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Feed formulations for laying hens

Feed formulations for laying hens

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Feed formulations for laying hens
Feed formulations for laying hens

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Feed formulations for laying hens

Filev K., Kon-Popovska M., Sokarovski J. in Sauveur B. (ed.). L'aviculture en Méditerranée Montpellier : CIHEAM Options Méditerranéennes : Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 7 1990 pages 55-63

Article available on lin e / Article dispon ible en lign e à l’adresse : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------http://om.ciheam.org/article.php?IDPDF=CI901579 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------To cite th is article / Pou r citer cet article -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Filev K., Kon-Popovska M., Sokarovski J. Feed formu lation s for layin g h en s. In : Sauveur B. (ed.). L'aviculture en Méditerranée. Montpellier : CIHEAM, 1990. p. 55-63 (Options Méditerranéennes : Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 7) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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2T) W + 5 hW + 2 E for Rhode-Island hens Sér.Determination of daily energy requirements can be done by using different equations taken from several authors. growth. 7984. physical activity and individual variability. ofour own experience with the . This method provides for the best combination with all nutrients essential for maintenance. Metabolisable N retention is also used (see Europeantable of energy valuesforpoultry energycorrectedforzero feedstuffs.L'aviculture en Méditerranée Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . The most variable part of daily rations for layers is energy because its requirement depends live weight. Institute of Animal. 1990 . and egg production as well as operating at minimal cost. J.Options Mediterraneennes Feed formulations for laying hens K. The choice of feedstuffs is such fhaf if ensures good healthof the birds and high quality eggs.Determination of daily energy requirements Energy requirements in the literature and in practice are expressed in MJ metabolic energy. Under different conditions. dailyegg output. SÕKAROVSKI Faculty of Agriculture. Leclercq. Combs.Introduction PoultryproductioninYugoslavia is based onformulaeforlayinghensdeterminedbyaconventional method of linear programming. Emmans reported two equations: = (170 W + AW + 2 for Leghorn hens EM = (140 . laying intensify. growthandphysical activity. A l n"7. 1986). Among them the most popular are the reading model (Fisher 1973) and the Israeli model (Hurwitz 1973). Other authors have developed models for determining the requirements for different amino acids. u u Ourtask is tomake use of the results described in the literature and poultry industry to propose the bestfeed formulations for Yugoslavia. environmental 'temperature. FILEV. Several authors have constructed accurate models for the exact determination of poultry nutrient requirements and feed intake (Hurwitz 7977. Emmans. the requirementsof nutrients vary and often depend more on economic than biological factors. However. They have developed different equations for determining the daily energy requirements of poultry.CIHEAM . KON-POPOVSKA Faculty of Science. this method disregards those factors that influence nutrition requirements and food consumption: live weight. University of Skopje (Yugoslavia) M. 1984). The calculation of AMEN in the different feedstuffs is done using regression analysis by combining chemical composition data of the feedstuffs and calculation factors. temperature in the poultry house. All this information and data are then put into the computer. For thispurposeestimatesaremadebeforehand for chemicalcomposition. energyvalueand cost of feedstuff ingredients. University of Skopje (Yugoslavia) .

Assuming constant levels of daily output. Hurwitz and Bornstein (1978) reported a different equation: EM = 145 W + 2 AW + 1.0. physical activity and individual variability. the very two factors are absent : physical important factor of temperature is also absent besides activity and variability.78 . are higher than the empirical results of Bornstein (2. Throughout the laying cycle. kg h W = mean daily gain. Table 1. Combs uses for determining the correction factor and metabolic live weight (Wo1653) for determining the maintenance energy requirement.2 MJ/day/hen.2 to 1.CIHEAM . it appears that in the Emmans and Combs formulae. it was used in our investigations and incorporated in the program for automatic calculation of daily energy requirements for laying hens.9%) because of the use of a bigger coefficient for estimating the energy amount required for daily gain and egg production. In the Hurwitz equation. the influence of temperature on energy requirements can be determined as shown in.8 E In this equation some important factors are not included : environmental temperature. The equations include the most important factors which influence daily energy requirement except physical activity and individual variability. activity and individual variability.45WO1653 + 3. Analysing the structure of these different equations. The energy requirements also during the laying cycle as shown in Table 2. The Emmans equation uses temperature in the correction factors. daily energy requirements for maintenance and egg production vary because of variations in live weight and daily egg output.6 to1. and mean live eight for calculating the requirement for maintenance energy.012 T) X 1. it can also be seen that in the period from the peak of production (28th week) up to 60 weeks of age (230 days) energy options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . "C.13 h W + E Daily energy requirements calculated by this equation. live weight and daily gain. g/day T = environmental temperature. These variations explain the differences in the total energy requirement (from vary 1.Options Mediterraneennes where : EM = Kcal metabolisable energy required day W = mean live weight. g/day E = egg output. Environmentaltemperatureinfluencesonenergyrequirementformaintenancecanvaryfrom 0. From the data of total energy requirement. Combs (1968) reported a more complete equation for the determination of daily energy requirements for broiler breeder hens : EM = (1.96 M J/day/hen) . As the Combs equation seems to be more complete than the others. The requirements for gain/day are small especially after 30 weeks o f age and could be neglected.

energy requirements do not vary significantly. of requirement for feather growth (F). at different phases of production. daily egg output live weight gain (G). Similar results were obtained by Wethli and Morris. and so on. constant environmental 111. it is interesting to note that efficiency of protein use increases with energy intake and decreases with increasing age in the first laying year. 1985) have demonstrated that a linear model may describe the response of an individual bird but a typical response involving the average outputs of a group of layers must be curvilinear. Some other autors (Fisher el al.However. Fisher (1967) found that management and environmental factors are apparently without effect on protein use and that requirements is in proportion to output. nutritive . 1. derives the flock response asan integrated options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . Under these conditions. Hurwitz. This phenomenon is in agreement with the concept that. Protein . Economicfactorscanalsobetakenintoaccountbycomparingthemarginalvalueofeggoutputat different levels of protein intake with the marginal cost of protein at different levels of dietary inclusion.25). 1982 . 1972). requirements of laying hens for amino acids have been established using linear regression analysis of empirical data orbyderivingpartitionequationswhichassumelinearrelationships between inputs and outputs (Combs. and. feed. the first laying under year. egg weight.. Protein requirements for poultry. after Scott. can also be quantified. Thus there are two distinguishable models for prediction of daily amino acid intake for laying hens : Israeli and Reading. Therequirementsofdailyproteinforonelayingcycle. are shown in Table to Scottfromthepeakof In this table it canbeseenthatproteinrequirementsperhen/daydeclinewithageanddependonegg output. (1977) about tryptophan requirements they reported that pullets of 63-73 weeks of age needed more tryptophan for a given egg output. 1968 .Options Mediterraneennes 57 requirementslhen are about 1 3 . Amino acids In most published papers. 1967 . Fisher. requirements are not only in proportion to output.Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of layers Protein requirementsofpoultryareexpressedastotalprotein X 6. Mc Donald and Morris. This shows that. Most of them express protein requirement (P) as a sum of maintenance requirements (M). P = M + E + E + F While investigating the factors affecting protein requirements of layers. which means that the concept of phase feeding has to keep this aspect under consideration. 1973 . Thiscurveconsiderstheresponseofanindividualhenasa simple factorial model and then.calculatedaccording production. MJ. laying rate and food consumption which are caused by breed differences. Several authors have worked out methods for predicting protein requirement (Scott. Hurwitz.. Empiricaldeterminations of protein requirements of laying hens have shown highly variable results due to differences in live weight. 1969 . The response curve for a flock of hens (Reading model) mathematically described by Curnow (1 973) has a characteristicsigmoidshape (Graph 1). from the individual models. Morris and Blackburn. age.CIHEAM . 1978). under conditions of temperature.

Fisher. Because of very large temperature oscillations during the year in Yugoslavia. correlation between output and bodyweight (rEw) . In order to simplify the use of this response model. 1978). . average bodyweight kg (W) . The resulting flock response curve is defined by seven parameters : averagemaximumoutputg/day(Emax) .d Emax + b 2 . The use of this model allows one to determine the optimal level of amino acid intake that gives a maximum income. (Mglday) = a Ëmax + bW + X d a2. A opt.The environmentaltemperaturehasasignificantinfluenceonthemaintenancerequirementandtotaldaily energyrequirement. On the basis of this evidence. 1967).Dailyrequirementsofproteinand amino acids are constant during the laying cycle. variation in maximumoutput Emax) . This model (Reading) is designed for layers in maximum egg production but the level of amino acid intake cannot be loweredwitholderhensbecausetheuse ofaminoacidandtotalproteindeclineswithage especially after weeks (Wethli. These findings are important for feed formulation because laying hens daily require the same amount of amino acid and protein intake during the laying cycle.oEmax. and there is a minimum of non-producing hens.crW where : X = deviation from the mean of standard normal distribution whichis exceeded with probability tail . feed intake decreases during the summer and increases in winter. some estimates of g andhavebeenoutlinedfrom flocks at or near peak output because at this time minimum amounts of amino acids are being diverted for tissue and feather production. K = marginal cost of one amino acid input / marginal value of one in one egg output.Italsosignificantlyinfluencesdailyfeedintake. IV. egg weight and shell strength. d W + 2 abrEw.CIHEAM . several types of feed mixtures can be recommended for temperature conditions during the year (Table 5). different options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . It is interesting to note that the relationship between egg output and tryptophan intake is the same in moulted hens as in young pullets (Wethli.Level of energy and protein in the mixtures On the above mentioned bases it can be concluded that daily energy requirement is the most variable part of thelayingration. and / SE) and per unit two constants representing the amount of amino acid required per unit of output (a mg of bodyweight (b mg/kgW).Itdependsoneggoutput. 1978 .Options Mediterraneennes average of a large number of individual responses. but different amounts of energy in various temperature conditions.activityandenvironmentaltemperature. This is always followed by declining egg production.liveweight. Such anestimate is veryimportant in practicebecauseenablingtheresponsiveaminoacidintakego beyond optimum for the'best layers is not always economical. in relation to an additional amount of amino acid intake over the average of the flock's requirement. variation in bodyweight ((r W) . The optimum amino acid intake which yields maximum profit is calculated by the following equation.

C. G.G.. 28-45. Fisher C. C. options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens . Determination o f it contains alltheimportantparametersfor this purpose. pp.- Fisher.London : Butterworths.C.-Aminoacidrequirement Manufacturers. @Emmans. .N.. ill.i.. C. The phase feeding of the layers according to this recommendation could be changed to seasonal feeding. p.. Poultry nutrition. like Ca..theso-calledReadingmodel.. 5-9 September.-In : Protein metabolism and nutrition. Fd. 9-40.. Phase feeding cannot be recommended for the nutrition of layers because of the constant requirement for daily intake of protein and amino acids. France.).requirement Manufacturers. Themostprecise wayfordeterminingdailyconsumptionofaminoacidandprotein is thatfrom ReadingUniversity. 1976. it is possible to use seasonal feeding for the layers which ensures constant daily intake of protein and amino acids and appropriate consumption of energy.1968.Edinburgh : o Fisher.. 1983. the requirements of which depend on the age of laying hens. C.R. 86-96. In regions with extreme temperature changes during the year.Paris : I.. Fisher. the following conclusions are suggested: i. of the pullet andlayingbird.- froc.temperature.F.Protein deposition in poultry. .N..liveweight.In : Nutrient Requirement of Poultry and Nutritional Research (Eds.Growth. of broilersandlayinghens.In : Protein deposition in animals.. Maryland Nutrition Conf. C. 11..London : Butterworths.The physiological basis of the amino acid requirement of poultry.-Problems innutritionaltheory. IV..Factors affecting protein requirement Oliver and Boyd. G. chap.- Proc.F. 1980. Maryland Nutrition Conf..Combs.In : Protein utilisation by poultry. of layers. British Poultry Round Table. 0 Emmans. - of laying hens. 28th Edinburgh Schoolof Agriculture. Fd. pp.e.1984.G..CIHEAM . and Boorman K.-Proteininthediets London : Butterworths.C.. which a prerequisite for stable egg production throughout the year. 4tb European Symposium. 1960 Proteinandenergy. @Combs. daily intake of protein and amino acids will be constant and consumption of energy appropriate. . 1986. 251..Conclusions- In order to develop the best model for feed formulation for layers. V.. There should also be a daily input of minerals. Scotland. body composition and feed intake.A. 1967. 0 Fisher. It determines the optimum daily consumption of amino acids and cost of eggs.Options Mediterraneennes 59 With the above mentioned levels of energy and protein in themixturesandtheprobablefeedintakeat different temperature conditions. pp. *Fisher. Physical activity and individual variability are ignoredin the equation but there is no model taking into account these parameters. 14.dailygainanddailyegg output.

405-424. pp.. Bornstein. O Wethli.Effects of age on the trypophan requirement of laying hens. T. S.. . .The protein and amino acid requirement of laying hens : experimental evaluation of models of calculation. 1978.Quantitativereview pullets. . pp.. pp.. 1986. .. pp..Poultry Science.W. * Hurwitz. S. of laying fowl. Universityof Sydney.C. 1978..Poultry Science. * Fisher. 969-979. for young laying ~Pilbrow. 1977. 1984. pp.. Beekbergen.Amino acid requirement for laying poultry. S.Comparison of lysin requirements amongst eight stocks Poultry Science.Theshape of theresponsecurverelatingproteinintaketoegg output for flocks of laying hens. options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens .. pp. 51-73. Science. Nethli. ~Morris.Poultry Science. 1. Netherlands. 56.R. of optimumaminoacidintakes Donald..CIHEAM .52. pp. pp. T. 1982. Wageningen. pp. Poultry nutrition.Poultry Science. . 85-104.R. 1973.. Harzel. C. E. T.Calculating amino acid requirement.The tryptophan requirements of young laying pullets. . C. pp. 1124-1 134. Wethli.. 14.. 19... Poultry Sci... *Fisher. S. Symp.. 71 1718.. 469-484. 1985. Morris.2nd European Symposium.Proc.R. C.... . 0 Hurwitz..19.R. Netherlands.A model for the description and prediction of the response of laying hens to amino acid intake.J.A.European Table of Energy Values for Poultry Feedstuffs.R...M. 1973.-Br. . 559-565. T..81 1October 1979. S. T.. T. 1987. Bornstein. Jennings...- Poultry Science.The protein and amino acid requirement of laying hens : experimental evaluation of models of calculation. E. Poultry Husbandry. o Morris. 26.R. 1974.. II Valin Requirement and Layer-Starter Diets. Morris. .R. .. 15.Options Mediterraneennes * Fisher. . E.. Research Hurwith.Paris : INRA. 104-122.Poultry 455-466. S. Bornstein. Foundation. 57. Morris. S.The protein and amino acid requirement of laying hens : suggested models for calculation.P. chapitre 9. pp.. Blackburn. Wethli. 1980. 253-264. 1978.L'alimentation des animaux monogastriques. Morris.Poultry Science. Application of two models under various conditions.

Options Mediterraneennes 61 r toc Table 1: Influence of temperature conditions on energy requirements of laying hens(1) I 1 Energy requirement (MJ/hen/day) Maintenance Egg output Growth Total I F ) Ageof ens. live weight 2. daily eg output 52 g. daily gain 2 g . 40 weeks .CIHEAM .l kg . Table 2: Energy requirement during the laying cycle I I I i Energy requirement MJ/day Age in weeks Growth output output glday Egg I nance I I l I ' 1 1 ' ' Table 3: Requirement of protein intake for layers Age in weeks Live weight kg Weight gain Requirement Egg output of protein glday g/dayintake glday ' - options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens .

Energy MJIhenlday 1.0 1.97 3.0 12.5 18.Protein.98 4.99 25 "Donald & Morris 985 53 73 31 80 60 32 32 67 11 76 40 50 10 10 60 16 Table 5: Energy and protein recommendationsfor laying hen diets Environmental temperature C 1-10 11 . Dailv intake requirement .Options Mediterraneennes 62 Table 4 Estimates a (n?g/gE) and b (mg/kgW) in laying hens I I a Estimates b "Donald & Morris 1985 Arginine lysine Methionine Total sulphur amino acid Threonine Leucine lsoleucine Histidine Triptophan Valine 8.8 130-1 35 options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens .90 12.5 16.3 100-11o 2.0 1.M.77 8.30 6.2 0 -30 1 spring and autumn 2 1. Recommendation .5 15. 13.30 2.Daily intake of feed. g .62 8. Energy MJ/kg .0 1.90 Fisher 1973-1 976 50 85 9.5 115-120 12.6 125-1 30 12.CIHEAM .5 14.50 7.

rng/bird day options méditerranéennes Serie A: Seminaires mediterraneens ..Options Mediterraneennes Figure 1: The relationship between the calculated amino acid requirement for average the bird in the flock (indicated thus: 0 ) and the "requirement'" of the whole flock in economic terms.CIHEAM . X e A=aËmax+bW+Y Amino acid intake. The line representing the limit of economic response has a slope which reflects the optimum ratio between the cost of the input and the value of the output (Fisher et al.

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