say often to yourself thus. in your acquiescence under this impediment. step-sons. so that if each action answers its end.13 † See. Go next. than elegance. Receive the gifts of fortune.12 33. all confusion or disturbance. as that of the Pompeys. intimates and friends. may not <195> something external withstand me? Nothing can hinder you to act the just. there should be a last one of that race. and not conceive pain to be evil. not merely to the death of one. are within the soul. the soul * can maintain her own serenity and calm. without pride. without reluctance. 32. The court of Augustus. in this. all yielded to death. IV. all lust. and part with them. Thus you see the death of a whole kindred. intention. In your speeches. 29. IV. and Agrippa. and have what perfection belongs to it. that they might leave a succession of their own posterity. but of a whole family or name. Some external effects of your actions may be obstructed. Arius. and yet it was necessary.
and makes subservient to its purpose. then. But ask yourself about such as are present. what . He ﬁrst put it in their power. not to be broken off from this unity. that. that you can re-unite yourself to the whole. And. and lament for ever? Was it not destined they should grow old and die? and when they should die. or an head. whatever it be. and by dwelling upon the multitude. and grow together again naturally. if it cannot bear up against this one thing thus alone. as the nature of the whole converts into its use. 35. Consider the goodness and bounty with which <196> God hath honoured mankind. and re-uniting with the whole. could these men be immortal. and can use it for its grand purpose. and then put it in their power. ’tis only what is <197> present.book viii 101 34. by considering the whole of your future life. when they are once cut off. if they were pleased with it. thus. If they were still sitting there. The Gods have granted such a power of returning again. would their masters be sensible of it? Or if they were sensible. and greatness of the pains or troubles. and chide your own mind. 36. 37. and lying dead at a distance from it: Such does one make himself. this one in particular. Yet this is glorious. cut off from the rest of the body. to no other parts. even when they are thus broken off. which can oppress you. If you have ever beheld an hand. but you have cut off yourself. recollect. nor what is future. that it is neither what is past. to return. as it hath imparted to each rational being almost all its faculties and powers. and makes it a regular part of that orderly fated series. The president nature of the whole. each rational being can make every impediment in its way the proper matter for itself to act upon. who repines at any event which happens. in the condition of parts. if you circumscribe or consider it by itself. so. And this will be much diminished. to which you may probably be exposed. and tears himself off from the whole. whatever seems to withstand or oppose it. Is Panthea15 or Pergamus now sitting and wailing at the tomb of Verus? or Chabrias and Diotimus at the tomb of Hadrian? Ridiculous work this. Don’t confound yourself. as far as he can. a foot. would it give them any pleasure? Or. or who does any thing unsociable: You are broke off from the natural unity: Nature formed you for a part of the whole. is there any thing intolerable and unsufferable in them? You’ll be ashamed to own it.
and accepting. so is the obstruction of any external motion or design: There is another sort of obstruction. can reach it. II. in like manner. The obstruction of the understanding is. you are not hurt nor hindered. there is no virtue or excellence. My joy consists in having my governing part sound. Well: let not your reason then disturb itself. No other person can hinder that which is the proper work of the intelligent nature. An obstruction of any sense is the evil of an animal. say you. Externi ne quid valeat per leve morari. Do pain or pleasure affect you? Let the sense look to it. V. * See. But let the part which suffers form opinions concerning this matter. I am not reason. and another in another. Nor ﬁre. 39. nor calumny. which is the evil of the vegetative nature. ‡ ——— in seipse totus teres atque rotundus. it remains so. If you remove your own opinions about the things which grieve you. nor sword. 42. B. destined to withstand or restrain justice. What <198> is that self ? ’Tis reason. who never willingly grieved any one. nor a tyrant. if you have taken in the general reservation. but beholding with a serene look. When it is as a ‡ sphere complete within itself. exercise it in what is the subject of the greatest wisdom. † See this explained. but a nauseous bag of blood and corruption? 38. 40. and using. as you are rational: But. * 41. In the constitution of the rational creature. you may presently stand on the surest ground. this is evil to you. B. 19. sat. One rejoices in one thing. 7. Does any thing obstruct any external design of yours? If you have designed without the proper † reservation. 1. or any event incident to mankind. without aversion to any man. IV.16 . the evil of an intelligent nature: apply all these things to yourself. If you have great penetration. Hor. every thing in proportion to its worth. without any <199> corners which can be struck off by external force.102 meditations would have become of their masters? What is all this for. It would be unjust in me to vex or grieve myself. 43. but I see temperance destined to restrain sensual pleasures.
nor to an ox. any external event of such worth. after due deliberation. I shall have my own divinity within me propitious: that is. to which he can ﬂy. and naturally incident to it. my soul should suffer. on its account. that alone can befall any thing. If you are grieved at any thing in your own disposition. what cause is there for indignation? The presiding nature of the whole hath brought nothing upon you. and it is in your power to correct this judgment and get quit of it. What shall it be then. and prostrate.” Then you have no cause of sorrow. who hinders you to correct your maxims of life? If you are grieved. don’t consider that posterity will just be such as our contemporaries. or terriﬁed? Can you ﬁnd any thing which can deserve all this? 46. Remember the governing part becomes invincible. life is not worth retaining. but your judgment about it. then. that. And what is it to you. nor to a vine. nor to a stone. “But. it has ﬁxed its judgment according to reason? The soul.” Quit life. and with good-will. the fault of the omission lyes not in you. is a strong fort. if this be not accomplished. for. then. If. and become invincible for the future. it can be satisﬁed with acting only as it pleases. even when it is obstinately set upon things unreasonable. Take me up. which is not a natural incident to these species. which is usual. and cast me where you please. Nothing can befall a man which is not a natural incident of mankind. He . whose manners we scarce can bear: and they too will be mortal. Is. thus free from passions.book viii 103 44. which you cannot bear? 47. when. or what opinions they shall entertain about you? 45. when. as if you had accom-<201>plished it. because you have not accomplished some sound and virtuous design. what sounds they shall make with their voices. while its affections and actions are suited to its own structure and natural furniture. then. nor can a man ﬁnd any stronger. and become worse than it was. rather than be grieving that it is undone. If you are grieved about anything external. Those who rather pursue a surviving fame. collected into itself. “But some superior force withstands. 48. set about it effectually. becoming abject. even toward those who withstand you. ’tis not the thing itself that afﬂicts you. with the same serenity. and bound as a slave along with the body. satisﬁed. Allow to yourself the little time you have. as a mean <200> suppliant.
nor dragged away in your soul. it will soon disperse them. . Dwell thus upon the ﬁrst appearances. nor sallying out by the impulse of passions. or useless. its own space. is illiterate. beyond what the appearances directly declare. and a sense of what is decent and becoming. But the nature of the whole has no external place for this purpose: And herein its art is wonderful. rather. He. and no harm befalls you: Or. “Why were such things in the universe?” A naturalist would laugh at you. too. cut you to pieces. Does this hinder your soul to continue pure. and not a dead cistern? Form yourself anew each day into liberty. makes other new forms. so as neither to need matter from without. then. and add nothing to them. having circumscribed itself within certain bounds. shall you get this perpetual living fountain within you. because shavings and parings of their Works are lying about in their work-houses. with tranquillity. is miserable. 49. He. who knows not there is an orderly universe. this only I see. nor too much hurried in life. knows not himself. and become free from all pollution. Should he throw into it clay or dung. I see my child is sick. nor want a place where to cast out its superﬂuities. if you were ﬁnding fault. that one has spoken ill of you. who knows not for what purpose he was formed. wash them away. 51. nor inconstant in your opinions. that. out of them. 50. all within it which seems corrupting. These artiﬁcers have places too without their work-shops. add what becomes one who understands the nature of all which happens in the universe. and does not ﬂy to it. They slay you. This alone is told you. Is the cucumber bitter? Throw it away. from within. and not also that he is in danger of dying. just? As if one standing by a clear sweet foun-<203>tain. it transforms into itself. simplicity. pursue you with curses. knows not where he is. That is enough. where they can throw these superﬂuities. Are there thorns in the way? Walk aside. He who has. and not that you are hurt by it. 52. Pronounce no more to yourself. temperate. Neither appear languid and tired out in Action.104 meditations who has not discerned this. and its own art. nor troublesome in conversation. should reproach it. or a shoe-maker. How. and. ’Tis told you. Don’t be <202> adding. yet it ceases not to send forth its refreshing waters. as would a carpenter. prudent. waxing old. ’Tis satisﬁed with its own substance.
What sort of person. and hence the † Greek word for the rays is thought to be derived. and in forming in it all holy affections. the vice of another might become my proper evil or misery: God <205> thought ﬁt. and just apprehensions of himself. this should not be. V. 55. he may be free from it altogether. or his ﬂesh is. not only intimating that our dispositions to piety are the effects of the diffusive and gracious power of God. Cicero gives many ridiculous instances when he is imitating their manner. yet. as might make them memorial hints of some useful reﬂection. <204> by breathing in it. The nature * This is a very remarkable passage. to all minds which by earnest desires are seeking after him. And how much soever we were formed for the sake of each other. has this gracious privilege. Want you to be praised by a man who curses himself thrice in an hour? Can you desire to please one. There is no universal wickedness to hurt the universe. the elective power of another is indifferent.18 . 8. but not poured out.book viii 105 and knows not the world. nor what they are? 53. no less than the air does to such as can receive it into themselves by breathing. lest it should be in the power of another to make me unhappy. He. 57. this * intelligence diffuses itself to all. or dreads the censures of men. 56. To my elective power. who repents of almost every thing he does? 54. then. yet the governing part of each one has its own proper power: otherways.17 † The Stoics studied to ﬁnd out such etymologys of words. as his animal life. Particular wickedness of any individual hurts not another. The thought in this section is very obscure. who. Don’t content yourself in merely corresponding with the surrounding air. tho’ very different from the true critical etymologys. The sun seems to be poured forth. B. who is deﬁcient in either of these parts of knowledge. but correspond in sentiment with that intelligence which surrounds all things. as soon as he heartily desires it. but that such is the divine goodness that he is ever ready to communicate his goodness and mercy. and advances toward all those who can draw it in. or emptied. It hurts himself only. For. cannot tell you for what purpose he is ﬁtted by nature. We had an instance. of one more natural than this. must he appear. who pursues the applauses. who is not pleased with himself ? Is he pleased with himself. who know not where they themselves are. in the renovation of the heart. that. and is diffused all around. This diffusion is a sort of extension of its rays.
<207> . 60. which does not admit it into itself. Upon this the light is ﬁxed. and don’t cease to live. no part of it is lost.106 meditations of a ray you may observe. Such opaque objects as will not receive and transmit the rays. to enter into it. and lay yours open to them. and illuminating whatever will re<206>ceive it. Now. then. there can be no sense of evil. The motion of the arrow is different from that of the mind. or dreads a different sort of sensation. If all sense is extinguished. or bear with them. dreads either an extinction of all sense. Men were formed for each other. when turning to all sides. if you see it entring through some small hole into a darkened chamber. Teach them better. but terminating directly on it. Penetrate into the governing part of others. Its direction is straight. not an effusion or emptying of itself. deprive themselves of the splendor. you become another sort of living creature. The mind. when it falls upon any solid body.] 61. 58. when cautiously avoiding. 59. [viz. nor falling aside. in deliberation about what to pursue. or. He who dreads death. or falls aside. such ought to be the direction and diffusion of your understanding. is even then carried straight forward toward its proper mark. If a different sort of sense is acquired. and it is reﬂected around. but an extension of it toward even any obstacle that occurs: Not violently and impetuously dashing against it. Acting the good part.
He. he who dreads pain. in those things to which the common nature is indifferent. as making some unworthy distributions to the bad and the good. by neglecting which he is now unable to do it. since the nature of the whole has formed the rational animals for one another. each for being useful to the other according to his merit. and that is manifestly impious. he who transgresses this her will. is thus guilty of impiety against * the most ancient and venerable of the Gods. by deceiving. too. <208> since nature had furnished him with means for distinguishing falsehood from truth. besides. † For the nature of the whole is the nature of all things which exist. because the bad oftimes enjoy pleasures. then. are a-kin to their causes. and things which exist. is guilty of impiety. (for she had not made both. or the mind presiding in the whole. with perfect benevolence toward all. in as far as. in as far as his voice dissents from the nature of the whole. For. But. who willingly lyes. he who pursues pleasures will not abstain from injury. he who would follow nature. and governing it for the universal good. and the good often meet with pain. and is the ﬁrst cause of all truths: He. and possess the means of them. Further. * This is a clear acknowledgement of the one supreme God. is always to be understood of God. he does an injury: and he. she is called truth. were she not indifferent to either).u book ix u 1. and what causes pain. must sometimes dread that which must be a part of the order and beauty of the universe: this. now. in opposing the comely order of the universe: For he ﬁghts against its nature and design.1 107 . who pursues pleasure as good. is guilty of impiety: for such a one must needs frequently blame the common nature. as he is acting ungracefully. then. He who does an injury is guilty of impiety. and never hurtful. and shuns pain as evil. Probably this nature of the whole. is impious: and. who sets himself against truth. † The original is obscure here. who lyes unwillingly.
it is plain he is guilty of impiety. such is it also to be dissolved.108 meditations ought. is not indifferently dispos’d to pain and pleasure. persuade you to ﬂy from amidst the plague? For a corruption of the intellectual part is far more a plague than any pestilential distemper and change of this surrounding ﬂuid which we breathe. life and death. or vanity. and beard. but the other to men. Don’t despise death. The next choice were. and ensue upon others. to be delivered. to depart from among men. after she had conceived and ﬁxed the plan of all that was to exist. here is one which goes to the heart: you will be extremely easy with * The Greek word is a term for one who never acts. When I say the common nature regards <209> them as indifferent. till he has examined thoroughly. . to grow up. 30. at a certain period. If you want also a popular support. on what he is going to do. to be full grown. luxury. and be indifferently dispos’d to either. to expire. It becomes a * man of wisdom neither to be inconsiderate. glory and ignominy. hypocrisy. unacquainted with falsehood. suitably to a certain ancient purpose of that providence and design. Whoever. all which the nature of the whole regards as indifferent. to breed teeth. to agree with her in his sentiments. when cloy’d with these vices. rather than continue among them: and does not even experience. in which things exist. to be old. 3. changes. and undergo the other natural effects which the seasons of your life produce. as of one of the operations of nature. in the character of Antoninus Pius. and appointed the distinct powers which were to produce the several substances. as they are animals. impetuous.2 For such as it is to be <210> young. as they are men. and successions. I mean she regards their happening or not happening as indifferent events in the grand establish’d series. but await the season of it. to beget. and reasoned right. 2. VI. It were the more desirable lot. yet. thus await the season when your soul shall fall out of these its teguments. The one is only a pestilence to animals. she set about this fair structure and arrangement of the universe. in this too. to go with child. See. as it is one of the things which nature wills. and grow grey. then. but receive it well-pleas’d. according to which. or ostentatiously contemptuous about death. As you are now awaiting the season when the foetus shall come out of the womb of your wife.
and animated. by making himself evil. does a wrong to himself. † As a quotation probably from some poet. and keep the governing part master of itself. again. have a strong tendency to what is of the same kind with themselves. Be satisfyed with your present sentiments of things. 6. at present you see how great the fatigue and toil from the jarring courses of those you are among. <212> partake of ‡ one intellectual soul: just as there is one earth to all things earthy. 1. Men are often unjust by omissions. that any matter pretty dry is easily set on ﬁre. But. 9. along with which all our fewel is so apt to be kindled. could pull you back.3 ‡ See. to prevent their conﬂuence: What contains the nature of ﬁre tends upwards. because there is then a less * Here is the precept of loving our enemies. and. but * even to have a tender care of them. the watery all naturally ﬂow together. II. and as all of us. if you consider the objects you are going to leave. and the aerial also. Wipe out the fancies of imagination: stop all eager impulses to action: extinguish keen desires. and bear with <211> them mildly. 8. were it so. if certain. your removal is not from among men of the same sentiments with yourself: for this alone. Remember. and the manners of that confused croud from which you are to be disengaged: tho’ at the same time. the rational.book ix 109 regard to death. your present temper of mind. which partake of any common quality. and detain you in life. as well as by actions. So that you may say. see with one light and breathe one air. so that there is need of some intercepting partitions and violence. . “ † Haste. if social. He who does wrong. too. on account of the elementary ﬁre. were it given you to live along with men who had attained to the same maxims of life with yourself. 5. does evil to himself. All things. death! lest I. however. He who is injurious.” 4. who are indued with sight. if well-pleased with every thing which comes from the universal cause. should forget myself. your present course of action. 7. Among the irrationals one animal-soul is distributed. you ought not to be offended at them. The earthy all tend to the earth. which is also in many others of these meditations.
God. and mutual tendency to union! Here. For the more it excels other natures. hastens. And then among the rational animals. <214> 10. in like manner. entire resignation to the will of God in all events. VI. mutual loves: for they have animal-souls. if you observe. And it produces just such other things as reason itself is. and submission to the universal providence. We may supply the enumeration of its fruits from the apostle. and the universe. the <213> stronger is its tendency to mix with and adhere to what is a-kin to it. * Thus. and an intire harmony of will with him by resignation: and also its present degenerate state. nurture of their young. alone. ‡ Reason has its fruit too. begun civil-societies. and. there subsists. and adhere to what is a-kin to it. Man. to mingle with. or rather more. a certain kind of union: as among the stars. For nature always prevails. V. and the like. even in war. Among beings. treaties. Galat. “Now the fruits of the spirit are love. friendships. families. and assemblies. but that is nothing.” . ** Chearful tranquillity under whatever happens.7 § Kind ofﬁces and good-nature to our fellows. he at once acknowledges the original fabric of the soul to be destined for the knowledge and love of God. meekness. and kind affections to our fellows.—For. 13.110 meditations mixture of what hinders its kindling. XXII. both § social and ** private. and herds. peace. faith. Thus. goodness. self-command. have now forgot the social concern for each other. Custom indeed has appropriated the expression to the vine. such as was not found in plants. gentleness. all bear fruit. Thus can that superior excellence produce † a sympathy among these beings so widely distant.5 † See. nor in stones. still more excellent. may one ﬁnd some earthy thing which joins to nothing earthy. tho’ they ﬂy off. and temperance. 27. joy. But observe what happens [among us:] For intellectual beings.4 * In this paragraph. XI. and truces. or wood. among irrational animals. You will see what I say. alone. 37. 39. nay. than a man rent off and separated from all men. we easily observe swarms. also. as it were. long-suffering. again. and each in their own seasons. 22. as it is often counteracting its original destination. now. and VII. the social conﬂuence is not seen! Yet are they invironed and held by it.6 ‡ The law of our nature. and the mutual attraction is found stronger in the more noble nature. tho’ they are placed far asunder. sooner. 43. whatever partakes of the common intellectual nature. See Matth.
19. But will only one thing. and. sordid. in our experience of them. in their matter. To the stone thrown up. See. 21. too. It is not in passive feeling. 15. as social wisdom requires. to have mounted up. about themselves. <216> 18. is as it were a death to them. All these things are. § The exertion of our active powers. The fault of another you must leave with himself. in some respect. and neither know. youth. Turn. glory. but within. nor good. If not. All things are in a state of change. by themselves. wealth. such as childhood. . Or. and pronounces. The cessation of any action. For they were not without. 14. they are. nor as wanting to be <215> pitied. customary. and. the extinction of any keen desire. Penetrate into their governing part. and even aid them in their pursuits of some things. but for a day. teach them better. concerning them? † The governing part. such as they were in the times of those we have buried. nor declare to us any thing concerning themselves. This is no evil. art. So gracious are they! You may be so too. or admired. but in action. for every * To enable you to bear mildly the imperfections of others. and V. always to act. in my own opinions. 42. manhood. Bear toil and pain. * Nay. in their continuance. and you are yourself under continual transmutation. What declares. or refrain. 3. 16. All at present. § the good and evil of the rational animal formed for society consists: As neither does the virtue or vice of it consist in passive-feeling. or of any opinion. as of health. 17. ‡ Either of pleasure or pain. to fall down. who hinders you? 12. and you will see what kind of judges you fear: and what kind of judges.8 13. corruption: and so is the whole universe. it is no evil. remember that the virtue of meekness was given you to be exercised on such occasions. the Gods also exercise meekness and patience toward them.book ix 111 11. say. If you can. 20. old-age. rather. † IV. now to your different ages. not as if wretched under it. then. I have thrown out from me every dangerous accident. 19. ‡ but in action. To day I have escaped from every dangerous accident: or. The things themselves stand with out-doors.
when it does those things which it is formed for doing. of this particular quality. how long. and change. so also let every action of yours be a completing part of a social life. 27. that you may remember of what you are a part: and to that of this man. can naturally subsist. of your whole life. ‡ A spectacle so called: as Gataker takes it. and contemplate it by itself. 26. to your life. You will see that you ought not to disturb yourself.10 25. ceasing. changes. and that you may. Quarrels of children at their play! And poor spirits carrying dead carcases about with them! Hence we may be the more deeply affected with the representations of the ‡ shades. When another reproaches or hates you. the youth in the man. as a man is in a common-wealth. that you may make it a mind disposed to justice: to that of the whole. abstract it from the material. at the same time. to the common-good as its end.11 § VII. 29. neither is there. † Antoninus Pius. and hinders it from being uniform. then. breaks off his own party from the general harmony and concord. You have indured innumerable sufferings. * Is there any thing alarming here? Go. this thing. 23.112 meditations change of these is a death. by not being satisﬁed with your own governing part. Then deter-<218>mine the time. and to that of the <217> whole. Go to the quality of the § active principle. and endings.] To your own. 22. then. ﬁrst as it was under your grand-father. If. Enough.9 24. consider. this action disorders your life. and to that of this man [who has offended you. that you may know whether he has acted out of ignorance. any action of yours has not its tendency. and so on. go to their souls: enter in there. at furthest.12 . who. and look what kind of men they are. or design. either immediate or distant. he is your kinsman. or utters any thing to that purpose. As you are a completing part of a social system. ask yourself. in the ending. [of this dissatisfaction]. now. then as it was under your mother. by pursuing a separate interest. as you ﬁnd there many other alterations. was there any thing in these to alarm me? Thus. and then as it was under † your father: and. the child dies in the youth. and it is seditious. Have speedy recourse to your own governing part. in order to procure * That is.
How <220> very little worth. all things are right and well: or. †† See this more fully in VI. too. 28.] § or atoms and indivisible particles are the origin of all things. VI. make up one regular complete whole. . from age to age. “Either the mind of the whole intends and designs each particular event. and in consequence of this. if so. at the beginning. 27. up and down. are those poor creatures who pretend to understand affairs of state. accept of what it intends: or has once primarily intended some things. even those have somehow made up one orderly system of the whole. whatever it be.book ix 113 any opinion of theirs concerning you. like one wave upon another. 9. 45. if there is any ** God. 75. if so. [and all together. 29. ‡ in which each is connected with the other. ** Governing mind. by oracles. 36. and what remains is corrupted. Now. † Or the words of the original may bear this meaning. and don’t hope for Plato’s common-wealth:13 ‡‡ But be satisﬁed if it have the smallest success. † Either <219> the mind of the whole exerts itself in every particular event: and. and those. again. a continual rotation. § Part of the original is wanting.” ‡ See. †† The earth will presently cover us all: and then this earth will itself change into some other forms. by dreams. too. The course of things in the world is always the same. if you have the means: and don’t look about you. O man! that which nature requires of you. It carries all along with it. The turn given it in the translation is founded on. he will despise every thing mortal. and. and VII. accept of what comes immediately from it: or has exerted itself once. IV. into others: and so on without end. and the rest are unavoidable necessary consequences of those. if so. and transmutations roll on. and even in these things they are most eager after. and * Here again the precept of loving our enemies. In ﬁne. IV. aid them every way. at least you need not act by chance. The cause of the whole is a torrent. Set about it. 44. ‡‡ V. all things go on since in a necessary series. when any one considers how swiftly those changes. and. Yet you ought to have * kind dispositions toward them: for they are by nature your friends: and the Gods. to see if any be taking notice. if there is only a chance. and imagine they unite in themselves the statesman and the philosopher! mere froth! Do you.
14 and Demetrius Phalereus. and tell me of * Alexander. and the time after its dissolution. 48. as being suited to your nature. to gain the applause and admiration of men. meek. The business of philosophy is simple. if they designed only an outward shew. 32. 48. the life they will live after you. and innumerable religious rites. a bent of will and course of action which rests and is satisﬁed in its having been exerted for the good of society. § As. Tranquillity as to what happens by external causes: Justice in what proceeds from the active principle within you: that is. by considering the age you live in. while they pretend a willing obedience? Come. where births. and calms. who perhaps praise you now. and should begin thus. and modest. in particular. <221> 30. equally inﬁnite.114 meditations consider the event of this very thing as no small matter. how many will quickly forget it. and by considering the quick changes of each thing. † Contemplate. ‡ the different states of those who are coming into life. You can cut off a great many superﬂuous things which crowd and disturb <222> you. VII. . in storms. 3. * VIII. and navigation of all kinds. marriages. and train’d themselves accordingly. how immense the space of time before its birth. those who are associating in life. how many. how short the time from its birth to its dissolution. For who can change the opinions of those men? Now. † VII. and deaths. the innumerable herds. ‡ Gataker seems to have mistaken this:16 See. without a change of their opinions. the whole universe. by your judgment. those who are leaving life. will quickly blame you: And. no-body has condemned me to imitate them. But. for they lye wholly in your own opinion: and by this you will make a great deal of room and ease to yourself. as from some height.] 31. Phillip. Consider also the life which others have lived formerly. nor any thing at all [of that kind. and the life the barbarous nations now live: And how many know not even your name. by comprehending. Don’t lead me away after [the smoak and vapour of] a vain glorious stateliness. now. § This is perhaps a new meditation. 49. that neither a surviving fame is a thing of value. are expressed.15 They know best whether they understood what the common nature requir’d of them. nor present glory. what is it else but a slavery they are groaning under.—Comprehend &c.
book ix 115 33.” § See. of repining. . From the beginning of ages they have been managed in the same way: and to all eternity. dust. * blood. or their praises. near the end. passing always from one change to another. What kind of governing parts have these men! And about what things are they earnestly employed! And on what accounts do they love and honour! Imagine their minds naked before you. will themselves also quickly perish: and he who died in extreme old-age. . Among so many Gods. Enough of this wretched life. How putrid the material substance of every thing! Water. too. there is no sufﬁcient power found out to rectify those things? but the universe is condemned to remain involved in never ceasing evils. If he has done wrong. will be in the same condition with him who died early. behave with . such like things will be. . and those. IV. proﬁt us. Besides these there is nothing else. it seems. Nay. Again. and equity in your sentiments. XI. in a bad state. Either all events proceed from one intelligent fountain § [in the whole] as in one body: and then the part ought not to complain of what * Of a shell-ﬁsh. ‡ Others thus read the text: “Nay towards the Gods. how great their self-conceit! 35. and that all shall be always. Why are you disturbed? Are any of these things new? What astonishes you? Is it the † active principle? view it well. 37. little bones. It is the same thing whether you have observed these things for a hundred years. the evil is his: and. 1. or for three. When they fancy their censures hurt. 34. How can you say both that all things were formed. Loss is nothing else but change: and in this delights the nature of the <223> whole. I obtest you by the Gods. come at length to ‡ <224> more simplicity of heart. and the purple colour of them. too. 39. All things you see will quickly perish. he has not done wrong. 38. who behold them perishing. and nauseous excretions. and apish triﬂing. gold and silver its heavy dregs: Our cloaths but hairs. 40. The animal spirit too is another such thing. All other things are of the same kind. by which all things are formed well. perhaps. Or. † See. marble is but the concreted humours of the earth. is it the material? View it also well.17 36.
is it not better to use the things which are in your own power. turn your prayers this way. 18. [which are not in our <225> own power] nor desire any of them. why don’t you chuse to pray to them to enable you. Call to mind the Deity. neither to fear any of these things. how shall I not need to be freed from him! A third. and a dissipation again. As to the sense here attempted. they can also aid them in this. Invoke him to be your assistant and supporter: As men at sea invoke Castor and Pollux in a storm. If. And who told you the Gods don’t give us their assistance. how shall I have no desire to enjoy her! Another. and the commentators all at a loss how to restore it. too. I had before established: And was chieﬂy intent on this. how shall I not be afraid to lose him! Upon the whole. The attempt God-like. The combat is great. But continued to discourse of these principles of natural philosophy. mortal! Be not rash. and preserve your liberty. Either the Gods have no power at all [to aid men in any thing. in the things which are in our own power? Begin. how shall I prevent the loss of my child! Do you.116 meditations happens on account of the whole. how shall I enjoy this woman! Do you. It is for sovereignty.18 “Stay. and unrufﬂed. † Of the same kind is that beautiful passage quoted by Gataker from Arrian II. how the intellectual part. But. they have no power. it is the same as sect. and look what will be the effect. how shall I be freed from this man! Do you. for a current of life ever gentle. For.] or they have power. 40. and you will see. the Gods have put this in my own power.” . rather than for the having them. then. 28 of this book. than perplex your self about the things which are not in your own power. Or all is atoms: and nothing else but a jumble of parts. † <226> 41. perhaps you will say. why do you pray? But if they have power. for liberty. One prays. and turn’d savage. my conversations were not about the diseases of this poor body: nor did I speak of any such things to those who came to me. nor be grieved about any of them. and become an abject slave. feeding. Epicurus says: “When I was sick. if they can aid men at all. to pray about these things. Why are you disturbed then? [Your governing part you may still preserve exempt from chance: ] * need you say to it thou art dead: thou art rotten: thou art dissembling: thou art joining the herd. therefore. or the not having them. most certainly. Well. clear. tho’ it partakes of such violent commotions of the * The Greek is corrupted and manque here. then.
When you are disgusted with the impudence of any one. then. when shock’d at the crafty. as an antidote: And so. * It is the common maxim of all sects of philosophy. And what is there evil. the faithless. 14.book ix 117 body. has all its subsistence there. 3. and especially V.20 and the Apostle to Titus. or are under any other uneasy circumstances: that is. and the note. whatever befalls you. nor run into the silly way of the vulgar. as if doing something of great moment. You are also at full liberty to set right one who has wandered. at whom you are exasperated. yet have forgot. do you. and 3. be without the shameless? It cannot. or strange. Enchirid. 17. 27. also. and has wandered. what harm. 1. some other ability. pray. For you had the means from reason to have concluded with yourself. 42. and harm. while you remember it is impossible but such kind of men must needs be in the universe. 9. can the universe. never depart from your philosophy. Nor did I allow the physicians to make a noise. But my life continued pleasant and happy. when you * The Greek is corrupted here. what is your [real] evil. And. It is highly useful.”19 What he did. to have immediately this reﬂection: What virtue has nature given man. then. Sect. she has given meekness. Now. might remain undisturbed. especially. too.21 ‡ As all pursue what appears to them at that time. and such as are unacquainted with nature. and vaunt. Have the same question also at hand. But. and the instrument or means by which they do it. what is impossible: For this is one of those shameless men. ch. Now. VI. and preserve its own proper good. their proper good and happiness. every one who does wrong ‡ misses his <228> aim. enabling him to bear with this fault [in his fellow?] † For. to be wholly <227> intent on what they are doing. . if the uninstructed acts like one uninstructed? Look if you ought not rather to blame yourself. it is likely this man will be guilty of such a fault. then. Don’t demand. for not having laid your account with this man’s being guilty of such faults. against another. have you got? for you will ﬁnd. who must needs be in the universe. † See Epictet. have done any thing by which the intellectual part of you was like to be the worse. against the unreasonable. For. immediately ask yourself. See. you will at the same time have more goodnature toward each of them in particular. or the faulty in any respect. if you fall into one. v. and are surprised that he is guilty of it. when under a disease. VIII. none of those.
formed by nature for kind ofﬁces [to his fellows. or the feet for walking. you did not give it ultimately [without further view] so as to reap all the fruit of it by your very doing it. already. so. turn to yourself: For the fault was. also. if. and has his proper good and perfection. man. that one of such a disposition would keep his faith. or ungrateful.118 meditations blame any one as faithless. For. they have their proper perfection. For.] when he does any kind ofﬁce to another. manifestly on your side. <230> . or any thing otherways conducive to the good of society. has done what he is form’d for. if when you gave a favour. either you trusted. or. as these are form’d for a certain purpose. that you have acted in this according to your nature? Do you ask a reward for it? This <229> is as if the eye were to ask a reward for seeing. when you have done a kind ofﬁce to a man? Is it not enough to you. what wou’d you more. which when they fulﬁll according to their proper structure.
Do thus in the case of your children. Does any thing come. Does it go by you? Don’t stop it. IV. but wait till it come to you. but overlook them. in the Enchirid. but a fellow-governor with them. “All things work together for good to them who love God. Wilt thou. without longings after any thing. therewith to be content. and well-<231>pleased with every present circumstance? persuade ‡ thyself thou hast all things: all is § right and well with thee: and comes to thee from the Gods. the supporter. of your wife.” ** The universe: See. the just. and take it gracefully. 28. the good. “I have learned. for lengthening the enjoyment? Or of place. in whatever state I am. the container. 119 . to you? stretch out your hand. even when set before you. yet possessing all things. and one. which are [all] dissolving for the birth of such others as themselves. VI. VIII. and simple. Corinth. and you shall be at length a worthy companion of the Gods. as if at an entertainment. Is it not come yet? Don’t long after it. either animate or inanimate. and without wants. “Having nothing. O my soul! be good. you ought to behave yourself in life. and naked.3 § Rom. without desires after any thing. you don’t take.” But the whole passage from verse 3 to 11. the parent of all things. you shall then be not only a companion of the Gods. Wilt thou ever be able. † Philippians. in course. so to live * His leisure was perpetually broke by wars.2 “Remember. of riches. ever. more apparent than the body that surrounds thee? Wilt thou ever taste of the loving and affectionate temper? wilt thou ever be full. IV. 15. and extremely beautiful. ‡ II. And all shall be right and well for thee which they please to give. is of the same kind. And if. 11. and which they are about to give for the safety of ** the perfect animal. the fair. 23. the surrounder of all things. 10. of power.”1 Epictetus.u book x u 1. or country. or ﬁne climate? Or of the * social concord of men? But † satisﬁed with thy present state. for the enjoyment of pleasure? Or time.
and the whole must be conducted by its own nature. For the whole has nothing in it but what is advantageous to itself. nor be disapproved by them. 3. Remember. or not even yourself. † to complain of them. teach him humanely. and show him his mistake. and approve it. 2. as a rational-animal. to produce any thing hurtful to itself. 20. is in heaven. use these rules. neither. ‡ Observe what your nature demands as far as you are under the government of mere vegetative nature. 6. For while I remember this. and trouble yourself for none further. as. Now ’tis plain the rational nature is also social. or your duty.” † Rom. <233> from eternity. III. XIV. I shall. Next you must observe what your nature. “Acceptable to God and approved of men. 5. and the concatenation of causes had. 12. Whatever happens to you. if your nature. If this be impossible for you. ‡ See the note at V. happens such as you are either formed by nature able to bear it. “Our conversation. Whatever happens. (or as it may be rather translated. . bear it and fret not: But if such as you are not naturally able to bear. as an animal.” See XII. then. blame yourself. the city we belong to). or there be [presiding] natures.120 meditations a fellow-citizen of * Gods and men. and the nature of the whole has this further. in any respect. it was before preparing for you from eternity. Whether all be atoms. demands. that it can’t be forc’d by any external cause. let this be laid down as indisputable. For nothing advantageous to the whole is hurtful to the part. that I am a part of the whole. however. won’t be thence rendered the worse. If such as you are by nature form’d able to bear. be that what it will: and that I am in some manner socially connected with the parts which are of the same kind with myself. that being common to all natures. as I am a part. If he is going wrong. interwoven your subsistence with this contingency. if your nature. Then do that. according as you conceive it advantageous. 36. to do so. <232> as an animal. you are by nature form’d able to bear whatever it is in the power of your own opinion to make supportable or tolerable. don’t fret. I am a part of * Philip. be dissatisﬁed with nothing appointed me by the whole. 18. By remembering. So. 4. and 24. itself will perish. for when it has consum’d you. won’t be thence rendered the worse. or not able to bear it. And take to yourself every thing of this kind.
such a whole, I shall be well-pleased with every thing which comes from it. And as far as I am in some manner one of the same family with the parts of the same kind with me, I will be guilty of nothing unsocial; nay, I will rather aim at the good of my kind; turn the whole bent of my will to the public advantage, and withdraw it from the contrary.4 When I accomplish these things <234> in this manner, my life must needs run smooth and clear: Just so, as you would judge a citizen in a happy ﬂow of life, who was going on in a course of action proﬁtable for his fellow citizens, and gladly embracing whatever is appointed him by the city. 7. The parts of the whole, all the parts, I mean, which the universe contains, must needs be in a state of corruption. Let this expression be used for denoting a state of change. If then, I say, this be both evil and necessary to them, the whole cannot possibly be in a right state; since the parts are prone to change, and remarkably form’d for corrupting.—For, whether did nature herself take in hand to do evil to the parts of herself, and to make them both subject to fall into evil, and such as of necessity have fallen into evil? Or has this happened without her knowledge?—Both these are equally incredible.—And if one, quitting the notion of a [presiding] nature, mean only that things are so constituted; how ridiculous! to say, the parts of the whole, by their very constitution, tend to change; and yet be surpris’d, or fretted, at any thing, as happening contrary to the nature of things: especially, too, as the dissolution <235> of every thing is into those very elements of which it is compos’d. For it is either a dissipation of those elements of which it was a mixture; or a conversion of them: of the solid to the earthy, and the spirituous to the aerial. So that these too are taken into the plan of the whole, which is either to undergo * periodical conﬂagrations, or be renewed by perpetual changes. And don’t think you had all the earthy and the aerial parts from your birth. They were late accessions of yesterday or the day before, by your food, and the air you breathed. These accessions, therefore, are changed, and not what your mother bore. Grant that this their change † into the peculiar nature of your body makes you cling earnestly to them, it alters nothing of what I was just now saying.
* See V. 13. and the note. † This passage is extremely obscure, critics only guess at some sort of meaning to it.
8. If you take to yourself these names, a good man, one of a high sense of honour, modesty, veracity; one of attention of mind, conformity of mind, elevation of mind; take care you never change them for others. And if you happen to lose them at any time, run quickly back <236> to them. And remember, by attention of mind you meant to denote, that your knowlege, in every thing, be always founded on a thorough unbyassed inquiry into the true nature of the objects; and that nothing enter your mind without being carefully examined: By conformity of mind; a willing acceptance of every thing appointed by the common nature. By elevation of mind; the raising the thinking part superior to any pleasant or painful commotion of the ﬂesh, to the little views of fame, to death, and all such things. If, then, you stedfastly keep to these names, without affecting or desiring these appellations from others, you will be quite another man; and enter into quite another life. For, to continue such a one as you have been till now, and subject to the distraction and pollution of such a life, is the part of * one extremely insensible, and fond of life; and who is like one of those half devoured combatants with the wild beasts [in the public shows] who, when covered with wounds and gore, yet beg to be preserved till to morrow; even to be exposed again to the same jaw and fangs. Resolutely force yourself into these few cha-<237>racters; and, if you are able to abide in them, abide, as one who has removed and settled in the † fortunate Islands. But if you perceive you fall from them, and succeed not thoroughly [in your intention to abide in them,] retire boldly into some corner, where you may prevail, [by meeting with less opposition] or, even, depart out of life altogether; yet not angry [that you could not prevail;] but with simplicity, liberty, and modesty; having at least perform’d this one thing well, in life, that you have in this manner departed out of it. Now, it will greatly assist you to keep in mind these names, if you keep in mind the Gods, and that they don’t want ‡ adulation and ﬂatte-<238>ry from their worshippers,
* Propter vitam vivendi perdere causas.5 † The poetical representations of the tranquillity and happiness of these islands of the blessed are well known. ‡ This sentiment, occurs often in the scriptures, particularly in the 50th psalm, and 1st chap. of Isaiah; and seems not to have been uncommon among the heathens them-
but that all beings indued with reason shou’d become * like unto themselves: Keep in mind too that that is a ﬁg-tree, which performs the business of a ﬁg-tree; a dog, which performs that of a dog; a bee, that of a bee; and a man who performs the business of a man. 9. The public diversions [which you must attend in Rome;] the Wars [abroad,] the consternation, stupidity, and slavery of those about you, will wipe <239> out daily, [if you take not heed,] those sacred maxims; unless † you have settled them upon a thorough consideration of nature, and laid them up in your mind. You ought so to think, and act, on every occasion, that, while you are discharging any external ofﬁce, your contemplativepowers may, at the same time, be exerting themselves, and ‡ your conﬁdence
selves; as appears by the following fragment of a dramatic poet, which is no way aggravated in the translation. Is there, on earth, a man, so much a fool; So silly in credulity; who thinks That ﬂeshless bones and the fry’d bile of beasts, Which were not food even for a hungry dog, Are offerings that the Gods delight to take; And these the honours, they expect from men: Or, on account of these, will favour shew, Tho’ robbers, pyrates, nay tho’ tyrants be The offerers. See Clem. Alex. Strom. 7. 6 Compositum jus fasque animo, sanctosque recessus Mentis, et incoctum generoso pectus honesto; Haec cedo ut admoveam templis, et farre litabo. Persius sat. 2.7 * This is the same with the grand Christian doctrine of the divine life. “(a ) To be transformed into the same image with God. (b ) To be conformed to the image of his Son. (c ) Ye shall be holy as I the Lord your God am holy. (d ) Pure as God your father is pure. Righteous even as he is righteous. (e ) Merciful as your father also is merciful. ( f ) Be ye therefore perfect even as your father which is in heaven is perfect.” Clemens Alex. testiﬁes too, more than once, that he found the same doctrine in Plato: See Gataker on this place.8 Read numbers for these references by the small letters. (1) II. Cor. 3. 18. (2) Rom. 8. 29. (3) Levit. 19. 2. and I. Peter 1. 16. (4) I. John 3. 3, 7. (5) Luke 6. 36. (6) Matth. 5. 48.9 † The text is corrupt here. The translation is according to a conjecture of Gataker’s.10 ‡ This is the farthest that can be from what we commonly call self-sufﬁciency, or a stiff and self-willed temper. It is a virtue highly necessary in some of the sweetest characters; who, often, from too modest a difﬁdence of themselves, submit their own ﬁner
in yourself, from your right knowledge of things, be preserv’d; unobserved perhaps, but not designedly concealed. For, then, you will enjoy simplicity; then, a dignity of deportment; then, an accurate inquiry into every thing which occurs; what it is in its real nature; what place and rank it has in the universe; how long it is naturally ﬁtted to last; what <240> it is compos’d of; who may possess it; and who may give it, and take it away. 10. The spider exults if it has caught a ﬂy: another, if he has caught a little hare; another, if a little ﬁsh in a purse-net; another, if he has hunted down wild-boars; another, if, bears; another, if he has conquered the Sarmatians.11 Are not all these robbers alike, if you examine their sentiments? * 11. Acquire a method of contemplating how all things change into one another. Apply constantly to this part [of philosophy,] and exercise yourself thoroughly in it. For there is nothing so proper as this for raising you to an elevation and greatness of mind. He who does this, has already put off the body, and being sensible how instantly he must depart from among men, and leave all these things behind him, resigns himself entirely to † justice, in whatever he does him-<241>self; and to the nature of the whole, in every thing else which happens. What any one may say or think of him, or do against him, on this he spends not a thought. He satisﬁes himself with these two things: With acting justly in what he is at present doing; and with loving what is at present appointed for him. He has thrown off all hurry and bustle; and has no other will but this, to ‡ go on in the straight way § according to the law; and to ** follow God in the straight way.
sentiments, and allow themselves to be guided and led wrong, by men of far less genius and worth than themselves, whose low views their own candour makes them not suspect. * This has probably been occasioned by the behavior of some of his ofﬁcers, upon seizing parties of the Sarmatians, with whom the Romans were then at war; and designed to repress the vanity of conquerors. † Justice is taken here in the extensive platonic sense, regarding not only what are called the rights of mankind, but comprehending resignation to God, and all the kindest social virtues. See, XI. 20. at the end; and, XII. 1.12 ‡ See, V. 3. § See, II. 16. at the end. ** According to Gataker, Antoninus has here before his eye the following passage of Plato in the 4th book of the laws. “God, in whose hand is the beginning, end, and middle
VIII. and yet ready for any business. . let them put you to death. and what they rob? Not with feet and hands. go on in the road to it. of all things. [which is the supreme felicity or good-fortune. accord-<242>ing to the means you have. and consult the best advisers. This remainder you have of life is small. if what is just and good be done by some other person? It will not. where ever he lives. going about every where. those who assume such airs of importance in their praises and censures of others. obedience to which is the supreme happiness. Live. considers the universe as a city. “Give what thou willest: take back what thou willest. pursues the straight way. keeping close to what appears just. For ’tis no matter whether there or here. proceed with a prudent caution. as if on a [lonely] mountain. If you meet with any obstacles in the way.”13 * The reading in the original here is uncertain. says. B. truth. For that is the best mark to aim at. 2. Since the failing in that is the only proper miscarriage. Will it be of consequence to you. and what pursue? What they steal. who punishes those who come short in their observance of the divine law. † law. As soon as you awake. and a good divinity within. suspend. in every thing. and X. what kind of men they are in bed. † The grand law of promoting the perfection of the whole. and good-will to her. and follows God along with her. keeps close by her. which gives and resumes again all things.book x 125 12. calmly.] 14. but with their most precious part. For better so than live as they do. Have you forgot. He who. * But if you are not sure. and at table? What their actions are. The man who is about to live happy. and inﬂexibly. but with obedience alone. He is always attended by justice.” And this he says not with an arrogant ostentation. the well-instructed mind. followsreason [or the law of his nature] is always at leisure. living according to nature. Let men see and know you to be a man indeed. 15. possessed of a sense <243> of honour and decency. procure to himself faith. 13. immediately ask yourself. according to nature. always chearful. if one. what they shun. if he has the will. and yet composed. If they cannot bear with you. by which one may. What need of suspicions [about the event?] Since you can consider what ought to be done: and if you understand that surely. To [the presiding] nature. honour and modesty. 25.
Either you are living here. “I adhere to him as a servant and attendant. 17. Consider. 21.] 22.” [to denote that it is usual or natural.” Is not our common ** phrase <245> according to fact. as a * turn of a wimble. appears to have been a maxim universal among the Stoics. His purpose.15 ** Thus Epictetus. I follow him from inclination. in duration. then to the universe. and. but [cordially] assent to him. as each formed by nature such as to die. or dissipation. what sort of men when † distributing their largesses. ‡ “Earth loves the rain”.16 . And for his advantage at that time.126 meditations 16. † This word is uncertain in the original. as it were. after this. I say. easing nature. ‡ From Euripides. corruption. 7. and that was your will: Or you are dying. as a grain of millet. each of the things around you as already dissolving. § “What thou lovest I love. also. and the whole of substance: And that every individual thing is. and not necessity. and sharply rebuking with a stately insolence! To how many were they. That is for the advantage of each which the nature of the whole brings to each.” So that resignation to the will of God. slaves. take courage. in substance. § filei in Greek as amat in Latin for solet. So. and say: Use me. in discoursing on what are the qualities of the good-man. then. and now habituated to it: Or going hence. but in actually being such. or. * This a proverbial simile for things that pass in a moment. when we say “such a thing loves to be so. and the like! And.—“And the majestic Ether loves [the earth. at which she brings it. in the highest sense.” Thus also Seneca in his antithetical way. I plead against nothing which seems proper to thee. What sort of men are they when eating.”]14 The universe. and on what accounts! and in what condition will they shortly be? 20. 18. and in a state of change. Spend your time no longer. his desire. and in a word. or angry. “I don’t [barely] obey God. 96. loves to do that which is going to happen. sleeping. Epist. 16. and have ﬁnished your public ofﬁces in life. procreating. Now besides these there is nothing else. his will. and. Frequently represent to your imagination a view of the whole of time. but lately. Arrian II. is mine also. for what purposes thou willest. with attention. and elate with pride. <244> 19.” And IV. my sentiments concur with thee. “Have the courage to lift up your eyes to God.
who is grieved. or is happening.” Epictet. 31. And place before your eyes the whole. of these things which are ordered by him who governs all: Who is † the law. and stable. See. who says. Now. and incorporated with the ﬂesh. Reﬂect. also. dramas. I think. and that * all things are the same there as on the mountain-top. “For our law. He who ﬂies from his master is a fugitive-slave. either from your own experience. Frequently reﬂect. 23. is God. VII. so as to turn which way that pleases? 25. how all things which happened formerly were just such as happen now. 26. and view the power [which produces them] in the same way as you view the power which makes bodies tend downwards or upwards: not with your eyes. yet no less manifestly. and strength. Let this be always manifest to you: That a country retirement is just like any other place. then. life.] he makes the city-wall serve him for a shepherd’s fold on a hill-top.19 Thus also. indeed. For you may always meet with that of Plato. &c. and scenes. incapable of amendment or change. 27. who is afraid. because any thing has happened. and so the transgressor of the law is the fugitive: and he. he departs: another cause receives it. or any where. 6. He. or ancient history. and.—and there the society of the Gods. the law is our master. in a word. or at the wild sea-coast.”17 24. also. that such too will those be which are to ensue. “[The wise man ever enjoys retirement. than those written on the tables of Solon. chap. there I can enjoy the sun. is the fugitive-slave. or angry. which you have ever known. motion. Wonderful production from such a beginning! Again. or afraid. operates. When one has cast the seed into the womb. exactly impartial to all. appointing to every one what is proper for him. and then another cause <247> receives it. and transforms it into [organs of ] sensation.18 † This passage clears up many others where the same word occurs obscurely.book x 127 23. the author of the book de Mundo. What is my governing-part to me? and to what purposes am I now using it? Is it void of understanding? Is <246> it loosened and rent off from society? Is it glewed to. these things. and ﬁnishes the infant.”20 . * “To what place soever I go. or angry. more excellent. tho’ done so very covertly. which goes under Aristotle’s name. II. and other things how many and surprising! Contemplate therefore. the infant lets the food down its throat. or formerly happened. or grieved.
Nay tho’ your will be otherways. taking this along. IV.22 And when you look into yourself. envy. effeminacy. Conceive every one. that we are <248> all tied to our fate. or that I may have matter of blaming. which kicks and screams. § Of these names which follow. II. that.128 meditations all of the same kind. † When you are offended at a fault of any one. at any thing whatever. the whole court of Antoninus. and how they act. too. that. commit the same faults. and so of the rest.”24 ‡ See VI. [My next inquiry is] how shall I get free of them? If I also was subject formerly to the same weakness. but I turn into myself to see if I. immediately turn to yourself. desire. For. on his couch. Such too is he. by ﬁxing your attention on this. Consider. sorrow. but it is plain. <249> or glory. who are now gone. Such as the whole court of Hadrian. * Epictetus. giving yourself up to him. think on Eutyches. think on Eutychio or Silvanus. to be like the pig in a sacriﬁce. think on Crito or Severus. it is impossible for you to throw off. otherways than by looking up to God. not with any bad intention. in general. others as great are arising. while under the knife. by himself. the sight of remarkable men should make one call to mind others like them in former ages. and IX. or Hymen: and. 42. few are known. what else cou’d he do? or.”23 † It is recorded of Plato. of Alexander. you must still follow him. “I attend to what men say. For. And when Alciphron. or laughing at them. only to the rational animal it is given to follow * willingly what happens. and ask yourself. ’tis to God I give the praise. that he is ‡ forced. fear. what fault of a like kind you yourself commit. 31. when you consider Euphrates. 30. who. Look attentively on each particular thing you are doing. of Croesus. 27.21 For all these were of the same kind [with your own] only composed of other persons. too. In Epictetus too the following divine passage is of the same kind. as the stronger. or storms. deplores in silence. piously embracing all he orders. that he practiced habitually this maxim. When you consider § Satyrio the Socratic. remove what forces him. if you can. or pleasure. his design here is. 29. Such as judging money to be good. and when you consider Xenophon. that he will be much missed in the universe. yet with all your wailing and groaning. But the bare following is a necessity upon all. And that no man is of such importance. 16. the whole court of Philip. and am not now. too. think on Tropaiophorus. 28. you will quickly forget your anger. . who is grieved. “All these. 4. intemperance. if death be a terror because it deprives you of this. and consider.
what is he who hinders you to be good. or falls into it. For neither does ‡ reason. will never exist again through all the inﬁnity of time.] How ﬁne a * subject of employment to yourself are you shunning? For. what are all things but exercises for that rational power which hath viewed all things that occur in life. then. ‡ See IX. And so analogously. require you should. that. such be to you the doing. [and most upright] manner? For. what has once changed. you are at liberty to do or say it. with accuracy. all this is in your own power. Let no-body have it in his power to say with truth of you. For.] till once you be so affected. whatever that be. How <250> soon. You will never cease from groaning [and repining. that such as luxury is to the men of pleasure. in that case. to the cylinder. you must conceive to be a delightfull enjoyment. which you are at liberty to perform according to your own proper nature. and according to their true natures? Stay. 1.book x 129 think on any one of the Cesars. what can be done or <251> said in the soundest. whoever has such an opinion of you. into ﬂame and splendor. Then let this at the same time enter your mind. † See the same simile beautifully apply’d. then. that you are not a man of simplicity. in every subject of action that is thrown in your way. candour and goodness. every thing. Now. till you make all these things familiar to yourself: As the healthy stomach adapts all things to itself: As † the shining ﬁre turns whatever you throw on it. those things which are properly suitable to the frame and constitution of man. will your change come? And why is it not sufﬁcient to you to pass this short space gracefully [in this universe. For. when you see any body else. now. 68. and single-hearted? Only do you determine to live no longer if you are not to be such a man. and you have this liberty every where. are those? No where? Or who can tell? For thus you will constantly behold all human things as smoke and nothing. Now. In this present matter you are employ’d about. it is not given to move every where in its proper motion: Nor to the water: Nor to the ﬁre: Nor to any of those other things which are governed by a nature or a * See VII. Where. as if hindered. But let him be mistaken. . IV. 32. 33. And don’t make pretences. Especially if you recollect. 29.
Some leaves the winds blow down: the fruitful wood Breeds more mean-while. also.130 meditations soul irrational: For there are many things which restrain. otherways he who suffered by them. and stop them. which hurts not the city. And him. * <253> Your children. indeed. as the stone downward. or. shall another bewail. which in spring-time appear. Nor hurts the city. who privately censure and sneer at them. neither hurts the city nor the citizen. or. as if they were to be eternal. as designed for a short hint. or do him any evil. the shortest. the man becomes even the better. on the contrary. who declaim with such important airs of assurance. The short-lived existence is common to them all. and seek for nothing further. curse them. Brevity is chieﬂy studied in the translation of these three lines of the Iliad. and these are leaves too.26 . which hurts not the law. in a little. But. 148. while one is born. and wills. Upon the whole. here. are little leaves. To him. by making a right use of what falls across to him. So. But intelligence and reason can pursue the course it is naturally ﬁtted for. unless by opinion. thro’ every obstacle. Of men. Now none of these things called misfortunes hurt the law. In the same manner. ends one race. as the ﬁre upward. whose heart the true maxims have pierced. and sound forth the praises of others. the most common hint is a sufﬁcient memorial to keep himself free of sorrow and fear. For all these. Place before your eyes this easiness with which reason goes on through all obstacles. and the more praise-worthy. Yet are you dreading or courting them. And the forest breed others in their stead. remember. “in spring-tide appear. thus. wou’d himself presently have become evil. and by Reason’s own yielding itself to them. you will close your eyes. For the other stops <252> are. if I may say so. as the cylinder on the declivity. or such as don’t hurt the man. what hurts not the law. whatever evil happens to them.25 34. Such as. In all other fabrics. too. Nay. the sufferer itself thereby becomes the worse. nothing hurts him who is by nature a citizen. these are leaves. who carries you out to your funeral. either those of the insensible carcase. who are to preserve your surviving fame.” Then the wind shall presently throw them down. * Iliad VI.
in it. 36. multitudes wou’d gladly get rid of me? This you may reﬂect on. put up so many prayers. and examine yourself ﬁrst. “Let my children be preserved. The sound eye ought to behold [with ease] all the objects of sight. but that. is one of the things according to nature. There is no man of so happy a lot. He was not indeed severe to any of us. when one dies a gentle death. and continue to them friendly. as much as possible. too. So also the sound mind ought to be ready for all things which happen.book x 131 35. in every thing any one is doing. is an eye <254> which seeks the green objects. What end does he refer this to? But. and propitious: and. The sound ear. as from relations. and not say. for whose sakes I underwent and struggled with so many labours. however. on this account. Yet I was sensible he tacitly condemned us. Accustom yourself.” Who. But. will say within himself? “I shall at last get breathing from this strict tutor. that. ’tis likely. but peaceable. for which. . at his death. † This is one of those he calls popular supports. as torn away. go off less benign toward <255> them. † and depart with the less regret. For nature had knit and cemented you to them: But now she parts you. in my case. when you consider. or teeth. begin. some of the by-standers will rejoice at the * evil which befalls him. on the other hand. had so many cares. “I am going out of such a life. the soul comes easily out of the body. how many other reasons are there. my very partners. and let all men applaud whatever I do”. don’t go off. at home. such also ought your departure from these men to be.” Thus will they say of the good man. when a-dying. For death. then. for some other satisfaction. benevolent. “I want the green”: for that is like one who has sore eyes. to consider with yourself. but as. * Death being in their opinion an evil. That mind which says. those very men are wishing me to be gone. and sense of smelling. But preserve your own manners. as a mill for all it is framed to grind. 3. which seek the tender food. not reluctant however. would strive for a longer stay here? Don’t. which yet strike the heart: See IX. hoping from thence. and the sound stomach be equally disposed for all sorts of food.27 37. then. Was he good and wise? Will there not be some-body. I part. who. ought to be ready for all the objects of hearing and smelling. when he dies.
2. [any tool of any artizan. that they are <256> naturally united with us: since. ’tis * that which lies hid within.132 meditations 38.] with this only difference. which draws and turns you † as the wires do the puppet. is eloquence: That. and these little organs. . † See this term explained. in the note. life: That. to the writer. to the charioteer. this surrounding earthen vessel. or the whip. ’Tis that. is the man. than the shuttle is to the weaver. Never blend with it. in your imagination. at II. Remember. the pen. <257> * Passions and opinions in the mind. if I may say so. without the cause which moves and stops them. none of these parts are of any more service. They are but like the ax.
all that is past and future. truth. in whatever part of action. happening by the divine providence. are the properties of the rational soul: love to all around us. one who has lived but forty years. and that our predecessors saw no more than we have seen. it ranges around the whole universe. submission to any distresses. that those who come after us shall see nothing new. according to the Stoics. whether a long or a short one. Hence their paradox that “length of time is of no importance to happiness. but. has. too.1 133 . further. views its extent. And thus our part may always be complete. stretches into the immensity of duration. “I have obtained all which is mine. I may say. itself enjoys. These. 10. as to the soul.u book xi u 1.” Nay. and considers and comprehends the periodical renovation of the whole. afford new occasions of the best actions. seen. if of any tolerable understanding. Nay.” All obstacles to our designs about external things. Which. So that. whereas. in a manner. others enjoy the fruits of vegetables and lower animals: It always obtains its end. if by any thing interrupted. also. and this is their supreme and only happiness: He who acts well the part appointed to him. those which are most conformable to nature: Such as resignation to the will of God. the past action † may be a com<258>plete whole. whensoever the close of life may overtake it. † As the supreme excellence of the rational soul is. good-will toward those who oppose us. It discerns. or to an early death. In the dance. and the respecting nothing more than itself. the whole action is made incomplete. These are the privileges of the rational soul: It contemplates itself: It forms or fashions itself in all parts: It makes itself such as it desires: * The fruit it bears. or the dramatic action. or agreement with nature. because of the uniformity of all things. without any defect. or wheresoever. overtaken by death. * See IX. and the void spaces beyond. an entire conformity to the will of the presiding mind. has attained to the greatest happiness and perfection of his nature. and modesty.
and the like about the exercises. and the ofﬁces of virtue. § See the end of the IX. like that of the ‡ Christians. book. How happy is that soul. and the stable persuasion of a future state. 12. or to be extinguished. is such as both recommends to us all pious veneration and submission to God. † See X. or to remain along with it! But. Tragedies were. . which is prepared. and ask yourself about each of them apart.4 ‡ It is no wonder an heathen emperor should thus speak of the Christians. that it did not quite extirpate all sort of human frailty. And there is something so noble in the stedfast lively faith. and not from mere obstinacy.2 that you <260> may die considerately. and considering them separately. if you divide the harmonious tune into its several notes.134 meditations too. which must have supported this ardour. and was censured even by some of the primitive fathers. and the note. about each posture and motion. 3. as it was often mentioned already. and makes such dispositions our chief satisfaction and happiness. 2. You may be enabled to despise the delightful song. or the dance. Have I done any thing social and kind? Is not this itself my advantage § ? Let this thought always occur. In general. and all social affections. This is no dishonour to christianity. or ostentation. by running forthwith to their several parts. according to the course of * See X. as remembrancers of the events which frequently happen. as to all things. and gives the strongest conﬁrmation of the divine power accompanying the Gospel. 5. and without noise. how else is this to be accomplished. 25. What art do you profess? To be good. with a venerable composure. Do the like as to the dance. and never cease to do such actions. at ﬁrst. or dispersed.3 4. either to depart presently from the body. is the property of the * law. except virtue. introduced. remember to enure yourself to a low estimation of them. and must happen. but by the great maxims about the nature of the whole. and about the peculiar ** structure and furniture of human nature? 6. so as even to persuade others into a like disposition. ** This. there is no difference between right reason and the † reason of justice. Transfer the like practice to the whole of life. “Is it this which so charms and conquers me?” For you would blush to own that. let this preparation arise from its own judgment. or the <259> admired exercises. that it makes a sufﬁcient apology for this weakness. Thus. It is well known that their ardour for the glory of martyrdom was frequently immoderate. And.
that they. and the new. is degenerated. You see that such things must be accomplished. And such like. and cunning artiﬁces. and those circumstances. oppressions. For life is. without repining. by degrees. and. Next. Me and my children. that it has ordered for every good man that station of life. we should. that. are to be expected in the world. Vain is all anger at the external things. and to intimate. when they happen. from the moral view. 7. consider for what † purpose this whole contrivance of poetry. like the loaden’d ear. was introduced. according to that original disposition of nature which God had given him. How manifest is it. humbling the pride of the great. and. for what purpose the middle comedy. and dramatical pieces. as entertain us on the stage. Diogenes used something of the same nature. wishing he had perished in his childhood when he was exposed on that mountain. too. crimes. if the Gods neglect. ’Tis well known. into the mere ingenuity of artiﬁ-<262>cial imitation. It is for some good reason. such as that. being the exclamation of Oedipus in his distress. and to make them so familiar to us. which inﬁnite wisdom foresaw were ﬁttest for his solid improvement in virtue. ——— And again. was intended. contain many useful admonitions. that those per-<261>sons could not avoid bearing them. by open direct censure.8 . bear upon the greater stage of the world. however. especially. “ * Alas Cithoeron!” Our dramatic poets have many proﬁtable sayings. to make us see. and proper self-command and recollection. And. that ‡ no other course of life was more adapted to the practice of philosophy than that you are engaged in? * This relates to the celebrated tragedy of Sophocles.book xi 135 nature. such events. using a very instructive liberty of speech. that we shall not be much surprised. To this end. who made the most dismal exclamations. ‡ This is an amiable notion of providence.5 To tragedy succeeded the antient comedy.6 which. unlucky accidents. But. frauds. consider well. cut down. that many calamities.7 † I suppose. or lose presence of mind.
and most comprehensive. by hatred or aversion. as to the inward tranquillity. Of these. there is a considerable difference. but in all meekness toward those who attempt to hinder you. that nature which is of all others the most complete.” . or desist from the right practice. ’Tis a sign of weakness. a man breaks off himself from his neighbour. and uniform satisfaction. between a branch which has always grown along. or otherwise give you trouble. must necessarily be broken off from the whole tree. of the soul with itself. such separations. and grow together. and conspired.9 9. and give up yourself as defeated. all arts subject and subordinate the less excellent to that which is more excel- * There is great difﬁculty in ascertaining the text here. about the advantage of “being always straight and upright. so. completing the whole. and become natural parts.136 meditations 8.Vigilantly persist in both these. with the tree. A branch broken off from that branch to which it adhered. and who ought to be beloved. and is not aware that he thus tears off himself <263> from the whole political union. and he who is alienated in affection from one by nature a-kin to him. they may * make one tree in appearance with the stock. happening often. rather than one rectiﬁed and amended. has fallen off from the social community. say the gardeners. 10. who constituted this community. If so. as they cannot force you to quit the sound course of action. either to be enraged at them. let them not turn you off from <264> your kind affections toward themselves. But. In general. in your progress according to right reason. Now. A branch must always be broke off by the force of something else: But. Both are deserters from their post. and apprehending well what is intended by the terms of gardening alluded to. Yet. and one which has been broken off. but not make an uniform whole with it. ’tis the author’s intention to shew how much a continued innocence of manners is preferable to even the most thorough repentance after gross vices. the coward. make the reunion and the restitution more difﬁcult. Even thus. To this refer many thoughts in the former books. to mankind. Nature cannot be inferior to art: The arts are but imitations of nature. They who oppose you. cannot be inferior to the most artiﬁcial contrivance. not only in the stable judgment and practice. a man broken off from any fellow-man. and ingrafted again. this is the singular gift of Jupiter. that we may again re-unite in this continuity. In general.
rash in assent. if we are anxiously sollicitous about indifferent things. Ille Deo plenus — Haeremus cuncti superis. who created and still pervades all things. Lucan.12 § The story alluded to. or yielding and sinking under the pressure of external evils. and you will neither pursue nor dread them. not to be found acting or speaking any thing <266> worthy of contempt. but shines with that light which discovers both the truth in other things. I shall endeavour. as it were. Such should be your inward temper. nor yields inwardly to it. don’t advance to you. .11 † That is. and even ready to shew to this man his mistakes: not to upbraid him. a steddy obedience to his will. The soul is as a polish’d sphere. next to this. Does any one despise me? Let him see to it. nor repining at any thing. and resignation to inﬁnite wisdom. 41. in all acts of beneﬁcence and goodness to our fellows. when it neither † extends itself to any thing external. Does any one hate me? Let him see to it. Justice cannot be preserved. but from a genuine goodness. and from Justice spring the other virtues. or make a shew of my patience. is uncertain. Temploque tacente. stretching into length by desires. but you advance toward them. ‡ As the most important practical truths are found out by attending to the inward calm sentiments or feelings of the heart: And this constitution of heart or soul is certainly the work of God.10 if he was truly sincere. The universal nature must do the same. and. and a divine attraction toward himself. and they will stand motionless. and inﬂuencing the conduct. IX. and that ‡ within itself. 12. Nil facimus non sponte Dei: nec vocibus ullis Numen eget: dixitque semel nascentibus auctor Quidquid scire licet. 13. it is just and natural to conceive all divine and social dispositions as the work of God: all the great moral maxims deeply affecting the soul. are the illumination of God. so that the Gods may see you neither angry. Hence the original of * Justice. Phocion was of the sweetest and calmest temper. See VIII.book xi 137 lent. If those things which occasion you such disturbance in the keen pursuits or dread of them. restrain your judgments about them. I shall be kind and good-natured toward all. 12. <265> 11. or admitting other things to stick to it by too eager and passionate fondness or anxiety. See X. as § that of Phocion. nor is compressed in any part. or are easily deceived. For * The grand point of justice is the highest love to the supreme goodness and excellence. lib. and that way of life he requires. or inconstant.
† Alluding to the fable of the treaty. immediately blot it out. It will <268> obtain this indifference. The power of living well is seated in the soul. if it be indifferent toward things which are ‡ indifferent. These judgments we form ourselves. every thing beside virtue and vice. unawares. if it examines them well in their parts. rejoice in them. The man of simplicity and goodness should. 11.” What are you doing. If they are contrary to nature. in which. if it lurks within. man? What need you tell us this? It will appear of itself. Such as despise each other. Where is the great difﬁculty of keeping these things right? If the opinions are according to nature. whether they will or not. Shun this above all things. as occasions a great deal of pain when another succeeds in his designs. or. resemble such as have a disagreeable smell in their arm-pits. simplicity. <267> 15. The man of real goodness. We may prevent this inscription.13 ‡ All external things or events. or fretting when disappointed: or by such passionate emulation or envy. but stand still. Our life shall presently cease. they will sit easy. as well as in the whole. Nothing is more odious than the friendship of the † wolf. yet are fawning on each other. 16. ’Tis but for a short time we shall need this vigilance. his disposition should be perceived by all who approach him. as the person beloved discerns the affection in the eyes of the lover. The ostentation of simplicity is like a dagger for insidious designs. nor approach to us. II. O man! Thou. Such as strive to surpass each other. bears them in his eyes.14 . See B. and quickly haste after it. and remembers that none of them can form opinions in us. without motion. and as it were inscribe them in ourselves. who art formed to will that every thing should happen which is convenient for the whole. examine what it is that suits your nature. 14. the sheep gave up their dogs as hostages to the wolf. tho’ * By desiring to obtain their applause. How rotten and insincere are these professions: “I resolve to act with you in all simplicity and candor. upon his kind professions of friendship. are yet * subjecting themselves to each other.138 meditations what can be evil to you. and kindness. and cannot be unobserved. if acting what suits your nature? Won’t thou bear whatever is now seasonable to the nature of the universe. in this. This profession should appear written in the fore-head: your temper should sparkle out in your eyes.
and are much such another. what the causes of the change. if they do right. that we were formed for each other. 38. How uneasy is it to them to be reputed unjust. ‡ See IX. [Consider] whence each thing arose. and the superior for each other. and the bull over the <269> herd. 34. however from fear. you ought not to take it ill. 1. covetous. yet you have a like strong inclination. that. that any soul is deprived of truth. in bed. ’Tis unwillingly. in pursuing his own proper good. [As to those who offend me. because of their ignorance. sure ’tis § unwillingly and ignorantly. and that it suffers no evil. in another respect. If this latter. 30. or injuriously offensive to all around them? <270> Fourthly. though you abstain from some such crimes. is.15 † This thought leads us to pity the mistakes and errors of others. let me consider. malice. * This consideration should have great power in restraining all anger. A man is always excused. that. 18. * the inferior natures are formed for the superior.] as the ram over the ﬂock. and VIII. Fifthly. 17. and elsewhere. § See above. A man must be well informed of many points. into what changed. with the places referred to there. with another intention than you imagine. on some singular occasions. consider † what sort of men they are at table. intimated in the very constitution of nature. by erring. or of justice. or envy: As no event happens but by the permission of sovereign goodness: and as the great command of this supreme goodness. and has frequently occurred before. or concern about your character. Again. †† you are not sure they have done wrong. Many things may be done justly. Ascend yet higher. before he can pronounce surely about the actions of others. that ** you have many faults of your own. or an intelligent nature governing the whole. II. you abstain from them. how I am related to them. ** See X. insensible. There is either an empire of atoms. and with ‡ what high opinions of their own wisdom they entertain them. And. that all intelligent beings should love and do good to each other. how necessarily they are inﬂuenced by their own maxims. Thirdly. . †† This explains IX. if wrong.book xi 139 attended with no glory.] ﬁrst. that. 14. of what compounded. I was set over them [for their defence. by a conduct unsuitable to the object.
If we dread pain. But guard against ﬂattering men. for the rest of life. and sincere without hypocrisy. as well as being angry with them: Both are unsociable. what worse † evils we suffer by anger and sorrow for such things. that meekness is invincible. don’t thus behave to their fellows.140 meditations Sixthly. and other tribes of animals. you hurt yourself. this must be done without scorn or reproach. and nerves. How shall I remove it? By considering that what befalls you. my son!” and shew him tenderly. mildly admonish and instruct him thus. if you stedfastly persist in kindness to him. Remember these nine topics. Strength. as it more becomes the rational nature. Ninthly. about which those passions arise. or desert our duty to our friends or our country. But. my son! Nature formed us for a quite different conduct. unkind affections. If other things are reputed evils beside vices. murmurings against providence. and with a calm mind. you must fall into <271> many crimes. and begin at length to become a man. or any view to draw admiration from spectators. Seventhly. and. without ostentation of your philosophy. but as designed for him alone. or death. which disturbs us. that it is so. For. And. Their actions reside in their own souls. so. in order to avoid them. and lead to mischief. as gifts received from the muses. that bees. may become a robber. that wrath is not the manly disposition. has no moral turpitude: And. remove the notion of some terrible evil befallen you. in all anger. where it is genuine. at the very time he is attempting to do you an injury? “Don’t do so. attend this * This reasoning is frequent among the Stoics. poverty. if you allow any thing else to be * evil. that calm meekness. as great evils. We shall be all presently stretched out dead corpses. Away with them. Eighthly. Our opinions alone disturb us. You cannot hurt me. when your anger and resentment is highest. to break our faith.16 . that ’tis not the action of others. recollect. than by the things themselves. † That is moral evils. or one of the worst character. with a genuine good-will. and the anger is gone. it is more manly. and in general. say they. we may be tempted to acts of injustice. what can the most insolent do to you. and fortitude. not stung with the in<272>jury. remember human life is but for a moment. altho’ others may be present. some high degrees of these natural evils impending may overpower our virtuous resolutions. upon occasion.
And. so is anger: Both have received the wound. and stand erect. † Rashness of assent. sorrows. all its motions toward injustice. and. and fears. You could not say this from the heart: Now you must repute it the most absurd thing. obey the whole. when the soul frets at any event. 17 and raising yourself above the common lot of mankind. Is it not grievous. they are retained here in the compound. It is formed for holiness and piety toward God. and its grosser passions. 20. and yield to it. The aerial and etherial parts in your composition. Nay. tho’ not their natural situation. wheresoever placed by the superior power.book xi 141 disposition.] of the muses. sensuality. yet. is madness: ’Tis demanding an impossibility. As sorrow is a weak passion. <273> 19. * Denying the jus aequum in populo libero. as tyrants and usurpers do. obedient to the order of the whole. yet are raised. and not the wrathful and repining: the nearer this disposition approaches to an immunity from passion. leader. contrary to the laws of the state where they live. and yet. are so many departures from its nature. To allow them to injure others. If you want a tenth gift from the president. and demand they should not injure you. it cannot bear them. “This appearance is not certain evidence. the elements. to expect bad men should not commit faults. it is deserting its appointed station. if discovered.” And. but is carried away in a contrary course: For. This disposition tends to dissolve the social community. by saying thus concerning each of them. no less than for justice. but all according to its nature. insincerity. that the intellectual part alone should <274> be disobedient. tho’ they naturally descend. debauchery. blot them out. anger. to speak not according to your own heart. [suppress] whatever you are conscious is the part of one who is defeated. is foolish and * tyrannical. the nearer is it also to strength and power. These † four dispositions of the soul you should chieﬂy watch against. the body. and fret at its situation? Nor is there any thing violent and opposite to its nature imposed upon it. take this: that. [or. tho’ they naturally ascend. waiting till the signal be given for their dissolution. . and subjects the diviner part to the more dishonourable and mortal. The earthy and humid parts. Thus. fourthly.
for which I cannot make returns. 25.”20 26. receiving kindnesses. representing the safety and tranquillity of a retired life. that is not enough: you must examine this also. what that end or purpose ought to be. See B. can make all his actions uniform. cannot persist one and the same in the whole of life. at their public shows. Socrates called the maxims of the vulgar hob-goblins. The Spartans. but only concerning some of them. There is a precept even in the § writings of Epicurus. and naked simplicity. as the same opinion is not entertained concerning all those things which to the vulgar appear good. so. or is designed as an instance of courtesy. as they happened. for. He who has not proposed one constant end of life. 22. in the Ephesian commentaries.19 24.” says he. ** This story is not preserved to us. appointed the ‡ seats for foreigners in the shade. and a low station. 28. The Pythagoreans recommended to us. and to bear heat or cold. the Greek text is suspected. Remember the † country-mouse. For. Socrates made this excuse. your end proposed must be of the social and political kind. to view the heavens. and therefore obedience and resignation is a piece of justice to the governours of this state.142 meditations these are branches of * social goodness. for not going to Perdiccas upon his invitation: “lest. frequently to call to our remembrance some of those who were eminently virtuous. when Xantippe had gone abroad dressed in his cloaths. and with what pleasantries he * The Stoics speak of the universe. “I should perish in the worst manner. But. to put us in mind of beings which constantly go on executing their proper work. no star hath a vail.18 23. and in this manner ever remain the same man. V. rather more venerable than any of the branches of justice toward men. dressed in a skin. in the morning. and the consternation and trembling of the latter. such as are of public utility. and of order. § Or. . and the city-mouse. but sat themselves any where. Consider what ** Socrates appeared.21 <276> 27. yea. 21. as a great society or state made up of Gods and men. 22. † The fable is well known. For. he alone who directs all his pursuits to <275> such an end. and terrors only for children. and the dangers of ambition.22 ‡ This shews how manly it is to be enured to hardships. and purity.
”26 33. before you pretend to teach others. who seemed ashamed to see him in that dress. and have no aversion to what depends not on our power. are you ﬁghting with each other.29 36.book xi 143 detained his friends. he should say within himself. and. to have the souls of rational creatures. to make us easy under reproach. says one. † See above. of the virtuous or vicious? Of the virtuous. says he. * “Thou. The third.31 we must ﬁnd out the true art of assenting.”24 31. we should restrain them altogether. and were retiring. 30. to die to morrow.32 ‡ whether we shall be mad-men. Observe this much more in life. All things are changes. The second. IV. ’Tis madness to expect ﬁgs in winter. when [fate] allows it not. ’Tis no small matter we contend for. “None can rob you of your good intentions. but into that which is not at present. say you. What do you desire? Says Socrates. since a slave.34 ‡ The Stoics had this paradox. that we must have a power of restraining them: That we may form every purpose with † reservation. In writing. Epictetus advises that when a father is fondly kissing his child.” says Epictetus. to expect to retain a child. Why. take care they be kind and social. “Virtue herself they blame with harshest words. and proportioned to the worth of the object: That. “he is. The ﬁrst may serve as an admonition to submit to providence. or brutes? Rational. and the dryed. the ripe. which intimates any of the common works of nature.35 . no freedom hast of speech.23 29. He tells us also. not into nothing. “And my heart laugh’d within me—. then. when treating of our pursuits. <278> 39. or in reading. perhaps. and not in external things. or not. so it is. What sort of rational. Nothing is of bad omen. that all who are not perfectly wise and virtuous are mad-men. and at variance?33 <279> * The design of these citations is uncertain.30 37. to place our joy in virtue. Why.”25 32. don’t you seek after them? Because we have them already. surely. be ﬁrst taught yourself. to say corn must be reaped in harvest? 35. 38. then. B. The unripe grape. 1.”28 Words of bad omen. for keen desires.27 <277> 34. Is it of bad omen.
and will cease to be as a stranger in your own country. glory. according to the rules of holiness and justice. For. that you may embrace heartily what is appointed for you. with what happens every day. If. worthy of that orderly universe which produced you. houses. † X. and commit what is future to providence. All you desire to obtain by so many windings. you would be free from much distraction and solicitude. 2. and you for it. now that you are near your exit. who looks not to the surrounding carcase. and ﬁlth.u book xii u 1. you may speak the truth. 144 . you may have at once. If you would enure yourself to do the like. and honour only that governing and divine part <280> within you. 11. or any such external furniture or accomodation? * That is the providence of the author of nature. be much hurried about dress. but the not commencing to live according to nature. Of holiness. and act according to † the law. and in anxious suspence about this and t’other thing. And. therefore. if you quit the thoughts of what is past. Of justice. you will become a man. as if unexpected. and the merit of the matter. and stripped of these corporeal vessels. and set yourself to regulate well your present conduct. God beholds all souls bare. if you don’t envy yourself [so great an happiness. be not stopped in this course. by his pure intellectual nature. by the wickedness of another. Let that which suffers in such cases see to it. you quit thought about other things. and without artiﬁce or craft. bark. 25.] That is to say. or his opinion or talk. and was derived from himself. that. both astonished. with freedom. he touches only what ﬂowed out. can he. since * nature hath produced it for you. and dread not the ceasing to live. which has grown up around you. For. or by any sensation of this poor carcase.
pure and free. You consist of three things.1 Be solicitous only to live well for the present. therefore. which the eddy of fortune whirling around you. and you may go on till death. II. satisﬁed with what happens. you make yourself like the ﬁrm World of Empedocles. which depends not on your power. that is. or even any wise teacher. But the † third alone is properly your’s. from the intellectual part. 4. as soon as formed. 2. I have often wondered how each man should love himself more than any other. For. than of the opinions of others. they suggested proper supports and consolations even . and all these external events. V. acting what is just. about which you are disturbed. have neglected this * X. but what. B. to a certain degree. and complacence with the divinity within you. and all that may affect this encompassing carcase. kept disentangled from fate. and speaking truth: If. or what yourself have formerly done or said. as it were. or this animal life. in imitation of Socrates. with true dignity. who have disposed all other things in such comely order. this poor ﬂesh. even when they were persuaded that there would be a future existence. <281> and all those future events. as they had not full certainty. we stand in greater awe of what those around shall think of us. should God appear. than of what we think of our selves. as they are your’s. you separate from the governing principle within you those things which are. and with such goodness toward men. even for one day: Thus. the animal breath of life. carries along. not the author’s own settled opinion against a future state. that ‡ the Gods. yet. and the times past and future. 13. How is it. from yourself. 5. and <282> enjoin one to entertain no thought or design. may live with itself. with tranquillity. ‡ This is plainly the objection of some others. he would publish to others. * some care is due. and the intellectual part. no man could endure to do so. A sphere rejoicing ’midst the circling eddy. to spend what remains of life. 19.book xii 145 3. † See B. I say. to speak upon this subject with such alternatives. It was customary among the best philosophers. and yet make less account of his own opinion concerning himself. all which others do and say. They thought this highly probable. and yet. To the two former. appended to it by its vehement passions. so that your intellectual power. Separate.
the left hand. and endeavoured to give strong motives to virtue independent upon future rewards. they would have made it so. it would have been practicable. be well assured. From its not being so. sometimes. for its inability. To behold the active principle stripped of its bark. lived with the Gods the great-<283>est part of life. He needs nothing else for his work but to weild these skillfully. what. but. 7. if really it is not so. and. through want of exercise. and B.146 meditations one point. And. and takes it up again. been. . If this be truly the case. 27. had it been proper that the case should have been otherwise. 9. but be intirely extinguished. as it were. pleasure. Instances of this kind occur in every book of our author. death. Enure yourself to attempt. 11. glory. as it were. you are pleading a point of justice with God. In the practising of the maxims. what pain is. But we wrong them exceedingly. that. the champion in the exercises carries always his arms and hands along with him. the references and intentions of actions. Had it been just. even. which. were they not perfectly good and just. yet. The gladiator. what you despair of executing. if we imagine that they were doubtful of such points as they often propose in such alternatives. we should resemble the adventurers in the exercises. Now. how no man can be hindered by another. you may be assured it ought not to have been. if they are so. and not the gladiators. both as to body and soul? <284> Observe the shortness of life. the vast immensity of the preceding. what. how all is opinion. what. and the inﬁrmity of all these materials. and IV. they have left nothing unjustly and unreasonably neglected in their administration. XII. 14. and ensuing duration. II. we would not thus plead a matter of justice with the Gods. can hold the bridle more ﬁrmly than the other. who have. For. 8. who is to each one the cause of all his disturbance and trouble. lays by his sword. remains idle in many sorts of work. Consider. 6. by a course of holy and religious services. tho’ all know how ﬁrmly the Stoics were persuaded of both. nature would have effected it. by being enured to it. the preventing that some of the very best of men. upon the contrary supposition. to wit. You see. Had it been according to nature. should have no further existence after they die. in debating this point. familiar with the Divinity. in what state shall death ﬁnd you.2 Where even the doctrine of a Deity and providence is proposed with such alternatives. See B.
who has such dispositions? If you are a man of high abilities.book xii 147 10. as if he were tearing his own face. 1. one. If there is an ungoverned confusion. and the animal life. There is either a fatal necessity. How ridiculous. As to what happens in the course of nature. 38. and their references. If there be an unalterable necessity. 15. <285> 12. who is surprised at any thing which happens in life! 14. What a glorious power is granted to man! never to do any action. it can carry along the carcase. 18. whatever God appoints for him. † See IX. shall your veracity. willingly or unwillingly. that. who expects vicious men should not do wrong. 13. and loses not its splendor. but. justice. and to embrace kindly. Let these be your ﬁxed principles. Consider well the natures of things. 17. till it be extinguished. II. to be quarrelled with. If not true. dividing them into the material and active principles. which can be appeased. is as absurd as one expecting a ﬁg-tree should not produce the natural juice in the ﬁgs. and an unalterably ﬁxed order. for they * don’t willingly. but such as God is to commend. . or that infants should not cry. don’t say it. [say thus to yourself:] How are you sure this is wrong? Grant it to be wrong: You know not but he is deeply condemning himself: this is as pityable. that one has done wrong. When a lamp continues to shine. the Gods are not to be blamed. * B. therefore. and XI. Nor are men. yet compose yourself with this. or such other necessary things. They never do wrong. 11. you have a presiding intelligence within yourself. the intellectual part it cannot bear along with it. or a kind and benign providence. make yourself worthy of the divine aids. and temperance. If the wave surrounds you. What can the man do. be extinguished before you are? <286> 16. don’t do it. why strive against it? If there is a kind providence. There are none. at the 5th precept. or a blind confusion. cure them. When † you are struck with the apprehension. and like a stranger is he. without a governour. And then. If not becoming. or a horse should not neigh. amidst these tempestuous waves.
to turn. by distinguishing the cause. since ’tis seasonable to the whole. perceive. that the universe still remains new. Thus. ’Tis the nature of all things to change. nor does the agent suffer any ill. and the time within which it must necessarily cease. † Any one natural operation. Now. but. 21. and advantageous. All depends on your opinions: These are in your power. that you have something more excellent and divine within you. The ceasing of life cannot be evil to individuals. Consider always what it is. and a still harbour. nor is the person. Yet a little. without a reference. 22. which is life. sometimes even by your own. suffers no ill by ceasing. nor any of those who are now living. let nothing be done at random. and concurring with the order of the whole. and moves you. refer your actions to nothing else than some social kind purpose. 19. ’tis good. by its thus ceasing. when you incline. * IX. too.148 meditations 18. that others may. so. as the wires do a puppet. it has no turpitude in it. who goes the same way with God. . Nay. and unfold it. all shall become stable to you. nor is there any thing unsociable in it. spring out of them. and to corrupt. which strikes your imagination. ending at its proper time. your opinion. † IX. than that which raises the several passions. at the end. as in old age. In like manner. as to the whole series of actions. who thus ﬁnishes his series. and you shall be no more. and in its bloom. 21. nor shall any of those things remain. in their course. it suffers no ill by ceasing. and that by his own inclination. for. at last. always by the nature of the whole. the matter. 39. therefore. all is calm. in any bad state. which is advantageous to the whole. that is always good and seasonable. as when one has turned the promontory. Remove. and then. if it ends in its season. <288> The season and the term is limited by nature. Secondly.4 23. since it is not in our power. ’Tis by the changes of its several parts. which you now behold. First. the reference. and got into a bay. is he led by God.3 without your <287> own approbation? What now is my intellectual part? * Is it fear? Is it suspicion? Is it lust? Is it any such thing? 20. Won’t you.
and his life. also. or in enmities. those. and all the human race. and. that. too. or. and ask. ‡ Some of the persons here named as eminent. that. they either happen by chance. <290> that opinion is all. 1. from its seed. too. you are safe. II. you would see only the same things. 14. Recollect frequently those. Cast out your opinions. but a common intellectual part. and 13. And this. at the same time. are not well known. has happened. that the * soul of each man is divine. nor otherwise than justice herself would have acted. proceeded from the same God. till its death. proceeded to the highest pitch in glory. <289> so as from thence to behold all human affairs. and discern their great variety. And this. to examine what each thing is. and into what it must be resolved. You forget. ‡ Fabius Catullinus in the country. of what materials composed. were transported with indignation. who. 27. and this. Have these three thoughts always at hand: ﬁrst. too. Let every such instance occur. and will happen. or by providence: now. and the like now happens every where. perhaps. and Stertinius at Baiae: Tiberius at Capreae. and that the fault subsists not in you. how great the bond of kindred is. II. or things exactly uniform. where are they all now? Smoke. conscious. from its quickening. whatever now happens. you have forgot that all happens according to the nature of the whole. that † it is the present moment only. of the crouds of aerial and etherial inhabitants who surround us: Were you thus raised on high. then. never so often. and ashes. * See B. † See B. Can we be proud of such matters? 25. Lucius Lupus. or can lose. also. The third. . that you do nothing inconsiderately. hinders you to cast them out? 26. his very body. or singular in their fortunes. but in another. who. no man should quarrel with chance. formerly. As for external events. And this. not by common seed or blood. Who. When you fret at any thing. between any man. not even a tale. Then stop. And this.book xii 149 24. an efﬂux from God. The second. could you be raised on high. and an old tale. that no man is proprietor of any thing: His dear children. once. nor censure providence. or any other circumstance of fortune. all of short duration. or in calamities. to its being quickened. you forget. which one lives.
tho’ divided by walls. mountains. being void of sense. A single view to act well the part apointed us by God. And. but only speciﬁcal. yet. and. all eminence attended with the high opinions of men. and that with * simplicity. to shew himself. and they mean no more than an entire moral union by resignation and complete conformity of will. as I experience continually the power of the Gods. whence are you assured they exist. following the Gods. that all individual natures are parts taken from some great mass. what this simplicity is. ’tis an intellectual being that preserves them. what further remains. but from love to God and moral goodness. and strongly recommended by the Stoics: See B. what it is in whole. in the matters subjected to his management. There is but one light of the sun. Nor can we conclude from their speaking of the re-union after death. The other parts of these mentioned wholes. to do justice with all our heart. even to the eye: Again. viz. VIII. There is but one common substance. how mean are all the objects of our keen pursuits! How much more becomes it a philosopher. so as not to leave any vacant interval? 30. but to enjoy life. with peculiar qualities. Such expressions are frequent in the New Testament. “Where have you seen these Gods? or. without aiming at glory. and thus. are void of affection to each other: And. and other objects. such as the forms and matter. a man of justice and temperance. 34.6 † This may relate to the heavenly bodies whom the Stoics deemed inferior deities. and ‡ one intellectual spirit. or any selﬁsh advantage. since it was the known tenet of the Stoics.5 and. in general. <291> the most intolerable pride is that displayed in an ostentation of humility. which makes them tend to the * ’Tis plain from the reason subjoined. † they are visible. Some degree of this union is attainable in this life. with their peculiar <292> limitations. that individuals cease to be distinct persons from the Deity and from each other. perhaps. tho’ divided among ten thousand bodies. and a force of gravity. what its form or cause. I both know surely that they are. to speak truth. of what materials. tho’ divided by ten thousand natures. This simplicity is opposite to the more subtile and reﬁned sorts of selﬁshness. yet. or whole of that kind. and worship them. 28. . For. I reverence it. ‡ It is manifest he does not here intend proper numerical unity. to discern each object. too. my own soul I cannot see. The safety of life depends on this. or pleasure. To those who ask. altho’ it appears to be divided. adding one virtuous ofﬁce to another. There is but one animal soul. And. or immortal angels.150 meditations and Velius Rufus. that heroic souls were raised to the dignity of Gods. that you thus worship them?” First. and. or similitude: And this further. 29. and contempt of pride.
even * those who deemed pleasure the sole good. presently. 36. it must vanish into eternity: How small a part of the universal matter? And. To the person who reputes that alone to be good. that. and appetite? To grow. How small a part is appointed to each one of the inﬁnite immense duration? For. to speak. 14. But. to think: Are any of these wor-<293>thy of your desire? If all these are despicable. not by a tyrant. go on to the last that remains. or not. are but dead carcases. What do you desire? merely to be? or also to have sensation. and smoke. but by that nature. except acting as your nature leads. yet despised it. 32. III. <294> 35. † The peculiar meaning of this seasonableness is best explained in Cicero de ﬁnib. and reckons it indifferent. what is intellectual has a peculiar tendency to its kind. is equal and just to all. and is naturally recommended to it. whether dependent on your choice. 31. it is opposite to the reverence due to them. or an unjust judge. according to right reason. which at * Epicurus. Other things. What use does the governing part make of itself ? On this. And the social affection cannot be entirely repressed. 33. and pain the sole evil. You have lived. that you are sent out. whether he has opportunity of exerting a greater number of actions. to follow reason and God. . c. Now. of the universal spirit? On how narrow a clod of this earth do you creep? When all these things are considered. death cannot appear terrible.7 ‡ The universe. and to decay again. What is there terrible in this. O man. all depends. how small. l. if we repine that we must be deprived of all the former enjoyments by death. and bearing contentedly whatever the common nature brings along with it. as a denizen of ‡ this great state: Of what consequence to you. nothing will appear great. 34. or a smaller: whether he beholds this universe for a longer or a shorter space. which is † seasonable. whether it be only for ﬁve years? What is according to the laws.book xii 151 same place. This must rouse you most powerfully to despise death.
1. but only three. <296> FINIS. say you. For. and in good humour. . * The great magistrates at their own charge exhibited shows to the people. contented.152 meditations ﬁrst introduced you? As if * the praetor who employed the player. in life. You say true. and among others gave plays. B. † three acts make a complete play. for. therefore. <295> who. and for this purpose employed the actors. Neither of them are chargeable on you: Depart. † See above. I have not ﬁnished the ﬁve acts. should dismiss him again from the scene. But. is now the cause of the dissolution. XI. but. as he was the cause of the composition. he is propitious and kind. ’tis he who appoints the end to it. who dismisses you.
These errata to the 1742 edition have been incorporated into the Liberty Fund text— Eds. line 8 [this edition: p. . 13 [this edition: p. 114. line ult. others thus read the Text. line 17]. 153 . read who. “Nay toward the Gods. line 22]. for perhaps. 123. 221. 223 note. 115. [this edition: p. 27. behave with . perhaps.” 239 [this edition: p.errata Page 51. the double-daggered note]. 6 lines from bottom of page]. read numbers for these references by the small letters. too. for conﬁrming read arguing. .
and each single matter: Is present in all the affairs of men. V. * Tho’ the Stoics have not used the term Love. and b aids mankind. we thought it proper to translate it here. has given a very just Summary of the chief maxims of the Stoic philosophy. d. taken mostly from these Meditations. with a few additions.maxims of the stoics As Gataker. I. Providence . and not of the universe only. d in all undertakings to be invoked. with them. therefore. for expressing our pious affections to God. carry a notion of equality. VI. c above all to be worshipped. 11. II. 155 . as used since with regard to the Deity. 40. 12. 16. b. 33. out of reverence: filein. VI. and IX. e at all times to be remembered. of each <297> single man. and give the references to the places he quotes. “God is. I Of GOD. in the prefatory discourse to his excellent edition and commentary on Antoninus. they meant all that can be implied in that word. 13. See also the Dissert: of Epictet. and present to our thoughts. III. 27. e. a. 23. ’tis plain. yet. “The Divine Providence a takes care of human affairs. 7. 14. 14. and filia. 3. and the note. I. and VI. but. See also IX. c. and the passages from some others. but in the external conveniencies and supports of life. in general. not only in those things which are their true good and happiness. and * the Love of GOD. They seem to have abstained from this term. 44.
but sing hymns to God. 13. “—I know to whom I owe subjection and obedience: it is to God. ibid. or more seasonable. and breathe even while asleep. III. “In ﬁne. 17. while either digging. Now. But. added God’s gift of Christ to mankind. and the method of using them. These sentiments. than that. we ought. i To Him alone. This is my post: while I am allowed I will never leave it. and g his conduct approved. to yield a willing obedience in all we do. I will also. 6. ought there not to be some one to perform this duty in your place. both in public and private. k From Him whatever comes to us. what else can I do. to the subject of his hymn. And you I will exhort to join with me in this my song. 34. m nothing more convenient. m. 4. of all to sing the greatest and most divine hymn. f. will nothing but that which God wills. “What words are sufﬁcient to praise or declare these works of God as they deserve? Had we understanding. 20. IV. IV.” Epictetus IV.” Epictetus I. 34. “To God I have subjected all my desires. and others of the same kind in Epictetus. and organs for swallowing and digesting: That he makes us grow up insensibly. but sing a hymn to God? Were I a nightingale. if one has these two things within him: a power to comprehend and understand what happens to every one. h for all <298> things to be praised. 18.” Epictetus. 30.” Epictetus II. I would do the business of a nightingale. “If I was subject formerly to the same weakness. we ought to receive. 26. For each of these things we ought thus to bless him. 27. 57.156 maxims of the stoics f in all things to be acknowledged. and pour out our thanks before him? Ought we not. that I am a rational creature. ’tis to God I give the praise. says Gataker. are not unworthy of the best Christian: had he but. neither do I will. X. g. for his giving us the power of attaining the knowledge of these things. VII. h. the multitude. and bless him. What he wills.” Epictetus cited at X. 45. and celebrated. X. l. “In all these things will I vindicate Thee before men. i.” Epictetus I. I ought to hymn the Deity. o more fortunate. ploughing. and. “In every event which happens in the universe. This is my business: this I perform. what else ought we to do. What he wills not. o. 20. are blind. k. III. to sing this hymn to God: great is God! that he has given us hands. I would do that of a swan. 16.” Epictetus III. it is an easy thing to praise providence. with a ready and hearty accord: and think l nothing better. and am not now. What. then? Since you. only. n more advantageous. a grateful heart. “For I deem that better which God wills than that which I will. n. . and pay this hymn to God for you all? For.” Epictetus cited at VII. 25. Were I a swan. in single-<299>ness of heart. VI. and embrace. or feeding. a lame old man.
“Mankind we ought a from the heart to love. 13. IX. his will. IX. I will die ten thousand deaths sooner than abandon it. “I adhere to him. and it is best to follow him.2 r. p. in a word. even. for ourselves alone. d.4 h. 27. 33. sed. VIII. V. which He has willed. His purpose. 27. and. to meet a thousand deaths. toti genitum se credere mundo. after Socrates.3 a. b. b have a tender care of. g and not <301> believe. to the utmost of our strength and abilities. . VII. He has assigned us. for the public good. 24. by nature . g. q without <300> turning our back. V. IX. 55.” II Of Man. d abstain from all kind of injury. and I Will follow unreluctant. and to live. 107.” Seneca. without murmuring. 33. were we. “Non sibi. 1.] lead me on Where e’er you have appointed me. and the social duties and affection to men . c and bear with their weakness. V.1 q. as. there we ought to follow. O Jove! and thou. He is a bad soldier who sighs while he follows his general. Epist. and with all our might maintain. his desire. c. r Whatever place. “From God come all things. is mine also. 33. by that. VIII. i and kindly beneﬁcent to all men. f. 7. our kinsmen . e. XII. O destiny! [by him Establish’d thorough nature. or station. we are born. that we ought strenuously to keep.” Lucan. or murmuring. as a servant.” Epictetus as cited at X. “Whatever station or rank thou shalt assign me. e that being even impiety: f do them all the good we can. 3. in Plato’s apology.” Epictetus III. 21.— The prayer of Cleanthes frequently quoted by Epictetus. h but let all behold us dedicate ourselves.maxims of the stoics 157 whatever it be. p Wherever He thinks ﬁt to lead us. and attendant.
p But go on from one good deed to another. nor of any thing whatever. VII. so closely linked to one <302> another. 6.” Cicero de ﬁnibus. x. or glory. at the end. VII. if we have been useful to any man: y and all. & VII. m without witnesses. n without hope of reward. III. that we have served ourselves. VIII. b. V. much less of loss or harm. thro’ the whole. VI. VII. 6. u.158 maxims of the stoics k “We ought to live satisﬁed with acting our part well. q. among mankind. IX. 44. of all other. x and. a. t. be the deed itself. 28. k. in all actions. 13. III. at the end. 5. to make life one uninterrupted series of good actions. and with the inward consciousness of having done so: l without concern for the reputation of it. VII. s. the most precious. s that. 15. 16. there be not found the t least break or interval: u deeming it our own good that we have done good to others. or wishing for any external praise. . p. the most excellent. XII. VII. the greatest and most reverential care. IX. o without any view at all of our own advantage. c no desires. 6. VI. r esteeming it the true fruit of living. to act the fair. B. or torture.” a “To love the moral charm. neither of life. “Even while giving. II. 74. 7. 4.7 o. V.” i. z “The culture of our own heart deserves. IX. IX.6 n. “Let the motive. 21. and not the observers of it. no fears of death. “ ’Tis Epicurus who says men love each other from hope of reward. without catching at. to deterr us. y. VI. XII. b “From that which we are conscious is our duty.5 m. 74. forgetting that he gives. are. of the love of our offspring. of all pursuits. r. III. 23. 29. 29.” Seneca de Beneﬁciis II. the lovely. q and never be weary of doing good. l. c. shou’d we allow to draw us away. 73. the honourable part. 5. 6. II. z. 22.” Plutarch. 16. V.
. and <303> manly: all breathing piety.) are the maxims and precepts of the Stoics. humanity. righteous. and greatness of soul. strict. perfectly agreeable to their principles: all holy. affection.maxims of the stoics 159 These (says Gataker.
* a. inserted and interwoven into the history of the gospel. which come nearer to the doctrine of Christ. 33. even in thought: b of suppressing vicious affections: c of leaving off all idle conversation: d of cultivating the heart with all diligence. 33. 28. 16. tho’ a Christian minister.gataker’s apology To this we shall subjoin the following extract from the same preface: Being Gatakers apology for employing. Paul. c. e. 36. h. So he calls the heathens after St. 39. there are no remaining monuments of the ancient * strangers. g. f. Jerom. 48. d. that I may return to what I at ﬁrst advertised you of from St. ’Tis certain. so many years’ time and labour on these Meditations of a Heathen Emperor. VI. Epictetus. 3. — VI. and Antoninus. i. 22. whatever precepts our Lord himself has given. in our admonitions and reproofs: i of counting all things whatever. Luke XIV. e and fashioning it after the image of God: f of doing good to men from the most single disinterested view: g of bearing injuries with contentment: h of using moderation. — XII. b. and strict caution. — V. 15. — V. In ﬁne. — V. — XVIII. 19. 161 . 20. 1. Matth. than the writings and admonitions of these two. I think it may be boldly asserted. says he. — V. 26. 45. under whose reign the Christians suffered persecution. in those sermons and conversations of his. XV. <304> “a of abstaining from evil.
another thing of no small moment is this. while we show it is approved and praised even by strangers and adversaries. Isidor. Pelus. 37. In all this. and its perfect agreement with reason. and attended to with a stricter necessity of obedience.2 . XXII. say: “to what purpose take those precepts from a stranger. 228. established. For. then. Oration 51. And as they come from the mouth of our master himself. where they stand published to all. every honest one confess. and accommodated to practice in civil life. — V. are several ways useful.162 gataker’s apology and even life itself. and. 39. II. and even an adversary to the Christian faith? When they can be had more readily from the sacred page. <306> And. l. Epist. are in Antoninus more extensively applied. are inforced with the higher authority of his command. n humanity. 20. our Emperor particularly excells. 12. that a careful perusal and serious reﬂection on these meditations of Antoninus.” To this I answer. m. — V. m equity. by a great variety of striking arguments. n. inforced and inculcated upon us.1 b. — XXII. 37. the sacred writers have given us only the chief heads of our Lord’s discourses. and III. 19.” And. a. a “A testimony from enemies is of great weight. We discover the equity of the Christian doctrine. as nothing. they are every where interspersed through this collection of his thoughts and meditations. more fully explained. and continually inculcatedwith a surprising strength and life. and leaves the dart deep ﬁxed in the soul. o. which pierces to the <305> bottom of the heart. illustrated. But some may. just as if he had habitually read them. 44. l affection. This every attentive reader will perceive. Epist. says b Dion Pruk. and Luke X. perhaps. o with the greatest diligence and ardour”: All these same precepts are to be found in Antoninus. — VII. concisely digested as a taste or specimen: and those maxims and precepts only summarily proposed. 335. when reason and the case demand them: and of undertaking and performing almost all the other duties of k piety. in the ﬁrst place. Matth.
Rom. h. 27. Romans I. and d writings of the strangers. e. turning quite savage. “that those have had a good cause who gain’d it before judges who were indifferent?” What shall one say then of that cause which is gained even before the averse and prejudiced against it. in these following books. g when its very enemies sit judges.gataker’s apology 163 saeus. should like wild beasts. Surely it must conduce not a little. partly. XII. Further. that the safety and good order of human society might be provided for: h lest men. by the c. . for proof of the doctrine he brought and was publishing among them. But preserved some sparks alive. — 28. 31. nor understood the reasons of our faith). Aug. To follow God and reason: Antoninus. f. verse 21. B.5 k.4 i. rush universally on each other’s destruction.” The Apostle understood this very well.” And. “the encomium of those who admire tho’ they don’t receive. 23.” says f an author of high character. who was a stranger. as he did not suffer his own image to be quite worn out and lost in man who had fallen off from him. shou’d yet recommend and establish them with such vehemence and ardour. Acts XVII. (for he neither knew our mysteries. VI. <307> and by so very forcible arguments. Plato. Our reasonable service. 19. if haply they might feel after him and ﬁnd him. “Who is not sensible. 1. When they knew God. that. must be the ﬁnest of all praises. the good providence and kindness of God shines forth. Epist. That they should see the Lord. d. That which may be known of God. that they might apply themselves to k know and l seek God. in the laws. XXXII. 31. Deut. XII. and unfavourable to the Christian name. Polybius Hist. as perfectly agreeable to equity and e reason. and Embass. nay. l. 170. There is nothing more impious. more barbarous. And. 1. Acts XVII. than man once turned savage.3 g. Since i “man. 122. Partly. B. and improved even to a miracle. the precepts and lessons of our Lord. when he called in testimonies from c the inscriptions. which he both excited by various methods. without education is the most savage of all the creatures which the earth nourishes. a man. to vindicate and implant in the breasts of any whatever.
1. Bern. Rom. has been beyond the power either of the vices of men or the malice of Devils: nay.” Surely. 15. 20. p. 27. n “The image of God in our hearts may be burnt. and the particular beneﬁt of his people. Genesis I. . Bernard. kindled from heaven in the human heart.6 o. for the advantage of the human race. which followed the primitive defection. For that saying of St. & IX. FINIS. II.” It was the will of the divine goodness that this image should. being plainly m without excuse if they either despised or neglected them. XX. originally stamped on the rational soul. to wear quite out that o image. Prov. according to him. is undoubtedly true. m. be preserved and cherished amid the ruins and ashes.164 gataker’s apology <308> assistance of these helps. 27. I. 6. n. in annum Serm. Rom. to extinguish intirely p that torch. but not burnt out. “beyond the power of hellﬂames.
4. Roman History. See bibliography.. 165 . Collier. 10. see the endnotes. Verus.endnotes Editors’ Notes to Hutcheson and Moor’s Life of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus 1. I. The emperor Hadrian (r. “Life of Marcus” 3. The Emperor Marcus Antoninus His Conversation with Himself. 156–86. 15. 3. For these persons. For Marcus’s own account of his family. pp.” which is the ultimate source of the biographical material in Hutcheson and Moor’s introduction. The chief literary sources for the life of Marcus Aurelius are Dio Cassius. 11. 8. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros (1652/1697). art. vol. 170n6. Marcus Aurelius. 5. bk.2). and the “Lives” of Marcus. 6. bk. 1. Dacier. p. For further information on persons and places. and Brill’s New Pauly. noted for his piety. Sextus was a nephew of Plutarch (Scriptores historiae Augustae. A full-length biography is Birley. as he is commonly called today. See bibliography. 3rd ed. 171nn13. 2. Hutcheson and Moor normally refer to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (emperor 161–80) as Antoninus rather than Marcus Aurelius. 7. 25. 171n9. See the endnotes. and Avidius Cassius in the Historia Augusta (or Scriptores historiae Augustae ). see The Oxford Classical Dictionary. LXXI–LXXII. Casaubon. see bk. pp. 1. The Daciers added a prefatory “Life of Marcus. & de Mad. Gataker. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor. p. See bibliography. p. His Meditations Concerning Himselfe (1634). 9. 11. The second king of Rome. p. Reﬂexions morales de l’Empereur Marc Antonin avec des remarques de Mr. 117–38). Dacier. and a short account of the reign by Birley may be found in the Cambridge Ancient History. I. xii–xiii. See the editors’ introduction.
chap.8–10. 13. author of two Apologies for the Christian religion addressed to Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius jointly. Eusebius. vol.” 18. In 171 occurred the Moorish inroads into Spain and the revolt of the Bucoli (Herdsmen) in Egypt. Marcovich. The First Apology. pp. Falls. 11. The “Marcomannic Wars” continued for much of the 170s. his Presbeia peri Christiano ¯n (A Plea for Christians). I. pp. IX. 1948. below. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed.” 14. ed.13. Eusebius refers brieﬂy to Justin Martyr’s two “apologies” for the Christian religion. and trans. 24.166 endnotes 12. The incident is related by Dio Cassius LXXII.4 in The Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed.1–7 ascribes this letter to the emperor Antoninus Pius. Dio ascribes the miracle to an Egyptian “magician” invoking Hermes Aetios.3. but that if any should recant they should be let go. “The Life of the Emperor. At bk. Normally now spelled “Calpurnius. who gives Tertullian as his source (see the endnotes. There is no paragraph corresponding to this in Dacier’s “Life. The Christian interpretation is preserved in Eusebius. and a translation in Justin. This appears to be a paraphrase of Eusebius. 192–93) describes thunderbolts hurled against the enemy by Jupiter in response to Marcus’s prayer. IX. 26. The “Life of Marcus” 24.. see note 21. 23. 11. vol. The Greek text of the Apologies is found in Justini Martyris Apologiae. vol. which Hutcheson mentions here.47: “For Caesar had written that they should be tortured to death. Ecclesiastical History 4. Athenagoras. After the assassination of Commodus.5. History of the Church V. 19. Valesius produced an edition of Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical History in 1659. addressed to Marcus Aurelius and his son Commodus. 1994. Normally now called “Chatti. was executed in 165. 25. 12–13). See Athenagoras. Christian apologist.1. See the account in the Cambridge Ancient History. 26–33). in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed. 170. Dio Cassius LXXII. ed.” pp. 168–69n45). 16.. pp. vol. eminent lawyer and imperial administrator under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. is a defense of Christians from the charges of immorality frequently leveled against them. 15. 22. Justin Martyr. .. Lucius Volusius Maecianus. p. It is generally regarded by historians as spurious.” 17. History of the Church V. Pertinax was emperor for three months until he was himself assassinated in March 193. IV. Legatio and De resurrectione.” 21.3. 20.
where there were many Christians. Loeb ed. p. vol. 11. I. Philostratus. 165–68.. and Marcus’s reply to it. 38. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed. This purported correspondence between Marcus Aurelius and Faustina. “Life of Avidius Cassius” 8. 234–37)..8. Lives of the Sophists II. 37. 116n107). in Tertullian. vol.. pp. 39–45). He is not mentioned in The Meditations. De spectaculis (Loeb ed. This speech may contain the gist of what Marcus actually said (Cambridge Ancient History. Loeb ed. A forgery in “Life of Avidius Cassius” 12. I. pp. 262–63). 110–11). 29. 34. 248–51). I.1 (Philostratus and Eunapius. pp. . This letter purporting to be by Marcus. 30. as Hutcheson and Moor say. found in the “Life of Avidius Cassius” 9. Apology. vol.23.. The Lives of the Sophists. except for a few passages dealing with the revolt in 175” (Cambridge Ancient History. Apology V. 36.. pp.. pp.endnotes 167 27. In Marcus’s time. but certainly spurious. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. For his life see Philostratus. Lives of the Sophists II. ed.. The incident and the letter are also referred to by Tertullian. pp. IX. The letter of Verus about Cassius. The sophist Herodes Atticus. vol. p.. pp.1–10. 11.35. and. p. vol.. pp.. 33. Gaius Cassius Longinus. 32. Loeb ed. 175–77). vol. pp. in Dio’s Roman History. Decline and Fall. this legion was recruited in the regions of Melitene. I. I.4. II. “Life of Avidius Cassius” 14. are found in the “Life of Avidius Cassius” 1. pp. according to Bury (Gibbon. is appended to Justin Martyr’s First Apology (Greek text in Marcovich.. but he is the subject of ﬁve letters between Marcus and Fronto (Fronto. the friend and teacher of Marcus Aurelius and of Lucius Verus (Dio Cassius LXXII. is spurious.1 (563) (Loeb ed.1. Correspondence.. 35.. vol. already had the name Fulminata in the ﬁrst century. vol. in Scriptoreshistoriae Augustae (Loeb ed. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. pp. 252–55).3–8. 157n52). p. pp. See Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed.3–26. A forged letter from “Life of Avidius Cassius” 11. 28. Dio Cassius LXXII. 254–57).6. Bury . 59–71). vol. IX.5–10.7–9 and 2. I. These letters are forgeries. 31.10. 256–59). 139–83). English translation in Falls. vol. one of the assassins of Julius Caesar.2–5.1–8 in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed. Indeed the whole of this “Life of Avidius Cassius” has been described as “mainly ﬁctional. Legio XII Fulminata was descended from Julius Caesar’s twelfth legion. vol. 177). pp. ed. 31). 64–65).
Marcus was initiated into this ancient cult of Demeter at Eleusis near Athens in 176. Maximus of Tyre.” (The quotations in this note are from Eusebius.14. Philosophical Orations.. to whom Marcus gave an audience at Smyrna in 176. He gives an account of the execution of the Christian apologist Justin Martyr and of many other Christians in Asia. a “middle Platonist.9–V. Eusebius left to succeeding centuries the impression that persecution was general throughout the empire in the reign of Marcus. The emperor Hadrian had also been initiated. 1.30. The highly inﬂuential History of the Church by Eusebius (composed early in the fourth century at a time of widespread persecution) devotes most of its account of the Church in the reign of Marcus (IV. 168. in Herodian (Loeb ed. beginning: “In this period Asia was thrown into confusion by the most savage persecutions. art. V. 42. the great governour of this city”. though it actually occurred in 156. a prominent sophist. 19. The source of this purported deathbed speech of Marcus is Herodian I. See Maximus Tyrius. bk.” 45. History of the Church. Dio Cassius LXXII. Among his many surviving speeches is a panegyric of the Roman empire (“To Rome”). the asterisked note: “This is a clear acknowledgement of the one supreme God.10. Marcus was regarded by Christians as one of the major persecutors. 41. god of healing. See also bk. art. with regard to his medical problems. in Dio’s Roman History (Loeb ed. 98n: where the inferior gods of “the heathen philosophers” are compared with the angels believed in by “many Christians”.4.3) to the persecutions of the reign. pp. an account of the revelations made by Asclepius. 44. 93–106. Williamson.) A recent historian.168 endnotes 39.. pp. p. the conception of God articulated in Oration 11 “Plato on God” was particularly inﬂuential.1): “Such were the experiences of the Christian churches [in Gaul] under Marcus Aurelius: from them one can easily guess what happened in the other provinces of the Empire. 65n: “God. art. VIII. 40. IX. 43. 52–53). He also describes the martyrdoms in Gaul in graphic detail. he also composed Sacred Teachings. vol.2. 203. pp. expresses the widely accepted view that Marcus simply followed the policy of his predecessors since Trajan of permitting prosecution of Christians if initiated by private citizens: . Aelius Aristides. 14–21). p.. IX. summarizing as follows (V. trans. however. 22.2.” who was popular among humanists of the Renaissance and later.” Eusebius assigns the celebrated martyrdom of Polycarp to Marcus’s reign. and bk.
” 499).endnotes 169 “Marcus’s own conduct appears to me at all points traditionalist. not least in the scrupulous respect for Roman religious ceremonial. “Marcus Aurelius and the Christians. and it would not be astonishing if he simply assumed without examination that the measures taken by his predecessors against sectaries who spurned the ancestral cults were correct” (Brunt. .
Gataker prints the negative particle in his Greek text. 6. Apollonius of Chalcedon was invited to Rome by the emperor Antoninus to instruct the young Marcus in philosophy. . 137). 37–38. and omits it from his Latin translation. discusses a proposal to delete it in his annotation to this passage (p. Rivers. 8. 146). for example. and Sentiment. 184–86). He and Marcus are bracketed together in the revival of interest in Stoicism in the early eighteenth century (see. 3). in Scriptores historiae Augustae (Loeb ed.17 as one of the three men whom he is most grateful to the gods to have known (the others being Apollonius [endnote 8. Epictetus (ca. p.170 endnotes Editors’ Notes to Marcus’s Text and to Hutcheson and Moor’s Notes book i 1.14). vol. Quintus Junius Rusticus (cos. 5. the others are unknown. Marcus mentions him in I. II. below] and Maximus [endnote 15.d. I. sec. and an outline of his principles is given in his Manual (Encheiridion ). His lectures and discussions were written up by Arrian in the Discourses. 5. 7. 4. to which Marcus refers here. pp. Farquharson. including Gataker’s. who ﬁrst established the numbering for Marcus. I. pp. All references to Gataker are to the 1697 edition. This Diognetus was Marcus’s painting instructor. repeats the story found in the “Life of Marcus” in the Historia Augusta that even when Marcus had been adopted into the imperial family. he used to visit the house of Apollonius for philosophical instruction (“Life of Marcus. 171]). reports from the “Life of Marcus. 143). 135). Baccheios was “a Platonic philosopher of the day” (The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 3 in Scriptores historiae Augustae. 162) was the man primarily responsible for arousing Marcus’s devotion to philosophy (see I. Marcus Aurelius.” 3. who taught Stoic philosophy. 91–92. 118–19.. II.” chap. as Gataker. He was descended from the Rusticus who was executed by Domitian in 93 a. 55–ca. 2. Hutcheson and Moor are paraphrasing here. p. Hence all their numbers in the ﬁrst book from paragraph 2 onward are three lower than in other editions and translations. p. Reason. See also Birley. trans. Hutcheson and Moor’s ﬁrst paragraph contains the ﬁrst three paragraphs of all other editions. Grace. Gataker. vol. 4.” chap. 12. 9. they omit the names of “the contending parties. as a member of a group of aristocratic Stoics who opposed tyranny. vol. p. p. a freed slave.
art. Porcius Cato committed suicide after the battle of Thapsus rather than submit to Julius Caesar. art. 97–98. and especially bk. bk. pp. Cinna Catulus.endnotes 171 9. Marcus’s Greek secretary. pp. Claudius Maximus. This was not discovered until the early nineteenth century and would not have been known to Hutcheson and Moor. a tributary of the Danube in Slovakia. art. 142. bk. 12. 96–97. Marcus Aurelius. p. Some of the correspondence between Marcus and Fronto survived in a manuscript that had been overwritten with another text (a palimpsest). Marcus Aurelius. The correspondence is translated in Fronto. Thrasea Paetus was forced to commit suicide by Nero. consul 146. and the endnotes. Marcus’s tutor in rhetoric and correspondent (Birley. p. 73–74 and note. 17. 19. book ii 1. art. VI. a Germanic tribe. p. 105). by Domitian. his son married one of Marcus’s daughters (Birley. See also bk. nephew of Plutarch. reported to have been a Stoic. 6). pp. VI. Stoic philosopher. a great authority on Homer. p. on the rational soul as a being or substance distinct . Apology. who also taught Fronto. his son. 10. The river Gran or Hron. also Helvidius. 14. consul ca. Most of them were Stoics. 47n. it is spelled correctly in Gataker’s Greek text and in his Latin translation (1697. 19). V. Brutus is the assassin of Julius Caesar who killed himself after being defeated by Octavian at Philippi. 65n. pp. See bk. Dio is probably the disciple of Plato who deposed the tyrant Dionysius II of Syracuse. Helvidius Priscus was executed by Vespasian. art. Marcus Aurelius. 15. 71. 178n1. described as “a man of austere principles and long military service” (Apuleius. Marcus had his winter quarters here during his campaign against the Quadi. 13. a pupil of the famous Musonius Rufus. VI. 16. bk. 12. 111. 37n. II. Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus. These were all men who won fame by opposing tyranny. Alexander was a sophist and grammarian from Cotiaeon. 18. 16. who taught Marcus literature. IV. p. Philosopher and orator. p. Athenodotus was a Stoic. Stoic senator. on the rational soul as the seat of knowledge and virtue. p. 2. art. IX. provincial governor. 11. 19. 13. 96–97). 7. 1. Correspondence. bk. M. See Birley. Marcus Cornelius Fronto taught Marcus rhetoric. he is usually now called Dion. An error for Lanuvium.
and bk. art. p. 50n. 7. set but the weakest moral Species. XI. where Marcus had his winter quarters for three successive years while on campaign against the Marcomanni. the asterisked note. V. Hutcheson referred to this section of The Meditations and to others in the third edition of An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections (1742). 3. art. 12. the double-daggered note. bk. 78–79). 5. sec. 14. ii. 4.III. 38. 24. 137 (Liberty Fund ed. bk. bk. and power. 19. IV. book iii 1. 1. 150n. bk. 17. A Cynic philosopher of the fourth century b.c. The passage is from a lost work. See also Adam Smith. 75. Theophrastus succeeded Aristotle as head of the Peripatetic school in 322 b. In An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections (1728). the seat of true perfection and happiness”. the asterisked note. XI. 6. art. 75. say they. 148. X. generosity. IV. 137. 19. art.. VII. XII. 288: “The good-natured Emperor . VI. a Germanic tribe. V. p. 8. p. delights in expressing contentment with the ordinary course of things. 39. is beautiful if one considers the nature of things as a whole. and bk.172 endnotes from the body and the animal soul: “The rational soul. p. art. art. It was that we must separate ideas of wealth and other external things from ideas of friendship.” Marcus’s point in this section appears rather to have been an aesthetic observation: he was reminding himself and his readers that everything in nature. 46. 54n. the asterisked note. on the identiﬁcation of the soul and the heart. p. Hutcheson expressed similar reservations concerning desires for honor. p. pp. and public spirit: “consider things barely and apart from each other: and in opposition to these Desires. 132. art. 24. and see if they can prevail against it. VIII. art. 54. 30.. p. 4. p. art. in the early 170s. See also bk. p. art. bk. . VI. pp. art.c. East of Vienna. pp. XII. 93). art. however rugged or aging or deformed. p. 38. is the man. 145–46n. 5. 105n. 56. 63. Hutcheson’s use of this section in An Essay had a strictly moral application. IV. esteem. II. on the soul and the possibility of a future state. p. See also bk. XII. wealth. art. p. p. bk. art. and bk. and popular applause. art. . 109–11 (Liberty Fund ed. Theory of Moral Sentiments. bk. p. p. bk. In these passages Hutcheson reminds the reader of the limitations that the Stoics placed upon the desire for fame. See bk. IV. 138. 13. p. and in pointing out beauties even in those .
p. that they counted the duties among the things indifferent. 1. 135. 93). 133. p. It may be added that Marcus. See bk.endnotes 173 parts of it where vulgar observers are not apt to see any. p. I. linked the beautiful and the moral. 90n. 1. 11. . 8. or external duties of life. pp. 124–25]). 7. art. 9. XI. art. stupify the nobler powers”. The reference to “vermi’ here seems to be to the accusers of Socrates. VII. Democritus of Abdera. where Hutcheson writes: “the dissipating pursuits of external things. and bk. Lives. It was one of the dominant themes of Hutcheson’s moral philosophy that all mankind would be naturally sociable if it were not for misleading associations of ideas and “falsely imagined interests. as Gataker suggests (Gataker 1697. The Babylonians (or Chaldeans) were the source of the astrology that was very popular in Rome in the imperial period. p. the great physician and author of some of the medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus.c. 410–11). Lives of the Philosophers. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind (2006). Gataker. from whom the Stoics derived their doctrine of the periodic conﬂagration of the universe. notes that this death story is told of Pherecydes of Syros rather than of Democritus (from Diogenes Laertius. p. 3 (Loeb ed. 20. For his death. 111. 59.” In this assertion.” prefaced to A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. pp. chap. IX. where obstacles encountered in the pursuit of external things or things indifferent are taken to be opportunities for actions which may be more properly denominated virtuous or good.. 54. sec.. neither good nor evil.” See especially his inaugural lecture as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow (1730) in Francis Hutcheson. 118 [Loeb ed. 6. bk. art. which they counted the sole good. Logic. and the ofﬁcia. XI. Greek philosopher of the sixth century b. atomist philosopher of the ﬁfth century b. Gaius Julius Caesar. 2. the daggered note. chap. 3. pp. 6. bk.c. 91. p. 4. Hutcheson was expressing a reservation about the subject matter of Cicero’s De ofﬁciis and explaining why it should not be mistaken for a complete system of morals.. art. IV. like Shaftesbury and Hutcheson. Hippocrates of Cos. 5. Hutcheson summarizes the Stoic position on this matter: “Now ’tis well known that the Stoicks made such difference between virtue. see Diogenes Laertius. In his dedication “to the students in universities. VII. art. sec. See also bk.” Hutcheson returns to the moral signiﬁcance of separating images in the imagination in bk. the daggered note. and bk. Metaphysics. 50–51. p. 93. Heraclitus of Ephesus.
art. Bentley. p. The Inner Citadel. xviii.” were technical terms in the vocabulary of the Stoics. This section was quoted in part by Henry More.” Some phrase like “commit all sorts of depravity” seems to be missing from the Greek. 3. p. and proportioned to the worth of objects. who had edited the Letters and was inclined to accept their authenticity. 11. tyrant of Acragas (Agrigento) in Sicily in the sixth century b. translated by Hutcheson as “reservation. “For it is a shame even to speak of the things that they do in secret. On the Stoic citizenship of the world. and some commentators have seen here a derogatory reference to the Christians. 6. and 193. 37. see Hadot. 65. which is itself mutilated: “and those who . 105n. art. IV. 40–85.” book iv 1. 52. p. Logic. See also bk. who ﬁrst deﬁnitively proved that they were spurious (A Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris. takes Agathon as a personal name. 26). Metaphysics. V. On Marcus’s employment of this technical language and its signiﬁcance for his thought. 1699). 29. III.” On Hutcheson’s use of the term hegemonikon. as “the governing part.” and hegemonikon.c. The Greek terms hypexairesis. in support of a theory of liberty. 137) Gataker says that he approves of Xylander’s emendation. bk. Gataker’s Greek text differs from his Latin translation here (1697. p. 5. 52. Phalaris. The translation here omits a clause in the Greek text. II. See Jebb. chap. 6. see also “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind. art. properly . pp. See also the editors’ introduction. His Greek text has to agathon (“the good”). 251. whereas his Latin translation. when they have closed their doors. including Gataker (1697. and Natural Sociability (2006).174 endnotes 10. Others. and in his annotation to the text (1697. 4. See also bk. 2. 199n25. 143. where Marcus cites Epictetus: “That we may form every purpose with reservation. and Charles Boyle. art. xxi. The supposed Letters of Phalaris had given rise to a celebrated controversy between Richard Bentley. 119). XI. art. p. See also note to bk. and a byword for cruelty and sensuality. Gataker quotes Ephesians 5:12. 57. 9. An Account of Virtue (1690). see also bk. sec. and bk. 20. p. . who were believed to commit all kinds of depravity behind closed doors. VIII.” in Hutcheson. and other references noted there. p. p. 35. 122–23. p. p. following Xylander’s emendation kata ton Agathona. take care they be kind and social. . apply it to evil men generally.
art. p. and ends with Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. 71–74 (Diels-Kranz). bk. fragments B76. 16–22 (Loeb ed.c. 17. These cannot be identiﬁed. was overwhelmed by the sea in 373 b. An Account of Virtue. 9. III. p. in Characteristics. 353n. xxvii. and bk. sec. VI. p. V. 470–71). 8.. “Helice”). Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker.v–vi. 5 and 6. See also bk. 16–22 (Loeb ed. vol. Pompeii and Herculaneum (as it is usually now spelled) were destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius in a. 74n. I. Helice. his immediate predecessors. II. bk. Heraclitus. 70. 11. 1. p. Cicero. bk.v. In Cicero. 63. ed. This article is attributed to Epictetus on the authority of Marcus and reproduced among the otherwise unauthorized fragments in Epictetus. (Brill’s New Pauly. to Augustus. vol. III. art. Theory of Moral Sentiments.1. 7. XII.” See the editors’ introduction to this edition.” 14. where the will is resigned to Divine Providence. 14. II. p. s. fragment 28 (Loeb ed. VII. pp. 13. pp.. 15. heroes of the Republic. as illustrative of a moral system “too absurd to deserve any serious consideration. Vespasian. II. and bk. See Epictetus. V.d. Cato defends the Stoic theory that all creatures must ﬁrst preserve themselves. See also bk. art. Diels. De ﬁnibus. but they must then proceed to live in conformity with nature: “It is only at this ﬁnal stage that the Good ﬁrst emerges and comes to be understood in its true nature. Klein. art. VIII. emperor 69–79. II. 150n. pp. p. 13. 10.” chap. together with prudence and patience. secs. bk. vol. 79. the ﬁrst Roman emperor. The same section was quoted in full by Adam Smith. 16. as represented by Marcus Aurelius. 27. pp. Marcus proceeds from some mostly obscure ﬁgures of early Roman history through Scipio and Cato. 105. 232– 41). 145. 17. art. pp. 12. sec. 167–68. Shaftesbury took this article to be an expostulation directed against Lucretius: “Miscellany II. XX. II. Trajan. sec. X. chaps. Discourses. emperor 98–117. Henry More. p. 63n.endnotes 175 understood. vol. 289. to be one of the three primitive virtues. . 6. p. a town in the district of Achaea in Greece. p. chap. 1. ii. On the Ends of Good and Evil. p. pt. took the simplicity or sincerity of the soul. 18. 19. 119. chap. p. 233–41). Discourses (Loeb ed. The sentences placed within square brackets have also been attributed to Epictetus. III.. 470–73)..
p. Menander. in the more perfect orders of beings. art. the present degenerate state of the soul has been brought about by confused imaginations. 50– 51 (Liberty Fund ed. the asterisked note. 379). p. De origine mali (1702). present opinions. p. and he was king in the third age” (trans. IX. “happen. But this lapse of the soul into degeneracy has happened in accordance with the divine plan.” pp. 168n40. was Marcus’s contemporary. on “the present degenerate state [of the soul]. p. on the divine ether. pp. art. although one can still recognize vice in all its ugliness. see Moore. 51. 5.176 endnotes 20.” When one understands that imperfection is part of the divine plan or system. some of them less perfect than others. Hutcheson also refers on the same pages to the theodicy of William King. And one no longer feels anger or ill will toward the vicious. the sophist Aelius Aristides.” 3. where the relevant passage from Simplicius is reproduced. 9.” p. dispositions. book v 1. And other evils are necessary for the exercise of “the most divine virtues. The Ghost 17: “You’re so well off you don’t / Have anywhere to shit. 21. pp. I’d have you know. and bk. See Iliad I. one also understands why the more imperfect orders behave badly. 43–44). vol. the god of healing. IV. 67n. in which it was foreseen that there must be different orders of beings. “Hutcheson’s Theodicy.” As Hutcheson explains it. See also bk. A noted recipient of Asclepius’s medical advice. Hutcheson had alluded to a similar theodicy outlined in the comments of Simplicius on the morals of Epictetus in An Essay (1728). Aesculapius. in The Scottish Enlightenment: Essays in Reinterpretation. 110. The unavoidability of imperfection in the divine plan was elaborated most fully by Hutcheson in A System of Moral Philosophy (1755): for discussion. 6. V. “Life of the Emperor. Many evils are necessary to reclaim the less perfect from their vices. also known as Asclepius. It is also interesting that Hutcheson should conclude this note with the sentence: “And the Stoic allows . 2. 4. See bk.: “In his time two generations of mortal men had perished. as it is often counteracting its original destination. II. 27. art. and habits. 3. Lattimore). 239–66. Loeb ed. See the endnotes. The legendarily long-lived king of Homer’s Iliad.250ff.. art.” (In Menander. sec. / those who had grown up with him and they who had been born to / these in sacred Pylos. usually given in dreams..
234–35): “. vol. Virgil. vol.. 4. earth and sea’s expanse and heaven’s depth. vol.. are restored. II. . shall I deem worthy to be paid you for deeds so glorious? The ﬁrst and fairest the gods and your own hearts shall give. pp. Discourses. Marcus’s language here is an adaptation of the famous phrase of Epictetus. The comedy is not known. The modern reference is Hesiod. the slender stream of life. 171–72n2. p. Horace.” This is consistent with the assertion made in bk. art.” 10. pp. 7. and a draught of heavenly ether. .” 9. to him all beings thereafter return. and when unmade. to Olympus.. The universe. art.” 16.endnotes 177 the vicious could refrain from their vices. which the Greek does not necessarily imply.” There is a law of nature but it is known by the immediate promptings of the heart. explains that an “inner spirit” pervades all things.79 (Loeb ed. 197–200 (Loeb ed. 1. must be that city. if indeed this is a reference to a comedy. Virgil. Georgics IV. Aeneid I. including human beings. IV.. 11. they saw. 15. pp. p.603–5 (Loeb ed. Odyssey IV. that: “the law of God [is] written in the heart. men.252–54 (Loeb ed. I. for God. pp. pp. pp.” 13. . 48–49: “We are all fellow-citizens: and if so.220–26. a ◊ ne ´ xou kai `a ◊ pe ´ xou. VII. fragment 10. 91n. but that human beings need to be purged of the sinful elements they have acquired in life before they can rejoin the heavenly spirit after death. men and beasts of every sort draw. Marcus is here paraphrasing Homer.6 (Epictetus. Satires II. then. art. 132–33): “What reward. Aeneid VI. 56. Virgil. I. from him the ﬂocks and herds. some have taught that the bees received a share of the divine intelligence. Loeb ed. and the consciousness of right will bring you worthy rewards!” . 12.” 6. leave human beings behind and go from the broadpathed earth to the race of the Immortals. 14. we have a common city. vol. See note to bk. 142–43): “a portion of the divine spirit. pp. 234–35): “Then indeed will Reverence and Indignation cover their beautiful skin with white mantles.. I.. 582–85). if they heartily inclined to do so. Virgil.2. Aeneid IX. See bk. . 304–5): “The gods .690.724–46 (Loeb ed. in Virgil (Loeb ed. Works and Days. I. vol. 455). II. pervades all things. for of what other common city are all men citizens?” 8. each at birth.. pp. And even those imperfect degenerate natures who have been misled by confused imaginations or present opinions might behave otherwise “if they heartily wished to do so.
Iliad 7. I. See also bk. 10. II. Emperor. Hutcheson’s strongest arguments for a future state of the soul are found in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. 19. For Nestor. sec. Hutcheson thought that one may have ideas of virtue and moral goodness and be motivated to act virtuously without “any Thoughts of future Rewards. See bk.c. p. Aesculapius (Asclepius). Marcus’s adoptive father. chap. 9. 138–161. The sentences from here to the end of this article were cited by Shaftesbury to reinforce his view that wit is sometimes needed to explode pomposity: “Soliloquy or Advice to an Author. vol.99 in modern editions. pp. p. 5. which correspond to nothing in the Greek text. They seem to be interpretative additions. bk. and was recognized as the “second founder” of Stoicism. and bk. in going on constantly from one social action to another with remembrance of the Deity. Athos. art. II. VIII. pp. This sentence was cited by Hutcheson (in the original Greek) as one of the epigraphs prefaced to Philosophiae moralis (1745). Chrysippus was head of the Stoic school in the third century b.” pt. V. Stoicorum veterum fragmenta. p. Klein. X. p. II. . sec. goddess of the corn. Diels. 168. 13. and bk. See also bk. 145–46. 11.. 147–49. IV. art. 4. 8. p. I. 4.178 endnotes book vi 1. 28– 30. 6. and Natural Sociability. 148. Fragment B75 (Diels-Kranz).” 2. p. 98n. 5. See also bk. art. Like the Stoics. fragment 1181 (from Plutarch. XI. Homer. and sec. art. this adage is rendered: “In this one thing delight and rest yourself. pp. p. 27. 52. in Logic. 19. XII. Metaphysics. see the endnotes. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. XII. ed. 3. art. pp. 7 (Liberty Fund ed. I. Moralia 1065e). bk. p.c. A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747). and bk. 3. Von Arnim. In the translation of that work.” See Inquiry. 38. Here and elsewhere Hutcheson inserts into his translation a number of phrases in square brackets. art. 176n20. 135n. p. art. Ceres. 132. p. art.” in Characteristics (1999). 176n1). 12. 34n. 5. a mountain headland at the end of the Chalcidic peninsula. through which Xerxes notoriously cut a canal in preparation for his invasion of Greece in 480 b. vol. II. 2. art. 113n38. 96 and 108–10). 6. art. god of healing (see the endnotes. 7.
fragment 287. VIII. I. De ofﬁciis. Hutcheson’s remark may indicate that he found Marcus’s writing obscure in this article. 104–5): “We need only to look at the faces of men in a rage or under the inﬂuence of some passion or fear or beside themselves with extravagant joy: . author of satirical works thought to have been imitated by Lucian (born about a. forgive them. 87. 8. fragment 757. sec. bk. bk. In A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747) it is translated as “Give joy to the immortal gods and those that love you. pp. Cicero. Archimedes. 22. See also bk. 145–46.. p. V. for they know not what they do. art. 6. 86. I. . V. art. bk. 112–13. pt. 7. Eudoxus. IX. . 5. I.” and it is attributed to “An unknown poet in Antonin. p. 14. vol.). IX. VII. p. or he may have been suggesting that Marcus was proposing a doubt on this subject in the same dialectical spirit that Hutcheson perceived in bk. bk. 2. 120). chap. 8.” Hutcheson had cited the same observation from Cicero in A System of Moral Philosophy. ll. This quotation was used as an epigram prefaced to Philosophiae moralis (1745).d.. 97. pp. Bellerophon. Hypsipyle. 112–13.” The source remains unknown.). art. p. 17. 27. art. art. p. VII. art. p. mathematician (third century b. book vii 1. Hipparchus. 177n16. V. 64n. bk.” 3. 94. V. IX. and bk. bk. 16. 68. 3. 357). 777). 5. p. 5. bk. art. For Chrysippus see the endnotes. bk. Antisthenis fragmenta. VI. 70. Euripides. IX. Antisthenes. 15. Inﬂuential Cynic writer of the third century b. bk. 109.). art. pp. p. ed. pt.c. ll. mathematician and astronomer (fourth century b. 108. ed.c. 925–26 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. 178n11. art. Kannicht. See the endnotes. p. See bk. For Epictetus see the endnotes. 170n7. . Caizzi. 4. chap. 29 (Loeb ed. These three ﬁgures are unknown.c. bk. 27. 14. This sentiment and the parallel theme in the New Testament are a repeated refrain in the notes provided by Hutcheson and Moor. vol. 5. p. I. 1–2 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. p. art. XII. p. V. 17. 1. astronomer (second century b. 31. pp.endnotes 179 13. Euripides. bk.c. vol. fragment 20b. p. “Father. 2.
pp. ll. fragment 839. II. art. 749–50. Euripides. 19.” which are found in some manuscripts.. sec. Plato. 54. sec. pp.. 16. The words “This is beautiful in Plato. III. and a quotation of unknown authorship. vol. vol. 102–5). but Marcus’s version closely follows Epictetus’s paraphrase at Discourses. 15. pp. 17. fragment 918. p. See the editors’ introduction. there is no note at bk.. bk. vol. Farquharson. vol. 447. pp.” but modern editions treat “Te ¯lauge ¯s” as the proper name of an obscure contemporary of Socrates and add a negative. “ei te ¯lauge ¯s So ¯ krate ¯s. bk. 23. 1. VIII. p. 2. 16.180 endnotes 9. 5. art. p. Hutcheson’s translation is consistent with Gataker’s text (p. 4 (Loeb ed. Plato. 924). pp. 95).. III. p. Usener. fragment 447. Epicurea. II. 178– 79). Euripides. pp. Chrysippus. 66–67). pt. 42 (Loeb ed. p.. bk. VI. 24. Plato. Antiope. 14. 68). 12. at Republic 412e– 13a (Loeb ed. 172–73n1. 124–25). 5. pt. VIII. See the endnotes. vol. Apology 28d (Loeb ed. 11. 105n. Republic 486a–b (Loeb ed. fragment 303 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. Epictetus. 266–67).. vol. art. pp. A characteristic doctrine of Plato’s found. 45. 484–85).. ll.. I. 5. II. pp. 8–11). vol. for instance. 296–97). Also see bk. 46. p. 22. and bk. 143. Gorgias 512d–e (Loeb ed. pp. 25. 28. 24. pp. printed them (1697. p. 335). 173n9. p. 18. ed. vol. 21. in which case the meaning of the sentence is. vol. chap. 2. xx. Euripides. Apology 28b (Loeb ed. Suppliants 1110–11 (Loeb ed.. are excluded from modern editions. p. 10. 20. p. 104–5). however. pp. chap. I. Epicurus. 1–2 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. Gataker. vol. 76n. p. Discourses. A close approximation to this passage is found in Plato’s Sophist 216c (Loeb ed. pt. Euripides. I. 3–4 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. 65). Hutcheson was referring to the citation from Epictetus at art. 299). 924). . p.. 13. vol. ll. pp. I. I. See the endnotes. I. bk. similar sentiments appear in Plato’s Republic 500b–c (Loeb ed. “How do we know that Telauges was not in character superior to Socrates?” See The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. ed. 9–11 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. Plato. 88– 89. II. fragment 208.
I. 2. The ﬁrst Roman emperor (d. pp.d. “in the Areopagus. Gaius Julius Caesar. In this passage of Marcus. in spite of their Defects. 173n5.” and does have this meaning in “Areopagos. endeavour to do ’em good. Epistle VII. pp. III. 117–38. p. See bk. VII. IX. Alcibiades and Timon: A Just Medium between the Man-Hating Character of Timon. 28. art. 6. 116–19). 25. 13. .endnotes 181 26. Archbishop of Cambrai (1696–1715).. at least. p. book viii 1. Clouds..” pp.. p. Apology 32c–d (Loeb ed. 91n. 9. 64n. The charge mentioned in the text that Socrates assumed “stately airs or gate” seems to be a reference to Aristophanes. Diogenes of Sinope. 3. V. He exhorts his followers to love their enemies. 232–35) of how Socrates slept in the open through the frosty nights during the campaign against Potidaea. 68).” “the hill of Ares” in Athens. The reference to Matthew 5:45–47 is to the Sermon on the Mount where Christ urges his followers not to follow the example of the Roman tax collectors (“the publicans”) who love only those who love the Romans. and bk. In A System of Moral Philosophy. vol. Hutcheson’s translation.” 29. bk. 478–81). Socrates declares “we must love Mankind. bk. The “thirty tyrants” conducted a reign of terror at Athens in 404–403 b. bk. X. 27. Dialogue XVII: “Socrates. 10. 187–201. appropriated by the Stoics as one of the intellectual precursors of Zeno. 4. 56. 7. X. It is an understandable mistranslation since in earlier Greek. we must serve ’em without any view of interest. art. pp. p.c. 17. however.” and alludes to the story Plato tells at Symposium 220b–d (Loeb ed. Plato. See bk. art. Fables and Dialogues of the Dead. 194. and so on. 110. art. a. p. chap. 14). “en to ¯ i pago ¯ i” means “in the frosty cold. 5. “pagos” could mean “rock” or “hill. sec. and the Corrupt Character of Alcibiades.c. XV. founder of the Cynic sect in the fourth century b. At p. For Heraclitus see the endnotes. 125n. The reference to “Cambray’s dialogue of Socrates. 127. 324c–325a (Loeb ed. the founder of Stoicism.. art. bless those that curse them. bk. I. p. Alcibiades and Timon” is to Franc ¸ois de Salignac de la Mothe-Fe ´nelon (1651–1715). 206. p. p. 222ff.” is a mistranslation of “en to ¯ i pago ¯ i” (in Gataker’s text. Emperor.
Hutcheson’s note makes it clear that he considered this article (bk. pp. Harmon. 143. I. Hutcheson had insisted elsewhere that the Stoics made provision for rational longing or desires of the soul. as a victim of slander at the court of Ptolemy XII. art. bk. art. These persons are not certainly known. general and minister to Augustus. and bk. and 297ff.c. art. See bk. 47n. At bk. 9. art. chap. 133–34. Also see the endnotes. See A System of Moral Philosophy. p.). except for Panthea. V. IV. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. they are members of the imperial family and court. p. vol. vol. 50n.182 endnotes Hutcheson deplored “the vanity of Polytheism. 13.” Hutcheson was observing that desires for fame and other external goods were rational and good only if such desires were directed to the good of others and the whole. Verus. 12. and Propertius. XI. These persons are unknown. except as it gave opportunities of more extensive good ofﬁces. and trans. ed. who was a mistress of Marcus’s co-emperor. 255ff. p. art. XII. friend and minister of Augustus and the patron of Virgil. 174n1. 16. V. Areios. column 2844. 32) to be another use of the Stoic concept of reservation explained above at bk. a Stoic who was a conﬁdant of Augustus (Brill’s New Pauly. p. 11. 45. the daggered note. and is celebrated by the contemporary satirist Lucian in “Essays in portraiture” and “Essays in portraiture defended. “Demetrios 92”). I. 27. 19. who came to power at Alexandria in 80 b. 1. 1. p. I. p. 15. Horace. IX. art. 4. 1. The wiser Heathens had a different Polytheism. 8. III. Emperor from 138 to 161. column 1158). art. IV (Loeb ed. vol. Satires II. bk. See bk.7. On Not Listening to Slander 16 (Loeb ed. (Real-Encyclopa ¨ die. This footnote does not appear in later editions. 14.. Hutcheson had remarked that “the Stoics denyed fame to be desirable. Maecenas. IV. vol. 20. if any ever believed a plurality of original beings. pp. s. and again at bk. so that nothing from outside . 37. 10. p. p. VIII. bk. V. vol. p. 107. XI. IV. p. Insofar as these persons are identiﬁable.” It is also notable that whereas Marcus usually refers in the text to “the Gods. art.” Hutcheson and Moor typically ﬁnd in the text evidence of Marcus’s belief in one God. and bk. 67n. 379). art. 1. 144. sec. 65. I. p. except that Demetrius the Platonist may be the person mentioned by Lucian. I.. 8. Horace.” in Lucian. the asterisked note. art. bk.v. smoothed and rounded.” Marcus was clearly one of those “wiser Heathens.86–87 (from Horace’s description of the wise man): “who in himself is a whole. 11.
3. Metaphysics. and by Carmichael in his notes and supplements to Pufendorf ’s De ofﬁcio. 4. 6. art. bk. In this note. chap. 1. X. 5. sec. 7. See Long. 15. chaps. sec. 36. chap. III. III. art.. 4. 174–80. chap. 45n. chaps. Hellenistic Philosophy. V. sec. and Ars Poetica (Loeb ed. III. II. 18. 210–11. p. bk. 33): “that sympathy . bk. 1. pt. The Stoics’ interest in etymology derives from their view that the meanings of words are in some sense natural rather than conventional. 131–39. Hutcheson had described the communicable attributes in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics.” pt. notably with the work of the Cambridge Platonists and with the Eclectics of the early Christian centuries.” Satires. chap. and 6. 17. bk. vol. sec. 105–7. 131. pp. III. and Natural Sociability (2006). The three notes appended to this article summarize succinctly the three duties distinguished by Hutcheson in A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. 231–33). 3. 14 (Liberty Fund ed. book ix 1. 7. pp. See bk. 9. pp.endnotes 183 can rest on the polished surface. Source not known. See also bk. 2 and 3. in Logic. 64n. bk.. 10. 62ff. I. p. Epistles. p. VII. albeit a Stoic who incorporated Platonic insights in his thought. See “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind” in Logic. p. I. pp. pp. Hutcheson appears to ﬁnd in Marcus’s thinking intimations of the scholastic notion that certain of God’s attributes are communicable or may be shared with human beings. Cicero criticizes the Stoics’ etymologies of the gods’ names in On the Nature of the Gods. Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment. pp. See Carmichael. 300–301. 162.” 2. I.. 17. 54–76. See bk. sec. Smith identiﬁed this theory with the Platonists. chap. Metaphysics. 9. This was a characteristic of Hutcheson’s moral philosophy that made a particular impression upon Adam Smith. chaps. p. It is interesting that Hutcheson should have found this theory in the thinking of a philosopher whom he took to be a Stoic. 5. and Natural Sociability (Liberty Fund ed. bk. under the heading “The Original Mind is benevolent or good. V. and 8. I. and in A System of Moral Philosophy. pp. See A System of Moral Philosophy. art. 174–75. 6. I.. in A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy (1747). 204) and A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. p. see The Theory of Moral Sentiments.
xiv–xv. secs. ed. on behalf of Macedonia. Epictetus.” 17.. and things that are passing away. 19. 12. Demetrius of Phalerum. 59n. 18.” Shaftesbury provides an account similar to Marcus’s of the sympathy that brings together families.. See also bk. vol. p. 8. 17. Klein. bk. See also the editors’ introduction. 21. 114. 9. II. The active principle is the soul. 15. 10. . was ruler of Athens from 317 to 307 b. p. 13. p. art. p. See bk. 11. father of Alexander. art. p. bk. 64n.c. art. 16. p. Odyssey XI. 14. others have taken Marcus’s style of governing to have been the opposite of Machiavellian realism: “Let Caesar Borgia be the Pattern of Machiavelli’s Hero. 71. 63. king of Macedon. See bk. and bk. 13. 7. p. 158. to te ¯s Nekuias. IX. 18. II. and with all your mind. II. pp. the passions. Discourses.” pt. Fragment 191 (Usener). chap. 10. Epictetus. While Marcus warned against Plato’s idealism. “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart. art. and A System of Moral Philosophy. VII. Epicurus. and the endnotes. decedentium differentias”: “the differences of things past. pp.184 endnotes or fellow-feeling by which the state and fortunes of others affect us exceedingly. 491). Philip II. 7. VI. p. Epistle of Paul to Titus 3:1 and 3. V. a Peripatetic philosopher by training. 2. p. the divine ﬁre within things themselves. the abode of the “shades” of the dead. friends. art. II. See also bk. III. pp. See the previous endnote (10). vol. 51. p. 20. 178n1. 84–85. chap. And the second is like it. and assemblies in “Sensus Communis. Epicurea. “Representations of the shades” interprets Marcus’s words. I. bk. Manual (Encheiridion ). ed. in Epictetus. praesentium. VI. and so forth. which refer to the account of the Underworld in Homer. 357). Usener. Marcus invites us to consider how long this active principle will last. sec. 31. 28–29 (Loeb ed. that of all virtuous Princes will be Marcus Aurelius”: Anti-Machiavel (1741). vol. in Characteristics. Discourses (Loeb ed. on the necessity of evil in the best-formed systems. the imagination. 13. V. 16. things present. 104–16. and with all your soul. and how transient are the things comprehended in the material principle: external things. Gataker translates as “rerum praeteritarum. This is the ﬁrst and great commandment. You shall love your neighbour as yourself ” (Matthew 22:37– 39).
136–37n. Epictetus. Epictetus. 70–71): “[Let us offer to the gods] justice and right blended in the spirit. “For the sake of life. fragment 898. sec. Persius. 11. Epistle of Paul to the Philippians 4:11. 715e–716a (Loeb ed. 20 (Loeb ed. During the ﬁnal years of his life. The biblical books in this note are.. 16. Let me bring these to the temples.. Stromateis. “is accustomed to”). to lose the reasons for living. 1697. a nomadic people who had advanced to the river Danube. which Gataker proposes in his annotation on p. Laws. pt. 14. 34. Philippians. 10. Romans. bk. II. II. VII.” 8. and the Gospels of Luke and Matthew. Satires II. Moor is translating the conjecture a ◊ fusiologh ´ twc. 7. Manual (Encheiridion ).. vol. vol. II. 184n9. Romans again. Plato. Marcus was engaged in warfare against the Sarmatians.e.. 1697. 155–58.” 6. 359–60. bk. 5. Clement of Alexandria. bk. 18. the First Epistle of John. p. p.. 7. 361 (1697). 367). Euripides. vol. respectively. 495). 2. Discourses. This conjecture is generally accepted by modern editors. p. 10. the First Epistle of Peter. 3. Leviticus. p. XI. Romans. 4. 5. vol. the mind pure in its inner depths and a breast imbued with noble honour. .. 16. in Epictetus. Theaetetus 174e (Loeb ed. 17. It will be evident that the two principles of justice deﬁned in these two notes correspond with the two parts of Thomas Gataker’s “Maxims of the Stoics. 292–95). p. Discourses (Loeb ed.endnotes 185 book x 1. 13. 104–7). II. art. pp. 122–23). vol. I. sec. bk.2 (Loeb ed. chap. p. II. 335) and bk. the Second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians. chap.73–75 (Loeb ed. 96.. 15. pp. 15. 3. pp. 42 (Loeb ed. Gataker.22 (Loeb ed. and with a handful of grits I shall make acceptable sacriﬁce. 137). pp. See the endnotes. sec. There is a play on words in the text. IX.. vol. Plato. 26–27..” appended here. p. Seneca. 12. The quotations on this and the next page are all from the Epistles of Paul: Second Corinthians. I. Discourses III. IV. 908). Epictetus. chap. vol. pp. 363. 2. lines 7–9 (Tragicorum Graecorum fragmenta. pp. See also bk. Both filei (philei ) and amat normally mean “loves” but are also used to mean the same as solet (i. Epistulae morales. IV. 9. pp. Gataker.
xxi–xxii. 38–41.. p.. bk. pp. 1. xxiv.. Marcus is referring to the stubbornness with which Christians refused to sacriﬁce to the emperor. for further considerations by Hutcheson in mitigation of the charge made against Marcus Aurelius that he was guilty of persecuting Christians. 23. chap. On the Universe 6 (400b27–30).c. See also bk.c. 16. art. pp. XI. Barnes. pp. p. The Stoic theory of liberty of acting in accordance with reason and the law that governs all things was reviewed by Hutcheson in “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. See also the editors’ introduction. 26.c. pp. 30–35). king of Macedon 359–336 b. 129–30.. The major surviving ﬁgure of Old Comedy is Aristophanes. vol. 133–34. 2. Croesus. 20. 108–9. For the sources of these quotations. Philip II. II. Crito. Discourses (Loeb ed.. 1. in Pliny. xxv). 3. I. pp. p. See the editors’ introduction. 179–80nn6–9. Homer. emperor a. and Natural Sociability (Liberty Fund ed. As Gataker recognized (1697. VII. II. Letters and Panegyricus. Alexander. 117–38. 46–47. The known persons here are Xenophon. IV. bk. p. 157). Iliad VI. Hadrian. the daggered note. emperor a. king 336–323 b. 386). letter 10. 147–49 (Lattimore trans. in The Complete Works of Aristotle. 144. p. who attempted to persuade Socrates to escape from prison (see Plato’s Crito ).186 endnotes 19. See also “The Life of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus. art. I. 1. book xi 1. 4. vol. 3. and bk.. ed.c. 560–546 b. 21. which Marcus also quotes in bk. 97–98. 138–61. 25. vol. 337). a sophist for whom Pliny the Younger wrote a letter of recommendation (Letters bk. sec. XII. 5. his son. and Euphrates. pp. 124–25. I. [Aristotle]. Antoninus. IX. and 171 and in the editors’ introduction. 24. p. in Epictetus. 4. 315). 19–23. Epictetus. Middle Com- . Metaphysics. p. see the endnotes. See also bk. pp. Epictetus. 6. 11. chap.d. 7 (Loeb ed. p.” in Logic. This is Marcus’s only explicit reference to Christians in the Meditations (if it is not a later interpolation). secs. X. art. vol. The relevant note is found at bk. 22. 639.. 27. arts. which seemed to be tantamount at times to voluntary martyrdom. the Athenian general and author (born about 430 b. Discourses.). legendarily wealthy king of Lydia ca.d. Loeb ed.” pp. Discourses. art.
I. Moreover. never to seem in a hurry. Diogenes is the Cynic philosopher of the fourth century (see the endnotes. Loeb ed. just before he drank the hemlock. 124. 113n. 3). art. can never be disappointed. or perplexed. Phocion. or dejected. fretful. 546–49): “Cato. sec. and to speak truth. 181n3). 18. even if the oracle be dumb. VII. art. The Civil War. xxi–xxii. 12. p. ed. 57.564 and 573–76 (Loeb ed. Oedipus Tyrannus 1391 (Loeb ed. p.” fourth-century Athenian general and politician. Klein. VIII. chap.endnotes 187 edy is almost entirely lost. From the many anecdotes about Phocion’s forbearance. See bk. 28: “He [Claudius Maximus] taught me. pp..” in “Soliloquy or Advice to an Author. art. pp. 468–69). nor yet to be dilatory. XI. the writers of comedy served “as a sort of counter-pedagogue against the pomp and formality of the more solemn writers”: Ibid. 36. without presence of mind. condemned to death by the Athenians in 318 b. 135. that he should “cherish no resentment against the Athenians” (Plutarch. wisdom. 9. See bk. 91n. X. p. to appear rather like one who had always been straight and right. p. It was that poetry and drama make us familiar with calamities so that we will not lose self-command when they happen. Hutcheson’s understanding of this article was different and more Stoical. VIII. 11. and the editors’ introduction pp. and goodness. inspired by the god whom he bore hidden in his heart” [said] “We men are all inseparable from the gods. the daggered note on p. angry. must be best for the whole.” Hutcheson had not replaced fate (or predestination) with benevolence: he thought rather that acting in a manner consistent with predestination or the divine plan was the most effective way to promote benevolence or the universal happiness. all our actions are . 139. vol. to forgive. and. every event ordered by him. not to be easily astonished or confounded with any thing. Phocion “the good. and. as he [God] loves all his works.. New Comedy is represented by Menander. p. Sophocles. p.c.. than ever rectiﬁed or redressed. 6. The correct reference is bk. and to be ready to do good to others. 12.” in Characteristics. Shaftesbury juxtaposed the ﬁrst sentence of this article with the three sentences preceding this note to illustrate the “natural and gradual reﬁnement of styles and manners among the ancients. Plutarch’s Lives. vol. XI. or suspicious. pp. art. noted for his uprightness. bk. I. and for the individuals to which it happens. must always accomplish its designs. a man who desires only what God destines him.” 10. IX. art. See bk. Lucan. 11. 21. where Hutcheson writes: “For. 8. to his son. 7. p. and in all this. 228–31.. See also bk. Marcus may be referring to his injunction. since inﬁnite power.
107–8. p. 243 in the Bude ´ ed. Satires. 43).77–117 (Loeb ed. See bk. below. Labienus. sec. Aesop. 217 in the Bude ´ ed. no. 7. 44–45. a narrative epic of the civil war between the legions of Pompey and of Julius Caesar. n22. 23. Hutcheson and Moor write “Perdiccas” following Gataker’s text (1697. p. vol. p. Cato was offended by the request. pp. Rhetoric. see Hutcheson. Fables. 23. Source unknown.” In Lucan’s Pharsalia. 41 in the Penguin Classics trans.. II. art. pp. chap. 1. An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (2004). 1. vol.188 endnotes predetermined by Heaven. It is Epicurus. 90–91. rather than to Perdiccas himself. Epicurea. 409. On the distinction between natural and moral evil. 216–19). 22. Chambry. in Epicurus. p. 15 (Loeb ed.. 135. The gods have no need to speak: for the Creator told us once for all at our birth whatever we are permitted to know. I. II. 20. the above lines contain the Stoical response of Cato to a request put to him by his lieutenant. Fables. Similar to Epictetus. chap. bk. III. sec. II. bk. Satire 6. XI. 15. Discourses. 13.” no. 163. Gataker discusses the passage on p. Handford. The Complete Works of Aristotle. I. 24. David Hume had quoted Labienus’s request to Cato in an epigraph prefaced to book III of A Treatise of Human Nature (1740). there is a classic treatment of the story in Horace. Xanthippe was Socrates’ wife. (Fables of Aesop.” no. 216–17). art. but Aristotle makes Socrates’ remark refer to Perdiccas’s son. bk. reputedly shrewish.. “The Country Mouse and the City Mouse. II. Aristotle. p. 21. 14. who had urged Cato to consult an oracle to learn what virtue is and to obtain from the oracle a description of an honorable man. Aristotle. The correct reference is bk. 16. 11. (ed. 19. art. Both were kings of Macedon contemporary with Socrates. he was himself the model of virtue and honor that Labienus hoped the oracle would describe. XI. fragment 210. 17.” 18. 96–97). pp. 113). 8 (1398a24). trans. pp. . See bk. Hutcheson in turn found it apposite to quote Cato’s response to that question in this context and identify Cato’s response with Marcus’s moral philosophy and with his own. Aesop. Archelaus. “Equal law among a free people. “The Wolves and the Sheep. sec. 2228.
25. Homer, Odyssey bk. IX.413 (Loeb ed., pp. 346–47). 26. Hesiod, Works and Days 186 (Loeb ed., pp. 102–3). Hutcheson and Moor translate Gataker’s Greek text (though ignoring the future tense of the verb). That text, however, is corrupt and quotes Hesiod inaccurately (arete ¯n instead of ara tous ). Gataker’s Latin translation quotes Hesiod correctly (1697, p. 114). 27. Epictetus, Discourses, bk. III, chap. 24, secs. 86–87 (Loeb ed., vol. II, p. 213). 28. Ibid., secs. 88–91 (Loeb ed., vol. II, p. 213). 29. Ibid., secs. 91–93 (Loeb ed., vol. II, p. 215). 30. Ibid., chap. 22, sec. 105 (Loeb ed., vol. II, p. 167). 31. Epictetus, fragment 27 (Loeb ed., vol. II, p. 471). 32. Epictetus, fragment 28 (Loeb ed., vol. II, p. 471). 33. Marcus does not seem to be referring to any speciﬁc passage of Plato or Xenophon. 34. See also the editors’ introduction, p. xiii. 35. See bk. VII, art. 73, p. 94.
1. See Empedocles, fragments B27–28. Diels, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, vol. I, pp. 323–24. 2. See also the endnotes, bk. VI, p. 178n7. 3. This article was cited by Henry More, in An Account of Virtue (1690), p. 120, in corroboration of his theory that “there is so much of Divinity interwoven in a virtuous Mind; . . .” 4. This article was cited by Shaftesbury in Miscellany IV, chap. 1, in Characteristics, ed. Klein, p. 423, in the context of a Stoical reﬂection, supported by sayings of Marcus, Epictetus, and Horace, to the effect that we should withdraw our admiration and desire from the merely pleasurable and direct them to “objects, whatever they are, of inward worth and beauty (such as honesty, faith, integrity, friendship, honor).” 5. Little is known of these persons, except that Tiberius is the emperor of that name (a.d. 14–37), whose ﬁnal years, spent in retirement on the island of Capri, were supposed to have reached unexampled depths of depravity. 6. See also bk. IV, art. 37, p. 54, the asterisked note; and the endnotes, bk. IV, p. 175n12, and other references cited there. 7. In Cicero’s On the Ends of Good and Evil, bk. III, xiv, 45–48 (Loeb ed.,
pp. 216–19), Cato defended the Stoic theory that actions inspired by goodness and virtue are not enhanced by prolongation or duration; such actions are seasonable or opportune or they are not. Hutcheson’s term “seasonableness” is a translation of eukairia, which Cicero translated opportunitas. In A System of Moral Philosophy, bk. I, chap. 4, sec. 6, vol. I, p. 61, Hutcheson quoted “the Stoick in Cicero de ﬁn. l. iii c. 10” to reinforce his claim that moral good cannot be estimated by degrees: “nor can such matters of immediate feeling be otherways proved but by appeals to our hearts.”
Editors’ Notes to Maxims of the Stoics
1. Cleanthes (331–232 b.c.) was the second head of the Stoic school. A translation of his Hymn to Zeus may be found in The Hellenistic Philosophers, ed. Long and Sedley, vol. 1, pp. 53–54. 2. Seneca, Epistulae morales, letter 107, sec. 9 (Loeb ed., vol. III, pp. 226– 29). 3. Plato, Apology, 28d–e (Loeb ed., pp. 74–77). 4. “to believe that he was born to serve the whole world and not himself ” (of Cato). Lucan, bk. II, line 383, in Lucan, The Civil War (Loeb ed., pp. 84– 85). 5. This does not appear to be a correct reference. 6. Cf. Cicero, De ﬁnibus, bk. II, chap. 15, secs. 49–50 in Loeb ed., pp. 136– 39. 7. Plutarch, “On Affection for Offspring,” in Plutarch’s Moralia, trans. Humbold (Loeb ed., vol. VI, pp. 342–43).
Editors’ Notes to Gataker’s Apology
1. The Epistles of Isidore of Pelusium can be found in Migne, Patrologiae Graecae, vol. 78, pp. 178–1646. 2. Dio of Prusa (Dio Chrysostom), Oration 51 “Against Diodorus,” chap. 9. 3. Augustine, Epistle 170. S. Aureli Augustini Hipponensis episcopi Epistulae, ed. Goldbacher, in Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, vol. 44, pt. 3, pp. 622–31. 4. Gataker seems to be referring to Polybius, Histories, I.81.5–11 (Loeb ed., vol. I, pp. 218–21): “No beast becomes at the end more wicked or cruel than man”; and Histories, XXXII.3.7 (Loeb ed., vol. VI, pp. 236–37): “There is nothing more terrible in body and soul than a man once he has become absolutely like a beast.” The latter passage is preserved in the Excerpta de legationibus, which consists of passages about Embassies culled from Polybius on the orders of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and which was printed as a separate text in the early modern period. 5. Plato, Laws, bk. VI, 766a, in Plato, Laws, trans. Bury (Loeb ed., vol. I, pp. 438–39). 6. Bernard of Clairvaux, “Sermones per annum,” in vol. 4 of Sancti Bernardi Opera, p. 161ff.
Editions of The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Translated by Francis Hutcheson and James Moor and Published in Glasgow by Robert and Andrew Foulis and in Dublin for Robert Main
The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes, and an Account of His Life. Glasgow: Printed by Robert Foulis; and sold by him at the College; by Mess. Hamilton and Balfour, in Edinburgh; and by Andrew Millar, over against St. Clements Church, London. 1742. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes, and an Account of His Life. 2nd ed. Glasgow: Printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis, Printers to the University, 1749. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes, and an Account of His Life. 3rd ed. Glasgow: Printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis, Printers to the University, 1752. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes, and an Account of His Life. 4th ed. Dublin: Printed for Robert Main at Homer’s Head in Dame-Street, 1752. The Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Newly Translated from the Greek: With Notes, and an Account of His Life. 4th ed. Glasgow: Printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis, Printers to the University, 1764.
Written by Monsieur Dacier. ad marginem adjectis. ]. studio operaque Thomae Gatakeri Londinatis. Glasguae. locis haud paucis repurgati. D’Acerii Latinitate donatae. locis haud paucis repurgati. studio operaque Thomae Gatakeri Londinatis. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 סMarci Antonini Imperatoris eorum quae ad seipsum libri XII. and Prebendarie of Christ Church Canterbury. Oxoniae. Libri XII. explicati atque illustrati. ac commentario perpetuo. Cantabrigiae. by Jeremy Collier. sive de eis quae ad se pertinere censebat. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 סMarci Antonini Imperatoris eorum quae ad seipsum libri XII. Huic secundae editioni accessere annotationes selectiores A. & idoneis scriptorum veterum testimoniis ﬁrmata a ` Geo. passim aucta. and Supported by the Authorities Collected by Dr. Londini. London. of D. and of the Meanes to Attain unto It. quondam Socio. Dacier. 1744. sive de eis quae ad se pertinere censebat. apud Cantabr.194 bibliography Other Editions of The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Referred to in the Notes to This Edition Marcus Aurelius Antoninus the Roman Emperor. . 2 vols. 1704. explicati atque illustrati. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 סMarci Antonini Imperatoris de rebus suis. restituti: versione insuper Latina nova. lectionibus item variis. To Which Is Added the Mythological Picture of Cebes the Theban. B.A. 1701. Translated into English from the respective originals. with notes by Meric Casaubon. suppleti. Paris: Barbin. M. Stanhope.I. His Meditations Concerning Himselfe: Treating of a Naturall Mans Happiness. Wherein It Consisteth. 1697. Markou Antoninou tou Autokratoros to ¯n eis heauton biblia 12 סMarci Antonini Imperatoris de rebus suis. ac commentario perpetuo. 1634. Translated out of the originall Greeke. Coll. London. the Emperor’s Life. restituti: versione insuper Latina nova. suppleti. locisque parallelis. 1691. Libri XII. Reg. ad marginem adjectis. locisque parallelis. Stanhope. lectionibus item variis. Recogniti et notis illustrati [R. 1652. The Emperor Marcus Antoninus His Conversation with Himself: Together with the Preliminary Discourse of the Learned Gataker. Re ´ﬂexions morales de l’Empereur Marc Antonin avec des remarques de Mr. et de Mad. necnon Marci Antonini Vita. As Also.
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100. 88 Antoninus. 73. family. name of. importance of containing. 176n1 Aristophanes. 99 Antisthenes. 35. 127n. 93. 116n. The 203 . 112n. 47n. 60. 54. Christianity and. See Virgil Aesculapius (Asclepius). 99. 100 Aurelius. 127 Apollonius of Chalcedon. 173n3 Athenagoras. 32. 163f Augustus (Roman emperor). 28–31. 50 Agricola. 80. kindness toward. 31. 14. 101. wars of. 94n. Gataker on. 99. revolt of. Christian spirit of. 16– 18. 4. 12–16. 178n12 Aesop’s fables. 6. 27. 60. 18. 25– 32. 168–69n45. and youth. xiii. Roman emperor). 182n11 Alcibiades. Marcus Vipsanius. 186nn2–3. See also Meditations. 114. See Aurelius. 172n5. 96. 186n20. 19. 150 Annia Corniﬁcia. 171n10 Alexander the Great. 16. 188n20 Archimedes. 54. 179n15 Areios (Arius). 18–23. 14. 128 Alexander the critic. 78. 16.index Adrian (Hadrian. 27. 26–27. compared with inferior Roman deities. 115. 4–6. 186–87n6 Aristotle. 5 Annia Faustina. Marcus Antoninus Pius (Roman emperor. 139–41 animals. 88. 161–64. 165n1. 4. 98n anger. 9. 9. 76. 145. 127. 181n26 Aristides. 109. 171n15 Archelaus (king of Macedon). 6–7. 182n11 Areopagus. 78. xv. 188n13. 8 Augustine of Hippo. 96. 4–6. ﬁnal illness and death. 5–6. 41. 171n12 angels. 46. 178n12 assistance of others. adoptive father of Marcus Aurelius). 51. xx. 54. xxii. 176n1. 76. 171n14 Auﬁdius Victorinus. Aelius. 92. 33–34. 134. 108n. 84 astrology. 176n1. 168n41 Aeneid. 181n28 Alciphron. 75 animal soul. 170n7 Asclepius (Aesculapius). 127 Alexander the Platonist. 8 Agrippa. Marcus: birth. Marcus Aurelius (Roman emperor). accepting. 8–12. inﬂuences and mentors. 166n22 Athenodotus. 75. 27. 168n40. 96. marriage. in Greece. 4. 16. 170n8 Apuleius. Cassius. 188n22 Agathon. 88n. 100. 4–5. 17–18. 11. 188n20 Arrian.
185n9. 86n. 163n. 85. 122n. 28. 30. 55n. xviii Claudius Maximus. 12–16 . Ephesians. Deuteronomy. xxvi. 109n. 161n. 136. 175n13. 123n. 171n17. Luke. 80. 175n11. 164n. 184n7. 84–85. 48– 49. xxvii–xxviii Boyle. 170n5 Balguy. 173n9. Psalms. 181n28 Cambridge Platonists. 45. 163n. 185n1. 191n1 Clement of Alexandria. 183n4 Casaubon. xxviii. 184n21 Blair. 174n3 Clarke. Isaiah 1. 178n11 Church of Scotland. persecutions within. 174n10 Brutus. 151n. 123n. Genesis. 31 benevolence or kind affection. 181n28. obstinacy of. 99. Philippians. predestination. 94n. Marcus Junius (the tyrannicide). xxii. 2 Corinthians. 191n6 Cithaeron (Cithoeron). Marcus Aurelius and. 4. xxvii. 123n. xviii beauty: internal nature of. 27. 1 Peter. 159–62. 171n13 Celer. 50–51. 6–7. 115. 96. objectionable doctrines and conduct of. revolt of. 11. xix. Galatians. 119n Benedicta. 150n. 123n Baccheios (Bacchius). 110n. 168–69n45. 162n. 26–28. 81n. Proverbs. ethical teachings found also in The Meditations. 184n7. Charles. 54. 183n17 Camillus. 28. 119n. 94n. 174n10 Bernard (saint). 20. 123n. 21. 119n. 122n. 171n15. 119n. 20–22. 110n. 188n12 Caeso. See also natural sociability Bentley. 31. of natural things. 120n. moral implications of. 41. 179n17. 40–41. xii. 86n. 179n17. John. martyrdom sought in. Hugh. Avidius. 117n. xxi. xviii Caesar. 86n. 4. 120n. 158m. John. 21–23. 187n9 Cleanthes. apologetics for attention to works of pagan emperor. 101 Chaldeans. 123n. 171n17 Burnet. 78. 73. 134. 18–21. xxviii. 96. Gilbert. See also physics of Stoics Charax. 187–88n12. 33n. 110n. 26. 175n13. 123. xxii. xiv Cassius. Meric. 187n8. Gershom. 42. 161n. 113n. 86. 117n. 40–41. 9. 54 Calvinists and Calvinism. 28. 104n. 189–90n7 Catullinus. 134. 68n. as fortune-tellers. xxiii– xxv. Romans. persecution of. xvii– xviii. 135 citizenship of the world. 164 biblical citations: Acts. 91n. 123n. Matthew. Leviticus. 134n. 187n8 Chrysippus.204 index Cato (the Younger). xxiii–xxv. 123n. Gaius Julius. 175n15. 163n. 179n3. 99 Chabrias. 186nn2–3. 119. 113. 110n. Marcus Tullius. 168–69n45. John. 55. Cinna. 149 Catulus. 52–53. 51 behavior. 164n. 98n. 166nn14–15. xxiv–xxv Cicero. 159n. 94n. 162n. xxviii Cambray (Franc ¸ois de Salignac de la Mothe-Fe ´nelon. 41 change as part of natural order. 110–11. 174n11. early histories of. 99 Christianity: angels. 21– 22. 42. archbishop of Cambrai). 18– 23. 157p. 105n. 54 Carmichael. 54. 164n. Fabius. belief in. Titus. Richard. 120n. 189–90n7. xvi. xxiii–xxv. 161–64a–p. 65–66.
163g dignity of self. 4. 170n6. 16 Empedocles. 55. 166n25. 151n. 35. Scottish. 79–80. 26. 128n. Cesenius. 104n.index Collier. 168n39 Diogenes Laertius. 187n6 Dacier. 5 Commodus (Roman emperor. 34. 49. 75n. 181n3. 135. 148–52 death. adaptation of phrase of. 109–10. 165n5 death. 14. 126n. 186n22 Croesus. 17. 114. 141 Eleusinian Mysteries. 167n34. 41–44 Dio[n] (disciple of Plato). water. vanity of. 186n21 Cumberland. 170n4 Dion Prusaeus. 75. xix Cynics. biographical information. xxv–xxviii Epictetus: Adam Smith on. An (Hutcheson). Thomas. maxims of. Richard. xii. ix. 34 Crito. 99 Democritus of Abdera. 68–69. 162–63 Dionysius II of Syracuse. 139– 41 Enlightenment. xxvii. 167n32. 144n. 41– 42 contemplation. 17–18 conjecture about others. son of Marcus Aurelius). 99–103. 155–57 division of things into parts. Stoic interest in. 173n6 Deuteronomy 32:31. 91n. 171n17 Dio[n] Cassius. xxi–xxii. theodicy of. 117n. 187n6 Diognetus. 172n6 etymology. 143. 179n16. xiii. 176–77n5 Demetrius Phalereus. 89–90n. 67n. 13. dealing with. 96. 56. See also immortality of the soul degeneracy of soul. 142. 134. 145 enemies. on divine providence. air. 128n. love of. 183n18 . translation of Stoic vocabulary and. 128– 29. xvi. 137. 25 Domitian (Roman emperor). 176n5. 170n7. 186–87n6 Commodus. 99. 68n. Andre ´. 39. 47–48. on bending to will of God. 112. 135. 63. 101 divine providence. 157p. xxiii. 156g–l. 184n15 Demetrius Platonicus. 109n. 128. 73 crimes. 119n. behaving in life as at. 34n. 128. 26. 146. Shaftesbury’s citation of. 41. 165n6. 99 Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections with Illustrations on the Moral Sense. 71. 30–32. 157r. on body and soul. 127 Crates. 80–81. 134 Domitia Calvilla Lucilla (mother of Marcus Aurelius). 161. 135n. 127n. 56. xii–xiii. Christian spirit of. 173nn5–6 Diogenes of Sinope. 27 Drennan. on dealing with other persons. xxiv. 50. retirement to. 183n17 elements (aether. 172n7. preserving. on retirements. 114. 171n17 Diotimus. 123–24 country. 171n17 Domitius. 98. 4. 116– 17. 92. life after. xxv 205 Eclectics. 172n1. 88–89. Jeremy. 155a. xiiin13 comedy. other people. entertainment. 34–39. Christian doctrine and. 108–9. acceptance of inevitability of. xviii. earth). 174n1 Epicurus and Epicureans. 28. 7–8. comparison of. 158n Epitynchanus. 177n13. xv. 145–46. Marcus Aurelius introduced by Rusticus to. 86.
good to be returned for. 63n. 27. x. xiii. 109. 80. 185n8 Foulis. rational soul not touched by. 185n12. See also virtue and vice examination of self. desire for. 94n. 88. external things neither good nor evil. 114n. 114. 45. 123n. 107n. 134n. xiii Foulis. rational soul as divinity within. 19. 161–64. 135n. 32 Fe ´nelon. 126n. 60–61. 45. 74. 90. 81–82. 93. 176– 77n5. acceptance of vagaries of. 91n. 42–43. law and reason. 183n17. 126n. 56. power of living well and indifference to. 165n34. xi. L. 69– 70. 113n. 188n20. 45n. 129–31. 166nn14–15. 173n9. 179n6. governing mind of. acceptance of vagaries of. 33. 176–77n5. 124n. Marcus Cornelius. nature of.206 index fancy. 81–82. 149–50. 56. 134. 45n. 55. 104. as obstruction. 81n. constitution of heart as work of. 102. 144n. heart. 37–39. 91. 128. resignation to will of. Andrew. 4. 95 external/indifferent things: in accordance with or contrary to nature. See imagination Farquharson. law of God written in. common nature and. xiii Fronto. honoring. 3. 103. theodicy of Hutcheson regarding. 94n. 35n. 84. xiv.(archbishop of Cambrai). 56. Robert. 6–7. 4. 64n. 182n13 . one supreme God. 34–39. 6. xxi–xxii. A. 188n16. 72– 73. 167n34 Euphrates. 34–39. 62.. 123–24. pursuit of. 62 fame/honor/glory. natural vs. 42–43. 45. Franc ¸ois de Salignac de la Mothe. 116n. 182n13 God: as author of nature. 159. xxv fortune/fate. 93. 69n. 18. 156h. 74. 114. 65–66. 53n. inevitability of. pompous language disguising meanness of. 181n28 Fordyce. moral. 173n9. means of dealing with. ixnn1–3. 155– 57. 68. 91. 109n. 56. divine providence of. 140n. 105n. 168n45 Eutyches. 60–61. subsistence of. 16. 104. 91. 128 evil: death not regarded as. 66–67. 169n14 Gataker. one substance. 142n Eudaemon. 90. 138–39. 146 glory/honor/fame. 155–57. injury causing to self. 112n. xiv fate/fortune. 187n8 Faustina (wife of Marcus Aurelius). 14. 54. 189n26 gladiators. 65. 128 Eutychio. 41–43. 155. 137n. 186n22 Euripides. xii. Thomas. present degenerate state of soul and. 133n. as pure aether. 149–50. 38. dissipating pursuit of stupefying nobler powers. 53. 50–51. communicable attributes of. 69 fallibility of human judgment. desire for. 68n. not universal. David. 166n20. 180nn17–18 Eusebius. xxvn39. 114. love of. 169n11. neither good nor evil. ix. 100. 99 Eudoxus. 50–51. 89. 104. 144n. 83. 149. 88. actions not obstructed by. 179n15 Eunapius. 54. 10. 39. 128n. 129–31. 179– 80nn8–10. 83. 68n. division of things into parts. concerns of others regarding. 25. xxix.
137n. 179n7. 41 Homer. nature of. 171n17 Heraclitus of Ephesus. 99. 75–76 hegemonikon (governing part of soul). illustration. 54. 33–34. 63–64. 177n12. 64–65. 145– 46. 168n41 Haines. xviii. xviii. 92. 56. 174n1. 150. external things neither good nor evil. A Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. 34–41. xvi. 183n17. 172n1. 85. 66. xv. 182n13. xv. 68–69 human nature. 105. 177n11. 182n11.. maintaining. 90. xxviii. to be returned for. 79 good: communicated by divinity in renovation of heart. 179n7. xxii. 116. the work of God. 91n. iii. 71. 54. 30– 32. impiety toward. wise providence of. An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections. 183n4. 33. 85. 183n1. what constitutes. 33–34. xiv.index gods: evidence of. of other persons (see other persons). 188n22. 189n25 honor/fame/glory. xix–xx. 189n26 207 Hipparchus. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind. David. 105. evil. 114. 28. 188n12 Hutcheson. xxviiin51 harmony of soul. 34. 96. 174n1. reputation for doing. 64. 68n. 47. Francis: Christian doctrine and. 102n. virtue in acting in accordance with. 72n. 184n10. 173n5 Herculaneum. perfectly good and just. cultivation of. 72 heart. 173n9. 158. 176n5. fallibility of. duty to continue in. 4–5. 81n. 118. 78. 50–51. virtue eligible from very feelings of. 56. 41. 188n16. 33–34. Meditations. xxvi. See also virtue and vice governing mind of God. 167n34 Hesiod. 113–14 Hume. 80. See also rational soul Helice. 182–83n16. 130n. xxii. soul deprived of only against its will. renovation by divine goodness. 107–8. 101. power of. 34–39. xxvi–xxviii. 183n6. subjection of self to. 45. Illustrations on the Moral Sense. law of God written in. constitution of. xvi–xxiii. 184n9. moral philosophy of. 62 human life. universal happiness or good. 55 Helvidius Priscus. 94. xxii–xxiii. R. xxiii–xxv. ability to bear what befalls it. 73–74. with Illustrations on the Moral Sense. 89n. 88. 69. xviii. 47. 59–60. 71. natural sociability. 94n. perfection of. 61–62. xvi. 178n1. Roman emperor). 38. 171n10. 189n4 human judgment. xxvn39. A System of Moral Philosophy. 182n13 Horace. xvi–xvii. 190n7. effective use of short span of. xxviii. 172n6. 14. 66. 120–21. Metaphysics. 183n17. desire for. desire for. 90– 91. 55 Herodes Atticus. 61–62. Philosophiae moralis. xviii. 74. 67n. 187n8. See also Logic. 178n3. C. 80. 98n. 178n1. 62–63. 109n. 181–82n7. 120. 65. superior beings compared to angels. 125n. 179n15 Hippocrates. See also rational soul Hadrian (Adrian. Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. natural sociability and. xviii. 127. 96. 149–50. 85. xxviii. 113n governing part of soul (hegemonikon). structure adapted to. 43. 42–43. 177n8. 178n7. The . 80.
as Stoic term. 62 justice: from active principle within. 49. xix– xx. 100. 90n. 137. life after death and. 139–41 love of God. 107–8 indifferent things. See also natural sociability Labienus. 186n25 life after death. 124–25n Justin Martyr. 143. 114. 183n17. 183n17. Stoics spoke doubtfully of. nature and. and the Natural Sociability of Mankind (Hutcheson): communicable attributes of God in. xiv kind affection or benevolence. Richard. 157g. origins of. 187n8. persons guilty of. George. 150n. xviii. 174n1 Ibbetson. 141n. xix–xxi. grand point of. 141n. by omission as well as action. 182n15 Hymen. 109n.” xxii. found in obedience and resignation to God. facing. . 142n. 167n28 Juvenal. heart. xviii imagination (fancy): confused ideas of. understanding Isidore of Pelusius. 34–39 inferior and superior orders in society. fancies of to be blotted out. 107–8. 137n. examination of. 161 judgment. 136 Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (Hutcheson). 136. 178n7. 47. xix. 110n. 54 Leo the Salaminian. 188n12 law of nature. See Homer Illustrations on the Moral Sense (Hutcheson). 145–46n. Metaphysics. in those things that are ordered by him who governs all. 48–49. 109 immortality of the soul: alternative opinions about. resignation to will of God and kind affection to our fellows. 188n16 intellect. law of God written in. John. 178n6. impiety of. 137n. Platonic sense of. Platonic. 109. 65. “A Synopsis of Metaphysics. separation from society by. 182n9. 186n25 Long. 128 hypexairesis (power of reservation): as power to change course of action to pursue rational and social conduct. See external/indifferent things inevitability of death. 86. 173n8. promoting good and perfection of the whole. 179n16. xxviiin51 love of enemies. 192n1 Jerome (saint). xvi Logic. 95n. “On the Natural Sociability of Mankind. 91n. 162a. See also rational soul. 176n5. 69. Stoic theory of. 127n Leonnatus.208 index found in subjection of transitory interests to those of universe. 110n. 145–46 Locke. 155–57 Lucan. 146. 9. xvii– xviii. xiii idealism. fallibility of. 137. control of. 66n. folly of ﬂeeing from. 184n13 Iliad. 67–68 injury: evil to self from. 109. 75n impiety.” xvii. equality among a free people required by. 85. 183n6. xxviii. 187–88n12 Lucian. 64n. 127. 42. 92–93 liberty: justice requiring equality among a free people.
136–37. 145. tree and branches metaphor of self-separation from. 101. 3–23. xvii–xix. 109n. natural capacity for. social. 113. all actions to be aimed at completion of. The moral good and evil. 153. 28. change as part of. xxviii. virtue and vice More. 33n. 9. original title page. true understanding of. 47–48. 178n1. 44–45. 96. 173n8. 96– 97. Christian doctrine and. persons guilty of. 26 mature things. xiii. original errata. xxiii– xxv. moral. 161– 64. Hutcheson to. 59–60. 80. 33. 179n16 Monimus. 96. 94n. 119n. 100. boastfulness and. 99. 33. delight in. 3–4. 97. life after death and. structure of human nature adapted to. as Stoic terms. 120–21. tendency to adhere to like things. 84–85. attractiveness of. xii–xiv. 171n17 . xxix. letter of Hutcheson to Drennan on. ixn1. ix–xi. 117n. good. contributions of Moor vs. 153n. Lucius. 91n. 184n13 mad-men and fools. 4. 64. 31. pleasure in acting as rational and social nature requires. 94n. 134 neo-Platonism. 1. 144n. rational soul as. xx. impiety. law of nature nature of things. Gaius. 175n12. 67. xv Nero (Roman emperor). See evil.index Lucilla (daughter of Marcus Aurelius). Henry. 112. 55. 123n. 143n Maecenas. xvii– xxii. 101. 110n. 64. Claudius. rational soul as universal. 16 Meditations. quality of translation. ixn3 Moor. contemplation of natural processes. 109–10. 71. God as author of. attractiveness of natural things. 189n3 Musonius Rufus. 176n3. 42n. 85. 30. x–xi. 136 nature: art and. separation from. xiv–xvii. 107–8. xxviiin51. 146. See also Meditations. 127. 21–23. 187n6 Menippus. Scottish Enlightenment and. 155–59 Maximus. 161–64a–p. 8. superior and inferior orders. 18. 171n15. 113n. 174–75n6. 71. other translations and editions of. 120n. xiii–xiv. as Stoic doctrine. 38 209 Moor. 46. xxv– xxviii member of great body or system. Elizabeth. 96–97. 110–11. The: annotations. 73. virtue. 72–73. xv–xvi. 84–85. 187n9 Maximus of Tyre. natural vs. ix–x. 87. harmony with vs. and public spirited. 143. 157–59. xxvi. 90. See also human nature. evil. 99 Lupus. 140n. Stoic maxims on. James. 171n14 natural sociability. 182n11 Marcianus. 59. 40–41. original introduction/life of Marcus Aurelius. 68n. 73. 86n. 150n. 17. 95. 59. 150–52 Menander. 62. 51. xxiii. 188n16. 53n. 81n. editions of Hutcheson and Moor’s translation. 118. 54. 119–21. 119–21. 149 Machiavellian realism. 40–41 maxims of Stoics. inﬂuence of Hutcheson/Moor translation. 168n43 Mecianus. 150–52. 73. apologetics for attention to works of pagan emperor. 67–68.
reverence for self different from pride or vanity. 163i. xxvii Panthea. ﬁckleness and inconstancy in. 183n17. 143n parts. 96. Cambridge Platonists. 137 Polybius. 80 original sin. 66–67. 56. vanity of. ordering of. virtue and vice in. 35–39. 4. 34–39. restraining. soul as. I. 91n. 39. 148. 15 Pompeii. 51. dealing with. 171n9. 163h Polycarp. 128n. concerns of others regarding. 19. 184n13. 86. 139–41. 86. 55. 187n10 Phoebus. 137. 63. 75. 107–8 Panaetius. 49–50. 54. 59. 92. on lack of education. 8. obtaining reputation of. 58. 71. 186n22 Plutarch. 74. 139n. 75 Numa. xv. idealism of. 117–18. 112–13. on Socrates and Leo the Salaminian. 91. puppet metaphor and. xiii pain. xxiii other persons: assistance of others. 75. 72–73 Odyssey. 41. Hume’s Platonist critical of Stoics. opinions of. 100. pursuit of. xxvi–xxviii. justice. 142. 101 Persius. 168n45 polytheism. 14. Paul (saint and apostle). 98 Plato and Platonists: on bending to will of God. 80 physics of Stoics. 56. 46. commonwealth of. 4 Numidius Quadratus. on communicable attributes of God. 75n. xviii. 184n14 Philistio. xix. 67n. how avoided. 87. 33. 142 opinion. 93n pleasure. 87. See Homer omens. 65n. 128. 101. 104. 42–43. 46. 5 index Pertinax (Roman emperor). 145 Origanio. 44. 69–70. 66–67. 178n11. 112– 13. 167n34 Phocion. 88–89. 128. xviii. 95 Philosophiae moralis (Hutcheson). 173n6 Philip of Macedon. 178n1.210 Nestor. 92. 146. 75. 188n12 pompous language. 132. 123n. 50–51. 133n. 88. 127. 100. 87–88. 98n. 183n17. 124–25n. 157r. 35n. R. xxii. dealing with. Marcus warning against. neoPlatonism. Christian spirit of. 166n18 Phalaris. xxvii. 55 Pompey the Great. 134 passions: fame/honor/glory. desire for. external/indifferent things. on rational soul. 136. 94. 179n7 Philostratus. 22. 80 philosopher. 33. 181–82n7 Pompeianus. 56. tyrant of Acragas. 185n7 . 188n20 perfection of human nature. 63–64 Pergamus. 88. xx. on death. 84. 35n. 73. 97. other people. 83. 33. 182n15 paradoxes of Stoics. 34n. 33n.. 97 Oxoniensis. 158n. 174n10 Pherecydes of Syros. division of things into. on retirements. conjecture about others. 107–8 Pliny the Younger. 41–42. 114. 34n. 111. 145. sense of. 161n Perdiccas (king of Macedon). 187n10 polished sphere. accepting. 113.
116 predestination. 63. 101. understanding. 62. 184n13 reason. present degenerate state of. true grandeur of. 88. 58. 65–66. 41–43. 93. 47–48. 143. 148–52. 150n. 73. 65. Quintus Junius. 80. 51. seeking retirement in. 47–48. 84. 48–49. 176– 77n5. Church of. social. desire for. 142 rational soul. 84–85. desire for. 138. common nature of. as divinity within. 119– 21. 132. 124. 54 Scotland. importance of following. Gerald. xviii. 128 Scipio. 145. internal principles. 66–67. 31. 34n. 109. 145– 46n. 85. 119–20. 170n6 Sarmatians. xxi–xxii. 33. 54. hegemonikon (governing part of soul). distinct from body and animal soul. God as. 69. examination of. external things not touching. 150–52. perfection of. 20n47 Rendall. 211 44–45. 35. 79. 66. 133–34. 65 retirements. 33. 55n Pythagoras and Pythagoreans. 91. 127. See rational soul. 187n8 presiding mind. 73. 41–44. preserving. 96–97. 141. xxiii–xxiv. understanding. xxviii Rusticus. 4. xi. 33. xviii–xix. 35. 96. 138. 73. xix. as universal. 75n. 150–52. that which is excellent in the universe and in oneself. 65n. divine. honor and admiration for. 104n. 185n11 Satyrio the Socratic. 68. 107. understanding Reid. 71. 37n. xxviiin51 repentance. 97. 148 Pyrrhonists. reliance on. 97 reputation for doing good. 26. 134. 68n. xxiv Scottish Enlightenment. xxv–xxviii seasonableness. 73. 92. Machiavellian. 47. 101. 34–39. 72. harmony of. maintaining. 64. 59–60. 71. 155–57 Pufendorf. 87. 175n12. future state after death. 33. as member of great body or system. 144. dispositions to be guarded against. 50. 146. 182n11 providence. proper use of. 144–45. 96–97. 47. remote from pride. and public spirited. 129 . God’s perception of. intelligent. 183n4 puppet metaphor. xviii. 135n. injury causing evil to. 182n14 reverence: divinity in one’s breast. William. 125. simplicity of. 79–80. 84–85. seeking. aetherial nature. 46. as Stoic term. 62. 92–93 realism. 37–39. 149. value of human being lying in. as seat of knowledge and virtue. 95. deprived of good only against its will. power of (hypexairesis): as power to change course of action to pursue rational and social conduct. as cause of its own disturbance. true nature of things. as part of inﬁnite. 99 self: dignity. 137. imagination and. 46. 72–73. 119–21. 133 Propertius. 60.index power. 172n1. 43 prayer. 9. 46. xxii. 49–50. 174n1. as polished sphere. 103. 127 Robertson. Thomas. Samuel. 33–34. 85. 83–84. 34. 69. virtuous action derived from determination of. acting from. 94 reservation. 144n. 189–90n7 Secunda. 33–34.
157r. 171n17 Thundering Legion. 28. 183n6. 4. as destroyed by vermin. xxiii. 127. 183n18. 183n17. 25–28. Fe ´nelon’s dialogue on. 176n5 slaves and slavery: fugitive slave metaphor for attempting to ﬂee law of nature. 173n1. 142. 138. xxviii. 25n Severus Arabianus. 173n9. 51. 35–36. 157q. rational soul Stanhope. Catilius. 34n. 183n4. 31 Theophrastus. 137–38 Tertullian. 181n28 Severus. physics of. 143n. 186n25. 27. metaphorical usages of. 33n. 172–73n1. 45n. 188n23 Solon. 176n5. A (Hutcheson). A (Hutcheson). on fortune. etymology.212 index Somers. 179n7. 175n6. 155–58. xxvii. 41. xxvi. 183n17 Silvanus. human desire for. 133n. 26 Teleuges. 181n27 Thraseas (Thrasea Paetus). 181n28. 94n. Christian doctrine and. 11 Tiberius (Roman emperor). xii–xiii. 184n10 Shaftesbury. Adam. 28. 95. 127n . xii Sophocles. 47n. George. xxvn39. 126n. 175n12. Crito and. 45n. 47. 67n. 183n1. 149. xvii–xxii. xxii. 34– 41. Gnaeus Claudius. 186n22. Christian spirit of. See also animal soul. 98. 184n9. 185n16. 119. 143. 145. 35n. Scottish Enlightenment and. 180n25 temper. translation of vocabulary of. 119. xxvi–xxviii. 171n16 Sextus Chaeronensis. 182n13. 94n. 178n1. 189n4 short human life. 190n7 Tandasis. xxii. 43. on fools and mad-men. 143. 30. governing part of soul. 39. 94. 63. xi. 73 Smith. xviii. Lord. 56. 4. 191n2 sensus communis. 187n7 soul. on bending to will of God. xiv. 71. Hutcheson’s contribution to translation and. xxvii–xxviii. 150n. on detachment from senses. 28. effective use of. 142. valuation of slaves. 68–69 Short Introduction to Moral Philosophy. 184n6. See also tranquillity Simplicius. 47– 48. See natural sociability Socrates: Antoninus Pius compared. xiv–xv. 171n9 shades of the dead. Moor’s vs. 149 Stoics: annotations regarding. 112. 183–84n6 Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:45– 47). 4. xiv–xv. interest in. on rational soul. 26. 174n1 superior and inferior orders in society. Xanthippe (wife). liberty. 167n28 theodicy. 172n5 thirty tyrants. soul of. 128 Severus. 143n. on death. true nature of things known by. 4 Stertinius. 94n. reservation. 92n. 187n6. 174n1. Marcus’s instructors in philosophy of. xiii. 67–68 System of Moral Philosophy. 104n. 175n8. 135n. 181n7. 50. good. Lord John. theory of. paradoxes of. maxims of. control of. maxims of. 176–77n5. 128 simplicity of the soul: 54. 157q. See also providence. 30. 183n17 sociability. xiii. 178n2. divine Theodotus. 182n14. 158l. 75n. 22. xvi–xvii. 96. 189n5 self-sufﬁciency. Anthony Ashley Cooper. 123–24n Seneca. 92–93.
41–44. 62. in other persons. 71. 174n4 Zeno. moral implications of. concept of. nature. diffusion of. rationalist view. 96–97. wars of. 50. dignity of self. 8–12. 43 Witherspoon. natural vs. securing. 25n understanding: arrow’s motion compared to that of mind. beauty. 189–90n7. external/indifferent things. 72–73. 101. 80. P. Hutcheson’s criticism of. 4. 51. 86. 119–21. 53. 37n. Calvisius. 59. 44–45. 108. 13. John. 75. 138. 97. 73. 12. 45. 87. 171n17 Virgil. 90–91. 25 Verus. nature of good and evil. 122–23. 134 universal happiness or good. 96. Lucius (co-emperor). 150 Verus. 83–84. 54 Volutius Mecianus (Lucius Volusius Maecianus). 134–35 Trajan (Roman emperor). action. 83. 71. 124 wealth. 182n15 Verus. human nature. 59–60. 87. 40– 41. impiety. rational soul as seat of virtue. 73–74. 176–77n5. Marcus Annius (son of Marcus Aurelius). William. 113–14. preserving. 181n3 . profession vs. xviii–xix. 213 defying and recognizing vice. 104–5. 19. xviii Xanthippe (wife of Socrates). 150–52 Velius Rufus. xv. Martius (reporting on Cassius). boasting of good actions. harmony with vs. 138. 84. 61–62. 73 Xenophon.index Timon of Athens. proper use of. desire for. 72–73. 186n22 Xylander. Marcus Annius (father of Marcus Aurelius). 8. avoidance of vice. 87. moral evil. 67n. 34–39. 84–85. 53n. 10 Verus. 106. seasonableness. 129 Volesus. xvi. 44–45. understanding of. 25 Verus. 33. 87. 99. 62. 5. separation from. 51–52. 172n9. law of nature and. 125n. 69n. 54. 18. 58. rational soul as member of. xix–xx. 114 Tropaiophorus. 128 true nature of things. 16 Vespasian (Roman emperor). 96. 53. 140n. 125. 128. 177nn15– 16. 66–67. 6. 177nn9–10. natural capacity for. 168n45 tranquillity. 85. xxvi Wollaston. persons guilty of. of true nature of things. 187n8 universal system. 97. pursuit of. Marcus Annius (grandfather of Marcus Aurelius). 97. 31n. 9. 188n16. indifference of all things between. duty to continue to be good. 35. 33. 4. 134 Tullus Ruso. persons delighting in. 148–52. 16–18. 181n28 tragedies. 142. selfdetermination to act virtuously. 182n11 virtue and vice: attention of mind and. 4. 5 war: Marcus Aurelius. present degenerate state of soul and. virtue in acting according to. 107–8. 94n. 53. 188n23 Xenocrates. 33. Guilielmus.
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