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Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures

STEEL DESIGN MANUAL

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 7.4 Revision May 2000

COPYRIGHT

The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Tel: (510) 845-2177 Fax: (510) 845-4096 E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com Web: www.csiberkeley.com

© Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978–2000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/ CHECK OF STEEL STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF STEEL DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

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. . . . . . . . Calculation of Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-sections . Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes Pipe Sections . . . . 6 Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 CHAPTER III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Effects . . . . . T-sections and Double angles . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Bending . . . . 3 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHAPTER II Design Algorithms 5 Design Load Combinations . . . Flexural-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . . . 15 18 18 22 23 23 23 23 25 30 30 33 34 35 36 36 i . . . . . . 7 P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Round Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections .Table of Contents CHAPTER I Introduction 1 Overview . . . . . Allowable Stress in Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Choice of Input Units . 9 Effective Length Factor (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Organization . . .

. . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . Calculation of Nominal Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexure Capacity . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacities . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . Compression Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 78 79 79 82 83 84 84 90 91 92 92 CHAPTER VI Check/Design for CISC94 93 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Rectangular and Square Bars Single-Angle Sections . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 37 39 39 40 41 43 CHAPTER IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Buckling . . . . Calculation of Nominal Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ii . . . . . . . . General Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Stress Ratios . . . . . . . Compression Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 48 48 52 54 54 54 58 58 60 61 61 61 65 69 72 73 73 74 CHAPTER V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . Flange Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . Nominal Strength in Bending. . . 96 Classification of Sections . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yielding . . .

Table of Contents

Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Calculation of Factored Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Compression Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Tension Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Bending Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 I-shapes and Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Rectangular Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Pipes and Circular Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Channel Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 T-shapes and double angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Single Angle and General Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Shear Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

**CHAPTER VII Check/Design for BS 5950
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Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces. . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Section Capacities . . . . . . . . . Compression Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic and Compact Sections . . . . . . Semi-compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling Moment Capacity Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . Local Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under Axial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . Under Axial Compression . . . . . . . . Overall Buckling Check . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111

114 115 117 117 119 119 121 121 121 122 122 125 125 127 127 127 127 128

**CHAPTER VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3
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Design Loading Combinations . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces. . . Calculation of Section Resistances. Tension Capacity . . . . . . . Compression Resistance. . . . Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

132 133 137 138 139 139 141

iii

**SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
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Moment Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-torsional Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Compression, and Low Shear . . . . . . Bending, Axial Compression, and High Shear . . . . . . Bending, Compression, and Flexural Buckling . . . . . . Bending, Compression, and Lateral-Torsional Buckling . Bending, Axial Tension, and Low Shear . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Tension, and High Shear . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Tension, and Lateral-Torsional Buckling Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 143 145 145 146 146 147 148 148 149 149

**CHAPTER IX Design Output
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Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Display of Design Output Tabular Display of Design Output . . Member Specific Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151

151 152 153 154

References Index

157 159

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Chapter I

Introduction

Overview

SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both steel and reinforced concrete structures. The program provides the user with options to create, modify, analyze and design structural models, all from within the same user interface. The program is capable of performing initial member sizing and optimization from within the same interface. The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the stress conditions, make appropriate changes, such as revising member properties, and re-examine the results without the need to re-run the analysis. A single mouse click on an element brings up detailed design information. Members can be grouped together for design purposes. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be readily printed. The program is structured to support a wide variety of the latest national and international design codes for the automated design and check of concrete and steel frame members. The program currently supports the following steel design codes: • U.S. AISC/ASD (1989), • U.S. AISC/LRFD (1994), • U.S. AASHTO LRFD (1997), Overview

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Maximum demand/capacity ratios are then reported and/or used for design optimization. from a set of user specified sections. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters. The information is in a form that allows the designer to take appropriate remedial measures if there is member overstress. The checks are made for each user specified (or program defaulted) load combination and at several user controlled stations along the length of the element. The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations.1-94 (1994). If the default load combinations are acceptable. 2 Overview . Tedious calculations associated with evaluating effective length factors for columns in moment frame type structures are automated in the algorithms. • British BS 5950 (1990). The presentation of the output is clear and concise. However. bending and shear actions are calculated by the program.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Canadian CAN/CSA-S16. In the check process the program produces demand/capacity ratios for axial load and biaxial moment interactions and shear. Also several elements can be grouped to be designed to have the same section. Special requirements for seismic design are not implemented in the current version of SAP2000. In the design process the program picks the least weight section required for strength for each element to be designed. The demand/capacity ratios are based on element stress and allowable stress for allowable stress design. the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code supported in SAP2000. no definition of additional load combination is required. and • Eurocode 3 (ENV 1993-1-1). Different sets of available sections can be specified for different groups of elements. All allowable stress values or design capacity values for axial. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided for convenient verification of the results. and on factored loads (actions) and factored capacities (resistances) for limit state design.

• Chapter III gives a detailed description of the AISC ASD code (AISC 1989) as implemented in SAP2000. A steel design tutorial is presented in the chapter “Steel Design Tutorial” in the SAP2000 Quick Tutorial manual. and other special considerations required by the code. • Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the AISC LRFD code (AISC 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. calculations of demand/capacity ratios. It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of this tutorial before reading this manual. Chapter IX outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from SAP2000 related to steel design. Finally the user should read “Design Output” in Chapter IX for understanding and interpreting SAP2000 output related to steel design. • Chapter VIII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode 3 (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000. • Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the British code BS 5950 (BSI 1990) as implemented in SAP2000. bending. • Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CISC 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. Each of six subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000.Chapter I Introduction Organization This manual is organized in the following way: Chapter II outlines various aspects of the steel design procedures of the SAP2000 program. This chapter describes the common terminology of steel design as implemented in SAP2000. allowable stress or capacity calculations for tension. compression. Each chapter describes the design loading combinations to be considered. and shear. • Chapter V gives a detailed description of the AASHTO LRFD steel code (AASHTO 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. Recommended Reading It is recommended that the user read Chapter II “Design Algorithms” and one of six subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. Organization 3 .

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• American Institute of Steel Construction’s “Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. 5 . BS 5950 (BSI 1990).C h a p t e r II Design Algorithms This chapter outlines various aspects of the steel check and design procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program. • Canadian Institute of Steel Construction’s “Limit States Design of Steel Structures”. ENV 1993-1-1 (CEN 1992). AISC-ASD (AISC 1989). • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ “AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications”.1-94 (CISC 1995). • American Institute of Steel Construction’s “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. AISC-LRFD (AISC 1994). • British Standards Institution’s “Structural Use of Steelwork in Building”. CAN/CSA-S16. The steel design and check may be performed according to one of the following codes of practice. AASHTO-LRFD (AASHTO 1997).1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings”. • European Committee for Standardization’s “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures Part 1.

time history. further options are available. For example. However. – References to the AISC-ASD89 code carry the prefix of “ASD” – References to the AISC-LRFD93 code carry the prefix of “LRFD” – References to the Canadian code carry the prefix of “CISC” – References to the British code carry the prefix of “BS” – References to the Eurocode carry the prefix of “EC3” Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step of the time history. moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping. Similarly. Also an option is available to request that moving load combina- 6 Design Load Combinations . Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required sub combinations. It is assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural steel design and familiarity with at least one of the above mentioned design codes. square-root of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting quantities is lost. this chapter provides a background which is common to all the design codes. the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load. For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code. For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load cases and the results are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the load combination. all references to the AASHTO-LRFD code carry the prefix of “AASHTO”. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. a unique prefix is assigned for each code.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented and interpreted in SAP2000 are described in subsequent chapters.

all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. separate consideration of roof live load. snow load. For other loading conditions involving moving load. If these conditions are not correct. The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to be additive.. is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. etc. For normal loading conditions involving static dead load. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments. the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. Design and Check Stations 7 . The locations are based on equally spaced segments along the clear length of the element. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members. If any default combination is included in design. each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element. and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load. and earthquake load. wind load. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding chapters. Design and Check Stations For each load combination. pattern live loads. then the effects of these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them. live load. the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. then all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the user changes to a different design code or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. each static load case declared as wind or earthquake. Similarly. or response spectrum cases. However. the user must provide the appropriate design combinations.Chapter II Design Algorithms tions produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities. time history. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design.

P. If significant forces are present in other types of elements. the user is referred to SAP2000 Analysis Reference Manual (CSI 1997). The actual member stress components and corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. and code-equation.effects due to axial loads in frame members only.analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The axial-flexure interaction ratios as well as shear stress ratios are calculated for each station along the length of the member for each load combination. For the individual member stability effects. Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to this effect.effects. For the braced moments in frames.is limited to “individual member stability”.analysis is 1. Whereas. load combination. In SAP2000. the stress ratios are evaluated according to the code. The P.will be inaccurate. 8 P. then the additional forces computed for P.effect. SAP2000 assumes that the amplification is already included in the results because P. For further reference. large axial loads in shear walls modeled as shell elements.effects are considered for all but AISC-ASD code. For lateral drift effects of unbraced or sway frames. for example. The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P. the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the AISC-LRFD and AASHTO-LRFD codes or are considered directly in the design equations as in the Canadian. along with the corresponding identification of the station. The user should turn the P.analysis is required for the AISC-ASD code. No P.0 indicates an overstress or exceeding a limit state. The controlling compression and/or tension stress ratio is then obtained. The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000 is turned OFF for P. the effect of P. and European codes. The default number of iterations for P. No moment magnification is applied to the AISC-ASD code. it is assumed that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from the “dead” or “live” loads. For unbraced components. Then. “lateral drift effects” should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect.Effects . A stress ratio greater than 1. British. “unbraced” or “sway” moments are contributed from all other types of loads.effects are considered differently for “braced” or “nonsway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in frames.Effects The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P.

that affect the unsupported length of an element are automatically taken into consideration..e. however.e. the column unsupported lengths are required. See Figure II-1. The length l 22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i.Chapter II Design Algorithms Element Unsupported Lengths To account for column slenderness effects. The length l 33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. The two unsupported lengths are l 33 and l 22 . Normally. as shown in Figure II-3. about the 3-3 axis). Therefore. i. See Figure II-2 for correspondence between the SAP2000 axes and the axes in the design codes. the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element. and l 22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. See Figure II-1. This can be done differently for major and minor bending.. Figure II-1 Major and Minor Axes of Bending Element Unsupported Lengths 9 . The program. extraneous joints. allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single member for design.

If the beam frames into only one direction of the column. All elements parallel to the X-Y plane are classified as beams. beams and braces. the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual In determining the values for l 22 and l 33 of the elements. The rest are braces. diaphragm constraints and support points. Figure II-2 Correspondence between SAP2000 Axes and Code Axes Effective Length Factor (K) The column K -factor algorithm has been developed for building-type structures. the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being greater than the corresponding element length. For the purpose of calculating K -factors. the elements are identified as columns. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length. All elements parallel to the Z-axis are classified as columns. where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal. and the behavior is basically that of a moment-resisting nature for which the K -factor calculation is relatively complex. such as member connectivity. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. Therefore. 10 Effective Length Factor (K) . The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an element-by-element basis.

Chapter II Design Algorithms Figure II-3 Unsupported Lengths are Affected by Intermediate Nodal Points The beams and braces are assigned K -factors of unity. In the calculation of the K -factors for a column element. The local 2-2 and 3-3 terms EI 22 l 22 and EI 33 l 33 are rotated to give components along the global X and Y directions to form the ( EI / l ) x and ( EI / l ) y values. Then for each column. the program first makes the following four stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model: S cx = S cy = Ec I c Lc Ec I c Lc S bx = x Eb I b Lb Eb I b Lb x S by = y y where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam. the joint summations at END-I and the END-J of the member are transformed back to the column local 1-2-3 coordinate system and the G-values for END-I and the END-J of the member are calculated about the 2-2 and 3-3 directions as follows: Effective Length Factor (K) 11 .

the column K -factor for the corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for α: 2 G G G I I J G J from which K . Finally. such as braced frame structures.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. such as cantilevers. • If rotational releases exist at both ends of an element for a particular direction.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual S I c 22 S I b 22 S I c 33 = I S b 33 S J c 22 S J b 22 S J c 33 = J S b 33 G I 22 = G I 33 G J 22 = G J 33 If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an element. the corresponding K-factor is set to unity. Also. 12 Effective Length Factor (K) . An element that has a pin at the far end from the joint under consideration will contribute only 50% of the calculated EI value. the K-factors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user. • The automated K-factor calculation procedure can occasionally generate artificially high K-factors.. and under other conditions where the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members are laterally supported and K-factors of unity are to be used. the K-factor corresponding to that direction is set equal to unity. beam elements that have no column member at the far end from the joint under consideration. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for the evaluation of K factors for moment-resisting frames assuming sidesway to be uninhibited.0. If all degrees of freedom for a particular joint are deleted. the G-values for all members connecting to that joint will be set to 1. For other structures. • If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column element. trusses. The following are some important aspects associated with the column K-factor algorithm: • An element that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not enter the stiffness summations calculated above. etc. If the G-value at any one end of a column for a particular direction is infinity. fixed support conditions. transmission towers. specifically under circumstances involving skewed beams. the associated G-value will be infinity. space frames. if G I and G J are known for a particular direction. the corresponding value is set to 10. will not enter the stiffness summation.

But the codes are based on a specific system of units. However. All equations and descriptions presented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise noted. Choice of Input Units 13 . AISC-ASD code is published in kip-inch-second units. Choice of Input Units English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter “Check/Design for AISC-ASD89” correspond to kip-inch-second units. By default. any system of units can be used to define and design the structure in SAP2000.Chapter II Design Algorithms • All K-factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user. These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should be replaced. For example.

.

For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original ASD code. 15 . Similarly.C h a p t e r III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 design code (AISC 1989). a unique prefix “ASD” is assigned. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter.0 indicates overstress. A capacity ratio greater than 1. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. all references to the “Specifications for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “ASD SAM”. However. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table III-1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.

= Qa Qs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus. ksi Yield stress of material. kip-in Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. in6 Outside diameter of pipes. S 22 ¢ ¢ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. in2 2 Major and minor shear areas. in3 Major and minor section moduli. in3 Table III-1 AISC-ASD Notations 16 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ae Af Ag Av 2 . ksi Allowable major and minor bending stresses. ksi Allowable bending stress. kips Reduction factor for slender section. in Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. in2 Area of flange . K 22 M 33 . in Modulus of elasticity. ksi Allowable axial stress. kips Euler buckling load. kip-in Axial force in member. in Bending Coefficient Moment Coefficient Warping constant. in 2 Web shear area. Av 3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D E Fa Fb Fb 33 . Fb 22 Fcr Fe 33 Fe 22 Fv Fy K K 33 . ksi 12 2 E 23 K 33 l33 r33 12 2 2 2 E 2 23 K 22 l22 r22 Allowable shear stress. dt w . ksi Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Major and minor bending moments in member. ksi Critical compressive stress. M 22 M ob P Pe Q Qa Qs S S 33 .

h tw 1 if h t w 70 . b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections. ksi Shear stress in major and minor direction bending. in3 Shear forces in major and minor directions. etc. box. l22 lc r r33 . in 0.22 Sc V2 . in Overall depth of member. ksi Normal stress in bending.) 17 . fv 3 h he k kc = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = l33 . ksi Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections ( d 2t f ). f b 22 fv fv 2 . in longer leg of angle sections. if h t w 70 . in Critical length.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 S eff . in Thickness of a plate in I. S eff . kips Nominal dimension of plate in a section. ksi Normal stress in major and minor direction bending. in Special section property for angles. in Flange thickness. channel. in Radius of gyration. in Flange width. in Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . Effective width of flange. in Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. in Parameter used for classification of sections. in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. in3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section.33 . angle. Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. ksi Shear stress.V3 b be bf d fa fb f b 33 . in Effective distance between flanges less fillets. in Axial stress either in compression or in tension. r22 rz t tf tw w = = = = = = = = = Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections. in Web thickness.46 Table III-1 AISC-ASD Notations (cont. and T sections.

then the following load combinations may have to be defined (ASD A4): DL DL + LL DL WL DL + LL DL EL DL + LL WL EL (ASD A4.1) (ASD A4. if other types of loads are present. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.1) (ASD A4. F5.1) (ASD A4. The definition of the section properties required in this table is given in Figure III-1 and Table III-1.2).1) (ASD A4. and earthquake induced load (EL).1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-ASD89 code is used. live load (LL). When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. Slender. For the AISC-ASD89 code. 18 Design Loading Combinations . G1. SAP2000 classifies the individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table III-2 (ASD B5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. A-B5-2). or if pattern live loads are to be considered. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. wind load (WL). For simplicity. F3. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. Classification of Sections The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure are dependent upon the classification of sections as either Compact.1) (ASD A4. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.1. Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5. or Too Slender. Noncompact.

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Figure III-1 AISC-ASD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 19 .

Table III-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD 20 Classification of Sections . dw As for I-shapes As for I-shapes No limit Other b d h CHANNEL tf tw tw .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Description Ratio Checked bf 2t f ( rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For fa Compact Section 65 Fy Noncompact Section 95 Fy Slender Section No limit 65 Fy 640 (1 Fy Fy Fy / k c No limit I-SHAPE d tw fa ). 253 Fy h tw No limit otherwise 760 b d BOX h tf tw tw tw 190 Fy 238 No limit As for I-shapes bf None As for I-shapes No limit As for I-shapes Fb Fy No limit No limit As for I-shapes None No limit No limit As for I-shapes If welded bf dw t f tw If rolled bf dw t f tw Fy Fy As for I-shapes No limit t f 2 . Other No limit No limit . If compression only. Fy No limit No limit For fa / Fy 257 / Fy .

Other No limit No limit . the section is classified as either Compact. Noncompact. DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE b b t t Not applicable Not applicable 76 76 Fy Fy PIPE D t 3. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact and Noncompact sections but satisfies Classification of Sections 21 .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Section Description Ratio Checked Compact Section Noncompact Section Slender Section bf d T-SHAPE 2t f tw 65 Fy 95 127 Fy Fy No limit No limit If welded bf dw t f tw If rolled bf dw t f tw No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure Not applicable . then the section is classified as Compact section. or Slender. If the section satisfies the criteria for Compact sections. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact sections but satisfies the criteria for Noncompact sections.300 Fy ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table III-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD (Cont. the section is classified as Noncompact section.300 Fy 3.) If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the table.

Double-angle. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. based on the gross cross-sectional properties. Calculation of Stresses The stresses are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. Channel. the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual the criteria for Slender sections.: f a = P/A f b 33 = M 33 /S 33 f b 22 = M 22 /S 22 f v 2 = V 2 /Av 2 f v 3 = V 3 /Av 3 If the section is slender with slender stiffened elements. and Box sections or slender flanges in Box. 33 f b 22 = M 22 /S eff . For Single-angle sections. the section is classified as Slender section. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated.2d) (ASD A-B5. T. Pipe.2d) (ASD A-B5. f a = P/A f b 33 = M 33 /S eff . For Single-angle sections. 22 f v 2 = V 2 /Av 2 f v 3 = V 3 /Av 3 (ASD A-B5. For general sections it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. Box. like slender web in I. For I. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners (ASD F5. effective section moduli based on reduced web and reduced flange dimensions are used in calculating stresses. Circular and Rectangular sections. and Channel sections.2d) The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the principal axes. Channel. G1). For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along the geometric and principle axes.2d) (ASD A-B5. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes. in general. Box. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. the section is classified as Too Slender. The member stresses for non-slender sections that are calculated for each load combination are.2d) (ASD A-B5. 22 Calculation of Stresses . the design considers the principal properties. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes.

the minimum radius of gyration. Allowable Stress in Tension The allowable axial tensile stress value Fa is assumed to be Fa = Fy Fy . Channel. For the Angle sections. Fa . For members in compression. Noncompact. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural stresses are based on that. If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in the SAP2000 “Redefine Element Design Data” form. ASD SAM 2). a warning message is printed (ASD B7. if l r is greater than 300. bending.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses The allowable stresses in compression. a message to that effect is printed (ASD B7. where Calculation of Allowable Stresses 23 . ASD SAM 4). and shear are computed for Compact. Circular. Double-angle and Rectangular sections. (ASD D1. The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing l r . For single angles. ASD SAM 2) It should be noted that net section checks are not made. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. For the I. C c . T. if Kl r is greater than 200. tension. Flexural Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. depends on the slenderness ratio Kl r based on gross section properties and a corresponding critical value. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . For members in tension. For single angles. The allowable compressive stresses are determined according to the following subsections. Allowable Stress in Compression The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. r z . Pipe. the minimum radius of gyration. The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal axes of bending. Box. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. r z .

if Kl r C c¢ . and 2 c E Fy .(ASD A-B5-12. (ASD A-B5-11. r z . SAM 4-1) Fa = where. Fa is evaluated as follows: ( Kl/r ) 2 Fa = Q 2C c¢ 3 Kl/r 5 + 3 8 C c¢ 2 Fy Kl/r 8 C c¢ 3 3 . (ASD E2-2.2c. (ASD E2-1. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . (ASD E2. r33 r22 2 max . For Slender sections. ASD SAM 4) For single angles. Q Fy (ASD A-B5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . C c¢ 12 2 E . 23 ( Kl r ) 2 If Kl r is greater than 200. For Compact or Noncompact sections Fa is evaluated as follows: ( Kl/r ) 2 Fy 2C c2 5 + 3 Fa = 3 Kl/r 8 Cc Kl/r 8 C c3 if Kl r Cc. 23 ( Kl r ) 2 if Kl r C c¢ . ASD SAM 4) 24 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . SAM 4-2) 3 Fa = . then the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed the value of Fa calculated by using the equation ASD E2-2 for Compact and Noncompact sections (ASD E1. SAM 4-2) 2 2E . SAM 4-1) 12 2 E . except slender Pipe sections. if Kl r Cc. the minimum radius of gyration. B7).

For slender sections.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 For slender sections. Flexural-Torsional Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. if Kl/r e C c¢ . box. ASD SAM 4).c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table III-3 (ASD A-B5.2b). Q. For webs in I.2. where (ASD A-B5. A-B5-11) ¢3 Calculation of Allowable Stresses 25 .2.2a. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows (ASD E3. Qa Ae Ag (ASD A-B5-10) The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b. and (ASD A-B5. for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1.a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area. E1). Fa . C-E3): Kl/r Fa = Q 2C c¢ 3 Kl/r 5 + 3 8 C c¢ e 2 2 e Fy Kl/r 8C c 3 e . SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table III-4 (ASD A-B5. (E2-1. and Channel sections. then the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed its value calculated by using the equation ASD A-B5-12 (ASD B7. h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation.c. if Kl r is greater than 200. For slender Pipe sections Fa is evaluated as follows: Fa = D t Fy (ASD A-B5-9) The reduction factor.2. (ASD A-B5.

2c Table III-3 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if b f 2t f Fy k c b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c . Fy . Fy . if DOUBLEANGLE Qs b t 2 Fy . Qs d tw 2 Fy . Q s 26 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . Fy .2c ASD A-B5. For web see below. Fy . if if b t Fy . ASD A-B5-2. Fy . ASD A-B5-1. ASD A-B5-1. SAM 4-3 ASD A-B5. as for flanges in I-shapes.2c ASD A-B5-3. if if b t Fy . Fy . Fy . ASD A-B5-4. ASD A-B5-4 BOX CHANNEL Qs 1 ASD A-B5. if T-SHAPE d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t Fy . ASD A-B5-5. Fy k c . if if d t w Fy . ASD A-B5-6 As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . ASD A-B5-4 ASD A-B5-3. Fy k c . Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference I-SHAPE Fy k c Fy if if ASD A-B5-3.2c ASD A-B5. For flanges. ASD A-B5-2. SAM 4-3 if b t Fy b t b t ANGLE Qs b t 2 Fy .2c PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 ASD A-B5. Fy .

. Table III-4 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Allowable Stresses 27 . (compr. he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b t h tw h tw f f .2b). if f f . f . be f tf 1 .2c ASD A-B5. P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f BOX b. flexure. P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f if tw 1 . if if f f . if tw 1 .2c b b ASD A-B5. special expression for allowable axial stress is given. P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qa be be be b ASD A-B5. (compression only. (compression only.) Not applicable be b Not applicable Note: A reduction factor of 3/4 is applied on f for axial-compression-only cases and if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD A-B5. f . f . if CHANNEL he f f f . Fy ) ASD A-B5-7 (h t f ) f h. f . (compression only. if I-SHAPE he f h.2c 1.2c ASD A-B5-9 ASD A-B5. (However. if tw 1 .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Section Type Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference h.

Fe is calculated in SAP2000 as follows: • For Rectangular.2c. The 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code is the same as the 1986 version in this respect. and Q Fy 2 (ASD E2. SAM 4) Kl/r E e Fe . I. LRFD A-E3-7): 28 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . Box.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 12 2 Fa = where. A-B5. Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (ASD SAM C-C4-2. C c¢ E 2 e . (ASD C-E2-2. A-B5-12) 2 2E . and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (ASD SAM C-C4-1) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. SAM 4-4) ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD code for the calculation of Fe . (E2-2. if Kl/r 23 Kl/r e C c¢ .

Calculation of Allowable Stresses 29 . y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. K 33 l 33 ). (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . and it is taken equal to l 22 .e. r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) r02 0. the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe (ASD SAM 4). x 0 . (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 . r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000. (LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 . the maximum value of Kl. Also. i. K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. max( K 22 l 22 . H 1 2 x0 r02 2 . is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry). For angle sections. Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 2 x0 2 y0 ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where. l 22 . l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions. l z is the effective length for torsional buckling.

For Compact sections: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy if f y if f y . Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . and a length parameter. d Fy Fy . which is compared to a critical length. the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether f y is greater than 65 ksi or not. if rolled and f y . l 22 . . (ASDF1-4) (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l 22 is greater than l c . The critical length is defined as lc min 76 b f 20. if welded and f y if f y .000 A f .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Allowable Stress in Bending The allowable bending stress depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. where (ASD F1-2) A f is the area of compression flange. the compactness of the section.. l c . the axis of bending. then for both Compact and Noncompact I-sections the allowable bending stress depends on the l 22 rT ratio. 30 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5) For Noncompact sections: Fb 33 = bf 2t f bf 2t f Fy Fy Fy kc F y . I-sections For I-sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length. . (ASD F1-3) Fb 33 = Fb 33 = F y .

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 l 22 rT Fb 33 102,000 C b , Fy Fy , (ASD F1-6)

For

for

102,000 C b Fy Fb 33 l 22 rT Fb 33 2 3

l 22 rT

510,000 C b , Fy Fy F y , and (ASD F1-6)

F y ( l 22 / rT ) 2 1530,000 C b

for

510,000 C b , Fy 170,000 C b ( l 22 / rT ) 2 0 Fy , (ASD F1-7)

and Fb 33 is taken not to be less than that given by the following formula: Fb 33 where, rT is the radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange and 1 3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web, Cb = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb

2

12,000 C b l 22 d / A f

Fy

(ASD F1-8)

, where

(ASD F1.3)

M a and M b are the end moments of any unbraced segment of the member and M a is numerically less than M b ; M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. Also, if any moment within the segment is greater than M b , C b is taken as 1.0. Also, C b is taken as 1.0 for cantilevers and frames braced against joint translation (ASD F1.3). SAP2000 defaults C b to 1.0 if the unbraced length, l 22 , of the member is redefined by the user (i.e. it is not equal to the length of the member). The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member by specifying it. Calculation of Allowable Stresses

31

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Then the following additional considerations are taken into account. If the web is slender, then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R PG R PG R e Fb 33 , where Aw h Af t 3 Re

3

(ASD G2-1) 760 Fb 33 , (ASD G2)

Aw Af

Aw Af ,

, (hybrid girders)

(ASD G2)

Re

(non-hybrid girders)

(ASD G2)

Aw = Area of web, in 2 , A f = Area of compression flange, in 2 , Fy Fb 33 (ASD G2)

Fb 33 = Allowable bending stress assuming the section is non-compact, and Fb¢33 = Allowable bending stress after considering web slenderness. In the above expressions, R e is taken as 1, because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. If the flange is slender, then the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows. Fb¢33 Qs F y , where (ASD A-B5.2a, A-B5.2d)

Q s is defined earlier.

32

Calculation of Allowable Stresses

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb 22 is taken as follows: For Compact sections: Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy Fy if f y if f y , , (ASD F2-1) (ASD F2-2)

For Noncompact and Slender sections: Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy bf 2t f Fy Fy , if f y if f y , .. (ASD F2-3) (ASD F2-2)

Channel sections

For Channel sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length, l 22 , which is compared to a critical length, l c . The critical length is defined as lc min 76 b f 20,000 A f , d Fy Fy , where (ASD F1-2)

A f is the area of compression flange, Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c , the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether f y is greater than 65 ksi or not. For Compact sections: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy if f y if f y , , (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5)

For Noncompact sections: Fb 33 = bf tf Fy F y , if rolled and f y , (ASD F1-3)

Calculation of Allowable Stresses

33

C b . then for both Compact and Noncompact Channel sections the allowable bending stress is taken as follows: Fb 33 12. Aw .. R e . Then the following additional considerations are taken into account. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual bf tf Fy Fy kc Fb 33 = Fb 33 = F y . Fb 33 . Fb = Fy . A f . Q s . If the web is slender. Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb 22 is taken as follows: Fb 22 = Fy (ASD F2-2) T-sections and Double angles For T sections and Double angles. then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R e R PG Fb 33 (ASD G2-1) If the flange is slender. A-B5.000 C b l 22 d / A f Fy (ASD F1-8) The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section.2a. . 34 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . if welded and f y if f y .(ASD F1-4) (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l 22 is greater than l c .2d) The definition for rT . and Fb¢33 are given earlier. R PG . the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows: Fb¢33 Qs Fy (ASD A-B5.

If the flange is slender. then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R e R PG Fb 33 (ASD G2-1) The definition for R e . the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending for both Compact and Noncompact sections is taken as: Fb 33 = Fy (ASD F3-3) The major direction allowable bending stress for Slender sections is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. R PG . If l 22 is specified by the user. l c is taken as Fy Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . If the web is slender. The critical length is defined as lc max (1950 1200 M a /M b ) b 1200 b . the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length. However. Fb 33 . and Fb¢33 are given earlier. l c . Fy Fy (ASD F3-2) where M a and M b have the same definition as noted earlier in the formula for 1200 b in SAP2000. no additional consideration is needed in computing allowable bending stress. measured compared to a critical length. l 22 . the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending is taken as: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l 22 exceeds l c . Minor Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken as: Calculation of Allowable Stresses 35 . C b . effective section dimensions are calculated and the section modulus is modified according to its slenderness.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes For all Box sections and Rectangular tubes. Then the following additional consideration is taken into account.

as: Fb 22 = Fy (ASD F3-3) Pipe Sections For Pipe sections.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact and Slender sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l 22 exceeds l c . (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) Round Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of round bars is taken as. the allowable stress is given by Fb = F y . the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes of bending is taken as Fb = Fb = Fy Fy (for Compact sections). Fb = Fy . And the allowable stress for minor axis bending of rectangular bars is taken as. Fb = Fy . (ASD F2-1) 36 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . (ASD F2-1) For solid rectangular bars bent about their major axes. (ASD F2-1) Rectangular and Square Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of solid square bars is taken as. and (for Noncompact and Slender sections). Fb = Fy . irrespective of compactness.

t f . = minor principal moment of inertia. l 33 . Fob is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below. The elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. max S major = major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg.3). r min = radius of gyration for minor principal axis. (ASD SAM 5-6) min t w . major = F y . t l I I min Cb I min S major l 2 2 w ( lt r min )2 w .1.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Single-Angle Sections The allowable flexural stresses for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending (ASD SAM 5. = major principal moment of inertia. The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. major = Fob Fob . if Fob F y (ASD SAM 5-3b) where. max l 22 . Calculation of Allowable Stresses 37 .3): Fb . Major Axis of Bending The allowable stress for major axis bending is the minimum considering the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling (ASD SAM 5.1). for equal-leg angles is taken as Fob Cb l t . Fob . Fy Fy Fob Fy if Fob F y (ASD SAM 5-3a) Fb . (ASD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles Fob is calculated as Fob where.

2). b = length of the leg under consideration. for conservative design in SAP2000. major = Fy . Cb = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb 2 (ASD F1. and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid. SAM 5. major = Q where. However. and Q = slenderness reduction factor for local buckling.2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis.5 instead of 2.1): Fb . and zero for equal-leg angles (ASD SAM 5.3.2. (ASD SAM 5. SAM 4) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling.2) The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. t = thickness of the leg under consideration. w is a special section property for angles. In the above expressions C b is calculated in the same way as is done for I sections with the exception that the upper limit of C b is taken here as 1.3. if Fy if Fb . major = Fy . Fy . the allowable stresses are calculated considering the fact that either of 38 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . Fy .3. it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. negative for long leg in compression. w = coordinate along the minor principal axis.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 1 w I A max z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . (ASD A-B5-2. if b t b t b t . Fy (ASD SAM 5-1c) (ASD SAM 5-1b) (ASD SAM 5-1a) Fb . It is positive for short leg in compression.3.1. Fy .

(ASD SAM 5-1c) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles it is assumed that the sign of the moment is such that both the tips are under compression.3. if b t b t b t . General Sections For General sections the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as.1b.3. Double angle. if Fy if (ASD SAM 5-1b) F b. 5. Circular and Rectangular sections.1. Fb = Fy . For I. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Allowable Stress in Shear The shear stress is calculated along the geometric axes for all sections. The minimum allowable stress is considered. Fy (ASD SAM 5-1a) F b. Box. principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes.minor = Fy .minor = Fy . The minimum allowable stress is considered. Minor Axis of Bending The allowable minor bending stress for Single-angles is given as follows (ASD SAM 5.2b): F b. Pipe.minor = Q Fy . For Single-angle sections. SAM 3-1) Calculation of Allowable Stresses 39 . Major Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for all sections except I. Box and Channel sections is taken in SAP2000 as: Fv Fy (ASD F4-1. Fy . T.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 the two tips can be under compression.1. 5. Fy . Channel.

Fy kv . first. h (ASD F4) tw = a h = = Thickness of the web. Currently it is taken conservatively as the length. if if h tw h tw a h 1. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: Fv Cv Fy . in. in. and (ASD F4-1) Fv where. Clear distance between transverse stiffeners. Minor Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for minor direction shears is taken as: Fv Fy (ASD F4-1. of the member in SAP2000. Fy Fy .000 k v Cv Fy h tw h tw 2 . Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. Clear distance between flanges at the section. if h tw 380 Fy h tw . (ASD F4) kv ah ah 2 if if 2 a 1. for each station along the length of the member. Then. SAM 3-1) Calculation of Stress Ratios In the calculation of the axial and bending stress capacity ratios. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios . l 22 . the actual stresses are calculated for each load combination. if Fy 45. . Fy kv . Fy . (ASD F4-2) . kv .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The allowable shear stress for major direction shears in I-shapes.

Axial and Bending Stresses With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored axial and bending member stresses at each station. C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. where M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the Calculation of Stress Ratios 41 . for nonsway frame without transverse load Cm M a M b .1) f a .1) f b 22 . The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. and Fb 22 are defined earlier in this chapter.0 indicates an overstress. SAM 6. where Fb 22 (ASD H1-2. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Also. along with the associated station and load combination. M b (ASD H1) For sway frame C m . an interaction stress ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1. for nonsway frame with transverse load and end re. the combined stress ratio is given by C m 22 f b 22 fa F' e 22 Fb 22 . SAM 6. and for nonsway frame with transstrained compression member C m verse load and end unrestrained compression member C m (ASD H1). A capacity ratio greater than 1. During the design. and (ASD H1-1. Fa . SAM 6): • If f a is compressive and f a Fa the larger of fa + Fa C m 33 f b 33 1 fa Fy fa F' e 33 Fb 33 f b 33 Fb 33 + 1 . Fb 33 . the joints are not designed. f b 33 . Cm M a .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 each of the design load combinations. f b 22 . H2.

For Single-angle sections.1) • If f a is tensile or zero. f f fa + b 33 + b 22 Fb 22 Fb 33 Fa . Circular and Rectangular sections.1. l. where Fb 22 f a . i. Fb 33 . For Single-angle sections. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. Fe¢ is given by Fe¢ 12 2 E 23 ( Kl / r ) 2 .. an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component. f b 22 .5). The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. SAM 6. Double-angle. instead of the simple addition implied by the above formulae. f b 33 . and Fb 22 (ASD H2-1. SAM 6. For circular and pipe sections. principal axes are determined in 42 Calculation of Stress Ratios . C m 22 and C m 33 . Pipe. and Fb 22 are defined earlier in this chapter. a relatively simplified formula is (ASD H1-3.0.e.0 if the unbraced length factor. associated with the major and minor directions.2) f b 22 . The program defaults C m to 1. T. either Fb 33 or Fb 22 need not be less than F y in the first equation (ASD H2-1). C m is taken as 1. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. Box. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program. (ASD H1) A factor of 4/3 is applied on Fe¢ and F y if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD H1. For I. ASD A5.3. • If f a is compressive and f a Fa used for the combined stress ratio. However. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5. Channel. C m assumes two values.2). The second equation considers flexural buckling without any beneficial effect from axial compression. 6. When M b is zero.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual member. Fa . the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa Fa f b 33 Fb 33 f b 33 Fb 33 f b 22 .

shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are computed for each of the load combinations as follows: f v2 . the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis.2). Fv f v3 . allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5.2). When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. Fv For Single-angle sections. and Calculation of Stress Ratios 43 . When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 SAP2000. Shear Stresses From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values at each station. allowable shear stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5. For general sections no effort is made to determine the principal directions. For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes.

.

C h a p t e r IV

**Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
**

This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code (AISC 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table IV-1. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original LRFD code, a unique prefix “LRFD” is assigned. However, all references to the “Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “LRFD SAM”. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly, a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.

45

**SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
**

A Ae Ag Av 2 , Av 3 Aw B1 B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 , K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr M lt M nt M n33 , M n22 M ob M r 33 , M r 22 Mu M u 33 , M u 22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area, in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in2 Gross cross-sectional area, in2 2 Major and minor shear areas, in Shear area, equal dt w per web, in2 Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant, in6 Outside diameter of pipes, in Modulus of elasticity, ksi Critical compressive stress, ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi Yield stress of material, ksi Shear modulus, ksi Minor moment of inertia, in4 Major moment of inertia, in4 4 Torsional constant for the section, in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, in Elastic buckling moment, kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-in Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections, kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in Factored moment in member, kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in Euler buckling load, kips Nominal axial load strength, kip Factored axial force in member, kips A g F y , kips Reduction factor for slender section, = Qa Qs

46

Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations

**Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
**

Qa Qs S S 33 , S 22 S eff ,33 , S eff ,22 Sc Vn2 ,Vn3 Vu 2 ,Vu 3 Z Z 33 , Z 22 b be bf d de hc k kc l33 , l22 r r33 , r22 t tf tw

w

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus, in3 3 Major and minor section moduli, in Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections, in3 3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips Factored major and minor shear loads, kips 3 Plastic modulus, in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli, in Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in longer leg of angle sections, b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections, etc. Effective width of flange, in Flange width, in Overall depth of member, in Effective depth of web, in Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in assumed d 2k for rolled sections, and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in Parameter used for section classification, 4 h tw , kc Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths, in Radius of gyration, in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in Thickness, in Flange thickness, in Thickness of web, in Special section property for angles, in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 Resistance factor for shear, 0.9

c p r s

,

e

slender b c t v

Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations (cont.)

47

9 DL 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. Slender or Too Slender.2 DL + 0.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-LRFD93 code is used. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL). live load (LL).5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. When using the AISC-LRFD93 code.1): 1.0 EL 1. For the AISC-LRFD93 code. It is recommended that the P.3 WL 1. 48 Design Loading Combinations . Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.2 DL plus 0.5 LL (LRFD A4-1) (LRFD A4-2) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) 1. if other types of loads are present.4 DL 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.2 DL + 0. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.5 LL 0. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. SAP2000 design assumes that a P.3 WL 1.0 EL 1.2 DL + 1. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.2 DL 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity. Noncompact.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. then the following load combinations may have to be defined (LRFD A4.6 LL 0.2 DL 1.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.9 DL 1.3 WL 1. and earthquake induced load (EL). wind load (WL). all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted.

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Figure IV-1 AISC-LRFD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 49 .

0 Fy kc 65 P 162 No limit b y 1P I-SHAPE b y - Pu bP y 970 Fy Pu b P y Fy Fy As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL D t Fy Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table IV-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in Flexure based on AISC-LRFD 50 Classification of Sections . Pu bP y NONCOMPACT r SLENDER ( slender ) No limit 141 Fy .10.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 640 Fy hc tw For Pu 191 Fy 253 Fy BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t 190 Fy 238 Fy No limit Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit No limit No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure COMPACT ( p) 65 Fy Fy .

Pu bP y NONCOMPACT (Uniform Compression) ( M 22 M 33 0) ( r) 95 95 Fy Fy P I-SHAPE hc tw 1b y P 253 Pu bP y 253 Fy Fy - BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b D tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t t Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact 238 253 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes 127 Fy 76 76 3300 Fy Fy Fy Table IV-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections (Special Cases) based on AISC-LRFD Classification of Sections 51 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Description of Section WidthThickness Ratio bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 520 Fy For Pu 191 Fy COMPACT (SEISMIC ZONE) ( 52 52 b y s ) Fy Fy .

The moment magnification factor B1 for moments not causing sidesway is given by B1 = 1 Cm Pu Pe . In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes. M u 33 . For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: M u = B1 M nt + B 2 M lt . where Ag F y 2 (LRFD C1-2. The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. where B1 = B2 = M nt = M lt = (LRFD C1-1. and 52 Calculation of Factored Forces . Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table IV-2 and Table IV-3 (LRFD B5.1). M u 22 . Kl r ). SAM 6-2) Fy E Pe is the Euler buckling load (Pe . it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners.1. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. and Factored moments causing sidesway. the section is classified as Too Slender. Moreover. special considerations are required regarding the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table IV-3. respectively. Box. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu . and Channel sections. The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure IV-1 and Table IV-1. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. Factored moments not causing sidesway. the minor moment. SAM 6) Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments. A-G1. the major moment. the factored moment M u ( M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. Table A-F1.

0. therefore B 2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions. For compression members with transverse load on the member.2). of the member is redefined by either the user or the program.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0. It is suggested that the P. where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3).Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. Calculation of Factored Forces 53 . If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to Pe . If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member..e. When M b is zero. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B 2 for any member. For tension members C m is assumed as 1.2 DL plus 0. a failure condition is declared. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. Mb (LRFD C1-3) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member.0. i. The program defaults C m to 1. the program conservatively uses the maximum of K 22 l 22 and K 33 l 33 for determining the major and minor direction Euler buckling capacity.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.85 for members with two unrestrained ends. Therefore Pu must be less than Pe .effects. C m is taken as 1.0 if the unbraced length factor. C m 22 and C m 33 . C m is assumed as 1. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. associated with the major and minor directions. Cm Ma .5 LL (LRFD C2. The magnification factor B1 . C m assumes two values. For single angles. See also White and Hajjar (1991). l. must be a positive number. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P.

Flexural Buckling The nominal axial compressive strength. depends on the slenderness ratio.90 (LRFD SAM 4. bending.9 (LRFD F1. SAM 5) = Resistance factor for shear. Box. The strength reduction factor. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. The specified nominal strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending. Noncompact.9 (LRFD F2. For the Rectangular. 0. 0. tension. For members in compression. the principal axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that. r z . The strengths are determined according to the following subsections. . SAM 2. Kl r.9 (LRFD D1. H1. a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. T. A-G3. 6) = Resistance factor for compression. Pn .85 (LRFD E2. A-F2. I. Pipe. is taken as follows (LRFD A5.3): t c c b v = Resistance factor for tension. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . where 54 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . For the Angle sections. Circular. SAM 4). torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along their geometric and principle axes. A-G2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression. 0. H1. E3. For Single-angle sections. 6) = Resistance factor for bending. Compression Capacity The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling. SAM 3) If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data” form. 0. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. and its critical value. the minimum radius of gyration. if Kl r is greater than 200. 0. Channel. For single angles. c . H1) = Resistance factor for compression in angles. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. and shear are computed for Compact. and Double-angle sections. A-F1.

SAM 4) c l2 c F y . Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . SAM 4-2) Fy . and c Kl r (LRFD E2-4.3a). for for Q Q . c The reduction factor. for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. SAM 4) For single angles. and (LRFD A-B5. r z . and .3c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table IV-4 (LRFD A-B5. and (LRFD A-B5-15. The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD A-B5. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . the minimum radius of gyration. (LRFD A-B5. Qa Ae Ag (LRFD A-B5-14) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 55 . (LRFD E2-2) (LRFD E2-3) c Pn for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . Q. SAM 4-1) .3c). For slender sections.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . where Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 c Q (LRFD A-B3d. . where (LRFD A-B5-17. SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. Pn for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . r33 r22 Fy E . (LRFD A-B5-16.3a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. max . Fy . where Fcr = Fcr = 2 c (LRFD E2-1) for for c l2 c Fy .

3d LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-6 I-SHAPE Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 (rolled) if Fy k c Fy if if (welded) Fy k c b f 2t f bf 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c . LRFD A-B5-9. LRFD A-B5-7. Fy . as for flanges in I-shapes. Fy . LRFD A-B5-4 CHANNEL As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . Fy . Fy . Fy . LRFD A-B5-6. if LRFD SAM4-3 Fy E PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 LRFD A-B5.3d Table IV-4 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements. Fy E . T-SHAPE if Qs d tw 2 d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t b t Fy E b t b t Fy . Fy E . Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. LRFD A-B5-6. For web see below.3d LRFD A-B5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if Qs b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference b f 2t f Fy b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy . Fy . if if if b t Fy . ANGLE Qs bt b t 2 Fy E . Fy k c . Fy . LRFD A-B5-8. LRFDA-B5-10 LRFD A-B5-3. if if Fy . if if if d t w Fy . For flanges. LRFD A-B5-7. LRFD A-B5-5. Fy E .3d LRFD A-B5. Fy . Q s 56 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . LRFD A-B5-8 BOX Qs 1 LRFD A-B5. DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) Qs b t 2 Fy . LRFD A-B5-8 LRFD A-B5-5.3d LRFD A-B5-5. if . Fy k c .

LRFD A-B5-13 ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Not applicable be b LRFD A-B5. if if f f . (compr. (compression only. or flexure.3b LRFD A-B5. (compression only.3b Not applicable Table IV-5 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Nominal Strengths 57 . f . tf 1 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Section Type h.3b LRFD A-B5. b b b LRFD A-B5. f . P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f BOX b. if D t D t Fy Fy be be be . he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b tf h tw h tw f f . Fy ) LRFD A-B5-11 (b t f ) f if tw 1 .3b PIPE Qa D t Fy (compression only) . P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) ANGLE 1. Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference if tw 1 . f . if I-SHAPE he f h. f . if CHANNEL he f f f . be f h. P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f if tw 1 . if . (compression only. if f f .

3b). Fcr 2 is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural Kl F y . h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation. where (LRFD E3-1) H 1 r02 . x 0 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b. r0 = Polar radius of gyration about the shear center. Ar02 2 x0 2 y0 (LRFD E3-1) 1 1 4 Fcr 2 Fcrz H Fcr 2 Fcrz 2 . and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table IV-5 (LRFD A-B5. Flexural-Torsional Buckling Pn for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r is given by Pn = Ag Fcrft . For webs in I. x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry). where (LRFD A-E3-1) 58 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . box. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for c r22 E Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling The strength of a compression member. where Fcrft = Fcrz Fcr 2 Fcrz 2H GJ . and Channel sections. Pn .

e In the above equations. Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7): ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where. where Fe is calculated as follows: • For Rectangular. and . 2 x0 r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) 2 y0 r02 0. the slenderness parameter Fy e e Fe . and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angles sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. for for e Q Q . (LRFD A-E3-2) (LRFD A-E3-3) is calculated as (LRFD A-E3-4) Fy . Box. Calculation of Nominal Strengths 59 . I.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 e Q l2 e F y .

e. K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 . (LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual x 0 . and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000. K 33 l 33 ). is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe . Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 . x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry). For angle sections. H 1 2 x0 r02 2 . Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. i. a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. For members in tension. (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . and it is taken equal to l 22 . l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions. Also. y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. the maximum value of Kl. max( K 22 l 22 . l 22 . Pn Ag F y (LRFD D1-1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. if l r is greater than 300. r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. l z is the effective length for torsional buckling. SAM 2). For 60 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions.

Pipe.M p 33 . and web local buckling.L p Lr . (LRFD F1-1.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 single angles.M r 33 M p 33 . and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. as follows: Yielding The flexural design strength of beams. Channel. Circular.1) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 61 . Z 33 F y S 33 F y . r z . For the Single Angle sections. and Double-angle sections. F1-12) where. if Lb Lr . Box. lateral-torsional buckling. Nominal Strength in Bending The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section.L p if Lb Lp . The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states of yielding. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Major plastic moment. if Lp Lb Lr . the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. I. M n 33 M p 33 = = Nominal major bending strength. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the major axis. The nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Lb . the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1): M p 33 . the minimum radius of gyration. determined by the limit state of yielding is: Mp Z Fy S Fy (LRFD F1-1) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels For I. For the Rectangular. Box. M n 33 = C b M p 33 . the axis of bending. the compactness of the section. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . (LRFD F1. F1-2. Channel. T. M cr 33 M p 33 . flange local buckling.

and M C are absolute values of maximum moment.Fr F y Fr 2 for I-shapes and channels. (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling.0 if the minor unbraced length. in the member. center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively. M A . 1/4 point. Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-7) (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w (LRFD F1-13) (LRFD F1-14) for I-shapes and channels. ( F y Fr )S 33 for I-shapes and channels. 2 S 33 GJ 2 (LRFD F1-6) (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) . 300 r22 for I-shapes and channels. and 57 000 C b JA for boxes and rectangular bars. 33 for rectangular bars and boxes.0 for cantilevers. The user should overwrite C b for cantilevers. M B . l 22 . and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC (LRFD F1-3) M . However. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. l 22 . Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. and F y S eff . and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for boxes and rectangular bars.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 = Major limiting buckling moment. and 57 000 r22 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. M r 33 X1 X2 Cb = = = S 33 C 4 w I 22 M EGJA . C b should be taken as 1. Critical elastic moment. The program also defaults C b to 1. of the member is remax 62 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Lb r22 Lb Lp = = Laterally unbraced length. max max M . r22 X 1 1 + X 2 F y .

e. the moment capacity is given by the following equation: M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y S 22 F y (LRFD F1) For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis. M n 22 = S 22 F y . (LRFD F1) T-sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and Double-angles the nominal major bending strength is given as. stem in compression (LRFD F1. d Lb for negative moment. The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.2c) F y S 33 . Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. For T-shapes and double angles the nominal minor bending strength is assumed as. M n = M p = Z Fy S Fy . J (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). For I. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. stem in tension F y S 33 .3): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 63 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 defined by the user (i. Box.2c) I 22 . M n 33 = M n 33 M n 33 B EI 22 GJ Lb B + 1 + B 2 . for positive moment. it is not equal to the length of the member). Channel. where (LRFD F1-15) (LRFD F1.1. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor axis.

1 w max min I A max z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . for equal-leg angles is taken as M ob Cb E b2t2 . t f . (LRFD SAM 5. if M ob M y . M y . elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below. major . major M y . M ob .2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis. major . 64 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . considering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the leg tips. major . (LRFD SAM 5-6) min t w . = minor principal axis moment of inertia. major = M n . if M ob M y . = radius of gyration for minor principal axis.3. t l I I r min EC b I min l2 2 w ( lt r min )2 w . major . M y . l (LRFD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles the M ob is calculated as M ob where. yield moment about the major principal axis of bending. and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid. w = coordinate along the minor principal axis. major = M ob M y . = major principal axis moment of inertia. major M ob M n . M ob = The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment. max l 22 . major = where. l 33 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M ob M y . major M y .

if p r . of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1): For major direction bending. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 . M n 33 M n 22 M p 33 M p 22 = = = = M p 22 . M p 33 . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 65 . Minor plastic moment. if r . Flange Local Buckling The flexural design strength. for conservative design in SAP2000. w General Sections For General sections the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. Z 22 F y S 22 F y . (A-F1-3) M cr 33 M p 33 . M n = S Fy . and for minor direction bending. (A-F1-3) M cr 22 where. M n 22 = M p 22 M p 22 M r 22 . and zero for equal-leg angles (LRFD SAM 5. Nominal minor bending strength. negative for long leg in compression. Z 33 F y S 33 F y . M n . if r . However.2).Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 is a special section property for angles.3. Major plastic moment. Nominal major bending strength. if p r . It is positive for short leg in compression. p r p if p . M p 22 . it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. p r p if p .

M r 22 .1. Fy Fr .1) S 33 . (for Channel sections) (LRFD B5.1) M r 33 M r 22 (Fy Fr )S 33 . kc 2 (LRFD Table A-F1. and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 p r = = = = = = = Major limiting buckling moment. Table A-F1. M cr 33 . Fy . Major buckling moment.1) .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Fy Fr kc (LRFD B5. M r 33 .1. p . Table A-F1. r . Largest value of for which M n M p .1) F y S 22 .1) r (LRFD Table A-F1. (for I sections) (LRFD B5. Minor limiting buckling moment. (LRFD Table A-F1. M cr 22 2 S 22 . The parameters . and M cr 22 for flange local buckling for different types of shapes are given below: I Shapes. 66 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Minor buckling moment. Table A-F1. kc 2 M cr 33 (LRFD Table A-F1. Controlling slenderness parameter.1. Channels bf 2t f bf tf . 2 S 33 .1) p .1) S 22 .

1. 33 = effective major section modulus considering slenderness. If special consideration is required. Fy . 22 .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. (LRFD B5. and S eff .1. 22 = effective minor section modulus considering slenderness. Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. 33 S eff . r (LRFD B5. Table A-F1.1. The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.1) . T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T sections and Double angles in SAP2000. the user is expected to analyze this separately. F y S eff . Table A-F1. Fy (Fy (Fy Fr )S eff .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. 33 S 33 . Fr )S eff .1) (LRFD A-F1) M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 Fr F y S eff .1) (LRFD Table A-F1.1) .1. (LRFD B5.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fr (LRFD A-F1) Boxes bf tf bf tf p 3 tw 2 tw . Table A-F1. 33 .1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 67 . S eff . 22 .1) (LRFD Table A-F1.

Pipe Sections t p . if Fy b t b t Fy . (LRFD Table A-F1.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Fy .1) 68 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . (LRFD Table A-F1. if Fy . (LRFD Table A-F1. In calculating the bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling. if Fy . S c = section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg.1) M r 33 = M r 22 = M cr 33 = M cr 22 = D t S. and Q = strength reduction factor due to local buckling.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t Fy S c . t = thickness of the leg under consideration. where. The minimum capacities are considered. the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. b = length of the leg under consideration.1) r Fy D t + Fy S . M n= F y S c Fy Fy S c . 1 .1) (LRFD Table A-F1.

No local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular. Z 33 F y (LRFD F1.A-G1) S 33 R PG R e Fcr . Largest value of for which M n M p . and General Sections No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes.(A-F1. tw Calculation of Nominal Strengths 69 . Channels. Major limiting buckling moment.1). I Shapes. ksi. Hybrid girder factor. R PG Re Fcr = = = = = = = = = Nominal major bending strength.1) S 33 F y .1).R e S 33 F y . p r p if p . where the value of Pu is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension: hc . the user is expected to analyze this separately. rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 . Web Local Buckling The flexural design strengths are considered in SAP2000 for only the major axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1. if p r . Major plastic moment. where. Plate girder bending strength reduction factor. If special consideration is required.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Circular. M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 p r if r .1) Web slenderness parameter. of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1-1. rectangular. A-G2-2): M p 33 . and general shapes. Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. and Critical compression flange stress.(LRFD TableA-F1. Rectangular. and Boxes The flexural design strength for the major axis bending. The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows. A-F1-3. M n .

The critical compression flange stress. P b y 253 Fy . and Fcr for slender web sections are calculated in SAP2000 as follows: R PG ar ar ar m m3 ar . (LRFD A-G2) In the above expressions. Fcr (LRFD A-G2-3) Re Re ar (for non-hybrid section). R e . for slender web sections is calculated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for the corresponding slenderness parameter in SAP2000 as follows: 70 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and Fy (LRFD A-G2) m min( Fcr . Fcr . F y ) . Pu P b y Pu P b y 1Fy p r The parameters R PG .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu .0. taken as 1. R e is taken as 1. P b y Fy 1Fy Pu P b y Pu . (for hybrid sections). where (LRFD A-G2) . (LRFD A-G2) hc tw . because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders.

The parameters . (LRFD A-G2-4. It is calculated using the equation given in page 62. and C PG for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web I. 5. p . p . t p (LRFD A-G2-11) . and (LRFD A-G2-14) (LRFD A-G2-15) (LRFD A-G2-13) (LRFD A-G2-12) r C PG Cb 1. rT p (LRFD A-G2-7) . r . 6) . Fcr = C b Fy 1 C PG 2 F y . and it is taken as b f 12 in SAP2000. if p r . and (LRFD A-G2-10) (LRFD A-G2-9) r C PG rT = radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compression portion of the web. Fy kc k c . Channel and Box sections are given below: b . Fy . Channel and Box sections are given below: Lb . (LRFD A-G2-8) Fy . C b = a factor which depends on span moment. Fy C b . if r . 1 2 p r p if p .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fy . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 71 . r . and C PG for flange local buckling for slender web I. The parameters .

Circular. Channel. h tw . Fy F y Aw . the user is expected to analyze this separately. T. for major direction shears in I-shapes. principal axes do not coincide with their geometric axes. No additional check is considered in SAP2000. Double angle.1). If special consideration is required. If special consideration is required. Circular and Rectangular sections.1). Fy (LRFD F2-1) 72 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . No web local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular.1). Single Angles The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD SAM 5. and General Sections No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. No additional check is considered in SAP2000. V n 2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in SAP2000. Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength.1. Pipe. Rectangular. Box. Pipe Sections The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD Table A-F1. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: For h tw V n2 = for Fy < . the user is expected to analyze them separately. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. For Single-angle sections. and general shapes. For I. Shear Capacities The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes for all sections. rectangular.

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 V n2 = F y Aw h tw h . the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. the resistance factor for bendc ing. b . In addition.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. first. A capacity ratio greater than 1. along with the associated station and load combination. Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. the joints are not designed. During the design. Then. Aw for Fy V n2 = < h tw 2 . If Pu is tensile. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. and if Pu is compressive. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. and tw (LRFD F2-2) Fy . Pn is t the nominal axial compressive strength and . for each station along the length of the member. The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Calculation of Capacity Ratios 73 . Axial and Bending Stresses Pu . (LRFD F2-3 and A-F2-3) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . Pn is the Pn nominal axial tensile strength and . except for angle secc tions (LRFD SAM 6). the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. Also.

the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5. M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1b. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: V u2 . Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses. For Single-angle sections. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . Double angle. Channel. Box. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. For I. For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes. T. M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1a. Pipe. For Single-angle sections. SAM 6-1a) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. and vV n 2 V u3 .3. SAM 6-1a) . For general sections it is assumed that the section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. For Single-angle sections.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn For . vV n 3 where v . Circular and Rectangular sections. 6). 74 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . principal axes are determined in SAP2000.

A capacity ratio greater than 1. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table V-1. Similarly. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AASHTO design code (AASHTO 1997). Composite. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. hybrid and stiffened sections should be investigated by the users independently of SAP2000. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most structures. The design and check are limited to noncomposite.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. nonhybrid and unstiffened sections. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. 75 .

equal dt w per web. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling.0 for rolled sections and 16. kip Factored axial force in member. in Depth of web in compression under plastic moment. in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member. kip-in Factored moment in member.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway. kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments.5 for welded sections. in Depth of web in compression. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10. M r 22 Mu M u 33 . in Shear area. ksi Minor moment of inertia. ksi Yield stress of material. kip-in Major and minor plastic moments. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. Av 3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D Dc Dcp E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 . in2 Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant. kips Table V-1 AASHTO-LRFD Notations 76 . in4 Major moment of inertia. M n22 M p 33 . M u 22 Pe Pn Pu = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. in Elastic buckling moment. in6 Outside diameter of pipes. in Modulus of elasticity. kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions. in2 2 Major and minor shear areas. kips Nominal axial load strength. in4 4 Torsional constant for the section. ksi Critical compressive stress. kip-in Euler buckling load. M p 22 M r 33 . ksi Shear modulus. kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member. K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr Mb Ms M n33 . kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway.

in Thickness.Vn3 Vu 2 . in Overall depth of member. Z 22 b bf d hc k kc = = = = = = = = = = = = Section modulus.9 l33 .85 Resistance factor for tension. kips Factored major and minor shear loads. l22 r r33 . in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions.9 Resistance factor for compression. in b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled BOX (TS) sections Flange width. kips 3 Plastic modulus. 0. in Clear distance between flanges less fillets. 0. 0. in Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameter Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Resistance factor Resistance factor for bending. in Nominal major and minor shear strengths. in Thickness of web. 0. in Parameter used for section classification.Vu 3 Z Z 33 . in3 3 Major and minor section moduli.9 Resistance factor for shear. in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli. in Flange thickness. in Nominal dimension of longer leg of angles. S 22 Vn2 . r22 rz t tf tw b s c p r f c y v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Table V-1 AASHTO-LRFD Notations (continued) 77 . 4 . in Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. in assumed d 2k for rolled sections and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet. in Radius of gyration.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 S S 33 . kc h tw Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths.

4. However. vehicular centrifugal force (CE).1). downdrag (DD). If the structure is subjected to structural dead load (DL). 1. 78 Design Loading Combinations . wind load (WL). For simplicity. The user is expected to define the other load combinations as necessary. All these live load cases require the same factor and do not need to be treated separately (AASHTO 3. and live load surcharge (LS). the user has full control of the definition of loads and load combinations. vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM).25 DL + 1.5 LL (Strength-IV) (Strength-I) (Strength-III) (Strength-III) (Strength-V) (Extreme-I) (Extreme-I) 0. dead load of wearing surface and utilities (DW).25 DL 1. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. and earthquake loads (EL).4 WL 1.1). Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.90 DL 1.4 WL 1. vertical earth pressure load (EV).50 DL 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.25 DL + 0.40 WL 1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted.4. the following default load combinations have been considered for Strength and Extreme Event limit states (AASHTO 3. There are more different types of loads specified in the code than are considered in the current implementation of the default load combinations. live load (LL).1). There are six types of live loads: vehicular live load (LL).35 LL 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.90 DL 1. earth surcharge load (ES).75 LL 0. vehicular braking force (BR). pedestrian live load (PL).4. horizontal earth pressure load (EH).0 EL 1. There are six types of dead loads: dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments (DC).25 DL + 1.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AASHTO LRFD 1997 code is used. Each type of dead load case requires a separate load factor (AASHTO 3.

When using the AASHTO code.2. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu . If the limits for non-compact criteria are not met. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: Mu = = s = Mb = Ms = b b Mb + s M s .2b) Moment magnification factor for moments in braced mode. Moment magnification factor for moments in sidesway mode. the factored moment M u ( M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force.35 LL (See White and Hajjar 1991). Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. the section is classified as Slender.5. It is recommended that the P. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Slender sections. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. the minor moment. or Slender.5. Classification of Sections 79 . M u 22 . and Factored moments causing sidesway.2.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. M u 33 . The definitions of the section properties required in these tables are given in Figure V-1. SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the width/thickness ratio quantities given in Table V-2 (AASHTO 6).3. Factored moments not causing sidesway.1) of 1.25 DL plus 1.analysis be done at the factored load level (AASHTO C4. where (AASHTO 4. V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. respectively. Noncompact. the major moment. SAP2000 design assumes that a P.3.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check Compact ( p) E Fy Noncompact r bf 2t f E 2Dc Fy tw E Fy r22 E Fy rt E Fy I-SHAPE 2Dcp tw E Fy Mu Mp Lb BOX bf tf For Pu 640 Fy For Pu 191 Fy bf 2t f M Assumed noncompact 65 f Fy .) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for Channels Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E Fy Assumed compact Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact As for Channels 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy E Fy b b D t t t Table V-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratio for Flexure Classification of Sections According to AASHTO 80 Calculation of Factored Forces . Pu Py 141 Fy - Py f f 1Py Pu fP y CHANNEL hc tw - 253 Fy 970 Fy T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Sep.

Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Figure V-1 AASHTO Definition of Geometric Properties Calculation of Factored Forces 81 .

35 LL (AASHTO C4.2): 82 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . ( Kl u ) 2 Ma Mb . . When M b is zero. For compression members with transverse load on the member. The moment magnification factor b for moments not causing sidesway is given by b = Cm Pu 1 c Pe .4. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to c Pe . Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression.0.0.2. where 2 (AASHTO 4. Therefore Pu must be less than c Pe . C m is taken as 1. l. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member.3.5. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member. of the member is redefined by the user (i.2b) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger nonsway moments at the ends of the member. The magnification factor b .3. must be a positive number. The strength reduction factor. It is suggested that the P. and shear are computed for Compact and Non-compact sections according to the following subsections.2.0 if the unbraced length. where (AASHTO 4. bending. The program defaults C m to 1.2b) Cm (AASHTO 4. it is not equal to the length of the member). a failure condition is declared. C m is assumed as 1.1). is taken as follows (AASHTO 6.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions.2b) Pe is the Euler buckling load.2.5. therefore s is taken as unity for bending in both directions. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of b and s for any member.2. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P.5. Pe EI .3.5.25 DL plus 1.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.effects.e.5.3. See also White and Hajjar (1991). M a M b being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. tension.

or web buckling.10.4. for for c . 0.5. a message to that effect is printed (AASHTO 6. (AASHTO 6.5.2. 6.5. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used.4. 1.9. 6.2) (AASHTO 6. reduced nominal strengths may be applicable.2) (AASHTO 6. flexural-torsional and torsional buckling. these values will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. F y Ag .3). Pn .2.9.4.4.5. r In computing the column compression capacity. and its critical value. The AASHTO design in SAP2000 is limited to noncomposite. 1. and is the larger of r33 r22 r (AASHTO 6.2.10. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”.4. Pn is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Pn = c lc F y Ag .2) f v y c For Slender sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring consideration of local buckling.2. nonhybrid and unstiffened sections.9.4. and .0 = Resistance factor for shear. 6.1) Fy E c . if Kl is greater than 120.9 (AASHTO 6. For members in compression.1) c For single angles r z is used in place of r22 and r33 .1) (AASHTO 6. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such sections are used. 0. 6. Kl r 2 c Kl .2) (AASHTO 6.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 = Resistance factor for bending. Compression Capacity The nominal axial compressive strength.8. depends on the slenderness ratio. K 33 l 33 K l Kl and 22 22 .0 = Resistance factor for tension. the sections are assumed to satisfy the slenderness requirements given below: Calculation of Nominal Strengths 83 .9. r .9.95 = Resistance factor for compression.4.

the moment capacity about the major axis is determined depending on the shapes as follows.2.2-1).9.1).4.56 and 1. Pn Ag F y (AASHTO 6. 84 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and web local buckling.86 depending on the supports of the outstanding elements of the sections (AASHTO Table 6. flange local buckling.8. For members in tension. The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained from yielding. the compactness of the section.1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made.4. If this slenderness criteria is not satisfied. M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y . the axis of bending. and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. However. Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. a message to that effect is printed (AASHTO 6.9. if l r is greater than 140. Fy k (AASHTO 6. it is suggested that AISC-LRFD (1986) code should be used (AASHTO C6.8. The nominal moment capacity about the minor axis is always taken to be the plastic moment capacity about the minor axis unless as specified below.4). Flexure Capacity The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. General Section General Sections are considered to be noncompact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given by Mn S Fy .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t E .4.9.2) where the constant k ranges between 0. The users are specifically expected to consult AISCLRFD for this situation. lateral-torsional buckling. because the current version of SAP2000 does not consider this slenderness criteria.

3c).2a) (AASHTO 6.3.2. 6.3d). and bf tf . 6.4.10.1.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 I-Section For compact I sections the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Z Fy (AASHTO 6.5.6. Lb . (AASHTO 6.10.10. 6. Fy E .5.3.4.2.2a. when the unbraced length of the compression flange.3a.3.3. Rb 1 2D c ar 1200 300 a r t w b 2D c tw E fc .5.10.5.3. exceeds the criteria for noncompactness Lb 1.5. the moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows (AASHTO 6.5.5. (AASHTO 6.5.3) For noncompact I sections the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Rh Rb S Fy . 6. for nonhybrid sections.1) where R h is the hybrid factor.76 rt E / F y (AASHTO 6.10. and (AASHTO 6.10.1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 85 .4. and the web slenderness and the compression flange slenderness criteria for noncompact sections are satisfied (AASHTO 6.6.10.10.1.5.0 .5.3.4.6. 2D c tw b E . Rh .10.10. Fy (6. 1.2a) b For slender unstiffened I sections.5.10. and for nonhybrid sections.1a) R b is the load shedding factor.2b.4.10.10.2a) b where ar 2D c t w .10. 6.

then Fy I 22 Lb Lb J I 22 Lr .10.10.10. J 3 d tw 3 EC b R h E Fy R h M y .1) (AASHTO 6.2) b Cb C b is the moment gradient correction factor.4.0.10. (AASHTO 6.4.6.1) if b and Lb My 2 Lr . Fy .10. M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moments at the ends of the member.1) Lr I yd E . When M b is zero. then Lb Lr Lp Lp d Lb 2 If b Mn 2D c tw Mn 2D c tw Mn where.5.4. (AASHTO 6. and (6.5.5 E Fy R b R h M y .6.10.1) b f t3 f 3 E .10.4.6. The program also defaults C b to 1.4. then 2 C b Rb Rh Lr Lb Rb Rh M y .0 0.6.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 2D c tw E . M a M b being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.10. (6.4.4. S 33 F y .0 if the unbraced 86 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .1) if b and L p C b R b R h M y 1.6. and (Ma Mb) ( M a M b )2 (AASHTO 6. (AASHTO 6.6.1) .1) Lp 1. C b is taken as 1.76 rt (AASHTO 6.6.

5.5 2D cp tw Q fl 4.2b).6.10. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member.3c).5.2) 2D cp tw E .6. e. the moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows (AASHTO 6.5.5. l.5.2) . bf 2t f 0.0 .2) (AASHTO 6.382 E . of the member is redefined by the user (i.3d.3. it is not equal to the length of the member). when the compression flange exceeds the criteria for nonc ompa ctne s s .10.e.064 F y S l 22 AE 2 d w tw I 22 bf tf SF y Mp (6.6.2) 2 Qp Mp My Qp Q fl Mp Mp .10. Fy (AASHTO 6.382 E . and 30.10.10. rt is the minimum radius of gyration taken about the vertical axis of the compression flange plus one-third of the web in compression (AASHTO 6.6. Fy Calculation of Nominal Strengths 87 .2.2. For slender unstiffened I sections.10.12. b f 2t f 6. Fy bf 2t f 0. (6. i . Qp 3.5.3.5.5. 6. but b f 2t f E E f c 2D c t w .10.10.3. (AAS HT O and the compression flange f c 2D cp t w bracing and the web slenderness requirements are satisfied for noncompact sections (AASHTO 6.3.45 bf 2t f Box Section Noncomposite Box Sections are considered to be noncompact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows: Mn 1 0.2): Mn where.3d).Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 length.

3) Circular Bar Solid Circular Bars are not subjected to lateral-torsional buckling.12. (LRFD F1-12) Nominal major bending strength.L p M p 33 .4a): For channels and rectangular bars bent about the major axis.3) E F y ) the moment capacity For noncompact Pipe sections (2 E F y about the major axis is given as: Mn S Fy (AASHTO 6.2. (LRFD F1-7) 88 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .2. Major limiting buckling moment.2.M p 33 . (LRFD F1-3) Lp M n 33 = C b M p 33 .L p Lr . if L p Lb Lr Lb .M r 33 and if Lb > Lr .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pipe Section For compact Pipe sections (D t 2 E F y ) the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Z Fy D t (AASHTO 6.2. Z 33 F y S 33 F y .12. Rectangular and Channel Sections The nominal moment capacity of Rectangular and Channel Sections about the major axis is computed according to AISC-LRFD 1986 based on yielding and Lateral-Torsional-Buckling limit states as follows (AASHTO 6.2. ( F y Fr )S 33 for channels. Major plastic moment. M n 33 = M cr 33 where M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 = = = C b M r 33 M p 33 .12.2. They are considered to be compact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given by Mn Z Fy . if Lb M n 33 = M p 33 .

Critical elastic moment. (LRFD F1) Lb r22 Laterally unbraced length. 300 r22 for channels. The nominal flexural strength M n for the limit state of flange and web local buckling is: For major direction bending M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 . (LRFD F1-6) 1 + X 2 F y . (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling.5.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 and F y S 33 for rectangular bars. (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) ( M a M b )2 .Fr F y Fr 2 57 000 r22 JA M r 33 X1 X2 Cb = = S 33 C 4 w I 22 EGJA . the nominal bending strengths are not taken greater than that given by the formulas below for the various local buckling modes possible for these sections.2) . Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity.10. l 22 . and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for rectangular bars. Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w for channels. r22 X 1 for channels. and (LRFD F1-13) Lb Lp = = 57 000 C b JA for rectangular bars. (AASHTO 6. (Ma Mb) For non-compact channels.5. ( LRFD A-F1-3) and for minor direction bending Calculation of Nominal Strengths 89 . 2 S 33 GJ 2 for rectangular sections.M r 33 r p p .

Shear Capacities Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength. Largest value of for which M n M p .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M n 22 = M p 22 where. Controlling slenderness parameter.M r 22 r p p . M n = S Fy . boxes and channels is evaluated assuming unstiffened girders as follows (AASHTO 6. and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. V n 2 . where (LRFD F1-15) B (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments).10. Minor limiting buckling moment. M n 33 = C b EI 22 GJ Lb d Lb I 22 .1) F y S 22 or flange buckling of channels. J B + 1+ B2 F y S 33 .7): 90 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . M r 33 M r 22 = M p 22 .1) ( F y Fr )S 33 for flange buckling of channels. and F y S 33 for web buckling of channels. Single Angles For single angles the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. T-Sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and double angles the nominal major bending strength is given as. for major direction shears in I-shapes. (LRFD A-F1-3) = = = = p r Major limiting buckling moment. (LRFD Table A-F1. (LRFD Table A-F1.

Fy (AASHTO 6. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 91 .7. for each station along the length of the member. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. and For (AASHTO 6.7.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 d tw V n2 = for V n2 = for d tw V n2 = E .2) E . Fy 3 tw E . Also. A capacity ratio greater than 1.10. the joints are not designed.2) E . d (AASHTO 6.10. along with the associated station and load combination.7. Then. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. E d < Fy tw 2 tw EF y .10. During the design. first.2) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . Fy F y Aw .

2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Axial and Bending Stresses The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio nominal axial tensile strength and t the nominal axial compressive strength and tance factor for bending.2) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas.9. M n 22 f (AASHTO 6. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. Pn is the Pn . f . M n 22 f (AASHTO 6.2. If Pu is tensile. and vV n 2 V u3 .8. and if Pu is compressive. 6.3. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: V u2 . the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 f M u 22 . Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses. 6. the resisc For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn .2) For Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn . In addition.8.3. vV n 3 92 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . Pn is .2. Pu . the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 f M u 22 .9.2.

The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.1-94 design code (CISC 1995). The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.C h a p t e r VI Check/Design for CISC94 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the CAN/CSA-S16. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. Similarly. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. For simplicity. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. 93 . Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VI-1. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units.

M r 22 Mu M y 33 . mm3 Factored tensile axial load. mm 4 Torsional constant for the section. N Moment magnification factor to account for deformation of member between ends Moment magnification factor ( on sidesway moments) to account for PFactored major and minor shear loads. mm 2 Shear area. M f 22 M p 33 . MPa Specified minimum yield stress. N-mm Major and minor section moduli. N Factored compressive axial strength. A g F y . N Major and minor plastic moduli. M p 22 M r 33 . N-mm Factored major and minor bending strengths. K 22 L M f 33 . S 22 Tf Tr U1 U2 V f 2 . Av 3 Aw Ce Cf Cr Cw Cy D E Fy G I 33 . mm Modulus of elasticity.0 unless overwritten by user) Laterally unbraced length of member. mm Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions (assumed as 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . Z 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. mm Euler buckling strength. N-mm Critical elastic moment. N-mm Major and minor plastic moments.V f 3 Vr 2 . mm3 Table VI-1 CISC 94 Notations 94 . mm Factored major and minor bending loads. N Factored tensile axial strength. MPa 4 Major and minor moment of inertia. N Factored major and minor shear strengths. N Factored compressive axial load. MPa Shear modulus. N Warping constant. N-mm Major and minor yield moments. mm2 Gross cross-sectional area. mm6 Compressive axial load at yield stress. mm2 2 Major and minor shear areas. N Outside diameter of pipes. I 22 J K K 33 . M y 22 S 33 .Vr 3 Z 33 .

mm Thickness. mm Flange width. mm Overall depth of member.9 Moment Coefficient Major and minor direction moment coefficients Bending coefficient 1 13 2 . 12 = = Table VI-1 CISC 94 Notations (cont. r22 rz t tf tw = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Nominal dimension of longer leg of angles ( b f 2t w ) for welded ( b f 3t f ) for rolled box sections. mm Slenderness parameter Resistance factor. mm Clear distance between flanges . mm Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. taken as ( d 2t f ). mm Flange thickness. mm Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. mm Web thickness.34 (no stiffeners) Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . mm Web plate buckling coefficient. taken as 0.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 b = bf d h k k l l33 .) 95 . mm Radius of gyration. l22 r r33 . assumed as 5. mm Unbraced length of member.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual

**Design Loading Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the CAN/CSA-S16.1-94 code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind load (WL), and earthquake induced load (EL), and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following load combinations may have to be defined (CISC 7.2): 1.25 DL 1.25 DL + 1.50 LL 1.25 DL 1.50 WL 0.85 DL 1.50 WL 1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.00 DL 1.00 EL 1.00 DL + 0.50 LL (CISC 7.2.2)

1.50 WL)

(CISC 7.2.2) (CISC 7.2.6)

1.00 EL

These are also the default design load combinations whenever the CISC Code is used. In generating the above default loading combinations, the importance factor is taken as 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. When using the CISC code, SAP2000 design assumes that a P- analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.25 DL plus 1.05 LL. See also White and Hajjar (1991). For the gravity load case only, the code (CISC 8.6.2) requires that notional lateral loads be applied at each story, equal to 0.005 times the factored gravity loads acting at each story. If extra load cases are used for such analysis, they should be included in the loading combinations with due consideration to the fact that the notional lateral forces can be positive or negative.

96

Design Loading Combinations

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94

Classification of Sections

For the determination of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure, the sections are classified as either Class 1 (Plastic), Class 2 (Compact), Class 3 (Noncompact), or Class 4 (Slender). The program classifies the individual sections according to Table VI-2 (CISC 11.2). According to this table, a section is classified as either Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 as applicable. If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 sections, the section is classified as Class 4. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Class 4 sections.

**Calculation of Factored Forces
**

The factored member forces for each load combination are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. These member forces are T f or C f , M f 33 , M f 22 , V f 2 and V f 3 corresponding to factored values of the tensile or compressive axial load, the major moment, the minor moment, the major direction shear, and the minor direction shear, respectively. Because SAP2000 design assumes that the analysis includes P- effects, any magnification of sidesway moments due to the second order effects are already included, therefore U 2 for both directions of bending is taken as unity. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.25 DL plus 1.05 LL. See also White and Hajjar (1991). However, the user can overwrite the values of U 2 for both major and minor direction bending. In this case M f in a particular direction is taken as: M

f

M = = =

fg

U 2 M ft , where

(CISC 8.6.1)

U2 M fg M ft

Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments, Factored moments not causing translation, and Factored moments causing sidesway.

Classification of Sections

97

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual

Description of Section

Ratio Checked

bf 2t f

Class 1 (Plastic)

145 Fy

Class 2 (Compact)

170 Fy

Class 3 (Noncompact)

200 Fy

I-SHAPE h tw

Cf 1100 1 - 0.39 Cy Fy 420 525 Fy (rolled) Fy (welded)

Cf 1700 1 - 0.61 Cy Fy

Cf 1900 1 - 0.65 Cy Fy

b BOX h bf h

tf

525

Fy

670

Fy

tw tf tw

As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable

As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable

As for I-shapes 200 Fy

CHANNEL

As for I-shapes 200 340 Fy Fy

T-SHAPE

bf d

2t f tw

Not applicable Not applicable

Not applicable Not applicable

DOUBLE ANGLE ANGLE PIPE (Flexure) PIPE (Axial) ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

b

t

Not applicable

Not applicable

200

Fy

b

t

Not applicable

Not applicable

200

Fy

D

t

13000

Fy

18000

Fy

66000

Fy

D

t

Assumed Class 2

23000

Fy

Assumed Class 2

Assumed Class 3

Table VI-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on CISC 94

98

Calculation of Factored Forces

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 Figure VI-1 CISC 94 Definition of Geometric Properties Calculation of Factored Forces 99 .

34 which is assigned to W-shapes rolled in Canada. 2.3.3. The default n is 1. Then the factored axial strength is evaluated as follows (CISC 13.1) n is an exponent and it takes three possible values to match the strengths related to three SSRC curves. and cold-formed non-stress relieved (Class C) hollow structural sections (HSS) (CISC 13. and 3 sections in SAP2000. reduced nominal strengths may be applicable. C r . For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring consideration of local buckling. is taken as 0. where (CISC 13. . CISC C13. For members in compression. or web buckling. Manual Page 4-12). . a smaller value of n (n ) is considered appropriate (CISC C13.2. which is the larger of K 33 l 33 r33 and K 22 l 22 r22 .1. for Class 1. Kl r. 2. Manual Table 6-2). CISC C13. flexural-torsional and torsional buckling.3. and shear are computed for Class 1. fabricated boxes and I shapes. and is defined as = Kl r Fy E . The WWF sections produced in Canada from plate with flame-cut edges and hot-formed or cold-relieved (Class H) HSS are assigned to a favorable value of n (CISC 13.9 (CISC 13.3. Compression Strength The factored axial compressive strength value. For single angles rZ is used in place of r33 and r22 . The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used. The strength reduction factor. these values will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. SAP2000 assumes the value of n as follows: 100 Calculation of Factored Strengths .1. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data". a message is printed (CISC 10. if Kl r is greater than 200.3. tension.1).3). which eventually depends on the slenderness ratio.3. bending.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Factored Strengths The factored strengths in compression.1). For heavy sections. or 3 sections depends on a factor.1): Cr AF y 1 2n - 1 n . Manual Page 4-12.

a message is printed accordingly (CISC 10. (CISC 13. if l r is greater than 300. for other sections with thickness larger than or equal to 25. Tension Strength The factored axial tensile strength value.5) Special considerations are required for laterally unsupported members.2) Bending Strengths The factored bending strength in the major and minor directions is based on the geometric shape of the section. If the capacities ( M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user.2. is taken as Ag F y (CISC 13. Mr Mr ZF y .(a). The procedure for the determination of moment capacities for laterally unsupported members (CISC 13.2). For members in tension.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 for WWF. and the unbraced length of the member. the moment capacities are considered to be as follows: For Class 1 and 2. for other sections with thickness less than 25.(i)).6) is described in the following subsections. None of these overwritten capacities are used for strengths in laterally supported case.2. and 2L sections and normal HS and HSS sections. Also. L. Calculation of Factored Strengths 101 . and SF y . The bending strengths are evaluated according to CISC as follows (CISC 13. the section classification for compactness. For Class 3.4 mm.5 and 13.6): For laterally supported members. Tr Ag F y (CISC 13. HS (Class H) and HSS (Class H) sections. Tr . to consider any HSS section as Class H. for W.4 mm.5) (CISC 13. it is expected that the user would put a suffix to the HS or HSS section names. n The HSS sections in the current Canadian Section Database of SAP2000 are prefixed as HS instead of HSS. they are used in the interaction ratio calculation when strengths are required for actual unbraced lengths.

Warping constant assumed as 0. rectangular and circular bars. boxes bent about the major axis. L L Laterally unbraced length. M p 33 1M p 33 .6) M a and M b are end moments of the unbraced segment and M a is less than Ma being positive for double curvature bending and negative for sinM b. (CISC 13. The program defaults 2 to 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual I-shapes and Boxes Major Axis of Bending For Class 1 and 2 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about the major axis. l of the 2 member is overwritten by the user (i. However. M u .0 for cantilevers. Z 33 F y .0 for boxes. pipes.6) L Cw = = 2 = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb 2 . Mb gle curvature bending.0 if the unbraced length. and (CISC 13. For Class 3 sections of I-shapes. when M u M y 33 . Critical elastic moment. channels. The user can overwrite the value of 2 for any member by specifying it. where Factored major bending strength.e. and 2 M p 33 Mu M p 33 . 2 should be taken as 1. is taken as 1. Major plastic moment. E I 22 C w . the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. when M u > M r3 = when M u M r 33 = M r 33 M p 33 Mu = = = M p 33 . If any moment within the segment is greater than M b .0. 102 Calculation of Factored Strengths .6) 2 EI 22 GJ + (CISC 13. l 22 . it is not equal to the length of the member).6) (CISC 13.

6) M p 33 Mu M p 33 . M u .Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 M y 33 Mu M r 33 = when M u M r 33 M y 33 1 M y 33 . M p 33 1M p 33 .6) M r 33 and M u are as defined earlier for Class 1 and 2 sections and M y 33 is the major yield moment. M r 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y . For Class 3 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about their minor axis. Pipes and Circular Rods For pipes and circular rods bent about any axis Calculation of Factored Strengths 103 . Minor Axis of Bending For Class 1 and 2 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about their minor axis. when M u > M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu . and (CISC 13. M r 22 = M y 22 = S 22 F y . M r 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y . (CISC 13.6) Minor Axis of Bending For Class 2 sections of rectangular bars bent about their minor axis.6) (CISC 13. Rectangular Bar Major Axis of Bending For Class 2 rectangular bars bent about their major axis. S 33 F y . M p 33 . and (CISC 13. where M y 33 .

M p 33 .6) Minor Axis of Bending For Class 3 channel sections bent about their minor axis. F y S 33 . M y 33 Mu M y 33 . M p 33 1M p 33 .6) Channel Sections Major Axis of Bending For Class 3 channel sections bent about their major axis. and (CISC 13. T-shapes and double angles Major Axis of Bending For Class 3 sections of T-shapes and double angles the factored major bending strength is assumed to be (CISC 13. when M u M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu .6) M p 33 Mu M p 33 . (CISC 13. M y 33 .6d). where d L I 22 104 Calculation of Factored Strengths . M r 33 = B= 2 EI 22 GJ L B + 1+ B2 J . M y 33 1 M y 33 . and (CISC 13.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual When M u > M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu . M r 22 = M y 22 = S 22 F y .

1): • For h tw Aw kv .1. Single Angle and General Sections For Class 3 single angles and for General sections. M r 33 = M r 22 = F y S 33 . Fy (CISC 13. the factored major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as.1. Fy (CISC 13. • For 502 Vr 2 = kv h < Fy tw Aw Fcri 621 kv .4. Fy Fy . and F y S 22 . boxes and channels is evaluated as follows (CISC 13. M r 22 = F y S 22 . V r 2 .1) (CISC 13.4.1. where Calculation of Factored Strengths 105 .1) Vr 2 = • For kv h < Fy tw Aw 290 kv Fy h tw Vr 2 = . Minor Axis of Bending For Class 3 sections of T-shapes and double angles the factored minor bending strength is assumed as.1. 502 kv .Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). Shear Strengths The factored shear strength. for major direction shears in I-shapes.1) Ft .4.4.

and Ft = Fy Fcri 1 1 a/h 2 . (CISC 13. k v is the shear buckling coefficient. tw Fy Aw Fcre Ft .2): Vr 2 Vr 3 F y Av 2 .4.4.4. ( a / h) 2 a/h 1 and the aspect ratio a h is the ratio of the distance between the stiffeners to web depth. boxes and channels is assumed as Vr 2 F y Av 3 . and it is defined as: kv kv 4 ( a / h) 2 . • For k h > 621 v .2) 106 Calculation of Factored Strengths .2) The factored shear strength for major and minor direction shears for all other sections is assumed as (CISC 13.1.1) Vr 2 = Fcre = 180000 k v ( h/t w ) 2 In the above equations. Assuming no stiffener is used. and F y Av 3 . (CISC 13. the value of Ft is taken as zero.34. where . The factored shear strength for minor direction shears in I-shapes. the value of k v is taken as 5. Assuming no stiffener is used.4. (CISC 13.2) (CISC 13.4.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual kv Fy h tw Fcri = 290 . a/h 1 4 .

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios.8.2) The above ratios are calculated for each of the following conditions and the largest ratio is reported: Calculation of Capacity Ratios 107 . for each load combination. If the axial. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. first. However. for all but Class 1 I-shaped sections (13. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. the actual member force/moment components are calculated. None of these overwritten capacities are used for strengths in laterally supported case. the capacity ratio is given by: Cf Cr Cf Cr + U 13 M f 33 M r 33 U 13 M + U 12 M f 22 M r 22 + . A capacity ratio greater than 1. During the design. If the axial and bending capacities are overwritten by the user. More specific information is given in the following subsections as needed.1) + f 33 U 12 M f 22 M r 33 M r 22 . for each station along the length of the member. Then. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. the overwritten values are used in calculating the stress ratios.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. the joints are not designed. Axial and Bending Stresses From the factored axial loads and bending moments at each station and the factored strengths for axial tension and compression and major and minor bending. along with the associated station and load combination. an interaction capacity ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows: Compressive Axial Load If the axial load is compressive. they are used in the interaction ratio calculation when strengths are required for actual unbraced lengths. flexural. for Class 1 I-shaped sections (13. Also. certain strengths can not be overwritten. and shear strengths of a section are overwritten by the user.8.

(CISC 13.1. they are assumed not to apply to this case and are ignored. (CISC 13. M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. and – U 12 and U 13 are calculated using the expression given below for U 1 . • Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on weak-axis buckling only based K 22 l 22 (CISC 13. on r22 – M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated based on actual unbraced length (CISC 13.8. U 13 U 12 .1) . and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. • Overall Member Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on both major and minor direction K l K l buckling using both 22 22 and 33 33 as described in an earlier section r22 r33 (CISC 13.5).1) – The M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated assuming that the member is laterally fully supported ( l 22 0 and l 33 0) irrespective of its actual lateral bracing length (CISC 13.3.2) If the capacities (C r . 13.3). M r 22 .5). and 108 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Cross-sectional Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on Cr A Fy 0. the only overwritten capacity used in this case is C r . In this equation specific values for major and minor directions are to be used to calculate values of U 12 and U 13 (CISC 13.8.6).1).3.3.8. If the capacities (C r . – M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated assuming that the member is laterally fully supported ( l 22 0 and l 33 0) irrespective of its actual lateral bracing length (CISC 13. and – U 12 and U 13 are taken as 1.

(CISC 13. it is not equal to the length of the member).3). and 1 - M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. of the member is redefined by the user (i. U1 = 1 1 . In the above expressions.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 – U 12 and U 13 are calculated using the expression given below for U 1 .8. all three overwritten capacities are used in this case.3. In the first case. M r 22 .2) If the capacities (C r . all these overwritten capacities are used in this case.8. (CISC 13. Therefore C f must be less than C e .1.8. The factor U 1 must be a positive the value of number. a failure condition is declared. In addition.3) Ce EI .2) If the capacities ( M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. l. In this equation specific values for major and minor directions are to be used to calculate values of U 12 and U 13 (CISC 13.8. and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. Moreover. U 13 1 is enforced. 1 is assumed as 1. The user can overwrite for any member by specifying it. 1 1 Tensile Axial Load If the axial load is tensile the capacity ratio is given by the larger of two ratios. the following ratio is also checked: M f 33 M f 22 M r 33 M r 22 . the ratio is calculated as Calculation of Capacity Ratios 109 .4 . If this is not true.e.0 if the unbraced length. L2 Ma Mb 0.0 for beams with transverse load and when M b is zero.C f /C e 2 . 13. For Class 1 I-shapes. (CISC 13. The program defaults to 1.

both of these overwritten capacities are used in this case.9) assuming M r 33 M r 22 are calculated based on fully supported member ( l 22 0 and l 33 0). and 110 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . M r 22 and M r 33 overwrites are assumed not to apply to this case and are ignored.9) M r 33 + M r 22 (for Class 3). For circular sections an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above interaction formulas. the only overwritten capacity used in this case is Tr . shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: Vf2 Vr 2 Vf3 Vr 3 . In the second case the ratio is calculated as M f 33 M r 33 M f 33 + M f 22 T f Z 33 M r 33 A T f S 33 M r 33 A M r 22 M f 22 (for Class 1 and 2). for each of the load combinations. Shear Stresses From the factored shear force values and the factored shear strength values at each station. If the capacities (Tr . or (CISC 13. (CISC 13. (CISC 13. M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user.9) If the capacities ( M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Tf Tr M M + f 33 M r 33 + f 22 M r 22 .

But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VII-1. For simplicity.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. A capacity ratio greater than 1. Similarly. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. 111 . But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.C h a p t e r VII Check/Design for BS 5950 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the BS 5950 design code (BSI 1990). The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination.

N Major and minor compression resistance. mm 4 Major moment of inertia. mm3 Table VII-1 BS 5950 Notations 112 . N Major and minor shear loads. MPa Major and minor elastic section moduli. N-mm Applied moment about minor axis. N-mm Major maximum bending moment. mm2 Gross cross-sectional area.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . mm4 4 Torsional constant for the section. N Shear modulus. Av 3 B D E Fc Ft Fv 2 . N-mm Moment capacity. mm Depth of section. Pc 22 Pt Pv 2 . mm Specified yield strength. Fv 3 G H I 33 I 22 J K K 33 . N-mm Major moment capacity. K 22 M M 33 M 22 M a 33 M a 22 Mb Mc M c 33 M c 22 ME Pc Pc 33 . mm Effective length factor Major and minor effective length factors Applied moment. N Tension capacity. N-mm Minor moment capacity. Pv 3 S 33 . N-mm Buckling resistance moment. MPa 6 Warping constant. S 22 T Ys Z 33 . mm2 2 Major and minor shear areas. mm Minor moment of inertia. MPa Axial compression. Z 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. N-mm Minor maximum bending moment. N Axial tension. mm Modulus of elasticity. mm or outside diameter of pipes. N Major and minor shear capacities. N-mm Applied moment about major axis. N Major and minor plastic section moduli. mm Breadth. N-mm Compression resistance. mm3 Thickness of flange or leg. N-mm Elastic critical moment.

mm Flange thickness. MPa Major and minor radii of gyration. MPa Yield strength. MPa Critical shear strength of web panel. mm Thickness. l22 le 33 . mm ( K 33 l33 . mm Unbraced length of member. mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. mm Thickness of web. K 22 l22 ) Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness correction factor Elastic critical shear strength of web panel. r22 rz t tf tw u v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Robertson constant Outstand width.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 a b d h k l l33 . mm Major and minor effective lengths.) 113 . MPa Euler strength. mm Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . mm Depth of web. mm Story height. mm Buckling parameter Slenderness factor Ratio of smaller to larger end moments 1 Constant 275 y 2 o LT Lo LT c E y Slenderness parameter Limiting slenderness Equivalent slenderness Limiting equivalent slenderness Perry factor Perry coefficient Compressive strength. MPa Monosymmetry index Table VII-1 BS 5950 Notations (cont. le 22 m n qe q cr r33 . mm Minimum radius of gyration for angles.

The notional forces should be assumed to act in any one direction at a time and should be taken as acting simultaneously with the factored dead plus vertical imposed live loads. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2 DL + 1. The notional load should be equal to the maximum of 0.4 WL 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4.0 DL 1. They should not be combined with any other horizontal load cases (BS 5.1.01 times the factored dead load and 0.2 EL These are also the default design load combinations whenever BS 5950 Code is used. SAP2000 design assumes that a P.4 DL 1.4 DL 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. wind load (WL).4 EL 1.analysis be 114 Design Loading Combinations .2.2 LL (BS 2.0 DL 1. the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level.2 LL 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. According to the BS 5950 code. then the following load combinations may have to be considered (BS 2.2. or if pattern live loads are to be considered. It is suggested that the P.1) 1.3). It is recommended that the user should define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000 and define the appropriate design combinations.1.1.005 times the factored dead plus live loads (BS 2.2 DL + 1.4 EL 1.4 DL + 1.4 WL 1. live load (LL).2 WL 1. and earthquake load (EL). When using the BS 5950 code. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.6 LL 1.4 DL 1.4): 1. other types of loads are present.1) (BS 2. so that moment magnification factors for the moments causing side-sway can be taken as unity.3).analysis has already been performed.4. In addition to the above load combinations.4.

or Slender. compression is taken as positive and tension is taken as negative. or Class 3 (Semi-compact) as applicable. Class 2 (Compact). c • R is the ratio of mean longitudinal stress in the web to y in a section. compression is taken as negative and tension is taken as posi- is defined as follows: 1/ 2 275 y The section is classified as either Class 1 (Plastic). R is calculated as follows: R • P Ag y is given as d . for I and Channel section .2 live load. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Plastic. SAP2000 checks the sections according to Table VII-2 (BS 3. • . where is the distance from the plastic neutral axis to the edge of the web connected to the compression flange.5. Classification of Sections 115 . This implies that for a section in pure bending R is zero. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Slender sections.2). Compact.2 dead load plus 1. c c c d2 D 2 D 2 c T T P 2 4 y t t . If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 (Semi-compact) sections. See also White and Hajjar (1991). In calculating R.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 done at the factored load level corresponding to 1. the section is classified as Class 4 (Slender). and along with the slenderness ratios are the major factors in classification of section. for Box and Double Channel section c P y In calculating tive. Semi-compact. the section is treated as having compression throughout. The parameters R. For .

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Ratio Checked b T (Rolled) b T (welded) Class 1 (Plastic) Class 2 (Compact) Class 3 (Semi-compact) For R 0: R and and 41 R 41 R . and and (welded) (rolled) d t webs ( I-SHAPE ) 1+ R For R 0 : For R 0: 1+ R . d t webs ( ) (rolled) d t webs ( ) (welded) b T (Rolled) BOX b T (welded) d t As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes CHANNEL b T d t b T d t d t T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLE (separated) (b + d ) t Table VII-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on BS 5950 116 Classification of Sections .

M 22 .max 1 (BS 5. where s. and the minor direction shear load. the major direction shear load. Fv 2 . and Fv 3 corresponding to factored values of the tensile or compressive axial load. Factored moments not causing translation. M 33 .) Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on BS 5950 Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Ft or Fc . M = Mg + = = = 1 200 M s . 117 .3) s.6. the minor moment. and Factored moments causing sidesway. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations.max Mg Ms Maximum story-drift divided by the story-height. respectively. The moment magnification for non-sidesway moments is included in the overall buckling interaction equations. the major moment.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 Description of Section Ratio Checked b t Class 1 (Plastic) Class 2 (Compact) Class 3 (Semi-compact) ANGLE (b + d ) t PIPE SOLID CIRCLE SOLID RECTANGLE GENERAL D t Assumed Compact Assumed Compact Assumed Semi-compact Table VII-2 (cont.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Figure VII-1 BS 5950 Definition of Geometric Properties 118 Calculation of Factored Forces .

these values will override all above the mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections.4) is the compressive strength given by E 2 y 1 2 . It is suggested that the P. such as the consideration of local buckling.analysis is carried out. max for both major and minor direction bending is taken as 0. and shear are computed for Class 1.2 LL. SAP2000 design assumes a P. the user should ensure that the thickness and the ultimate strength limitations given in the code are satisfied (BS 3. where (BS C. therefore. as specified by the user.1). Compression Resistance The compression resistance for plastic.7. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used. or web buckling. or semi-compact sections is evaluated as follows: Pc = Ag where c c c . flexuraltorsional and torsional buckling.1. s . In inputting values of the yield strength. (BS C.analysis has been done and. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. tension. compact. and 3 sections according to the following subsections. y . Y s . By default.0 times the minimum yield strength of steel.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 The moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity if a P. (BS 4. SAP2000 takes the design strength. Calculation of Section Capacities The nominal strengths in compression.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.1) E y y E .1) Calculation of Section Capacities 119 . See also White and Hajjar (1991). bending. reduced section capacities may be applicable.1) For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring special treatment. y Ys (BS 3. 2. to be 1.2 DL plus 1.1.

5 3.0 5. BS Table 25) (BS C. a ) 0. T-SHAPE.5 5.0 2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section I-SHAPE (rolled) H-SHAPE (rolled) I-SHAPE (welded) BOX or Pipe (Rolled) BOX (welded) CHANNEL.0 3. 0 a Perry factor. 2 (BS C. 2 E 2 . 33 22 120 Calculation of Section Capacities . E y .7.5 5.1).5 5.5 Minor 3.5 5.5 3.5 8.5 2.2) (BS C2. The larger of the two values is used in the above equations to calculate Pc .3.5 8. or in the minor.5 Table VII-3 Robertson Constant in BS 5950 = = = 0 E Euler strength.5 5.5 3.5 5.0 3.0 3.5 5. ANGLE RECTANGULAR or CIRCLE GENERAL Axis of Bending Thickness (mm) Major any 40 40 40 40 any 40 40 any 40 40 any 2. l e 22 r22 direction (BS 4. and = the slenderness ratio in either the major.5 3.2) = Limiting slenderness.5 5.5 5. Robertson constant from Table VII-3. l e 33 r33 .5 5.

and the shear capacity. . Moment Capacity The moment capacities in the major and minor directions. y S (S Sv y Z. Pv .2. and Double-Channel sections bending about the 3-3 axis the moment capacities considering the effects of shear force are computed as Mc = Mc = where S Z = = Plastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis. the slenderness.3.2.2). The moment capacities are calculated as follows: Plastic and Compact Sections For plastic and compact sections. Tension Capacity The tension capacity of a member is given by Pt = Ag y .7. ) y Fv Z. (BS 4.5) (BS 4. a message is displayed accordingly. Channel. a message to that effect is printed (BS 4. Pv . The user may have to separately investigate the members which are connected eccentrically to the axis of the member. Elastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis. Box.6) y 1 Calculation of Section Capacities 121 .7. for example angle sections. Fv Pv .3. the co-existent shear and the possibility of local buckling of the cross-section.6. If is greater than 250.1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. For I. For members in compression. if is greater than 180. the moment capacities about the major and the minor axes of bending depend on the shear force. should not be greater than 250 (BS 4. M c 33 and M c 22 are based on the design strength and the section modulus. Local buckling is avoided by applying a limitation to the width/thickness ratios of elements of the cross-section.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 For single angles r z is used instead of r33 and r22 . For main members in tension. Fv .2). (BS 4.

For all other cases. Furthermore members are assumed to be symmetrical about at least one axis.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Sv = Plastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of shear area i.e. In rare cases.5) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Moment Capacity The lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. Channel. the reduction of moment capacities for the presence of shear force is not considered. = The combined effect of shear and axial forces is not being considered because practical situations do not warrant this. Pv = 1 The shear capacity described later in this chapter. where (BS B2. T. The moment capacity for these cases is computed in SAP2000 as Mc = y S y Z. and Double-Channel sections M b is obtained from Mb = B B y 2 S 33 M E y S 33 M E )1 / 2 . of a member is calculated from the following equations. The user should investigate the reduced moment capacity separately. the user may have to investigate this independently. however. M b . for rolled I-shapes S v 2 is taken to be tD 2 4 and for welded I-shapes it is taken as td 2 4 . The program assumes the members to be uniform (of constant properties) throughout their lengths. Box. (BS 4.2. For I.5) Semi-compact Sections Reduction of moment capacity due to coexistent shear does not apply for semicompact sections. plastic modulus of shear area.1) 122 Calculation of Section Capacities . For example.2. Fv Pv . and if necessary. overwrite values of the section moduli. Mc y Z (BS 4.

for rolled and welded sections is taken as follows: L0 . This. the value of n is conservatively taken as given by the following formula. and (BS B2.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 S 33 ME y B LT . is defined as (BS B2.0 .3) = The Perry coefficient. b is taken as 0.007 (BS 2. where 123 . and (BS B2. For flanged members in general. LT (BS B2.(BS B2. respectively.2) In the above definition of LT .3). n 1 Cb Calculation of Section Capacities 1. and for cantilevers without intermediate lateral restraints. and T sections LT LT nuv . The Perry coefficient. with b ( LT L0 ) LT 2 b ( LT L0 ). • n is the slenderness correction factor.3) for welded sections LT 2 b L0 . where (BS B2. L 0 and LT are the limiting equivalent slenderness and the equivalent slenderness. Double-Channel. can be overwritten by the user for any member by specifying it (BS Table 13). Channel. not loaded between adjacent lateral restraints. S 33 LT 2 ME= LT The elastic critical moment. n is taken as 1.4) For I.0. however.5) is defined as . and b is a constant.5) and for Box sections LT 2. L 0 is defined as follows: 2 L0 y E . For flanged members symmetrical about at least one axis and uniform throughout their length. For members with equal flanges loaded between adjacent lateral restraints. For rolled sections LT b LT .25 n 1 2 b • is the slenderness and is equivalent to l e 22 r22 . LT E 2 .

7.5d) N 0. l. For I.8 . For I. and M C are absolute values of maximum moment. for T section. max • u is the buckling parameter.3. Double .Channel sections. for T sections with flange in tension. and Double-Channel sections. of the member is redefined by the user (i. 1. for T sections with flange in compression.0 .5b) • v is the slenderness factor. and 0.0 (BS 4. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. for T sections with flange in tension. and T sections.0 . The program also defaults C b to 1.5b) u A2 H 1 I 22 .e. v 4 N ( N 1) + 1 20 x 2 2 . it is given by the following formula. where (BS B2. for I. in the member. Double-Channel. I 33 .5d) (BS B2. Double . 0. C b should be taken as 1. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. and -1. (BS B2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M . Channel. For any other section. u 2 4S 33 1 4 A2 (D T )2 2 I 22 S 33 1 4 .Channel sections. it is not equal to the length of the member).5b) (BS B2.0 if the unbraced length. 0. for T sections with flange in compression. and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC max Cb = M max M . M B .0 for cantilevers. where (BS B2. Channel.9 for rolled I-shapes and channels. Channel.5). and Double-Channel. for I. However. It is conservatively taken as 0. 1/4 point.5 .0 . M A .5d) 124 Calculation of Section Capacities . Channel.0 . center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively. (BS B2. u is taken as 1. for I. Channel.

first.3) y The shear areas Av 3 and Av 2 are given in Table VII-4.4.2. Then.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. b 2 S 33 b 1 2 A2 J 1 I 22 I 33 1 .1). Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. (BS B2. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. It is given by the following formula.6. along with the associated station and load combination. Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. Also.5). where J .6 I 33 (BS B2.6. the joints are not designed. The user should investigate moment capacity considering lateral-torsional buckling separately. Moreover. lateral torsional buckling is not considered. for each station along the length of the member. the shear buckling of the thin members should be checked independently by the user in accordance with the code (BS 4. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. boxes or channels are evaluated as follows: Pv 2 = Pv 3 = y Av 2 .2. A capacity ratio greater than 1. (BS 4. the shear capacity computed above is valid only if d t 63 . and Av 3 . 2. Shear Capacities The shear capacities for both the major and minor direction shears in I-shapes.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 • is the buckling index for box section factor.1) For all other sections. the actual member force/moment components are calculated.3) (BS 4. for each load combination. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 125 .6. strictly speaking. During the design.1) (BS B2. For d t 63 .

9 A 0.9 A 0.6 A 0.0 tD 2.9 2bT 2 bt bt 0.9 2bT 0.9 2bT 2.9 A 0.9 2bT B D B A I-SHAPE CHANNEL DOUBLE CHANNEL BOX T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLE ANGLE RECTANGULAR CIRCLE PIPE GENERAL td t d T 2 td td 0.9 A Table VII-4 Shear Area in BS 5950 126 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .9 A 0.6 A 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Axis of Bending Condition Major Rolled Welded Rolled Welded Rolled Welded Rolled Welded tD td tD td 2.9 2bT 2.0 td D D B A Minor 0.9 4 bT 0.9 2bT 0.9 4 bT 0.0 * 0.0 * 0.9 A 0.

local capacity ratios are calculated as follows: Under Axial Tension A simplified approach allowed by the code is used to check the local capacity for plastic and compact sections. The program defaults m to 1. the same simplified approach is used for axial compression. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 127 .3. which are carried out at section level.2) Overall Buckling Check In addition to local capacity checks. for members of uniform section and with flanges. a compression member with bending moments is also checked for overall buckling in accordance with the following interaction ratio: Fc Ag c m M m33 M 33 + 22 22 Mb y Z 22 (BS 4.3.2) Under Axial Compression Similarly.8. (BS Table 18) For other members. l. is defined as m= + 2 .0 if the unbraced length. of the member is overwritten by the user (i. is the ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment on a span equal to the unrestrained length. the value of m is taken as 1. being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.0. not loaded between adjacent lateral restraints.1) The equivalent uniform moment factor.3.8. m. The user can overwrite the value of m for any member by specifying it. Fc Ag + y M 22 M 33 + M c 22 M c 33 (BS 4.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 Local Capacity Check For members under axial load and moments.8. if it is not equal to the length of the member). Ft Ag + y M 22 M 33 + M c 22 M c 33 (BS 4.e.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Shear Capacity Check From the factored shear force values and the shear capacity values at each station. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced for each of the load combinations as follows: Fv 2 . Pv 3 128 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . and Pv 2 Fv 3 .

But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VIII-1. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member.C h a p t e r VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Eurocode 3 design code (CEN 1992). Similarly. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. A capacity ratio greater than 1. a shear capacity ratio is calculated separately. 129 . first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The program investigates the limiting states of strength and stability but does not address the serviceability limit states. For simplicity.

Rd N t. N Design tension resistance. Sd N c. mm4 Effective length factor Length. Rd = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Gross cross-sectional area. Sd M 33. mm4 Warping constant. N-mm Design value of moment about the major axis. Rd M 22. K 22 M b. N Design shear resistance in the major direction. N Design buckling resistance of a compression member about the minor axis. span. N Design compression resistance. mm2 2 Areas for shear in the 2. Sd M 22. N-mm Design moment resistance about the minor axis. N Design value of tensile force. Sd N t. N-mm Design buckling resistance of a compression member. MPa Torsion constant. N Design value of shear force in the minor direction. Rd V2. N Design buckling resistance of a compression member about the major axis. Sd M 33.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Av 2 . mm6 Major moment of inertia. Sd M s. mm4 Minor moment of inertia. mm Major and minor effective length factors Design buckling resistance moment. N-mm Design moment resistance after considering shear. Sd M V. mm Bending coefficient Modulus of elasticity. Av 3 C1 E G It Iw I 33 I 22 K L K 33 . N Design plastic shear resistance. N-mm Design value of moment about the minor axis. Sd V3. Rd N c. MPa Shear modulus. N-mm Design moments causing sidesway. Rd N b 33. N Table VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Notations 130 . Rd N b 22. Rd M cr M g.and 3-directions. N Design value of compressive force. Rd N pl. Sd V2. N-mm Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. N Design value of shear force in the major direction. N-mm Design moment resistance about the major axis. N-mm Design moments not causing sidesway . Rd N b.

mm3 Width. 22 Wpl. mm Flange thickness. mm Distance. Rd Wel. i 22 iz k 33 . Wpl. LT 22 s Reduction factor Post-critical shear strength. 33 .) 131 . MPa Reduction factors for buckling about the 3-3 and 2-2 axes Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling Ratio of smaller to larger end moment of unbraced segment Amplification factor for sway moments Table VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Notations (cont. N Major and minor elastic section moduli. mm Minimum radius of gyration for angles. mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. k 22 k LT t tf tw M0 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 V3. mm Factors applied to the major and minor design moments in the interaction equations Factor applied to the major design moments in the interaction equation checking for failure due to lateral-torsional buckling Thickness. mm Nominal yield strength of steel. 33 . 22 b c d fy h l33 . mm Major and minor radii of gyration. mm3 Major and minor plastic section moduli. Wel. mm Ratio used in classification of sections Material partial safety factors 1 235 fy 2 ( f y in MPa) ba 33. mm Depth of web. MPa Overall depth. M1 Design shear resistance in the minor direction. mm Web thickness. l22 i 33 .

00 EL 1.35 DL + 1. This equivalent load is similar to the notional load of the British code.2. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are subject to reversals.50 WL 1. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. other types of loads are present.3. and 4 and section 4 of United Kingdom National Application Document (NAD).3.35 LL 1.3.3): 1. However.35 WL 1. in addition to the dead load and live load.00 DL 1. 132 Design Loading Combinations .3) (EC3 2. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads with appropriate partial factors of safety. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Design Loading Combinations The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked.4. these are the default load combinations which can be used or overwritten by the user to produce other critical design conditions. the following load combinations may have to be considered (EC3 2. wind.35 DL + 1. Additional load combinations are also needed for these load cases.35 DL 1.2) by combining forces due to dead. equivalent lateral load cases for geometric imperfection should be considered by the user. namely 1. the design will need only one loading combination.2. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) or earthquake induced forces (EL). and earthquake loads for ultimate limit states.5 LL.3. In addition to the loads described earlier.3 LL 1. See also section 9. and depends on the number of stories and number of columns in any floor (EC3 5.5*0.50 LL 1.00 DL + 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only. live.0 EL (EC3 2. 3.50 WL 1.35 DL + 1.00 DL 1.3) (EC3 2.4 of Eurocode 1 (CEN 1994) and Table 1.35 DL 1.3) In fact. These default loading combinations are produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC3 2.3.3). The default load combinations will usually suffice for most building design.

Table VIII-2 is used when the section is under the influence of axial compression force only or combined axial compression force and bending. The section dimensions used in the tables are given in Figure VIII-1.analysis should be done at the factored load level corresponding to 1. and T sections. Box. Double-Channel. Channel. two other factors are defined as follows: . the section is classified as Class 4. Class 3 (Semi-compact). If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 sections. 235 fy (EC3 5. See also White and Hajjar (1991). Table VIII-3 is used when the section is in pure bending or under the influence of combined axial tensile force and bending. or under the influence of combined axial force and bending (EC3 5. Class 2. or Class 3 as applicable.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. the classification of sections depends on the classification of flange and web elements. The classification also depends on whether the compression elements are in pure compression.35 dead load plus 1. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Class 4 sections.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 When using Eurocode 3. SAP2000 conservatively classifies the compression elements according to Table VIII-2 and Table VIII-3. A cross-section is classified by reporting the highest (least favorable) class of its compression elements. pure bending. According to Eurocode 3. the section is classified as Class 1. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. Classification of Sections The design strength of a cross-section subject to compression due to moment and/or axial load depends on its classification as Class 1 (Plastic).3.2). or Class 4 (Slender). If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the tables. This parameter is used to reflect the influence of yield stress on the section classification.2) In classifying I. Class 2 (Compact). One of the major factors in determining the limiting width-thickness ratio is .35 live load. It is suggested that the P.3. Classification of Sections 133 .

b) Not applicable Not applicable PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE d t None None 50ε2 70ε2 Assumed Class 1 Assumed Class 2 134 Table VIII-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on Eurocode 3 (Compression and Bending) Classification of Sections .5.5ε 90ε2 (b Not applicable Not applicable ANGLE (b ht h) 2 max(t . Class 3 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Element Ratio Checked If web I-SHAPE d tw Class 1 0. 13 1 0.5. . 13 1 0.5 . 42 .5 c t f (rolled) flange c t f (welded) web BOX flange d tw (b 3t f ) t f (rolled) b t f (welded) web CHANNEL flange web T-SHAPE flange b 2t f (welded) DOUBLE ANGLES ht h) 2 max(t . .33 else if 1. If Class 2 0. 0.67 0. 62 1 If else if 36 else if 41.5. 396 .5ε 15ε 11. b) b tf d tw b 2t f (rolled) d tw 10 9 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 10 33 10 9 11 10 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 11 38 11 10 15 14 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 15 42 15 14 15ε 11. 456 .

b d t None None None d tw (Minor axis) b tf d tw b 2t f (rolled) d tw (b 3t f ) t f (rolled) (b ANGLE (b PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL Table VIII-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on Eurocode 3 (Bending Only) Classification of Sections 135 .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Section Element web Ratio Checked d tw c t f (rolled) Class 1 72 10 9 72 33 33 72 33 10 33 10 9 Not applicable Not applicable 50ε 2 Class 2 83 11 10 83 38 38 83 38 11 38 11 10 Not applicable Not applicable 70ε2 Assumed Class 1 Assumed Class 2 Assumed Class 3 Class 3 124 15 14 124 42 42 124 42 15 42 15 14 15.5ε 90ε2 I-SHAPE flange c t f (welded) web BOX flange b t f (welded) d tw (Major axis) web CHANNEL flange web T-SHAPE flange b 2t f (welded) DOUBLE ANGLES ht h) 2 max t .5 ε 15.0ε 11.0 ε 11. b ht h) 2 max t .

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Figure VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Definition of Geometric Properties 136 Classification of Sections .

0 for full compression.0 for full tension.2): • Directly by carrying out the global frame analysis using P.0 1. Calculation of Factored Forces 137 . M 33. 1. These design loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations of each frame element. N c . There are two alternative ways to do this “amplified sway moment method” or “sway mode in-plane buckling method”. Sd or N c. Sd . the minor moment. and In the above expression. Sd is taken as positive for tension and negative for compression.Channel sections.0 for full compression. Member design can be carried out using in-plane buckling lengths for nonsway mode. Sd . Channel.analysis. the major moment. This correction is different for the so called “sway” and “nonsway” components of the moments. V 2.2. Sd . equals 0. Calculation of Factored Forces The internal design loads which are calculated for each load combination are N t .0 . Sd .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 1 1 N c . M 22.6. Sd and V 3.0 for pure bending and 1. 2 2 2ht w f f 1 2 0 -3. and T sections.5 for pure bending and 1. the major direction shear and the minor direction shear respectively. equals -3. -1. for I. Sd Af y .0 . Sd corresponding to design values of the tensile or compressive axial load. Sd . for Box and Double . The design moments and forces need to be corrected for second order effects. • Indirectly by modifying the results of a linear elastic analysis using an approximate method which makes allowance for the second order effects. The code requires that the additional sway moments introduced by the horizontal deflection of the top of a story relative to the bottom must be taken into account in the elastic analysis of the frame in one of the following ways (EC3 5. 0.0 for full tension. 2 2 ht w f f 1 1 N c . N c .

and Design moments causing sidesway. e. flexuraltorsional and torsional buckling. s in the following equation is taken as 1. Therefore any magnification of sidesway moments due to second order effects is already accounted for. (EC3 5.Sd .analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. 2.2. Sd M s. Sd = = s M s. However. and 3 sections according to the following subsections. where (EC3 5. reduced section capacities may be applicable. Calculation of Section Resistances The nominal strengths in compression. the user can overwrite the values of s for both major and minor direction bending in which case M Sd in a particular direction is taken as: M Sd = M g.35 DL plus 1. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used.1. Sway moments are produced in a frame by the action of any load which results in sway displacements.2.1) (EC3 5. bending.1. they are also produced by vertical loads if either the load or the frame are unsymmetrical. 138 Calculation of Section Resistances . and shear are computed for Class 1. such as the consideration of local buckling. i.35 LL.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The advantage of the direct second order elastic analysis is that this method avoids uncertainty in approximating the buckling length and also avoids splitting up moments into their “sway” and “nonsway” components.6. SAP2000 design assumes that P.6.2) Design moments not causing translation.2). the sway moments are simply the internal moments in the frames due to the horizontal loads (EC3 5. The horizontal loads can be expected always to produce sway moments.Sd + M g . It is suggested that the P. Moment magnification for non-sidesway moments is included in the overall buckling interaction equations. The material partial safety factors used by the program are: M0 M1 .1) For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring special treatment. or web buckling.effects are included in the analysis. See also White and Hajjar (1991). tension.0. and . However. In the case of a symmetrical frame with symmetrical vertical loads.

Rd ) (EC3 5. N c.Rd = A min A Afy M1 .1. 2 or 3 cross-sections.Rd = A f y M0 .2) .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 If the user specifies nominal capabilities for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. Rd . Rd min ( N pl . these values are will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. Class 2.4. Rd ). N b.5.4. and Class 3 sections is given by N pl. This factor is calculated below based on the assumption that all members are of uniform crosssection. where (EC3 5. in which 2 (EC3 5. Calculation of Section Resistances 139 .1) = 1. The user is expected to investigate this independently.4) The plastic resistance of Class 1.3) It should be noted that the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section at the holes for fasteners is not computed and checked.4.5. Tension Capacity The design tension resistance for all classes of sections is evaluated in SAP2000 as follows: N t.4) The design buckling resistance of a compression member is taken as N b. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode.Rd = A f y M0 (EC3 5. (EC3 5. Rd ) and the design local buckling resistance of the gross cross-section ( N b. Compression Resistance The design compressive resistance of the cross-section is taken as the smaller of the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section ( N pl . 2 2 . for Class 1.

49 0.76 0.49 0.21 0.49 0.49 0.34 0.49 0.49 I-SHAPE (rolled) h b 1.2 I-SHAPE (welded) tf BOX welded CHANNEL T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL any any any 0. 2 I-SHAPE (rolled) h b 1.49 0.34 0.49 0.49 Section tf tf tf tf tf Limits 40 mm 40 mm 100 mm 100 mm 40 mm 40 mm Rolled α (minor axis) 0.49 0.76 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual α (major axis) 0.49 The Table VIII-4 factor for different sections and different axes of buckling 140 Calculation of Section Resistances .49 any any any any any 0.21 0.49 0.49 0.34 0.76 0.49 0.49 0.34 0.21 0.49 0.21 0.34 0.34 0.49 0.21 0.

SAP2000 does not currently considers this eccentricity. K is conservatively taken as 1 in SAP2000 design (EC3 L 5.4). override this default option if it is deemed necessary. See also EC3 5.5.3 of the code.2. l is the buckling length.5 A 1 .2(2). The user is expected to investigate this issue separately. L is the length of the column. For all types of sections.1. Angle. Values of this factor for different types of sections. and is determined using the properties of the gross cross-section. Shear Capacity The design shear resistance of a section is the minimum of the plastic shear capacity and the buckling shear capacity. 1 E fy . i is the radius of gyration about the neutral axis.4. axes of buckling.1 and 5.6) Calculation of Section Resistances 141 . K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . the plastic shear resistance is computed as V Rd = V pl.6. K give 3 and 2 . Channel. An accurate estimate of K can be obtained from the Annex E of the code.5. and thickness of materials are obtained from Tables 5.Rd = Av f y 3 M0 .5.5). The user can. The two values of i33 i22 the lesser of the two.4. (EC3 5. and T-sections in compression are subjected to an additional moment due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective cross-section (EC3 5. however. and is an imperfection factor and is obtained from Table VIII-4. min is l 1 .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 0.

6.3) kt is the buckling factor for shear.Rd = d t w where.4. ba ba M1 .6. w f yw ba w . w (EC3 5. Moment capacity is also influenced by the presence of shear force and axial force at the cross section.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual where Av is the effective shear area for the section and the appropriate axis of bending. If the shear force is greater than half of the shear capacity. Rd = W pl f y M0 . If the shear force is less than half of the shear capacity.6.3) Moment Resistance The moment resistance in the major and minor directions is based on the section classification.5. additional factors need to be considered.3) ba is the simple post-critical shear strength which is determined as follows: f yw 3 f yw w . Box. d tw kt . . The capacities are computed as V Rd = V ba. If V Sd V pl.6.3) ba 3 . (for d tw 69 ) (EC3 5. Rd M pl . and Channel sections if the width-thickness ratio is large (d t w 69 ). For webs with transverse stiffeners at the supports but no intermediate transverse stiffeners. 3 in which w w is the web slenderness ratio. for for for w .6. The buckling shear capacities are only computed for the I.3) (EC3 5.3) . and (EC3 5.2) 142 Calculation of Section Resistances . (EC3 5.6. and (EC3 5.Rd • For Class 1 and Class 2 Sections M c. kt . (EC3 5. the moment capacity is almost unaffected by the presence of shear force.

The lateral-torsional buckling resistance of I. the reduction of moment capacities for the presence of shear force is not considered. M b. it is assumed that the section is uniform.4. where LT . Rd = M el . W el. (EC3 5.5.5.2) w for Class 1 and Class 2 sections. Lateral-torsional Buckling For the determination of lateral-torsional buckling resistance. and loaded through its shear center.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 • For Class 3 Sections M c.33 LT w W pl. The user should investigate the reduced moment capacity separately. doubly symmetric. Box. . and Double Channel sections is evaluated as.4.Rd • For all other cases.33 f y M1 . for rolled sections. Rd = W pl 2 Av2 4t w fy M0 M c. V pl. where (EC3 5. w LT LT 2 LT 2 LT . Box. in which 2 LT LT LT LT .Rd = = = . Rd . where (EC3 5. and Channel sections bending about the 3-3 axis the moment capacities considering the effects of shear force are computed as M V . and LT Calculation of Section Resistances 143 . for Class 3 sections.33 .Rd M0 . for welded sections.2) • For I.7) 2 V Sd -1 . Rd = W el f y If V Sd > V pl. W pl.

0 for cantilevers. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. C 1 is taken as 1.5 w LT . I w = The warping constant. M a and M b are end moments of the unbraced segment and M a is less Ma being negative for double curvature bending and positive for than M b . 144 Calculation of Section Resistances . A negative value implies double curvature.e. It is taken as l 22 . If any moment within the segment is greater than M b . Mb varies between -1 and 1 ( 1 1). C1 = 2 .1) I t = The torsion constant.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual W pl. no special consideration for lateral torsional buckling is made in the design. Double-Angle and General sections is evaluated as. The program defaults C 1 to 1. The lateral-torsional buckling resistance of a Channel. L = Laterally unbraced length for buckling about the minor axis. and the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of Rectangle. where 0 . and Ma . T. If LT . it is not equal to the length of the member). Circle and Pipe sections is evaluated as. 33 f y M1 . C 1 should be taken as 1.33 f y M cr 2 0 . M b.0.Rd =W el . M b. l 22 of the member is overwritten by the user (i. 33 f y M1 . single curvature bending.0 if the unbraced length. However. Mb = The ratio of smaller to larger end moment of unbraced segment. Angle. The user can overwrite the value of C 1 for any member by specifying it. (EC3 F1.5 M cr = C 1 E I 22 I w L2 G I t + 2 I 22 L2 E I 22 .Rd =W pl .

Calculation of Capacity Ratios 145 .Sd M 33 . the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations.33 f yd Af yd f yd fy M0 (EC3 5. V pl .0 indicates exceeding a limit state. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . V Sd V Sd V pl .Sd .4.9) (EC3 5.8. Also. along with the associated station and load combination. + + M pl. Rd . Channel.4. the actual member force/moment components are calculated.Sd N c.Rd For Class 3 sections. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.1) . The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1. is less than half of the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance.22 f yd W el.Sd M 33 . first.22. Rd . Rd M pl.33.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Currently SAP2000 does not consider other special considerations for computing buckling resistance of Rectangle. Rd . T. for each load combination. Axial Compression.4. Rd N pl. Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. and V ba . the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . Double Angle and General sections. Pipe. Bending. for each station along the length of the member. (EC3 5. Rd and buckling resistance. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered.4. the joints are not designed.9) the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows: For Class 1 and Class 2 sections. i. V ba . where + + W el.Sd . Circle. and Low Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear. V Sd .8.e. During the design. Angle.1) (EC3 5. Then.Sd N c.

Rd and M V. (EC3 5. min. 33. V ba . Rd . 22. and minor axis bending.Rd N b. M 22.Rd M V. Rd M0 M1 k 33 =1 - 33 . major axis bending. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . 146 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .22 . 2. the shear is considered to be high. respectively.5.33 .Rd N pl.Rd are the design moment resistances about the major and the minor axes. Sd . where M c. the capacity ratio is given by N c. and 3 sections.33 .Sd Afy 22 (EC3 5.Sd .Sd M 33 . the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows (EC3 5.9) Under these conditions.min. Rd . Rd . considering the effect of high shear (see page 142). and Flexural Buckling For all members of Class 1. M 33. V Sd .Sd N + k M k 33 M 33 . Rd . V pl . Rd or buckling resistance. where + + M V. .4.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Bending. and 3 sections subject to axial compression. Bending. and High Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear.Rd M c. k 22 =1 - 22 . Compression. Axial Compression.9) (EC3 5.9): For Class 1. is more than half the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance.22 .4.Sd + 22 22 .8. N Sd . N c. Rd . i. Sd .4) b.22 .Sd .33 .Rd (EC3 5.e. or V ba . the shear is high if V Sd V Sd V pl .4.Sd N c.4. 2.Sd Afy 33 N c. N b.Rd min N b.1) M V.

M 33. M. 2.33 = Equivalent uniform moment factor for flexural buckling about the 3-3 (major) axis between points braced in 2-2 direction.4) . A negative value implies double curvature.22 W el. 22 22 (2 M. and M Q = Absolute maximum moment due to lateral load only assuming simple support at the ends.22 .33 W el.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 W pl.Rd M b.22 M.22 .33 M. (Class 1 and Class 2).5. 33 33 (2 M.Sd + 22 22 .33 .22 The equivalent uniform moment factors.33 W pl.4) + . (Class 1 and Class 2). Bending. Rd (EC3 5.22 . and minor axis bending. varies between -1 and 1 ( 1 1).W el. ψ = Absolute value of the ratio of smaller to larger end moment. and M= Sum of absolute maximum and absolute minimum value of moments for moment diagram with change of sign.22.Sd + LT 33 . M = Absolute maximum value of moment for moment diagram without change of sign.Sd . M and M. 33 33 M.33 . Sd . N Sd . are determined from = + MQ M . major axis bending. where M c. and 3 sections subject to axial compression.33 22 22 M. . and Lateral-Torsional Buckling For all members of Class 1.W el.22 .4) . M 22. the capacity ratio is given by k M k M N c. (for Class 3 sections).4) Calculation of Capacity Ratios 147 . Rd N b. Sd . and = Equivalent uniform moment factor for flexural buckling about the 2-2 (minor) axis between points braced in 3-3 direction.4) + . Compression.22 . (for Class 3 sections).

V Sd . and Low Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear.4.9) (EC3 5.Rd For Class 3 sections.8.1) Bending. Rd .8. Rd . Rd or buckling resistance. or V ba .9) 148 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .4. the shear is considered to be high. is more than half the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance.4.Sd N t. It is determined for bending about the y-y axis and between two points braced in the y-y direction.33 f yd Af yd (EC3 5. Rd .Sd N t. i. V ba .22. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . Rd . i. and High Shear When the design values of the coexisting shear. and V ba . k LT = 1 = LT 22 N c. Rd N t.4. Axial Tension.Sd . Axial Tension. V ba . and LT M.Sd M 33 .e. V Sd . V Sd V Sd V pl . Rd M pl.9) the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows: For Class 1 and Class 2 sections. V pl .22 f yd W el. (EC3 5.1) (EC3 5. Rd . + + M pl. (EC3 5. Rd and buckling resistance.LT = Equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling.Sd M 33 .LT 1 .4.Sd . is less than half of the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. where .33.e. and Flexural Buckling”. Rd .4. the shear is high if V Sd V Sd V pl .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual k 22 and are as defined in the previous subsection “Bending. V pl .Sd Afy 22 M. Bending. + + W el. Compression.9) (EC3 5.

and W com.Sd N t.5.Sd . A M b. Rd (EC3 5.5. major axis bending.Sd V 2 .Sd M c. V 3 . the capacity ratio is taken as k M k M N t. 33 .4. In order to check whether the member fails under lateral-torsional buckling. and 3 sections subject to axial tension. where A (EC3 5. 33 . for each of the load combinations and the shear resistance values.4) where k LT . and 3 sections. Shear From the design values of shear force at each station.8.Sd + 22 22 .9): For Class 1. Sd vec N t .Rd and V 3 .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Under these conditions. 2.Sd + LT 33 . Sd .Rd N t. M 22.3) (according to the EC3 box value). the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .Sd . + + M V. the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows (EC3 5.Rd M b.22 . N t . Sd vec M 33.22 . 33. and minor axis bending. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: V 2 . M 33.Sd M 33 . and Lateral-Torsional Buckling The axial tensile force has a beneficial effect for lateral-torsional buckling. k 22 and are as defined in the previous subsections.33 .Rd Calculation of Capacity Ratios 149 .Rd N t.4. Sd W com. the effective internal moment about the 3-3 axis is calculated as follows: M eff .1) Bending.Rd vec k LT N t . For all members of Class 1. Sd . 2. 33 is the elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber.Rd M V. Axial Tension.Rd (EC3 5. Sd . Sd W com.

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Overview 151 . K -factors. and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. The tabular output includes most of the information which can be displayed. material properties. and member specific detailed design information.C h a p t e r IX Design Output Overview SAP2000 creates design output in three different major formats: graphical display. tabular output. The graphical display of steel design output includes input and output design information. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. design and allowable stresses or factored and nominal strengths. It shows the design section dimensions. The member-specific detailed design information shows details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. This is generated for added convenience to the designer. and other design parameters. The output design information includes axial and bending interaction ratios and shear stress ratios. Input design information includes design section labels. live load reduction factors. All graphical output can be printed.

For all other codes. Moreover. Then clicking the OK button will show the interaction ratios in the active window. The output design information which can be displayed is • Color coded P-M interaction ratios with or without values. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design Results. for the AISC-ASD89 code. • C b -factors. • Live Load Reduction Factors. 152 Graphical Display of Design Output . the design outputs are similar. Then the user should switch on the Design Output option button (default) and select P-M Ratios Colors & Values in the drop-down box. • • s b -factors. • Unbraced Length Ratios. includes • Design section labels. • allowable stresses in axial. and • Color coded shear stress ratios. The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information.. -factors. Some of the design information is specific to the chosen steel design codes which are available in the program and is only described where required. The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. the active screen display can be sent directly to the printer. • C m -factors. some of the typical graphical display. and shear. Input design information. bending. tabular output.. Graphical Display of Design Output The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual In the following sections. the color coded P-M interaction ratios with values can be displayed by selecting the Display Design Info. and member-specific detailed design information are described. • design type. For example. from the Design menu. The AISC-ASD89 design code is described in the latter part of this chapter. • K -factors for major and minor direction of buckling.

so further description of these tables is not given. Alternatively.. For the AISC-ASD89 code. – Load types. The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and white from the SAP2000 program. The SAP2000 standard view transformations are available for all steel design input and output displays. – K -factors for major and minor direction of buckling. – C b -factors.Chapter IX Design Output The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. To send the graphical output directly to the printer. and – Live Load Reduction Factors. • Steel Stress Check Element Information (code dependent) – Frame ID.. Tabular Display of Design Output 153 . from the View menu. Tabular Display of Design Output The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file. The printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted. A screen capture of the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided by the Windows operating system. – Design Section ID. For switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays. – C m -factors. click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory. the tabular output includes the following. the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View. and – Load factors. – Unbraced Length Ratios. there are several buttons on the main toolbar. The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. Input design information includes the following: • Load Combination Multipliers – Combination name.

– Section location. – Framing Type. reinforcement details. The default filename can be edited. It provides an access to the geometry and material data. – Tension or compression indication.. Then clicking the OK button will direct the tabular output to the requested stream the file or the printer. This will pop up a dialog box. from the File menu. – – b s -factors. and -factors. Then the user can specify the design quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. design and allowable stresses.. a file list can be obtained by clicking the File Name button to chose a file from. other input data. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a frame member. By default. he/she can check the Print to File box. and – Shear stress ratios. design section dimensions. – Axial and bending interaction ratio. – Controlling load combination ID for P-M interaction. The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables. and some of the intermediate results for a member. Alternatively. the output will be sent to the printer. This will provide a default filename. – Controlling load combination ID for major and minor shear forces. – Section ID. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file. Member Specific Information The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Steel Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent) – Frame ID. 154 Member Specific Information . The output design information includes the following: • Steel Stress Check Output (code dependent) – Frame ID.

• Moment factors.Chapter IX Design Output The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired frame member. for major and minor direction of buckling. Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as follows: • Design Factors (code dependent) – Effective length factors. – Live Load Reduction Factors. and -factors. – – s b -factors. • Material properties of steel. Section. – Axial and bending interaction ratio. and – Shear stress ratio along two axes. This will pop up a dialog box called Steel Stress Check Information which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. – C b -factors. and • Design and allowable stresses for shear. • Design and allowable stresses for axial force and biaxial moments. Station. – Unbraced Length Ratios. – C m -factors. • Frame. Member Specific Information 155 . Additional information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the dialog box. and Load Combination IDs. – Frame ID. – Section ID. • Element Section ID • Element Framing Type • Overwriting allowable stresses Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given below. K . – Load combination ID. • Section geometric information and graphical representation. – Station location.

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Part 1. 1994. 9th Edition. British Standards Institution. 1992. BSI. 1997 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications — U.References AASHTO. Belgium. Allowable Stress Design. 1992 Design of Steel Structures. 157 . European Committee for Standardization. American Institute of Steel Construction. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 2nd Edition. 1997. UK. AISC. CEN. Brussels. American Institute of Steel Construction. London. Chicago. 1990 Structural Use of Steelwork in Building. Part 1. 1990. 1997 Interim Edition. 1989. Chicago. BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990. Ill. ENV 1993-1-1 : 1992. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction. Code of Practice for Design in Simple and Continuous Construction: Hot Rolled Sections. 1994 Manual of Steel Construction. AISC. Units. Ill.S.1 : General Rules and Rules for Buildings. Load & Resistance Factor Design.

158 .. California. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. 1991. Inc. F. 1995 Handbook of Steel Construction. 28. Inc. Computers and Structures. Computers and Structures. Canada. 1998a SAP2000 Getting Started. Computers and Structures. CAN/CSA-S16. Vols. 1998b SAP2000 Quick Tutorial. Inc. 1998. W. International Conference of Building Officials. Hajjar.. 4.. California. Inc. I and II. Berkeley. CSI. Whittier. 1991 “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. CSI. ICBO. Vol. California. California.” Engineering Journal. 1997 Uniform Building Code. American Institute of Steel Construction. 6th Edition. White and J. 1998. Berkeley. Ontario. 1997. No. D. Berkeley.1-94. Willowdale.. CSI. 1997 SAP2000 Analysis Reference.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual CISC. 1995. 1997. 1997.

121 CISC. 115 CISC. 97 Eurocode. 91 ASD. 10 Euler buckling load AASHTO. 142 LRFD. 52 Capacity ratio. 119 CISC. 83 ASD. 111. 73 Check stations. 1 See Also "Supported design codes" Design load combinations. 154 tabular. 6 Design output. 119 CISC. 152 member specific. 7 Classification of sections AASHTO. 107 Eurocode. 40 BS. 100 Eurocode. 79 BS. 101 Eurocode. 54 Design codes. 30 BS.Index Bending strength AASHTO. 82 ASD. 93. 23 ASD (allowable). 48 Compact section See Classification of sections Compressive strength AASHTO. 133 LRFD. 79 ASD. 24 159 . 139 LRFD. 8 AASHTO. 2. 145 LRFD. 45. 97 Eurocode. 75. 61 Braced frames. 15. 84 ASD (allowable). 151 graphical. 18 BS. 23 BS. 153 Design stations. 137 LRFD. 129. 125 CISC. 7 Effective length factor. 8 AASHTO.

52 Flexural buckling AASHTO. 52 Notional load BS. 132 Output.97 Eurocode. 119 CISC. 82 BS. 8 AASHTO. 8 See Also P-Delta analysis Moment magnification AASHTO. 117 CISC. 8 See Also P-Delta analysis Lateral-torsional buckling AASHTO. 78 ASD. 151 tabular. 79 BS. 114 CISC. 48. 83 ASD. 114. 96 Eurocode. 96. 101 Eurocode. 8 Perry factor. 122 CISC. 96 . 48 Member specific output. 53 P-Delta effects. 96 Eurocode. 138 LRFD. 23 BS. 2 AASHTO. 97 Eurocode. 2 details. 48. 52 Factored forces and moments AASHTO. 152 Interaction equations See Capacity ratio Interactive environment. 151 P-Delta analysis. 139 LRFD. 119 CISC. 119 CISC. 88 ASD. 97 Eurocode. 132 LRFD. 155 graphical. 7. 100 Eurocode. 18. 82 BS. 18 BS. 8 AASHTO. 114.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual BS. 133. 100 Eurocode. 79. 23. 137 LRFD. 137 LRFD. 69 Live load reduction factor. 138 LRFD. 132 Loading combinations. 139 LRFD. 154 Member stability effect. 66. 79. 54 Graphical output. 119 Plastic section See Classification of sections 160 . 143 LRFD. 79 BS. 119 CISC. 114 CISC. 61. 52 Noncompact section See Classification of sections Nonsway. 30 BS. 117 CISC. 97 Eurocode. 1 Lateral drift effect.

153 Tensile strength AASHTO. 15 BS.Index Redesign. 54 Supported design codes. 90 ASD (allowable). 5. 5. 119 Second order effects See P-Delta effects Shear strength AASHTO. 79 BS. 79 BS. 78 ASD. 105 Eurocode. 5. 101 Eurocode. 141 LRFD. 155 Robertson constant. 5. 39 BS. 84 ASD (allowable). 119 CISC. 97 Eurocode. 111 CISC. 93 Eurocode. 13 AASHTO. 45 Sway. 129 LRFD. 9 161 . 72 Slender section See Classification of sections Strength reduction factors AASHTO. 2. 137 LRFD. 52 Tabular output. 82 BS (partial factors). 48 Unsupported length. 5. 129 LRFD. 8 AASHTO. 75 ASD. 18 BS. 97 Eurocode. 121 CISC. 5. 111 CISC. 23 BS. 119 CISC. 119 CISC. 137 LRFD. 139 LRFD. 8 AASHTO. 52 Units. 125 CISC. 100 Euro (partial factors). 138 LRFD. 1 AASHTO. 60 Unbraced frames. 93 Eurocode.

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