Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew
A guide to learning the Hebrew
alphabet, vocabulary and sentence
structure of the Hebrew Bible
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


By Jeff A. Benner
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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Cover design by Jeff A. Benner.

“Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew,” by Jeff A. Benner.

Published 2007 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc.,
P.O. Box 9949, College Station, TX 77845, US. ©2003,
Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this book
may be copied for educational purposes only, without
prior permission.

Manufactured in the United States of America.

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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................... 7
PART 1 THE ALEPHBET .................................................................. 11
LESSON 1 – ALEPH, BEYT .................................................................. 15
LESSON 2 – MEM, YUD ................................................................... 17
LESSON 3 – NUN, HEY ..................................................................... 19
LESSON 4 – LAMED, VAV ................................................................. 21
LESSON 5 – RESH, SHIN ................................................................... 23
LESSON 6 – AYIN, TET ..................................................................... 25
LESSON 7 – TAV, DALET ................................................................... 27
LESSON 8 – TSADE, QUPH ................................................................ 31
LESSON 9 – CHET, KAPH .................................................................. 33
LESSON 10 – ZAYIN, PEY .................................................................. 35
LESSON 11 – GIMEL, SAMECH ........................................................... 37
LESSON TRANSLITERATIONS ............................................................... 39
PART 2 READING PRACTICE ........................................................... 45
THE HEBREW ................................................................................ 46
TRANSLITERATION .......................................................................... 49
PART 3 REFERENCE GUIDE ............................................................. 53
PART 4 TRANSLATING LESSONS .................................................... 59
LESSON 1 – GENESIS 1:1.................................................................. 61
LESSON 2 – GENESIS 1:2.................................................................. 66
LESSON 3 – GENESIS 1:3.................................................................. 72
LESSON 4 – GENESIS 1:4 & 5 ............................................................ 76
PART 5 HEBREW/ENGLISH DICTIONARY ........................................ 78
PART 6 PARENT / CHILD ROOTS .................................................... 98
PART 7 ADOPTED ROOTS ............................................................ 124
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To my Father who set me on the
path of Biblical studies

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I
I
n
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t
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r
r
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d
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u
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c
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Why Learn Hebrew?

A translation of the Biblical text is a translator's
"interpretation" of the text. The translator's beliefs will
often influence how the text will be translated and anyone
using his translation is seeing it through his eyes rather
than the original authors. Only by studying the original
language of the Bible can one see the text in its original
state.

Learning the Hebrew language can be both fun and
exciting. By simply studying the pages that follow, for just
a few minutes a day, you will soon be reading Hebrew,
build a Hebrew vocabulary and even begin translating
Biblical passages for your self.

About Hebrew

The English word "alphabet" is derived from the first two
letters of the Greek Alphabet--Alpha and Beta. Hebrew on
the other hand, uses the word "alephbet," the first two
letters of the Hebrew alephbet--aleph and bet. The Hebrew
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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alephbet consists of 22 consonants. The vowels (called
nikkudot, nikkud in the singular) are dots and dashes
added above and below the consonants. One advantage to
Hebrew is that the sound for each letter remains
consistent, unlike English where one has to memorize
many variations. For instance, the word circus contains the
letter "c" twice, the first time it is pronounced like an "S"
while the second time it is pronounced like a "K." In
Hebrew, the letter : is always pronounced as a "K."

Unlike English, which is read from left to right, Hebrew is
read from right to left just as many other Semitic
languages do including Aramaic and Arabic. This may
sound difficult at first but in a very short time you will get
used to it.

When sounding out a word, it will be easier if you
remember the Consonant (C) and Vowel (V) patterns of
Hebrew words. In English, the consonants and vowels
may be arranged in any order, such as in the word "circle"
which has a C+V+C+C+C+V pattern. Hebrew on the
other hand, is very consistent, and each word will usually
follows a C+V+C+V+C... pattern. The Hebrew word ¸::
(melek - king) contains the pattern C+V+C+V+C, :::
(meleko – his king) is C+V+C+V+C+V and ¸::_¬
(hamelek – the king) is C+V+C+V+C+V+C.

The pronunciations of some of the consonants and vowels
have changed over the centuries but this does not affect
the meaning of words as the letters of the words define it,
and not the sounds. We will learn to pronounce them
according to the Modern Hebrew pronunciation. Modern
Hebrew pronunciation is also divided into two parts,
Ashkenazi and Sephardic. Since Sephardic is the
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pronunciation adopted by the Modern State of Israel, we
will use this pronunciation.

About this Book

When I began to study the Hebrew language I used several
different resources but found that they were not compiled
in a format for beginning Hebrew students. I began to
arrange charts and lists with the necessary information as a
ready resource for learning and reading the Hebrew Bible.

This book is the result. Included in this book are lessons
for learning the alephbet, verbs, nouns, adjectives and
sentence structure.

If at any time you have questions about the Ancient
Hebrew Research Center, this book, its content or the
lessons, please feel free to E-mail your questions or
comments to us through our web site;

http://www.ancient-hebrew.org

Additional Resources

It should be kept in mind that this book is not meant to be
used for in-depth Biblical study, but as a reference guide
for Biblical reading practice, vocabulary building and
sentence comprehension. More specific dictionaries and
lexicons will be necessary for more in-depth study.

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Through the process of Hebraic studies, you will want to
dig deeper into the meaning of specific words and phrases.
At this point the purchase of a Hebrew Bible and a
Hebrew Lexicon will be helpful. There are several different
kinds of Hebrew Bibles. The standard Hebrew Bible will
be a Bible written only in Hebrew. The Interlinear Bible
will have the Hebrew on one line and the English
translation for each word under each Hebrew word. A
Parallel Bible will have the Hebrew text on one page and
the English translation on the other

There are several different Lexicons but be sure that the
one you purchase includes all the words of the Bible with
the prefixes and suffixes attached. This will allow you to
look up a word even if you do not know the root. I
recommend Benjamin Davidson's Hebrew and Chaldee
Lexicon of the Bible.
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P
P
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1

T
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A
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b
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Each of following eleven lessons introduces two new
consonants and may or many not introduce new vowels.
Each lesson will also include a practice section, new
vocabulary words and sentences. The practice session will
allow you to practice the new letters and vowels and
refresh yourself on old ones. The vocabulary section will
consist of a few words using the new letters and vowels to
begin building your Hebrew vocabulary. The Sentences
will allow you to begin using your new words in
sentences.

To assist you in learning the letters and words, I
recommend that you put the letters and words you are
learning on flashcards so that you can study them at any
time.

Transliterations of each of the lessons are provided at the
end of the lessons to assist with pronunciation. When
reading these transliterations, remember to use the correct
Hebrew sound for each vowel. For example the
transliterated Hebrew vowel sound "o" is the long "o"
sound as in the English word "rope."

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Alephbet and Vowels

The following is a chart of all the consonants in the
Hebrew Alephbet. This chart includes all the variations for
each letter. For example the letter beyt can be written as :
or :. Several of the letters have a final form as well and
are also included (such as : and :).

Lamed
:

Aleph
x
Mem
: :

Beyt
: :
Nun
¸ :

Gimel
.
Samech
:

Dalet
¬
Ayin
.

Hey
¬
Pey
_ c c

Vav

Tsade
, .

Zayin
:
Quph
;

Chet
¬
Resh
~

Tet
:
Shin
: :

Yud

Tav
:

Kaph
¸ ¡ : :

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The Vowels

Below are the names for each of the Hebrew vowels. The
letter aleph is used below to show the placement of each
vowel and is not part of the vowel.

Cholam maley


Qamats
_x
Qubbuts
x

Patach
x
Shuruq


Segol
x
Chataph qamats
_x

Tsere
x
Chataph patach
¸x

Sh'va
x
Chataph segol
¸x

Chireq
x



Cholam
x

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Letter Comparisons

Several of the Hebrew letters are very similar and at the
beginning they are easily confused with other letters that
look alike. Below is a chart showing letters of similarity in
order to make the reader familiar with the slight
differences.

Beyt
:
Dalet
¬
Kaph
:
Kaph
:
Resh
~
Pey
c






Beyt
:
Vav

Mem
:
Pey
c
Zayin
:
Tet
:






Gimel
.
Vav

F. Mem
:
Nun
:
F. Nun
¸
Samech
:






Hey
¬
Zayin
:
Samech
:
Chet
¬
F. Nun
¸
Tet
:






Hey
¬
Chet
¬
Ayin
.
Tav
:
Tav
:
Tsade
.

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Lesson 1 – aleph, beyt
Consonants
x
The "Aleph" is the first letter of the Hebrew
alephbet. This consonant is silent.

:
The "Beyt" is pronounced two ways, a "b" as in
"ball," and as "v" as in "visit." When a dagesh (a dot
in the middle of the letter) appears in the middle of
the letter (:) it will have the "b" sound. When the
letter appears without the dagesh (:) the letter is
pronounced "v."
Vowels
_ x
This vowel, "qamats," (the little "T" shaped mark
under the aleph) is pronounced "ah" as in "father."

x
This vowel, "patach," is also pronounced "ah" as in
"father."
Practice
_: x _x _: x _x : _: x : ·:
x_ : :_x x_: :_x x: x_: ·.


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Vocabulary
Came - x_ : ·.

Father - :_ x ·:
Sentences
Father came. - x_ : :_x ·:




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Lesson 2 – Mem, Yud
Consonants
:
The "Mem" is pronounced "m" as in "mother."

:
The "final Mem" is used only when it appears at the
end of a word. The pronunciation does not change.


The "Yud" is pronounced "y" as in "yes." (When
the "yud" is suffixed to a word it means "of me" or
"my." Sentence #2 includes the word :_x - father,
with the suffix forming the word :_ x - my
father.)

Vowels
x
The "chireq" is pronounced "ee" as in "bee."


x
The "tsere" is pronounced "ey" as in "grey."

Practice

: _: : : x x : : : : ·:
:x :x : : : x x ·.

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Vocabulary
Who - : ·.

Mother - :x ·:
Sentences
Who came? - x_ : : ·:
My father came. - x_ : :_ x ·.









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Lesson 3 – Nun, Hey
Consonants
:
The "Nun" is pronounced "n" as in "no."


¸
The "final Nun" is only used when it appears at the
end of a word. The pronunciation does not change.

¬
The "Hey" is pronounced "h" as in "hello." (When
the letter ¬ is prefixed to a word it means "the"
such as in sentence #6 where the letter ¬ is prefixed
to the word x:_ : - prophet, forming x:_ :_¬ - the
prophet.)

Practice

: ¬ ¬_: ¸: : : : : ¬ ¬ ¬ _¬ ·:
x_ : ¸: ¬_: :_: ¬: ¬: ¬_: ¸¬ ¸¬ ·.
¬_ :_: ¬_:_:
1
¸¬ ¬ : x : : x¬ ¬ ·

1
Hebrew words with more than one syllable usually accent the final
syllables pronouncing the final Consonant-Vowel-Consonant as one
syllable. For instance, the word :_x, in the vocabulary list, is
pronounced "a-niy" rather than "an-iy."

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Vocabulary
I - :_ x ·.

Where – x ·:
Son - ¸: ·1

She – x¬ ·
Prophet - x:_: ··

came (f.) - ¬_ x_ : ··

What - ¬_ : or ¬ : ·:
Sentences
Who [is]
2
she? - x¬ : ·:
My son came. - x_ : :: ·.
I [am a]
3
father. - :_ x :_x ·
Where [is] my father? - :_x x ·1
What [is a] prophet? - x:_: ¬_: ··
The
4
prophet came. - x_ : x:_:_¬ ··



2
The English verb "to be" and its various tenses (am, is, are, etc.) do
not exist in Hebrew and need to be added in the translation.
3
English has two indefinite articles, "a" and "an" which also do not
exist in Hebrew and must be added in the translation.
4
When the letter ¬ is prefixed to a word it means "the" such as in
sentence #6 where the letter ¬ is prefixed to the word x:_: (prophet)
forming x:_:_¬, meaning "the prophet."

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Lesson 4 – Lamed, Vav
Consonants
:
The "Lamed" is pronounced "l" as in "long."



The "Vav" is pronounced "v" as in "visit."

Vowels
x
The "sh'va" is pronounced "eh" as in "help" when it
is placed under the first letter of the word. When
this vowel appears anywhere else in the word, it is
usually a "syllable break" and not pronounced.

x
The "segol" is pronounced "eh" as in "help."

Practice
_:
·
: : _ _: : : : : ·:
:_ ¬ ¬_: :¬ ¬: : : : : : _ ·.
x :_ : ¬_::: :: ¬_:: :_ ·


5
When one of the "a" vowels (qamats or patach) is followed by the
consonant "yud" in the same syllable, the pronunciation is a long "i"
as in "lie" and NOT "ay" as in "lay."
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Vocabulary
God - : x ·.

Night - ¬_ : : ·:
Believe - ¸:_x ·1

Water - :: ·
Sea - :_ ··

Here - ¬:¬
·
··
Sentences
Night came. - x_ : ¬_:: ·:
Water [is] in the sea. - :_:
:
:: ·.
My son came to me. - :
s
x_ : :: ·
Mother came in the night. - ¬_ : :: ¬_x_:
9
: x ·1
¬:¬ :x
:+
:_x
My father and my mother [are] here. -
··

6
When the dagesh (the dot in the middle of a letter) is placed within
some letters, such as in the nun in the word ¬:¬, it doubles the
letter. Therefore, this word is pronounced "hin-ney" rather than "hi-
ney."
7
When the letter "beyt" is prefixed to a word it means "in" as in
sentence #4 - ¬_::: - in the night.)
8
When the letter "lamed" is used as a prefix it means "to" or "for."
9
The vocabulary word ¬_x_: (she came) is the feminine form of the
masculine verb x_: (he came) which was given in lesson one.
10
When the letter "vav" is prefixed to a word it means "and."

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Lesson 5 – Resh, Shin
Consonants
~
The "Resh" is pronounced "r" as in "rain."


:
The "Shin" is pronounced two ways, "sh" as in
"sharp," and "s" as in "sign." When a dot is placed
on the top right corner of the letter (:) it takes the
"sh" sound and when the dot is placed on the top
left corner of the letter (:) it takes the "s" sound.
Vowels

This consonant (vav) / vowel (cholam) combination
is called a "cholam maley" and is pronounced "ow"
as in "open."

Practice
: : ~ : : ~ ~ ~ : : : ·:
:~ :_~ ~: ~: ~: ~: : : ·.
: : : ¬ :: :: : : :~ ~ ~: ~_: ·

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Vocabulary
Heaven - ::_: ·.

Peace - ::_: ·:
Created (m) - x_ ~_: ·1

Said (m) - ~:_x ·
Said (f) - ¬_ ~ :_ x ··

Name - :: ··
Day - : ·s

Ruler - ~: ·:
Rabbi - :~ ·:+

Light - ~x ·»
Sentences
Ruler of Peace. - ::_: ~: ·:
Day and night. - ¬ : _: : ·.
My name [is] Levi. - : : : ·
What [is] his name? - ::
11
¬ : ·1
His name [is] Abraham. - :_¬_~:x : : ··
God created heaven. - ::_: :x
12
x_ ~_: ··
::_: : :~ ~:_x
Rabbi said to me Shalom. -
·:





11
When the consonant/vowel combination "cholam maley" is
suffixed to a word it means "of him" or "his."
12
In Hebrew, the verb usually appears before the object of the verb.
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Lesson 6 – Ayin, Tet
Consonants
.
The "Ayin" is also a silent (the same as the aleph).


:
The "Tet" is pronounced "t" as in "tune."

Vowels

This consonant (vav) / vowel combination is called
a "shuruq" and is pronounced "uw" as in "tune."
Practice
. : :. x. x: : :x . : . : . ·:
¸ ¸ ~ : : : : x x ¬ ¬ ·.
:. .: :: :: :: .: :: :~ ·
Vocabulary
Evening – : ~. ·.

Good - :: ·:
Israel - : x_ ~: ·1

Over, on - : . ·
She - x¬ ··

He - x¬ ··

Keep (m) - ~:: ·:


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Sentences
Good evening. - ::
13
: ~. ·:
What is their name? - :_: :
14
¬ : ·.
Their name is Israel. - : x_ ~: :: ·
Peace over Israel. - : x_ ~: :. ::_: ·1
Who came in the evening? - : ~. x_: : ··
He came in the evening. - : ~._: x_: x¬ ··
She came in the evening. - : ~._: ¬_x_: x ¬ ·:



13
In Hebrew, the adjective proceeds the noun, such as word ::
(good) which comes after :~. (evening).
14
When the letter "Mem" is suffixed to a noun it means "of them" or
"their."
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Lesson 7 – Tav, Dalet
Consonants
:
The "Tav" is pronounced "t" as in "tune."

¬
The "Dalet" is pronounced "d" as in "dig."

Vowels
¸ x
This vowel combination (sh'va and segol) is called a
"chataph segol" and is pronounced "eh" as in
"help."

x
The "cholam" is pronounced "o" as in "open."
Practice
: : : : ¸: ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ _¬ ¸¬ ·:
¬ ¬ :¬ :¬ ¬¸: ¬: :¬ :¬ :¸¬ :_¬ ·.
¬: ¸: :: :¸x :_¬ :: : : ¬: ·

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Vocabulary
Moses - ¬ ::
15
·.

God - :¬:¸x ·:
(With) - : x

·1

Gave (m) - ¸:_: ·
Sabbath - : : : ··

Teaching - ¬_ ~:
::
··
¬_ ¬::: ·s
Student (f) -

¬::: ·:
Student (m) -
: ¬ :: ·:+
Studies (f) -

¬ :: ·»
Studies (m) -

::x ~
:s
·::
Beginning -

15
Remembering the C+V+C+V rule, the Hebrew word for Moses,
¬::, appears to be missing a vowel after the "mem." Since Hebrew
requires a vowel after each consonant, the vowel is the "cholam" and
is placed above the letter "shin" in the same place as the dot above
the right leg of the shin. The dot in this case serves two purposes.
16
The Hebrew word :x is occasionally used in the text to mean
"with" but is more frequently used (about 7,000 times) as a marker
for the direct object of the verb and is untranslatable into English.
For example, in the sentence; "I made the dinner"; the phrase "the
dinner" is the direct object and would be preceded by the word :x. If
the sentence were; "I made a dinner," :x would not precede it since
"dinner" in this sentence is not a direct object.
17
The word ¬~:, while often translated as "law," actually means
"teaching" and is also the Hebrew name for the first five books of the
Bible as they contain the "teachings" of God.
18
An exception to the rule requiring the C+V+C+V pattern is the
word ::x~. The aleph does not always require a vowel after it.
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Sentences
Peaceful Sabbath. - ::_: ::: ·:
:_ : :¬ :x ~:_:
And they will keep the Sabbath. -
·.
:¬:¸x x_~_ : ::x ~:
In the beginning God created. -
·
¬~_: :¬:: ¬_¬:::
A student studies Torah. -
·1
¬_ ~:¬ :x :_:

¬ :: ¸:_:
Moses gave to us the Torah. -
··
¬_ ~:¬ :x ¬:: ¬ : : :
A student studies the Torah. -
··


19
When the letter "lamed" is used as a prefix it means "to" or "for."
The suffix : means "us." combined, this prefix and suffix mean "to
us."
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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

31
Lesson 8 – Tsade, Quph
Consonants
.
The "Tsade" is pronounced "ts" as in "pots."


,
The "final Tsade" is used when this letter appears at
the end of a word. The pronunciation does not
change.

;
The "Quph" is pronounced "q" as in "quiet."

Vowels
¸ x
This vowel combination (sh'va and patach) is called
a "chataph patach" and is pronounced "ah" as in
"father."

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Practice
¸; ; ; _; ; ; . _. . ¸. . . ·:
,~ ;~ ,; ,; ;. ;¸. ,; ,x ,x ·.
,¬ ¬; ¬¸; x; ¬. x. x. ; . ·
Vocabulary
Land - ,~ x ·.

existed (m) - ¬_ _¬ ·:
Sentences - Genesis 1:14
20

.;~: :~ x : ¬ :¬:¸x ~:x
_¬ ¬_:_:¬ ¸: :¬ ¸: ::_:¬
::_: :¬¸.:: : : x : :¬:¬:
::_ :

20
From this point on the alephbet lessons will include Biblical
passages. While most of the words will not be recognizable at this
time, remember that our objective is to "read" the text, not
necessarily understand it.
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Lesson 9 – Chet, Kaph
Consonants
¬
The "Chet" is pronounced "ch" as in the German
word "ich" or the name "Bach."

:
The "Kaph" is pronounced two ways, "k" as in
kick, and "kh" as in the German word "ich" or the
name "Bach." If the dagesh appears in the middle of
the letter (:) it is pronounced "k." When the dagesh
does not appear in the letter (:) it is pronounced
"kh."

¡
The "final kaph" may also appear with the dagesh
(¸) or without the dagesh (¡) with the
pronunciations being the same as the "kaph." All
words will end with a consonant, the only exception
to this is the "final kaph" which will usually be
followed by a vowel.
Vowels
x
The "qubbuts" is pronounced "u" as in "tune."
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Practice
¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ : : : : _: : ·:
¬ : ¸¬ ¸¬ ¬_: ¬ : ¸¬ ·.
¬ x ¸¬ ¸x ¸~ ¬~ ¬~ ·
Vocabulary
Grass, herb - : :. ·.

Yes, so - ¸: ·:
Noah – ¬:
21
·1

Tree - ,. ·
Sentences - Genesis 1:5
x_ ~_; ¡:¬: : ~x_: :¬:¸x x_~ ;
¬_ ¬ x : ~;:¬ :~ .¬ ¬_:_:



21
According to the standard form of Hebrew pronunciation the name
¬: should be pronounced "nocha" but, when the patach vowel
appears below the letter "chet" at the end of a word, the two sounds
trade places and is in fact pronounced "no'ach." This is unique only
to this letter and vowel combination.
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Lesson 10 – Zayin, Pey
Consonants
:
The "Zayin" is pronounced "z" as in "zebra."


c
The "Pey" is pronounced two ways, "p" as in "pad,"
and "ph" as "phone." If the dagesh appears in the
middle of the letter (c) it is pronounced "p." When
the dagesh does not appear in the letter (c) it is
pronounced "ph."

_
The "final Pey" is only used when this letter appears
at the end of a word. The "final pey" will never
appear with the dagesh and will therefore be
pronounced "ph."
Vowels
_x
This vowel combination (sh'va and qamats) is called
a "chataph qamats" and is pronounced "ah" as in
"father."
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Practice
: : _: : : c c c c _c ¸c ·:
_ : :¸c x: :¬ :x _x x: ¬: ·.
_ ; ¸: _ : : : :_: :_c ¬ c ·
Vocabulary
To do, make - ¬_ :_. ·.

Which, who - ~:¸x ·:

Face - ::_ c ·
Sentences - Genesis 1:11
: :. x:¬ ,~_x_¬ x:¬: :¬:¸x ~:x
: : : ~c ¬:. ~c ,. .~: .~::
¸:¬ ,~_x_¬: . :.~: ~:¸x

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37
Lesson 11 – Gimel, Samech
Consonants
.
The "Gimel" is pronounced "g" as in "game."


:
The "Samech" is pronounced "s" as in "sand."


Practice
_. . . . . _. ¸. : : ¸: : : ·:
¬ . ¬. x. .x x. ¬: :_x :¬ ·.
¬ : ~: :. .: _: :: :: ¬ : ·
Vocabulary
Man - :_¬_x ·.

All - :_ :
..
·:
Fish - ¬_ ._¬ ·1

Bird - _. ·



22
This word appears to be pronounced "kal" but, is actually
pronounced "kol." In this one instance the qamats vowel represents a
rare vowel pronounced "o."
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

38
Sentences - Genesis 1:26
:::.: :_¬_x ¬:¸.: :¬:¸x ~:x
_. : :_¬ :.¬ : ¬~ : :: ¬ :
:_ : : ,~_x_¬:_:: ¬_ : ¬ : : ::_:¬
,~_ x_ ¬: . ::~_¬ ::~_¬





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39
Lesson Transliterations

Lesson 1
P1: bah ah vah bah ah ah bah ah ah vah
P2: vah bah ahv bah ahv bah
V1: ahv
V2: bah
S1: ahv bah

Lesson 2
P1: vee bey vey bee ey ee mee mey mah mah
P2: ey ee vee bee mee eym eem
V1: eym
V2: mee
S1: mee bah
S2: ah-vee bah

Lesson 3
P1: hah hah hee hey nah nee ney ney beyn bah hahv
P2: hahn heyn nah nee ney nahv mah meen nah
P3: hee hee nee nee ney hey heen nah-vah bah-nah
V1: ey
V2: ah-nee
V3: hee
V4: beyn
V5: bah-ah
V6: nah-vee
V7: mah
S1: mee hee
S2: bey-nee bah
S3: ah-nee ahv
S4: ey ah-vee
S5: mah nah-vee
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S6: hah-nah-vee bah

Lesson 4
P1: ley lah leh lee lah veh vah vee lie lee lie vie vey
P2: vehv vahv leyl vehl veyl vahl ley heyl lah hahl
P3: vah-veem lee-bah lah-yeel leyv-mah mah-ley
V1: lie-lah
V2: eyl
V3: mah-yeem
V4: ah-meyn
V5: hee-ney
V6: yahm
S1: lie-lah bah
S2: mah-yeem bah-yahm
S3: bey-nee bah lee
S4: eym bah-ah bah-lie-lah
S5: ah-vee veh-ey-mee hee-ney

Lesson 5
P1: sheh shah sey rey ree rie shey sehy row show sow
P2: sheysh sahr sheer showr seer rahsh rowsh
P3: bahr neyr yahr rahv meesh sahv seem heysh shehl
V1: shah-lowm
V2: shah-mah-yeem
V3: ah-mahr
V4: bah-rah
V5: sheym
V6: ahm-rah
V7: sahr
V8: yowm
V9: owr
V10: rah-bee
S1: sahr shah-lowm
S2: yowm veh-lie-lah
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S3: sh'mee ley-vee
S4: mah sh'mow
S5: sh'mow ahv-rah-hahm
S6: bah-rah eyl shah-mah-yeem
S7: ah-mahr rah-bee lee shah-lowm

Lesson 6
P1: eh teh ey tee ee eht tuw teh eh eht teh
P2: how huw ow uw bow buw low luw ruw own uwn
P3: reht seht beh veht shuwl tuwv tuw uwt
V1: towv
V2: eh-rehv
V3: ahl
V4: yees-rah-eyl
V5: huw
V6: hee
V7: show-meyr
S1: eh-rehv towv
S2: mah sh'muw
S3: sh'muw yees-rah-eyl
S4: shah-lowm ahl yees-rah-eyl
S5: mee bah eh-rehv
S6: huw bah bah-eh-rehv
S7: hee bah-ah bah-eh-rehv

Lesson 7
P1: deh dah deh dey dee dah dow dow teh teh tey tee tah
P2: daht deht dowt dowt towd tehd deht deyt dahd
P3: towd veyt vaht dahv ehl mowt tahn meed
V1: eh-low-heem
V2: mow-sheh
V3: rey-sheet
V4: eht
V5: tahl-meed
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V6: tahl-mee-dah
V7: low-meyd
V8: low-meh-deht
V9: tow-rah
V10: shah-baht
V11: nah-tahn
S1: shah-baht shah-lowm
S2: veh-shahm-ruw eht hah-shah-baht
S3: beh-rey-sheet bah-rah eh-low-heem
S4: tahl-mee-dah low-meh-deht tow-rah
S5: nah-tahn mow-sheh lah-nuw eht hah-tow-rah
S6: tahl-meed low-meyd eht hah-tow-rah

Lesson 8
P1: tsey tsah tsah tsow tsah tseh qee qow qah qah qeh
qah
P2: ehts owts qeyts tsahq tseeq qeets qowts rahq rehts
P3: tsey qee tsey tseh tsow qah qah qow howts
V1: hah-yah
V2: eh-rehts
S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee meh-ow-rowt
beer-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem beyn hah-yowm
uw-veyn hah-lie-lah veh-hie-uw leh-hahv-deel leh-
owt-owt uwl-mow-ah-deem uwl-yah-meem veh-
shah-neem

Lesson 9
P1: kah khah kee kheh key khuw cheh chey chee chow
P2: chahkh kow-ahch khahch chey-khah cheykh keech
P3: row-ahch ruw-ahch rahk ahkh chah-khah ahch
V1: keyn
V2: eh-sehv
V3: eyts
V4: now-ahch
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S1: vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lah-owr yowm veh-lah-
chow-shehkh qah-rah lie-lah vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee
vow-qehr yowm eh-chahd

Lesson 10
P1: pheh pah peh phey pah pow zuw zey zah zee zow
P2: zeh zey ahph eyz hehz zeh phahz zehph
P3: pow-ahch pahm sahz shahz kahph zeykh quwph
V1: ah-shehr
V2: ah-sah
V3: pah-neem
S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tahd-shey hah-ah-rehts
deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah eyts peh-ree
ow-seh peh-ree leh-mee-now ah-shehr zahr-ow vow
ahl hah-ah-rehts vie-hee kheyn

Lesson 11
P1: sow suw sah sey see geh gah geh gow gee gah gah
P2: hehs ahs sey gow ahg geh gow gah
P3: sow-ahch mahs seym seyph seyg gahs suwr sowd
V1: kowl
V2: ah-dahm
V3: owph
V4: dah-gah
S1: vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem nah-ah-seh ah-dahm
beh-tsahl-mey-nuw hah-reh-mehs veh-yeer-duw
veed-gaht hah-yowm uwv-owph hah-shah-mah-yeem
keed-muw-tey-nuw uwv-khowl hah-ah-rehts uwv-
khowl uw-vah-beh-hey-mah hah-row-meys ahl hah-
ah-rehts

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Below is the first chapter of the book of Genesis in
Hebrew. The name "Genesis" comes from the Greek name
for this book and means "origins." The Hebrew name for
this book is "Bereshiyt." The Hebrew names for the first
five books of the Bible is derived from the first word (or
first principle word) of the book. In this case, the first
word in the book is "bereshiyt" and means "in the
beginning."

The purpose of this section is to allow you to practice
reading. Also included is a transliteration of the chapter for
pronunciation help. Again, remember to use the correct
Hebrew pronunciation for each vowel.
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The Hebrew
,~_x_¬ :x ::_:¬ :x :¬:¸x x_~_: ::x~: :
:¬ : :c:. ¡:¬ ¬:_ ¬: ¬_:_¬ ,~_x_¬ .
:_:¬ :c:. :c¬~: :¬:¸x ¬~
~x¬ ~x ¬ :¬:¸x ~:x
:¬: ::: ~x_¬:x :¬:¸x x~ 1
¡:¬ ¬ ¸: ~x_¬ ¸: :¬:¸x
x_~_; ¡:¬ : : ~x_: :¬:¸x x_~; ·
¬_¬x : ~;:¬ :~.¬ ¬_:_:
¬ :_:¬ ¡:: .;_ ~ ¬ :¬:¸x ~:x ·
:_:_: :: ¸: :¬ ::
::¬ ¸: :¬: .;_ ~_¬:x :¬:¸x :. :
~:¸x ::¬ ¸: .;_ ~_: :¬:: ~:¸x
¸:¬ .;_ ~_: :.:
:~.¬ :_:_: .;_ ~_: :¬:¸x x_~; s
:: : ~;:¬
::_:¬ :¬:: ::¬ _; :¬:¸x ~:x »
¸:¬ ¬_:_: ¬ ¬x_~: ¬_¬x :;_ ::x
::¬ ¬; :: ,~x ¬_:_: : :¬:¸x x_~; :+
::: :¬:¸x x~ :: x_~_;
::. x:¬ ,~_x_¬ x:¬ : :¬:¸x ~:x ::
~:¸x :: : ~c ¬:. ~c ,. .~: .~::
¸:¬ ,~_x_¬:. :.~:
.~: .~:: ::. x:¬ ,~_x_¬ x.: :.
:.~: ~:¸x ~c¬:. ,. ¬:::
::: :¬:¸x x~ ¬:::
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:: : : ~;:¬ :~.¬ :
::_:¬ .;~: :~x: ¬ :¬:¸x ~:x :1
::x: _¬ ¬_:_: ¬ ¸: :¬ ¸: :¬ :¬:
::_: ::_: :¬¸.: :
:. ~x_¬: ::_:¬ .;~: :~x:: _¬ :·
¸:¬ ,~_x_¬
:x ::¬.¬ :~x:¬ :::x :¬:¸x :. :·
~x_:¬:x :¬ :::: :: :¬_.¬ ~x_:¬
::_::¬ :x ¬_:: ¬ :::: :: ¸:_;¬
~x_¬: :_:_:¬ .;~: :¬:¸x :_:x ¸: ::
,~_x_¬:.
~x_¬ ¸: :¬ :¬¸: ¬_:: : :: ::: : :s
::: :¬:¸x x~ ¡:¬ ¬ ¸:
.:~ : ~;:¬ :~.¬ :»
¬_¬ :c: ,~: ::¬ .~: :¬:¸x ~:x .+
:_:_:¬ .;~ :c:. ,~_x_¬:. _c. _.
:_: :x ::¬.¬ ::::¬:x :¬:¸x x_~: .:
:¬::: ::¬ .~_: ~:¸x ::: ~_¬ ¬_¬ ¬ :c:
::: :¬:¸x x~ ¬::: __:_: _.:_: :x
x:: :~ ~c ~:x: :¬:¸x :_:x ¡~_: ..
,~_x_: :~ _._¬ ::: ::¬:x
::¸ ¬ : ~;:¬ :~.¬ .
¬_::: ¬_¬ :c: ,~_x_¬ x.: :¬:¸x ~:x .1
¸:¬ ¬_::: ,~x:¬ ::~_ ¬_:¬:
:x ¬_::: ,~_x_¬ :¬:x :¬:¸x :. .·
¬::: ¬_:_¬¸x_¬ ::~:_: :x ¬_::: ¬_:¬:¬
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::: :¬:¸x x~
:::.: :_¬_x ¬:¸. : :¬:¸x ~:x .·
::_:¬ _.: :_¬ :.¬: ¬~ :::¬:
::~_¬ ::~_¬:_:: ,~_x_¬:_:: ¬_:¬::
,~_x_¬:.
::.: ::.: :_¬_x_¬:x :¬:¸x x_~: .:
:_: x x_~_: ¬_:;: ~_:_: :x x_~_: :¬:¸x
:¬:¸x :¬_: ~:x :¬:¸x :_:x ¡~_: .s
:.¬: ¬~ _¬:: : ,~_x_¬:x x:: :~ ~c
::: ~_¬ ¬_¬:_:: ::_:¬ _.: :_¬
,~_x_¬:.
::.:_::x ::_: : :_: ¬:¬ :¬:¸x ~:x .»
,._¬:_::x ,~_x_¬:_: :c:. ~:¸x .~: .~:
¬_::_x: ¬¬ ::_: .~_: .~: ,.~c :~:¸x
::: ::_:¬ _.:_:: ,~_x_¬ :¬:_:: +
;~:_::x ¬_¬ :c: :~:¸x ,~_x_¬:. ::~
¸:¬ ¬_::_x: ::.
::¬:¬ ¬_:_. ~:¸x:_::x :¬:¸x x~ :
::¬ : ~;:¬ :~.¬ ¬x:
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Transliteration

1. bey-rey-sheet bah-rah eh-lo-heem eyt hah-shah-mah-
yeem veh-eyt hah-ah-rets 2. veh-hah-ah-rets hie-tah tow-
huw vah-vow-huw veh-chow-shekh ahl peh-ney teh-howm
veh-ruw-ahch eh-low-heem meh-rah-cheh-pheht ahl peh-
ney hah-mah-yeem 3. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee
owr vie-hee owr 4. vie-yahr eh-low-heem eht hah-owr kee
towv vie-yahv-deyl eh-low-heem beyn hah-owr uw-veyn
hah-chow-shehkh 5. vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lah-owr
yowm veh-lah-chow-shehkh qah-rah lie-lah vie-hee eh-
rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm eh-chahd 6. vie-yow-mehr
eh-low-heem yeh-hee rah-qee-ah beh-towkh hah-mah-
yeem vee-hee mahv-deel beyn mah-yeem lah-mah-yeem 7.
vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht hah-rah-qee-ah vie-yahv-deyl
beyn hah-mah-yeem ah-shehr mee-tah-chaht lah-rah-qee-
ah uw-veyn hah-mah-yeem ah-shehr mey-ahl lah-rah-qee-
ah vie-hee kheyn 8. vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lah-rah-qee-
ah shah-mah-yeem vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr
yowm shey-nee 9. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yee-qahv-
vuw hah-mah-yeem mee-tah-chaht hah-shah-mah-yeem ehl
mah-qowm eh-chahd veh-tey-rah-eh hie-yah-bah-shah vie-
hee kheyn 10. vie-yeeq-rah eh-low-heem lie-yah-bah-shah
eh-rehts uwl-meeq-vey hah-mah-yeem qah-rah yahm-
meem vie-yahr eh-low-heem kee towv 11. vie-yow-mehr
eh-low-heem tahd-shey hah-ah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv
mahz-ree-ah zeh-rah eyts peh-ree ow-seh peh-ree leh-mee-
now ah-shehr zahr-ow vow ahl hah-ah-rets vie-hee kheyn
12. vah-tow-tsey hah-ah-rehts deh-sheh ey-sehv mahz-ree-
ah zeh-rah leh-mee-ney-huw veh-eyts ow-seh peh-ree ah-
shehr zahr-ow vow leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr eh-low-
heem kee tow 13. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm
sheh-lee-shee 14. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem yeh-hee
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meh-ow-rowt beer-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem leh-hahv-
deel beyn hah-yowm uw-veyn hah-lie-lah veh-hie-uw leh-
owt-owt uwl-mow-ah-deem uwl-yah-meem veh-shah-
neem 15. veh-hie-uw leem-ow-rowt beer-qee-ah hah-shah-
mah-yeem leh-hah-eer ahl hah-ah-rets vie-hee kheyn 16.
vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht sheh-ney hah-meh-ow-rowt
hahg-dow-leem eht hah-mah-owr hah-gah-dowl leh-
mehm-sheh-leht hah-yowm veh-eht hah-mah-owr hah-qah-
town leh-mehm-sheh-leht hah-lie-lah veh-eyt hah-kow-
khah-veem 17. vie-yee-teyn ow-tahm eh-low-heem beer-
qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem leh-hah-eer ahl hah-ah-rehts
18. veh-leem-showl bah-yowm uw-vah-lie-lah uw-lah-
hahv-deel beyn hah-owr uw-veyn hah-chow-shehkh vie-
yahr eh-low-heem kee towv 19. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee
vow-qehr yowm reh-vee-ee 20. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-
heem yeesh-reh-tsuw hah-mah-yeem sheh-rehts neh-
phehsh hie-yah veh-uwph yeh-ow-pheyph ahl hah-ah-rehts
ahl peh-ney reh-qee-ah hah-shah-mah-yeem 21. vie-yeev-
rah eh-low-heem eht hah-tah-nee-neem hahg-dow-leem
veh-eyt kowl neh-phehsh hah-chie-yah hah-row-meh-sheht
ah-shehr shahr-tsuw hah-mah-yeem leh-mee-ney-hehm
veh-eyt kowl owph kah-nahph leh-mee-ney-huw vie-yahr
eh-low-heem kee towv 22. vie-vah-rekh ow-tahm eh-low-
heem ley-mowr peh-ruw uwr-vuw uw-meel-uw eht hah-
mah-yeem bah-yah-meem veh-hah-owph yee-rehv bah-ah-
rehts 23. vie-hee eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm chah-
mee-shee 24. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-heem tow-tsey hah-
ah-rehts neh-phehsh chie-yah leh-mee-nah beh-hey-mah
vah-reh-mehs veh-chie-tow eh-rehts leh-mee-nah vie-hee
kheyn 25. vie-yah-ahs eh-low-heem eht chie-yaht hah-ah-
rets leh-mee-nah veh-eht hah-beh-hey-mah leh-mee-nah
veh-eyt kowl reh-mehs hah-ah-dah-mah leh-mee-ney-huw
vie-yahr eh-low-heem kee towv 26. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-
heem nah-ah-seh ah-dahm beh-tsahl-mey-nuw keed-muw-
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tey-nuw veh-yeer-duw veed-gaht hah-yahm uwv-owph
hah-shah-mah-yeem uw-vah-beh-hey-mah uwv-khowl hah-
ah-rehts uwv-khowl hah-reh-mehs hah-row-meys ahl hah-
ah-rets 27. vie-yeev-rah eh-low-heem eht hah-ah-dahm
beh-tsahl-mow beh-tseh-lehm eh-low-heem bah-rah ow-
tow zah-khahr uw-neh-qey-vah bah-rah ow-tahm 28. vie-
vah-rehkh ow-tahm eh-low-heem vie-yow-mehr lah-hehm
eh-low-heem peh-ruw uwr-vuw uw-meel-uw eht hah-ah-
rehts veh-kheev-shuw-ah uwr-duw beed-gaht hah-yahm
uwv-owph hah-shah-mah-yeem uwv-khowl chie-yah hah-
row-meh-seht ahl hah-ah-rehts 29. vie-yow-mehr eh-low-
heem heen-ney nah-tah-tee lah-khehm eht kowl ey-sehv
zow-rey-ah zeh-rah ah-shehr ahl peh-ney khowl hah-ah-
rehts veh-eht kowl hah-eyts ah-shehr bow peh-ree eyts
zow-rey-ah zah-rah lah-khehm yee-yeh leh-ahkh-lah 30.
uwl-khowl chie-yaht hah-ah-rehts uwl-khowl owph hah-
shah-mah-yeem uwl-khowl row-meys ahl hah-ah-rehts ah-
shehr bow neh-phehsh chie-yah eht kowl yeh-rehq ey-sehv
leh-ahkh-lah vie-hee kheyn 31. vie-yahr eh-low-heem eht
kowl ah-shehr ah-sah veh-heen-ney towv meh-owd vie-hee
eh-rehv vie-hee vow-qehr yowm hah-shee-shee

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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The purpose of the Reference Guide is to be an aid to the
Hebrew student to assist with recognzing the prefixes and
suffixes of Hebrew nouns and verbs.

Uncovering the root word

One Hebrew word may contain a root, one or two prefixes
as well as one or two suffixes. As an example, let us look
at the word :~: ¬. To find the root word, we first
identify the prefixes and suffixes. The prefix means
"and." The is another prefix identifying the subject of the
verb as a "he." The suffix : identifies the object of the verb
as "them." Once the suffix and prefixes are removed we
have the root ~:¬, meaning "speak," remaining. The
Hebrew word :~: ¬, means "and he spoke to them."

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Identification of the prefixes and suffixes of a verb will
assist you in translating each word correctly. This will also
allow you to uncover the root of the word, which can then
be looked up in the root dictionary below.
Prefixes - The article, conjunction and
prepositions

Some of the most common words found in the Bible are
actually written as prefixes, such as : (in), (and), ¬ (the)
and : (to). The two prefixes : (like) and : (which) are
also used but occur infrequently. Combining a prefix with
a suffix also forms words. For example, the word ¡: is the
prefix : meaning "to" and the suffix ¡ meaning "you" (see
possessive pronouns below) forming a word meaning "to
you."

Prefixes
The
¬
And

To
:
In
:
From
:
Like
:
Which, who
:


Plural

Nouns are made plural by adding the following suffixes.
There are a few exceptions to these gender specific
suffixes. For example :x (father) and ~x (light) are
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

55
masculine words yet carry the feminine suffix, ::x and
:~x, but still remain masculine.

Plural Suffixes
Masculine Feminine
:

:


Noun derivatives

Included in this section is a list of the most common
prefixes, infixes and suffixes added to a root to form a new
noun. Each noun derivitive will be related in meaning to
the original root word. By recognizing these "fixes," one
can easily uncover the original root word assisting the
reader with identifying the meaning of the word. For
example, the words ;¬. and ¬;¬. are derived from the
root ;¬. (righteous). The word ;¬. is formed by infixing
the letter and has the meaning of "a righteous one." The
word ¬;¬. is formed by suffixing the letter ¬ and has the
meaning of "righteousness."

Noun Derivitives
: :
: :
¬ : ¸
:
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Pronouns

The following pronouns are very common and a good
understanding of them will assist the student in reading the
text.

Pronouns
Singular Plural
Masculine
I
:¸x
We
:¸x
You
¬_:x
You
::x
He

They

Feminine
I
:¸x
We
:¸x
You
:x
You
¸:x
She

They
¸¬


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57

Possessive Pronouns (Nouns)
Singular Plural
Masculine
My

Our
:
Your
¸
Your
::
His

Their
:
Feminine
My

Our
:
Your
¸
Your
¸:
Her
¬_
Their
¸

Hebrew Tenses

Hebrew verb tenses are not related to time (past, present
or future), as in English, but to action. There are two
Hebrew tenses, perfect and imperfect. The perfect tense is
complete action and is similar to past tense. The imperfect
tense is incomplete action (action that has started but not
finished or action that has not started) and is similar to our
present and future tense.

Each verb will also identify the person, gender and number
of the subject of the verb. The person is expressed as first,
second or third person, the gender will be either masculine
or feminine and the number will be singular or plural.

Using the Hebrew root word ~:: (to guard), the letter x
is prefixed to form the verb ~::x. The addition of this
letter indicates that the verb is first person, masculine,
singular and imperfect tense - "I am guarding" or "I will
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

58
guard." By suffixing the letters :, the verb :~:: is
formed, and is first person, masculine, singular, perfect
tense - "I guarded."

When the conjuction (meaning "and") is prefixed to a
verb, the tense is reversed. While ~::x means "I will
guard" (imperfect tense), ~::x becomes "I guarded"
(perfect tense). While :~:: means "I gaurded" (perfect
tense), :~:: becomes "I will guard" (imperfect tense).

Verb Subjects (Perfect Tense)
Singular Plural
Masculine
I
:
We
:
You
_ :
You
::
He

They

Feminine
I

We
:
You
:
You
¸:
She
¬_
They


Verb Subjects (Imperfect Tense)
Singular Plural
Masculine
I
x
We
:
You
:
You
:
He

They

Feminine
I
x
We
:
You
:
You
¬::
She
:
They
¬::
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59

P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
4
4

T
T
r
r
a
a
n
n
s
s
l
l
a
a
t
t
i
i
n
n
g
g
L
L
e
e
s
s
s
s
o
o
n
n
s
s

______________________________________________





Your next step in Biblical Hebrew studies is to learn
sentence and word structure. The following is the first five
verses of Genesis chapter one where we will examine each
word, one at a time, explaining their construction and
relationship within the sentence. These lessons will
frequently refer to prefixes, suffixes and roots that can be
found in Referene Guide of this book.



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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

61
Lesson 1 – Genesis 1:1


,~_x_¬ :x ::_:¬ :x :¬:¸x x_~_: ::x~:


::x~:
The : is a prefix meaning "inside" or "in." This letter is an
abbreviated form of the Hebrew word :: (beyt)
meaning, "house." Inside the house is where the family
resides. (For a list of the common prefixes see the chart
labeled "Prefixes" in Part 3)

The root word is :x~ (rosh) meaning, "head." Adding
certain letters to the root commonly forms words related
in meaning to the root and all of the words derived from
the same root will be related in meaning. In this case, the
letters : are added to the root to form a noun, ::x~.
This word means "beginning," the head of a time or space
as in the beginning of an event or a river. (For a list of
common letters used to form new nouns, see the chart
labeled "Noun Derivatives" in Part 3)

By being able to recognize the letters added to a root to
form noun derivatives, one can easily find the root within
the word. There are approximately 8,000 different words
in the Hebrew Bible, all of which are derived from only
about 1,500 roots. Of these 1,500, about half are rarely
used in the Bible. This means that with a good
understanding of about 750 roots one can easily read the
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

62
Biblical text without memorizing all 8,000 words used
within it.


x~:
This is a verb usually translated as "create."

Each verb identifies person (first, second or third), gender
(masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural) and
tense (perfect or imperfect). This verb would be literally
translated as "he created." The construction of the verb
identifies the subject of the verb as third person,
masculine, singular and perfect tense. (For the various
prefixes and suffixes added to the verb to identify person,
gender, number and tense, see the verb charts in Part 3)

Perfect tense is completed action and is similar to our past
tense. Imperfect tense is incomplete action and is similar to
our present or future tense. Notice the difference of tenses
between Hebrew and English. English tenses are related to
time (past, present or future) while Hebrew is related to
action (complete or incomplete).


:¬:x
This word is the subject of the verb, the "he" in "he
created." Generally the subject of the verb will follow the
verb rather than precede it as in English. In English we say
"God created" but in Hebrew this would be written as
"created God."

The root word for this noun is ¬:x meaning "power."
This word is used for anyone or anything which, has
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63
"power" and is often translated as "God." The suffix :
denotes a plural for masculine nouns. While English
plurals convey quantity (more than one), Hebrew plurals
convey quantity or quality (very large or great). The word
:¬:x can be translated as "gods" (quantity) or "a great
god" (quality). The idea of "a great god" is generally
written in English as "God."

Only through context can it be determined if the plural
noun is identifying quantity or quality. This can be the
context within the passage or the sentence structure itself.
In this verse the context of the sentence structure requires
this word to be understood as qualitative since the verb
preceding it states "he (singular) created" and not "they
(plural) created."


:x
This word :x is used over 11,000 times (and never
translated into English as there is no equivalent) to point
to the direct object of the verb. Some examples of a direct
object are "Bible," "the book" and "his book" where the
"book" is specifically identified." Conversely, an example
of an indirect object would be "a book" where the book is
not specifically identified.


:::¬
The first letter, ¬, is another prefix and is usually
translated as "the" (definite article). This prefix is the short
form of the word :¬ meaning, "to look at something."

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64
The root word is ::: meaning, "sky" or "heaven."
Several Hebrew words are always written in the plural
form such as this word.

Because the ¬ (the) precedes the word :::, this word is
a direct object of the verb x~:, hence, the reason for the
word :x before it.


:x
Another very common prefix is the letter , usually
translated as "and." This is the abbreviated form of the
word meaning, peg or nail. As a nail attaches two items
together, this prefix attaches two or more things together
in a sentence, in this case "the skies and the land."

Added to this prefix is the word :x which was previously
discussed. Because of this word we know that the word
which follows is also a direct object of the verb x~:.


,~x¬
The letter ¬ is the prefix meaning "the." The word ,~x is
a common word meaning, "land" or "earth."

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

66
Lesson 2 – Genesis 1:2


:¬ : :c:. ¡:¬ ¬:_ ¬: ¬_:_¬ ,~_x_¬
:_:¬ :c:. :c¬~: :¬:¸x ¬~ :¬ :


,~x¬
As previously discussed the prefix is used to attach two
parts of a sentence together but is also used to attach two
or more sentences together, in other words bringing all of
the words of one story together. In fact, the entire chapter
of Genesis chapter one is one long story as each sentence
begins with a .

The letter ¬ is the prefix meaning "the" and the word
,~x, as previously discussed, means "land."


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¬:¬
The root of this verb is ¬¬, a very common root literally
meaning, "to exist" or "breath" as one who exists breaths
but is usually translated with a form of the English verb "to
be." This verb is made feminine, singular, and perfect tense
by adding the ¬ to the end of the root (¬¬¬). When a ¬
is added as a suffix to a root that ends with a ¬, this ¬ is
changed to a : (¬:¬). This verb would be literally
translated as "she existed" where the "she" is the "land,"
the previous word.


¬:
The root word here is ¬: meaning "empty." By adding
the suffix letter to the root, a noun derivative is formed
meaning, "empty" or "void."


¬:
The first letter, , is the prefix meaning "and" and is used
to connect this word with the previous word.

The root word is ¬: meaning, "to fill a void." A common
Hebrew word also derived from this root is x: (bo') and
is usually translated as "come" or "go." The English
translations of this word imply movement in a certain
direction but the Hebrew meaning of the word x: is to
"fill a void" and can be either fill a void here (come) or fill
a void there (go).

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68
The added after the root forms a noun derivative
meaning, "void."

The phrase ¬: ¬: is a common style of poetry where
similar sounding words are grouped together. While the
phrase "The painter painted a painting with paint," would
be poor English, it is a perfect example of Hebrew poetry.

¡:¬
The first letter is the prefix , meaning "and." The word
¡:¬ means "dark" or "darkness."


:.
This word is very common and means "over" or "on."


:c
The root for this word is ¬:c meaning, face. This word is
always used in the plural form ::c (the ¬ is dropped
when the masculine plural suffix is added). This word is in
the construct state "faces of....."

When a masculine plural noun is used in the Construct
State, the letter : is always dropped.


:¬:
A noun derived from the root :¬ meaning "sea," closely
related in form to the more common word for sea, :.
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69
This noun derivative is formed by adding the prefix letter
:, and has the more specific meaning of "deep sea." This
and the previous word form the Construct phrase "faces of
the deep."


¬~
The first letter is the prefix meaning "and." The word
¬~ is another Hebrew word meaning, "wind." Though
this word is often translated as "spirit" the more Hebraic
understanding is "wind" or "breath."


:¬:x
This is the same word discussed previously. When two
nouns appear together they are in the Construct State.
This word and the preceding word, ¬~, would be
translated as "wind/breath of God."


:c¬~:
The root to this verb is _¬~ meaning, "hover over" such
as a bird does over the nest. The letter : is a prefix added
to the verb to form a conjugation. The letter : indicates
this verb is feminine singular perfect tense and literally
translated as "she hovered." The "she" of this word is the
previous word ¬~, a feminine word. While most consider
the "Spirit" (wind/breath) a "he," Biblically, it is a "she."


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70
:.
This is the same word previously discussed meaning
"over" or "on."


:c
This word was also previously discussed meaning "faces"
and is in the construct state with the following word.


::¬
The first letter ¬ is the prefix meaning "the." The root
word is ::, a very common word meaning, "water."

Notice that the previous sentence contains no verb. While
a verb is required in every English sentence it is not in
Biblical Hebrew.

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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

72
Lesson 3 – Genesis 1:3


~x¬ ~x ¬ :¬:¸x ~:x


~:x
The first letter is the prefix meaning "and." The root
word is ~:x.

Hebrew root words can be used as a noun or a verb. As a
noun this root would mean a "word" while as a verb it
means, "to say." We see a similar occurrence in English as
in the sentence; "He will play Moses in the play." The first
use of the word "play" is a verb while the second is a
noun. The context of the sentence as well as the type of
prefixes and suffixes added to the word will tell you if the
word is a verb or a noun.

When the letter is added to the root ~:x, the word is
identified as a verb and can literally be translated as "he
says" or "he will say" (masculine, singular, perfect tense).

When the letter vav is prefixed to a verb, the tense of the
verb is reversed. Therefore, the word ~:x is "he says"
(masculine, singular, imperfect tense) while the word
~:x is "he said" (masculine, singular, perfect tense).
This vav, when used in this instance, is called the "vav
consecutive."

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:¬:x
This word has been discussed previously and is the subject
of the previous verb.


¬
The root of this word is ¬¬ as discussed previously
meaning, "to exist." When the letter is prefixed to the
root, the word ¬¬ (masculine, singular, imperfect
tense) is formed, meaning, "he exists."

When a root ends with a ¬, it is often dropped when used
as a verb. Hence, ¬¬ becomes ¬. Another letter that
frequently drops off a root when used as a verb is the
letter : when it is the first letter of the root. All verb roots
consist of three letters. If you come across a verb and
remove the prefixes and suffixes and find only two letters
remaining, most likely the verb has dropped the final ¬ or
the beginning :. For example, in Genesis 17:3 we find the
word :c. The letter is the vav consecutive meaning
"and" and reverses the tense of the verb. The letter is the
prefix identifying the subject of the verb as masculine
singular. We are then left with the word :c. The missing
third letter for this root is the dropped : as the root is
:c:.


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~x
This is a root word meaning "light." This word is the
subject of the previous verb.


¬
This is the same verb with the same conjugation as the
previous verb but includes the , which reverses the tense
from imperfect to perfect, and becomes "and he existed."


~x
The same word meaning, light, and again, the subject of
the previous verb.
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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

76
Lesson 4 – Genesis 1:4 & 5


:¬: ::: ~x_¬:x :¬:¸x x~
¡:¬ ¬ ¸: ~x_¬ ¸: :¬:¸x
x_~_; ¡:¬ : : ~x_: :¬:¸x x_~;
¬_¬x : ~;:¬ :~.¬ ¬_:_:


At this point you should be able to translate verses 4 and
5. Most of the words as well as the prefixes and suffixes
have been covered above with the exception of those listed
below. Once you have translated the verses you can use
your English Bible to check your translation.

To see
¬x~
To call
x~;
To separate
:¬:
Good
::
Between
¸:
That, it is
¸:
Night
¬::
Day
:
Evening
:~.
Morning
~;:
One
¬¬x
To (prefix)
:







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Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
5
5

H
H
e
e
b
b
r
r
e
e
w
w
/
/
E
E
n
n
g
g
l
l
i
i
s
s
h
h

D
D
i
i
c
c
t
t
i
i
o
o
n
n
a
a
r
r
y
y

______________________________________________



This list contains all the words used in the Bible which
occur twenty-five times or more. For example, the word
¸:x~ (used 182 times) is derived from the root :x~ (used
615 times), both being included in the list. The word
::x~ (used 1 time) is also derived from the same root,
but is used less than twenty-five times in the Bible and is
not included in the dictionary.

The Hebrew words in this dictionary do not contain
any of the prefixes or suffixes as found in the Hebrew text.
By removing the prefixes and suffixes of the Hebrew
words in the text, the word can be found. For example the
word :::¬, includes the prefix ¬ meaning "the." When
this is removed, the word :::, meaning "heavens,"
remains and is found in the dictionary. As another
example, the word ~:x, meaning "and they said,"
contains two prefixes ( and ), and one suffix (). When
these are removed, the word ~:x meaning "to say,"
remains and is also found in the dictionary.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

79

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Father
:_x
Brother
¬x
To destroy
~ :_x
One
¬_¬x
Consent
¬_:_x
Back, Future
~¬_x
Needy
¸:x
Sister
:¬_x
To mourn
::_x
To seize
:¬_x
Stone
¸:x
Possession
¬_¬_x
Lord
¸¬_x
After
~ ¬x
Nobles
~¬_x
Other
~ ¬x
Mankind
:¬_x
Last
¸~_¬x
Ground
¬:_¬x
Future
:~_¬x
Base
¸¬x
Where
x
Lord
_:¬x
Island
x
To love
:¬_x
Enemy
:x
Love
¬_:¬x
Where
¬x
Tent
:¬x
How
¸x
Or
x
Ram
:x
Desire
¬__x
Arch
:_:x
Fool
:¸x
Not exist
¸x
Perhaps
:x
Man
:x
Folly
::x
But
¸x
Evil
¸_x
To eat
::_x
Wheel
¸cx
Food
::x
Treasure
~_ .x
Not
:x
To Shine
~x
God
:x
Light
~x
To
:x
Sign
:x
Oath
¬_:_x
Then
:x
These
¬:x
To Listen
¸:_x
God(s)
:¬:¸x
Ear
¸:x
God
¬:¸x
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Chief
_:x
Four
.:~x
Widow
¬_:_::x
Forty
::~x
Thousand
_:x
Purple
¸_:_.¬x
Mother
:x
Chest
¸¬x
If
:x
Cedar
:~x
Maidservant
¬_:_x
Path
¬~ x
Cubit
¬_:x
Lion
~¸x
Faithfulness
¬_::_x
To lengthen
¸~_x
To believe
¸:_x
Length
¸~x
Amen
¸:_x
Fortress
¸:¬x
Courageous
,:_x
Earth, land
,~x
To say
~ :_x
To curse
~ ~_ x
Word
~ :x
Fire
:x
Promise
¬_~:x
Off. by fire
¬:x
Truth, faith
::x
Woman
¬_:x
Where
¸_x
To bear guilt
::_x
Man
::_x
Guilt (off.)
:_:_x
We
:¬:x
Which
~ :¸x
I
:_x
Blessed
~:x
Ship
¬_:¸x
[with]
:x
I
::_x
You
¬_:x
To gather
_:_x
Donkey (f)
¸:_x
To bind
~ :_x
Well
~ x:
And
_x
To be unfaithful
¬._:
Nose, anger
_x
Clothes
¬.:
End
:cx
Pole, alone
¬:
Finger
.:.x
To set apart
:¬_:
Beside
:.x
To terrify
:¬_:
To ambush
:~_x
Animal
¬_:¬:

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English Hebrew English Hebrew
To come
x:
Master
:.:
Pit
~:
To burn
~ ._:
To disgrace
::
To fortify
~ ._:
Plunder
::
To divide
.;_:
Despise
¬_:_:
Herd
~_ ;_:
To carry off
::_:
Morning
~ ;:
Young man
~¬:
To seek
:;_:
To test
¸¬_:
To create
x~_:
To choose
~ ¬_:
Hail
¬_~_:
To trust
¬:_:
Iron
::~:
Safety
¬::
To flee
¬~_:
Womb
¸::
Bar
¬~:
To understand
¸:
Covenant
:~:
Between
¸_:
To bless
¸~_:
Understanding
¬_::
Knee
¸~:
House
::
Blessing
¬_:_~:
To weep
¬_:_:
To cook
::_:
Firstborn
~ ::
Spice
:::
Weep
::
Flesh
~_ :_:
Not, less
::
Shame
:::
Not, Without
::
Daughter
::
Wicked
:.::
Virgin
¬_:¬:
To mix
::_:
Pride
¸x_.
To swallow
.:_:
To redeem
:x_.
Not, Without
:::
To make high
¬:_.
High place
¬_:_:
High
¬:_.
Son
¸:
Territory
::.
To build
¬_:_:
Mighty
~:.
For
¬.:
Power
¬_~:.
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Hill
¬_.:.
Plague
~ :¬
To strengthen
~ :_.
Honey
::¬
Strong man
~ :.
Grain
¸_._¬
Roof
._.
Uncle
¬¬
Troops
¬¬.
Generation

Great
:¬_.
Enough
¬
To make great
:¬_.
Poor

Nation
.
Door
::¬
Exile
¬_:.
Blood
:_¬
To be alien
~.
To compare
¬_:_¬
Lot
:_~.
Likeness
::¬
To rob
::_.
Knowledge
:.¬
Valley
x.
To tread
¸~_¬
To rejoice
:.
Way
¸~¬
To exile
¬_:_.
To seek
:~_¬
Idols
::.
Meaningless
::¬
Also
:.
To mutter
¬_._¬
To wean
::_.
Splendor
~_ ¬_¬
Camel
:_:_.
He

Garden
¸.
Woe
¬
To steal
::_.
Wealth
¸¬
Vine
¸c.
To exist
¬__¬
Alien
~ .
Temple
:_:¬
Threshing floor
¸~.
To go/walk
¸:_¬
To drive out
:~_.
To praise
::_¬
Rain
::.
They

To cling
;:_¬
To roar
¬_:_¬
To speak
~ :_¬
Crowd
¸:_¬
Word
~_ :_¬
Surely
¸¬
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Here
¬_:¬
Feast

Look
¬:¬
To put on
~ ._¬
To turn
¸c_¬
To stop
:¬_¬
Mountain
~ ¬
Bedroom
~ ¬¬
To kill
.~_¬
New
:_¬_¬
To conceive
¬_~_¬
New moon
:¬¬
To tear down
:~_¬
To anguish

To sacrifice
¬:_:
Wall
¬_:¬
Sacrifice
¬::
Street

This
¬:
To see
¬_:_¬
Gold
:_¬_:
Vision
¸:_¬
To flow
::
To strengthen
;:_¬
Olive
::
Strong
;_:_¬
To remember
~ :_:
To sin
x:_¬
Male
~_ ¬_:
Sin
x:¬
Lewdness
¬_::
Sin (off.)
:x_:¬
To make music
~ :_:
Wheat
¬_:¬
To prostitute
¬_:_:
Life
¬
To cry out
;._:
To live
¬__¬
Old, elder
¸;_:
Army

To scatter
¬_~_:
Outer
¸.¬
Arm
.~:
Bosom

To plant
.~:
To be wise
::_¬
Seed
.~:
Wise
:_:_¬
To sprinkle
;~_:
Wisdom
¬_::_¬
To hide
x_:_¬
Fat
::¬
Rope
::¬
Milk
:_:_¬
To join
~ :_¬
To be ill
¬_:_¬
To saddle
::_¬
Dream
::¸¬
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Window
¸:¬
To search
~ ;_¬
To begin
::_¬
To lay waste
:~_¬
Slain
:_:_¬
Sword
:~¬
To dream
::_¬
Ruins
¬_:~_¬
To change
_:_¬
To tremble
¬~_¬
To divide
;:_¬
Anger
¬_~_¬
Portion
;:¬
Fierce
¸~_¬
Wrath
¬_:¬
To destroy
:¬_¬
Donkey (m)
~:¬
Destroy
:¬¬
Fifth
::¸¬
To insult
_~_¬
To spare
::_¬
Disgrace
¬_c~¬
Violence
:_:¬
To plow
:~_¬
Five
::_¬
Craftsman
:_~_¬
Grace
¸¬
To plan
::_¬
To camp
¬_:_¬
To hold back
¸:_¬
Spear
::¸¬
Darkness
¸:¬
For no reason
:_:¬
Breastpiece
¸:¬
To have grace
¸:_¬
To seal
::_¬
Love
¬:¬
To frighten
::_¬
To take refuge
¬_:_¬
Guard
¬_::
Saints
¬:_¬
Ring
:.::
Delight
,c_¬
Pure
~¬_:
Delight
,c¬
To be pure
~ ¬_:
Arrow

Good
::
half
.¸¬
Goodness
::
Trumpet
¬_~..¸¬
Good
¬_::
Courtyard
~ ._¬
Row
~:
Decree

Dew
:_:
Decree
¬_;¬
To be unclean
x:_:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

85

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Unclean
x:_:
To discipline
~ :_
Uncleanness
¬_x::
To meet
¬._
To hide
¸:_:
Because
¸._
Children
_:
To give advise
,._
Before
:~:
Forest
~ .
To tear
_~_:
Beautiful
¬c_
To dry up
::_
To come out
¬_._
To be weary
.._
To stand
:._
Hand
¬_
To pour out
;._
To throw
¬¬_
To form
~ ._
To know
.¬_
To set fire
:._
Day
:
Precious
~_ ;_
Day
:_:
To fear
x~_
Dove
¬_:
Fear
¬_x~
Together
¬¬
To come down
¬~_
Together
_¬¬
To shoot
¬_~_
To hope
:¬_
Moon
¬~_
To do good
::_
Curtain
¬.~
Wine
¸
Side
¸~_
To rebuke
¬:_
Far, end
¬_:~
Could
::_
To take possession
:~_
To bear child
¬:_
There is
:
Child
¬:
To settle
::_
To wail
::_
Salvation
¬_.:
Sea, West
:_
To save
.:_
Right
¸:_
Salvation
.:
Right
:_:
To straighten
~ :_
To lay found.
¬:_
Upright
~_ :_
To add
_:_
Peg
¬:_
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Fatherless
::_
Harp
~::
To be left
~ :_
To humble
.:_:
Other
~ :
Wing, Corner
__:_:
Heavy
¬:_:
Throne
x::
Glory
¬:_:
To cover
¬_:_:
To wash
::_:
Fool
:::
Lamb (m)
:::
Silver
_::
This is what
¬:
To mk angry
:._:
Priest
¸¬:
Palm, Sole
_:
Star
:_::
Young lion
~c:
To hold
::
To atone
~ c_:
To prepare
¸:
Mercy seat
:~c:
Cup
::
Vineyard
:~:
To lie
::_:
To bow down
.~_:
Strength
¬:
To cut off
:~_:
To hide
¬¬_:
To stumble
::_:
For
:
To write
::_:
This is how
¬_:_:
Robe
::::
Talent, plain
~_ ::
Side
_:_:
All
::
No, Not
x:
Dog
:::
People
:x:
To finish
¬_:_:
Heart
::
Daughter in-law
¬_::
Heart
:::
Article
::
Clothing
:::
Kidney
¬_::
White
¸_:_:
To disgrace
::_:
To clothe
::_:
Disgrace
¬_:::
If
:
Like
::
Tablet
¬:
So
¸:
To stay a night
¸:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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English Hebrew English Hebrew
To fight
:¬_:
To circumcise
::
Bread
:¬:
Near
::
Night
¬_:_:
To discipline
~_ ::
To catch
¬:_:
Meeting
¬.:
To learn
¬:_:
Wonders
:c:
To take
¬;_:
Exit
¬_.:
To gather
:;_:
Snare
:;:
Tongue
¸:_:
Settlement
:_::
Room
¬_:::
To die
::
Very
¬x:
Death
:_:
Hundred
¬_x:
Altar
¬:::
Anything
¬_:x:
Psalm
~:::
Food
:_:¸x:
East
¬_~::
To refuse
¸x_:
Sprinkle bowl
;_~::
To reject
:x_:
To blot out
¬_¬_:
Fortified
~_ .::
Division
:;:¸¬:
Tower
:_¬.:
Camp
¬:¬:
Shield
¸._:
Tomorrow
~_ ¬_:
Plague
¬_c.:
Next day
:_~_¬_:
Pastureland
:_~.:
Plans
¬_:_:¸¬:
Desert
~_ :¬:
Tribe
¬::
To measure
¬¬_:
Bed
¬_::
Measurement
¬_¬:
Rain
~_ :_:
Quarrel
¸¬_:
Who
:
Why
.¬:
Water
::
Province
¬_:¬:
Kind
¸:
What
¬_:
Wound
¬_:_:
Quickly
~ ¬_:
Stand
¬_:::
To shake
::
To sell
~ :_:
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
To fill
x:_:
To be unfaithful
:._:
Full
x:_:
Unfaithfulness
:.:
All in
x::
Top
:.:
Messenger
¸_x::
Step
¬_:¸.:
Work
¬_:x_::
Action
:_:¸.:
Speaking
¬_::
So that
¸.:
Kingdom
¬_:::
Cave
¬_~_.:
Salt
¬::
Work
¬:¸.:
Battle
¬_:_¬::
Tenth
~ :¸.:
To escape
::_:
To find
x_._:
To reign
¸:_:
Sacred stone
¬__:.:
King
¸::
Unleavened Brd
¬_.:
Queen
¬_:::
Command
¬_.:
Kingdom
::::
Sanctuary
:_¬;:
Kingdom
¬_:_:::
Place
:;_:
From
¸:
Livestock
¬:;:
To count
¬_:_:
Bitter
~ :
Lampstand
¬_~::
Appearance
¬x~:
Grain (off.)
¬_¬::
To rebel
~ ~_ :
From
::
To rebel
¬~_:
To keep
.:_:
On high
:~_:
Curtain
¸_:_:
Chariot
¬_:_:~:
Cast idol
¬_:::
Deceit
¬_:~:
Road
¬_:::
Load, oracle
x_::
Number
~_ c::
To anoint
¬:_:
Stomach
¬.:
Anointed
¬::
Fortress
:._:
To pull
¸:_:
Little
:.:
Bed
:_:::
Robe
:.:
Tabernacle
¸_:::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

89

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To rule
::_:
Noble
:¬_:
Proverb
:_:_:
To make a vow
~ ¬_:
Duties
:~:::
River
~_ ¬_:
Second
¬:::
To sway
¬:
Clan
¬_¬_c::
Pasture
¬_:
Justice
:_c::
To give rest
¬:
Weight
:_;::
To flee
::
Banquet
¬:::
To shake
.:
How long
:_:
To wave
_:
Please
x_:
Crown
~ ::
Declares
:x:
To lead
¬_¬_:
To com. adultery
_x_:
To inherit
:¬_:
To prophecy
x_:_:
Valley
:¬:
To look
::_:
Inheritance
¬_:¸¬:
Prophet
x:_:
To comfort
:¬_:
Lyre
:::
Snake
:_¬_:
Dead body
¬_:::
Bronze
::¬:
South
:.:
To stretch out
¬_:_:
To tell
¬._:
To plant
.:_:
in front of
¬.:
To abandon
::_:
Ruler
¬._:
Pleasing
¬¬:
To touch
.._:
Lamp
~:
Mildew
..:
To strike down
¬_:_:
To be defeated
_._:
Opposite
¬::
To approach
:._:
To recognize
~ :_:
Freewill off.
¬_:_¬:
Foriegn
~_ ::
To flee
¬¬_:
Foreigner
~:_:
Monthly period
¬_¬:
To test
¬_:_:
To banish
¬¬_:
To leave
.:_:
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English Hebrew English Hebrew
Youth
:~.:
Booth
¬_::
Young man
~ .:
To forgive
¬:_:
Young girl
¬_~¸._:
Rocky craig
.::
To fall
:c_:
Fine flour
:::
Soul
:c:
To sustain
¸:_:
To stand
:._:
Threshold
_:
To supervise
¬._:
To mourn
¬c_:
Preferred
¬.:
To record
~ c_:
To rescue
:._:
Scroll
~ c:
To watch
~ ._:
Secretary
~c:
To be clean
¬_;_:
Eunuch
:~_:
Innocent
;_:
To hide
~ :_:
To avenge
:;_:
Secret
~ ::
To avenge
¬_:_;:
Think cloud
:.
To lift up
x_:_:
To serve
¬:_.
To overtake
.:_:
Servant
¬:.
Leader
x:_:
Service
¬_¬:¸.
To kiss
;:_:
For the sake of
~:¸.
Eagle
~ ::
To cross over
~ :_.
To give
¸:_:
Other side
~ :.
To bring down
,:_:
Wrath
¬_~:.
To break
;:_:
Calf
:..
To circle round
::_:
Ever
¬.
All around
::_:
Until
¬.
To shut
~ ._:
Witness
¬.
Horse
::
Community
¬_¬.
Reeds
_:
Testimony
:¬.
To remove
~:
Flock
~ ¬.
Pot
~:
To duplicate
¬.
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91

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Again
¬.
Valley
;:.
Wicked
¬_:.
To answer
¬_:_.
Everlasting
:_:.
To humble
¬_:_.
Sin
¸_.
Humble
_:_.
To fly
_.
Affliction
:_.
Bird
_.
Poor, Humble
:_.
To awake
~.
Cloud
¸_:_.
Skin
~.
Dust
~_ c_.
Blind
~ .
Tree
,.
Goat
:.
Counsel
¬_..
Strength
:.
Strong
:._.
To forsake
::_.
Bone
:..
To help
~ :_.
To close
~ ._.
Help
¬_~:.
Evening
:~.
Eye
¸.
Desert
¬_:_~¸.
City
~.
Nakedness
¬_~.
On
:.
To be in order
¸~_.
Yoke
:.
Value
¸~.
To go up
¬_:_.
Uncircumcised
:~_.
Burnt off.
¬_:.
Neck
_~.
Most high
¸:.
Grass
::.
To close
::_.
To do
¬_:_.
People
:.
Tenth
~:¸.
With
:.
Smoke
¸_:_.
To stand
¬:_.
Ten
~ :.
With
¬:_.
Ten
~_ :_.
Near, beside
¬_:.
Tenth
¸~_:.
Pillar
¬:.
Twenty
:~:.
Trouble
:_:_.
To oppress
;:_.
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92

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Wealth
~ :.
Punishment
¬_¬;c
Time
:.
Bull
~ c
Now
¬_:.
To separate
¬~_c
Goat (m)
¬:.
Fruitful
¬_~_c
Side
¬_xc
Cow
¬_~_c
To strike
.._c
To blossom
¬~_c
To ransom
¬_¬_c
Fruit
~c
Mouth
¬c
Curtain
::¬_c
Here
¬c
To break
,~_c
To scatter
,c
To break
~~_c
To tremble
¬¬_c
To spread
:~_c
Fear
¬¬c
To strip off
::_c
Governor
¬_¬c
To rebel
.:_c
Concubine
:.:c
Rebellion
.:c
Wonderful
x_:_c
Sudden
:x:c
To deliver
::_c
To deceive
¬_:_c
Remnant
¬_::c
To open
¬:_c
To pray
::_c
Entrance
¬:c
Or
¸c
Sheep
¸x.
To turn
¬_:_c
Army
x_:_.
Corner
¬_:c
Side
¬.
Face
¬:_c
Righteous
;¬.
Inner
::c
To be righteous
;¬_.
Passover Lamb
¬:c
Righteousness
c¬.
Idol
::c
Righteousness
¬_;_¬.
To do
:._c
Neck
~x_.
Deed
:.c
To command
¬__.
Time
:.c
To fast
:.
To punish
¬;_c
To lay siege
~.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

93

English Hebrew English Hebrew
Rock
~.
High
¬_:;
To prosper
¬:_.
Small
¸_:_;
Side
._:.
To burn incense
~ :_;
To grow
¬:_.
Incense
:~:;
To cry out
;._.
Wall
~;
Watchman
¬_c_.
To curse
::_;
To overlay
¬_c_.
Curse
¬_:_:;
North
¸c_.
To be jealous
x_:_;
Bird
~c.
Jealousy
¬_x:;
To store up
¸c_.
To buy
¬_:_;
Distress
~ .
Rod
¬:_;
Trouble
¬_~_.
End
,;
Disease
:.~_.
End
¬._;
Refine
_~_.
End
¬_._;
To be distressed
~ ~_ .
Harvest
~._;
To assemble
::_;
To be angry
_._;
To bury
~ :_;
Wrath
_.;
Grave
~ :;
To harvest
~ ._;
Holy
:¬_;
To call
x_~_;
East
:¬_;
To meet
x_~_;
To come, to meet
:¬_;
To come near
:~_;
East, of old
:¬;
Among
:~;
To consecrate
:¬_;
Offering
¸_:~_;
Holy
:¬;
To happen
¬_~_;
To assemble
:¬_;
Near
:~_;
Assembly
:_¬_;
City
¬_~;
To bind together
¬__;
Horn
¸~;
Voice
:;
To tear
.~_;
To rise up
:;
Frame
:~;
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

94

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To listen
::_;
To wash
,¬_~
Harden
¬_:_;
To go far
;¬_~
Harsh
¬:_;
To quarrel
:~
To conspire
~ :__;
Dispute
:~
Bow
::;
Aroma
¬~
To see
¬x_~
To ride
::_~
Head
:x~
Chariot
::~
First
¸:x~
Possession
::~
First,Beginning
::x~
Pomegranate
¸:~
Many, Great
:_~
Song of joy
¬_:~
Many, Great
:~
To sing for joy
¸:_~
To increase
¬_:_~
Evil
.~
Fourth
.:~
Neighbor
.~
To lie down
,:_~
Famine
:_._~
To tremble
:._~
Shepherd
¬_._~
To spy out
:._~
Disaster
¬_._~
Foot
:.~
To do evil
.._~
To pursue
_¬_~
To shake
:._~
Wind, spirit
¬~
To heal
x_c_~
To exalt
:~
To leave
¬_c_~
To shout
.~
To accept
¬_._~
To run
,~
Will
¸._~
To enlarge
:¬_~
To murder
¬._~
Street, square
:¬~
Only
;~
Width
:¬~
To condemn
.:_~
Far
;¬_~
Wicked
.:~
To compassion
:¬_~
Wicked
._:_~
Compassion
:¬~
Grave
:x:
Womb
:¬~
To ask
:x_:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

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English Hebrew English Hebrew
To remain
~ x_:
To laugh
;¬_:
Remnant
~_ _x:
To corrupt
:¬_:
Remnant
:~x:
Acacia
¬_::
To tk captive
¬_:_:
Accuser, Satan
¸_:_:
Oath
¬_.::
To sweep away
_:_:
Fortune
:::
Official
~ :_:
Tribe
:::
To sing
~:
Captivity
::
Song
~:
Seventh
.::
To set
::
To swear
.:_:
To lie down
::_:
To satisfy
.:_:
To forget
¬:_:
Seven
.::
To be wise
::_:
To break
~ :_:
To get up early
::_:
Destruction
~ ::
To dwell
¸:_:
To stop, end
::_:
Wages, Reward
~_ :_:
Sabbath
:_::
Fullness, Peace
::_:
Destruction
¬:
Three
::_:
To destroy
¬¬_:
To send
¬:_:
Field
¬¬_:
Table
¸_¬::
Almighty
¬_:
Third
:::
Sheep
¬:
To throw
¸:_:
Vain
_:
Plunder
:_:_:
To return
::
To make full
::_:
To put, set
::
Peace off.
:::
Gatekeeper
~ .:
To draw
_:_:
Ram's horn
~_ c:
Three days
::::
Ox
~:
There
:_:
To rejoice
::
Name
::
To slaughter
:¬_:
Left
:x::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

96

English Hebrew English Hebrew
To destroy
¬:_:
To bring low
:c_:
Desolate
¬_::
To give drink
¬_;_:
News
¬_.::
Detestable
,;:
To rejoice
¬:_:
To be quiet
:;_:
Joy
¬_¬::
Shekel
:;:
Heaven
::_:
Untruth
~ ;:
Eighth
:::
Official
~ :
Clothes
¬_:::
Survivor
¬~_:
To be desolate
::_:
To burn
_~_:
Desolate
¬_:_::
Root
:~ :
Oil
¸::
To minister
:~_:
Eight
¬:::
Linen
::
To hear
.:_:
Six
::
To keep
~ :_:
Sixth
::
Sun
:::
To drink
¬_:_:
Teeth
¸:
Fig
¬_:x:
To hate
x:_:
Ark
¬_::
Year
¬_:_:
Harvest
¬_x::
Scarlet
:_:
Understanding
¬_:::
Second
::
World
:::
Two
:::
Deep
:¬:
Goat
~._:
Praise
¬_:¬:
Gate
~ .:
Thanksgiving
¬_¬:
Hair
~_ .:
Center
¸_:
Barley
¬_~.:
Geneology
:¬:.:
Lip, Edge
¬_c_:
Worm
¬_.::
Maidservant
¬_¬c:
Detestable
¬_:.:
To deliver
:c_:
Out
:x_..:
To pour out
¸c_:
Torah
¬_~:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

97

English Hebrew
To plea
¬_:¬:

Under
:¬:

New wine
:~:

Blue
::::

To hang
¬_:_:

Blameless
::

Regular
¬:_:

Without defect
::_:

To be perfect
::_:

Wave off.
¬_c::

To stray
¬_._:

Glorious
:~xc:

Prayer
¬_:c:

To seize
:c_:

Hope
¬_;:

To blow
.;_:

Offering
¬_:~:

Shout, Trumpet
¬_.~:

Deliverance
¬_.::

Nine
.::













Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

98


P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
6
6

P
P
a
a
r
r
e
e
n
n
t
t
/
/
C
C
h
h
i
i
l
l
d
d
R
R
o
o
o
o
t
t
s
s

______________________________________________



The most ancient Hebrew words are all derived from a
tw-letter parent root such as :: (flow). A child root is
formed by placing a vowel (, , ¬, x) in front, between or
at the end of the two letters of the parent root. The
following child roots are derived from the parent ::
meaning, "flow."

::x (wilt; a flowing away of life)
::¬ (empty; a flowing away of contents)
:¬: (panic; a flowing of the insides)
¬:: (aged; a flowing away of youth)
:: (flood; a heavy flowing of water)
:: (stream; a flowing of water).

As you will notice, all the child roots are related in
meaning to each other and the parent root.

Since approximately 80% of the Hebrew words in the
Bible are a parent or child root or a word derived from
these roots, it is relatively easy to find the meaning of a
word based on the root of the word. For example the child
root :x~ has the meaning of "head" or "top." The words
::x~, ¸:x~ and ¬:x~ are derived from this child root
and all have a meaning of "the head or top of something."
At times the meaning of a word derived from the root
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

99
appear to be very different from the root. This is due to
our modern understanding of words, which are often times
very different from the ancient Hebrews understanding of
words. When the word does not appear to be related, a
more concise dictionary should be consulted.

The following list will only include those roots whose
words derived from it are found in the Hebrew Bible. For
example, the two words ¸:: and ¸:: are found in the
Hebrew Bible and are derived from the child root ¸:. The
following list will include the entry ¸: but not ¸:: and
¸::.

Occasionally a letter of a word will change to another
letter of a similar sound but will retain a meaning
resembling the original root. For example the root ~:
(kor; meaning dig) has evolved into the following forms.

~; (qor) ~. (gor) ~¬ (chor) ~: (bor) ~. (ghor)

Each of these words is similar in sound and each have the
meaning of "dig" and will be included under the child root
of ~:. In this case, the entry ~; will have the word ~:
to the right, indicating that you will find this word there.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

100

:x

Begin
:x
Father
:x

:x
Bear fruit
::x

Mother, if
:x
Wineskin, medium
:x

Cubit, community
::x
Desire
:x

Bondwoman
¬:x
Hostile, enemy
:x

¸x
¬x

Idol, nothing
¸x
Fog, mist
¬x

Idol, nothing
¸:x
Befall
¬¬x

Idol, nothing
¸x
Fire poker
¬x

_x
Calamity
¬x

Nose, anger
_x
¬x

Aroma, baking
¬cx
Desire
¬x

,x
Desire
x

Press
,x
Desire
x

~x
Desire
¬x

Light
~x
Desire
¬x

:x
Desire
¬x

Fire
:x
:x

Foundation, cake
::x
Time, place
:x

Foundation
¬:x
¬x

Despair
:x
Brother, hearth
¬x

:x
:x

Mark, with, plow
:x
Gentle
:x

Mark
x:x
¡x

Arrive, you
¬:x
¸: ¡x

Mark
:x
:x

::
God, chief
:x

Pupil of the eye
¬::
Strong
::x

Cry out
::
Oath
¬:x

¬:
Strong
:x

Alone, branch
¬:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

101

Alone, branch
¬¬:

Flow
::
Wander
¬:x

::
Lie
x¬:

High
:¬:
¬:

High
¬::
Void
¬¬:
Brother-in-law
::
Need
¬:x

¸:
Come
x:

Son
¸:
::

Stone
¸:x
Plunder
::

Thumb
¸¬:
Plunder
:::

Structure, children
¬::
Plunder
x::

intelligence
¸:
Plunder
¬::

Seperate
¸:
Plunder
::

::
¬:

Trample
::
Remain
¬:x

.:
::

Gush, request
¬.:
Marble
:¬:

,:
Idle talk
¬::

White clay
,:
¡:

Swamp
,.:
Roll, swell
¡:x

White, linen, egg
,:
Weep
x::

;:
Weep
¬::

Pour out, destroy
;;:
Wander
¡:

Powder, dust
;:x
::

Rash
;¬:
Nothing
::

Empty
;:
Mixture
:::

~:
Lamend
::x

Clean, soap, grain
~:
Vain, empty
::¬

Clean, pure
~~:
Panic, anticipation
:¬:

Strong wing
~:x
Fail, aged
¬::

~: ~x:
Flood
::

Fat
x~:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

102

White
~¬:

Back, body
¬.
Food, soap
¬~:

Grieve
¬.
~: ~:

Valley
¬.
::

Back, body
_.
Shame, dried up
::

Arch, body
_.
Shame
::

:.
::

Fleece, mow
:.
Defined
:::

Sheer
::.
Desolate
¬::

Fleece
¬:.
Household
::

Sweep
:.
:.

:.
Bent back, dig
:.

Round, role, stone
:.
Cistern
x:.

Round, role, log
::.
High
¬:.

Collect
:.x
Locust, cut, dig
:.

Redeem
:x.
Dig
:.

Naked, exile
¬:.
..

Rejoice, fear
:.
Roof
..
2nd time around
::.
¬.

:.
Attack, troop
¬.

Also
:.
Attack, furrow
¬¬.

Marsh
:.x
Troop, band
¬.x

Drink, reed
x:.
Riverbank
¬¬.

Gather
¬:.
Attack, troop
¬.

¸.
Tendon
¬.

Garden
¸.
¬.

Protect
¸:.
Pride
x.

Bowl
¸.x
Back
.

..
Valley
.

Gasp
..
Pride
¬x.

Bellow
¬..
Heal
¬¬.


Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

103


Last breath
..

¬¬
_.

Enough
¬
¬. _.

Dart
¬x¬
¬. _.

Sick
¬¬
Non-native, chalk
~.

Rapid flight
¬¬
Throat, drag
~~.

¬¬
Gather, collect
~.x

Thrust
¬¬¬
Prostrate
~¬.

Push down
¬¬¬
Anger
¬~.

Push away
¬¬
Fear, guest
~.

¡¬
Fear
~.

Crush
¡¬
Plaster
~.

Trample
x:¬
:.

Collaps
¬:¬
Grope
::.

Crush
¡¬
Cloud
:.


:.

Dangle

Winepress
:.

Week, poor
::¬
Slow


Draw water
¬:¬
Slow
::¬


Flow
:x¬

Blood

Sluggish
x:¬

Silent
::¬
Mope


Red, man
:¬x


Silent
:¬¬
Fish


Likeness, silent
¬:¬
anxious
.x¬

¸¬
Increase
¬.¬

Ruler, lord
¸¬x
Fishing


Quarrel
¸¬
¬¬

Rule
¸¬
Breasts
¬¬


Gentle walk
¬¬¬

Know

Pot, basket, uncle
¬¬

Inteligence

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

104


Know


Shout
¬¬¬


Stretch out hand
¬¬¬
Push
¬c¬

Splendor
¬¬


¬¬
Leap


Behold, look
¬¬


Behold, look

Thin, canopy


Behold, look
¬
Crumble
;;¬

Behold, look
¬
Crumble


He, she



Grief, desire
¬¬
Circle, round


Exist
¬¬
Swallow, free
~~¬


Wide
~¬x

Dream
¬:¬
Wide
~x¬


Turn, honor
~¬¬

Shine
::¬
Gallop
~¬¬

Tent
:¬x
circle, generation


Far away
x:¬



Sprout
x:¬

Abundant, rich

Tread


Commotion
::¬


Noise
¬:¬
Law


Uproar



¸¬
Privelidge


Behold, here, if
¸¬
Love, affection
:¬x

Heavy, rich
¸¬
Give


Hin (a measure)
¸¬



Meditate
..¬

Still

Murmer, remove
¬.¬

Silent, still
¬:¬
¬¬


Shout
¬¬

Mount, hill

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

105


High, arrogant
~~¬

::
Pregnant
¬~¬

Shake
:::
High


Depart
::x


Except
::
Break in, assail
::¬

Shake, settle
::.


::
hood, peg, nail


Plan
:::
::

¸:
Hyssop
::x

Kinds
¸:
Gold, yellow
:¬:

Heavy, stout
¸:
Puss
::

Broad, ear
¸:x
Gold
:¬.

Whoredom
¬::
.:

Fat
¸:
Grapeskin
.:

.:
¬:

Tremble
.:
Waves, soup
¬:

Sweat
.:
Waves, soup
¬:

_:
¬:

Flow
_:
This
¬:

Sheet over
¬c.
Shine, beauty
¬¬:

Overflow
_.
¬: ¬:

;:
::

Fuse, refine
;:
Move, rich
::

Chains
;;:
¬:

~:
Remove
¬¬:

Stranger
~:
¡:

Sneeze
~~:
Clear
¡:

~. ~~:
Clear
¡::

~. ~:x
Pure
¬::

Loath, turn away
~x:



Warn
~¬:




Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

106


Scatter, winnow
¬~:


Loath, turn away
~:

Gaze
::¬
~. ~:

Possess
:¬x
::

Gaze
¬:¬
Olive
::

Enclose



¬¬
Bosom


Thistle, hook
¬¬
Bosom
::¬

Hook
¬¬
Refuge, secret
x:¬


Hide
¬:¬

Miss, sin
x:¬
Debt


Cord



¡¬
Festival


Roof of the mouth
¡¬
Festival
..¬

Wait
¬:¬
Revolve
x.¬


Refuge
¬.¬

Common

Circle


Common, pierce
::¬
¬¬

Sick, rust
x:¬
Unite
¬¬

Sick, pierce
¬:¬
Unite
¬¬¬

Turn

One, unite
¬¬x

~¬ :¬
Glad
¬¬¬


Riddle
¬¬

Hot

Unite
¬¬

Hot
::¬
¬¬

Curdled
x:¬
Life
¬¬

Wall
¬:¬
Life
¬

Burned, black

Life
¬¬

Passion, anger

Life
¬¬

¸¬
Life
¬

Camp, grace
¸¬




Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

107


Camp, grace
¸:¬

Wait

Pole, spear
¬:¬

Patient

Camp, grace
¸¬




Quiet
¬:¬
Trust, refuge
¬:¬

Hurry

Compassion


Lineage



Hurry
:.
Clean, pure



Secret
xc¬

Break, crumble

Clean, pure
_c¬

Break, crumble
::¬
Cover, protect
¬c¬

Sieze
¬:¬
Haven


::


Good
::
Arrow


Good
::
Divide, arrow
,.¬

Good
::
Half
¬.¬

¬:
Outside


Thorn
¬:x
Wall


¬:


Spun
¬:
Appointment


Sweep
x:
Appoint, inscribe
;;¬

¬:
Inscribe
¬;¬

Lay out, kidney
¬¬:
Bosom


Overlay
¬:


::
Glow hot, noble


Mud
::
Heated by the sun
~~¬

::
Remain, after
~¬x

Dew
::
Dung, privy
x~¬

Covering
:::
Anger
¬~¬

Cover
x::
White


Spotting
¬::
~: ~¬

Strew
::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

108


::

.
Unclean
::

Shovel
.
Unclean
x::

Brush
¬.
Unclean
¬::

_
¸:

Beauty
¬c
Basket
x::

~
.:

River
~x
Wander
¬.:

Fear
x~
_:

Point, rain, teach
¬~
Children
_:

:
Trip
_c:

Exist
:
Surround
_:

Aged
::
~:

Exist
¬:
Closed
~:x

::
Pure
~¬:

Pain
:x:
Wall
~:

Extinguish
¬::
::

¬:
Pounce
::

Jar
¬:
.

Strike
¬¬:
Grieve
¬.

Strike
¬:
¬

¬:
Hand
¬

Brand
:
Handle
¬¬

Sespond
¬x:
Hand out
¬¬

Weak
¬¬:
:

Burn
¬:
Sea
:

¬:
Terror
:x

Strength
¬:
Day
:

Chastise
¬:
¸

::
Mud
¸

Complete
::
Wine
¸

Complete
:::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

109


Eat
::x

~; ¬~:
Keep
x::

Dig
~:
Complete
¬::

Hole
~x:
Sustain
::

Dig
~:
Able, Could
::

Dig

::

Dig
~.
Desire, long for
¬::

Trench
~;
¸:

::
Stand upright
¸:

:: ¬::
Plant
¸::

Terror
::
Priest
¸¬:

::
Eulogy
¬::

Crush
:::
Stand
¸:

::
Sure
¡x

Heart
::
::

Heart
:::
Estimate
:::

Thirst
:x:
Covering
x::

Lion
x::
Cover
¬::

Glisten
:¬:
Cup, pocket
::

Lion
¬::
Fat
¬::

.:
Cup
:;

Log (measure)
.:
_:

Study
.¬:
Palm
_:

¬:
Bend
_c:

Offspring, child
¬:
Bow
_:x

Offspring, child
¬:
Tame
¬c:

¬:
~:

If, no, not
x:
Leap,cor(measure)
~:

If
:
Leap
~~:

Weary, faint
¬x:
Farm
~:x

Weary, faint
¬¬:
Dig
¬~:

Nothing, foolish
:x
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

110


Nothing, foolish
::x

::
Nothing, foolish
:x

Silent, tied up
::x
Nothing, foolish
:x

Community
:x:
¬:

Wound
:¬:
Join, lend
¬:

¸:
If
x:

Encamp
¸:
::

.:
Turn aside
¬::

Throat
.:
Turn aside
::

Swallow
.:
¬:

Blurt
.:
Moist, fresh
¬:

,:
Cheek
¬¬:

Mock, interpret
,.:
Corrupt
¬:x

Urge
,:x
Clay tablet
¬:

Mock, interpret
,:
Lick
;:

;:
::

¬: ;:
Veil
::

::
Veil, cover
:x:

Knead
::
Lizard
x::

.:
Flames
:¬:

Magi
.:
Secret, cover
::

Melt
.:
¡:

¬:
Messenger
¡x:

Carpet, measure
¬:
Walk
¡:¬

Carpet, measure
¬¬:
Walk
¡:

Extend
¬¬:
::

Stretch out
¬:
Howl
::x

¬:
Loop
x::

What
¬:
Stairway
::

What
:
Howl
::

Who
:
Night
::

Hundred
¬x:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

111


Question
¬¬:

Spurn
:x:
¬:

Disolve, faint
¬::
Marrow, rich
¬:

.:
Marrow
¬¬:

Bowels, soft
.:
Strike
x¬:

Bowels, soft
¬.:
Strike
¬¬:

,:
::

Chaff, oppression
,:
Shake, yoke
::

Suck, matsa
,.:
Branch
¬::

Strong
,:x
¡:

Find
x.:
Thin, poor
¡:

Suck
¬.:
Thin, poor
¡::

Chaff, oppression
,:
::

;:
Reduce, discourse
:::

Dissipate
;:
Sick
::x

Dissipate
;;:
Fill
x::

Mock
;:
Reduce
:¬:

~:
uncircumcised
::

Bitter, rebel
~:
::

Bitter, rebel
~~:
Blemish
:x:

Say
~:x
¸:

Bitter, rebel
~x:
Kind, from
¸:

Hurry, exchange
~¬:
Kind, from
¸::

Bitter, rebel
¬~:
Strong
¸:x

Exchange
~:
Refuse
¸x:

Exchange
~:
Assign, count
¬::

::
Likeness
¸:

Grope
:::
Right hand
¸:

Drawn out
¬::
::

Drawn out
::
Disolve, faint
::

Grope
::
Disolve, faint
:::


Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

112


::

Rest
¬:
Death
::

::
Death
::

Spread out
¬::
Death
¬::

Shake
::
::

¡:
Bore
:::

Beat
x::
Prophecy
x::

Beat
¬::
High
¬::

::
Produce
::

Complete
¬::
.:

Rubble
::
Drive
.¬:

::
Bright
¬.:

Sleep
::
¬:

¸:
Flee, wander
¬:

Sprout, continue
¸:
Flee, wander
¬¬:

::
Toss about
¬¬:

Flag
::
Flee, wander
¬:

Beacon, glee
:::
¬:

:: :::
Please
x:

Test
¬::
Lament
:

Flee
::
sit, dwell
¬x:

Lift up
x::
Lament
¬¬:

.:
sit, dwell
¬:

Shake
.:
Disposses
¬:

_:
Forbid
x:

Wave
_:
Raw
x:

,:
::

Shine
,.:
Sprinkle
¬::

Dispise
,x:
¬:

Fly
x.:
Sigh
¬:x

Quarrel
¬.:
Lead
¬¬:

Fly away
,:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

113


;:

Forget
:
Cry out
;:x

Forget
¬¬:
Cry out
;¬:

Rise
x:
Innocent
¬;:

Elevate
x:
Suckle
;:

Conceal, hide
¬:
Suckle
;:

¬:
~:

Sweep away
¬¬:
Lamp
~:

Meditate
¬:
River
~¬:

Swim, float
¬¬:
Lamp, yoke
~:

Meditate
¬:
::

Ponder, plant
¬:
Lend
x::

::
Lend
¬::

Turn aside
::
Sick
::

:: ::
Sick
:::

Depart
::
::

Turn aside
::
Turn
:::

Deviate
¬::
Drunk
x::

Turn aside
::
Old
::

¡:
¬:

Booth
¡:
Foundation
¬:

Cover
¡::
Assembly
¬:

Anoint
¡:
Foundation
¬:

Thorn, hedge
¡:
Level
¬¬:

Cover, thorn
¡::
Witness
¬¬:

View
¬::
Field
¬¬:

Cover
¡:
Plaster
¬:

::
¬:

Raise, basket
::
seah (measure)
¬x:

Raise
:::
Veil
¬:

Weigh
x::
Sheep
¬:

Raise
¬::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

114


Quail
::

;:
::

Sack
;:
Smell
::

Sack
;;:
Smell
:::

~:
Storehouse
::x

Sad, anger
~:
Poison
:::

Sad, anger
~~:
Garlic
::

Bind, yoke
~:x
¸:

Round
~¬:
Shoe
¸x:

Instruct
~:
Thistle
x::

pot, fishhook
~:
Thorn
¸.

Commander
~:
Sharp, protect
¸:.

Rule
~~:
Flock
¸x.

Bind
~:x
Flock
¸.

Yeast
~x:
Thistle
¬::

Rule
~:
Hate
x::

::
::

Winter
¬::
Cheerful, moth
::

Entice
::
Horse, swallow
::

:.
Cheerful
::

Dark covering
:.
.:

Thick, dense
¬:.
Rush
¬.:

Dark covering
:.
_:

..
Lip, edge
_:

Baked bread
..
Door
_c:

¬.
Take, gather
_:x

Appointed time
¬¬.
Feed
xc:

Pass, ornament
¬¬.
Scrape
¬c:

Testify, witness
¬.
Take, gather
_:

Appointed
¬.
Lip
¬c:






Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

115


¬.

Watch, depress
¬:.
Evil
.

Abode
¸.
Ruins
.

Watch
¸.
Sweep away
¬.

Eye
¸.
:.

:.
Goat
:.

Tread
::.
Strong
::.

Do
¬:.
Bold
¬:.

_.
Stronghold
:.

Branch
¬c.
Strong
:.

Fly
_.
:.

Exhausted
_.
Stylus, pen
:.

Exhausted
_.
Wrap
¬:.

,.
Dig in
:.

Tree
,.
Wrap
:.

Spine
¬..
Bird of prey
:.

Counsel
,.
,. :.

Counsel
,.
:.

Counsel
:.
Yoke, top, high
:.

;.
Work
::.

Parepet
¬;.
:. ::.

Oppress
;.
Ascend
¬:.

~.
Give milk
:.

Enemy, bare
~.
Ascend
:.

Naked
~~.
:.

Naked
¬~.
Flock, with
:.

Watch, wake, bare
~.
Hidden
::.

~: ~.
Neighbor
¬:.

Forest
~.
Violence
:.

:.
¸.

Waste away
::.
Cover, cloud
¸:.

:. ¬:.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

116


:¬ :.

Darkness
:cx
:.

Wonder
x:c
Help
:.

Wonder
¬:c
.c

Bean
:c
Unripe, unfit
.c

:c
Unripe, unfit
..c

Fat
:c
Unripe, unfit
.c

¸c
¬c

Face, turn
¸c
Girdle
¬cx

Face, turn
¸:c
Redeem
¬¬c

Wheel
¸cx
Disappear
¬c

Face
¬:c
¬c

Turn
¸c
Mouth, edge, word
¬c

:c
Beard, blow
¬xc

Ankle, wrist, end
:c
Beard, blow
¬c

Ankle, wrist, end
::c
:c

Ankle, wrist
:cx
Refine
:c

.c
Refine, leap
::c

Viper
.cx
¬c

Quiet scream
¬.c
Spread
¬c

,c
Net
¬¬c

Disperse, scatter
,.c
Governor
¬¬c

Open
¬.c
Blow, dust
¬c

Scatter
,c
Breathe
¬c

;c
¡c

Restrain
;cx
Flask
¡c

Waver, unsteady
;c
Overturn
¡c¬

~c
Pour
¬:c

Bull
~c
Eye paint
¡c

Break
~~c
:c

Abundance, dust
~cx
Intercede
::c

Adorn, honor
~xc
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

117


~: ~xc

Glare
¬¬.
Wild donkey
x~c

Dig
¬¬.
Fruit
¬~c

Cry out
¬.
Winepress
~c

Desert
¬.
:c

:.
Leopresy
¬:c

Shade
:.
Spread
:c

Shade
::.
:c

:: ::.
Pudenda, socket
:c

Near
:.x
Entice
¬:c

Neigh
:¬.
:.

Roast
¬:.
Wall
:.

Deep
:.
Army
x:.

:.
:: :¬.

Cover the mouth
::.
Swell
¬:.

Thirst
x:.
Stand erect
:.

Fast
:.
..

¸.
Set
..

¸: ¸.
¬.

¸: ¸:.
Side
¬.

¸: ¸x.
Lay down
¬¬.

¸: ¸.
Hunt
¬.

..
¬.

Wander
¬..
Issue
x.

Sheet, floor
..
Command
.

_.
Ship
.

Whisper
_c.
Command
¬.

Watch
¬c.
Desert, nomad
¬.

_: ¬c.
Issue
x.

_: _.
¬.

,.
Desert
¬.

Blossom
,.
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

118


;.

Vomit
¬;
Funnel
;.

Vomit
x;
Pour
;.

:;
~.

Little
:;
Wraped, pressed
~.

Cut off
::;
Wraped, pressed
~~.

Cut off
:;
Store up
~.x

:;
Pain
~x.

Light, quick
:;
Olive oil
~¬.

Light, quick
::;
Pressed, rock
~.

Assemble
:¬;
Pressed
~.

Roast
¬:;
Journey
~.

Voice, sound
:;
Bind
~~:

:;
Bind
~:x

Raise
:;
Press
~:

¸;
Lie in wait
~~:

Nest
¸;
:.

Nest
¸:;
Kindle
:.

Jealous
x:;
Kindle
:.

Acquire
¬:;
:;

lament
¸;
Jar, tent, belly
:;

:;
Jar, tent, belly
::;

:: ::;
¬;

,; :;
Bow the head
¬¬;

.;
Burn
¬;

Brand
.;
¬;

Hang, shrivel
.;
Cord
;

_;
Gourd
;

Condense
xc;
Dull
¬¬;

Go around
_;
Cord, collect
¬;

,;
Obey
¬;

Cut, end
,;
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

119


Cut, end
¬.;

¬~
Cut, end, loathe
,;

Tread
¬¬~
Cut
::;

Flee
¬~x
~;

Tread
¬~¬
Cool, quiet
~;

Wander
¬~
Meet, call
x~;

Descend
¬~
Meet
¬~;

¬~
Precious
~;

Rain
~
Purchase
¬~:

Lion, box
¬~x
~: ~;

See
¬x~
:;

Fear, awe
¬¬~
Straw, bend
:;

Rain
¬~
Gather
::;

Fear, awe
¬~
Melon
x:;

Fear, awe
x~
Hard
¬:;

:~
Bend
:;

Ceder
:~x
Snare
:;

Thin
¬:~
:~

¬~
Abundant
:~

Traveler
¬~x
Abundant
::~

Handmill
¬¬~
Ambush
:~x

Wind, spirit
¬~
Bold
:¬~

Moon
¬~
Abundant
¬:~

:~
Defend, quarrel
:~

Trough
:¬~
.~

Cast down
:~
Weave
.~x

¡~
Kill
.~¬

Loins
¡~
Bad, loud
.~

Loins
¡:~
Bad, break
..~

Long
¡~x
Loud
.~

:~
Break up
.~

Lift up, worm
::~
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

120


Lift up
:~x

Accept
¬.~
Lift up
:x~

Run
,~
Throw, betray
¬:~

;~
Lift up
:~

Thin, spit
;~
Lift up
:~

Thin, spit
;;~
¸~

Empty
;~
Shout
¸~

Spit, green
;~
Shout
¸:~

~~
Nimble
¸~x

Spit
~~
Rattle
¬:~

Curse
~~x
:~

Spit, egg white
~~
Dew, pieces
::~

:~
Betroth
:~x

Divide
::~
Break, pull down
:~¬

Request
:~x
Betroth
:~x

:~ :~x
.~

Head
:x~
Companion
.~

Permission
x:~
.~ .~

Permission
¬:~
.~ ..~

Needy
:~
Shepherd
¬.~

Possession
:~
.~ .~

::
.~ .~

Split
:::
_~

;: :x:
Heal
xc~

Captive
¬::
Feeble
¬c~

Turn back
::
Pulverize
_~

Sit, dwell
::
,~

:: ::
Pieces
,~

.:
Broken pieces
,.~

Mistake
..:
Land
,~x

Groan
.x:
Run
x.~

Mistake
x.:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

121


Mistake
¬.:

::
Mistake
.:

:: ::
¬:

Flog
:::
Breast, goat
¬:

Despise
:x:
Power
¬¬:

Accasia tree
¬::
¬: ¬¬:

:: ¬::
Ravine
¬:x

lash, whip
::
¬: ¬¬:

:: ::
¬: ¬¬:

Stretch out
::
Power
¬:

¡:
¬: ¬:

¡: ¡:
¬:

Bow down, lower
¡::
¬: ¬:

¡: ¡::
Gift
:

Wander
¬::
¬: :

¡: ¬::
Storm
¬x:

¡: ¡:
Storm
¬:

::
False
x:

Draw out
::
¬: x:

Plunder
:::
¬: x:

Tamerisk tree
::x
¬:

Ask
:x:
Pit, bow
¬:

Draw out
¬::
¬: ¬:

Shirt
::
Pit, bow, submit
¬¬:

:: ::
Pit, bow
¬¬:

::
¬: ¬¬:

Name
::
Pit, bow
¬:

Desolate
:::
¬: ¬:

:: :::
Empty
¬:

Guilt
::x
¬: ¬:

High
x::




Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

122


Onyx
:¬:

;:
High
¬::

Leg
;:
Garlic
::

;: ;:
:: ::

Greed, eager
;;:
Desolate
::

;: ;;:
¸:

Drink
¬;:
Teeth
¸:

Leg, trough, street
;:
Sharp
¸::

~:
¸: x::

Cord, rope, sinew
~:
Rest, quiet
¸x:

~: ~:
Repeat, year
¬::

Twist together
~~:
Urine
¸:

~. ~~:
Sleep
¸:

~: ~~:
::

Happy
~:x
Plunder
:::

~: ~:x
Plunder
:x:

Relative
~x:
Plunder
¬::

~: ~x:
Plunder
::

Untie
¬~:
.:

Over, wall
~:
Delight, blind
..:

~: ~:
Watch
¬.:

Straight
~:
Cry out, deliver
.:

Song
~:
Free, safe
.:

::
_:

White, six
::
Serpent
_c:

Lead, drag
x::
Quiver
_:x

White
::
Draw in wind
_x:

:: ::
Stand out
¬c:

Old man
::
_: ¬c:

::
Strike
_:

Buttock,foundation
::
Draw in
:x:

Banquet
¬::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

123


Set
::

¸:
::

Patient, monster
¸:
Box
¬::

Patient, monster
¸::
¬:

Gift, wage, donkey
¸:x
Peg, stake
¬:

Gift, wage
¬::
¬:

Permanent, river
¸:
Room
x:

_:
Mark, sign
:

Drum
_:
mark, sign
¬x:

Beat
_c:
Empty
¬¬:

Spit
_:
Mark, sign
¬:

~:
Empty
¬:

Outline
~x:
¬:

Travel
~:
Sink down, bow
¬:

Remain, much
~:
¡:

::
Oppress, bend
¡:
He-goat
::
Oppress, bend
¡::


Bow down, sit
¬::


Middle
¡:


::


Mound
::


Mound
:::


Hang, suspend
x::


Hang, suspend
¬::


::


Whole, full
::


Whole, full
:::


Twins
:x:


Amaze
¬::










Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

124

P
P
a
a
r
r
t
t
7
7

A
A
d
d
o
o
p
p
t
t
e
e
d
d
R
R
o
o
o
o
t
t
s
s

______________________________________________



Adopted roots are three consonant roots that evolved
out of the parent or child root. This list includes all the
adopted roots where all the words derived from it are used
more than 25 times inclusively, in the Hebrew Bible.

Just as in the parent and child root list, this list only
contains the root and not the words derived from it,
though the words are closely related in meaning to the
adopted root.

While 80% of the words in the Bible are words derived
from the parent or child roots, another 15% are derived
from these adopted roots providing a fairly comprehensive
root dictionary.

Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

125

English Root English Root
thousand, chief, join
_:x

bent, vine
¸c.
covering, clothing
¬.:

angry, stone, lots
:~.
seperate
:¬:

level,threshing floor
¸~.
choose, select
~¬:

take away, detract
.~.
cling, trust, secure
¬::

cast out
:~.
firstborn, firstfruit
~::

rain
::.
wallow, destroy
.:::

adhere
;:¬
distant, behind
¬.:

speak, order
~:¬
lord, husband
:.:

honey
::¬
burn, destroy
~.:

weep
.:¬
break, cut, plunder
..:

tread, way, walk
¡~¬
cut off the vine
~.:

fat
¸:¬
break through/open
.;:

slaughter, sacrifice
¬::
plow, cattle
~;:

remember, male
~::
seek, request
:;:

cut, divide, sing
~::
iron
::~:

angry, insolent
:.:
pass, flee
¬~:

call out, assemble
;.:
knee, bless
¡~:

beard, chin, old
¸;:
boil, ripen
:::

rise
¬~:
sweet, pleasent
:::

scatter, sow, seed
.~:
flesh, good news
~::

scatter, dish
;~:
boundary
::.

writh, twist, bind
::¬
high, hill
.:.

bind, join
~:¬
strong, warrior
~:.

bind, gird
::¬
great
:¬.

bind, gird
~.¬
wall, fence
~¬.

cease, omit
:¬¬
cut off/down, divide
¬:.

enclise, chamber
~¬¬
ripe, wean, camel
::.

new
:¬¬
steal
::.

strong
;:¬
rebuke, reproof
~..

fat
::¬
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

126

English Root English Root
fat, dream
::¬

taste, decree
:.:
pass by
_:¬

not yet
:~:
smooth
;:¬

tear in pieces, feed
_~:
desire
¬:¬

heavy, honor, liver
¬::
compassion
::¬

wash, fuller
:::
violence, injure
::¬

abundant
~::
rise, ferment
~:¬

lamb
:::
five
::¬

trample
:::
embalm
::¬

lie, decieve
:::
dedicate
¡:¬

heep back, conceal
¬¬:
kindness
¬:¬

fail, false, lie
:¬:
want, be without
~:¬

dog, bark, basket
:::
bend, incline
,c¬

shame
:::
enclose, village
~.¬

bow down, subdue
.::
search
~;¬

wind, corner
_::
dry, wasted
:~¬

harp, lyre
¬::
trembled, fear
¬~¬

fool, inward part
:::
flat nose, devoted
:~¬

desire, silver
_::
autumn, scorn
_~¬

cover
~c:
sharp, wound
,~¬

vineyard
:~:
plow, engrave, silent
:~¬

bow down
.~:
think
::¬

cut
:~:
restrain
¡:¬

totter, stumble
:::
dark, obsure
¡:¬

write
:::
ornament
¸:¬

shoulder
_::
seal up, finish
::¬

crown, surround
~::
marry
¸:¬

white
¸::
slaughter, kill
¬::

dress, garment
:::
sink, eminence
.::

eat, battle, bread
:¬:
hide
¸::

press, squeeze
,¬:
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

127

English Root English Root
take, catch
¬::

vow
~¬:
learn, teach
¬::

seperate, withdraw
~::
mock, scorn
..:

obtain, possess
:¬:
take
¬;:

sigh, comfort
:¬:
collect, gather
:;:

serpent
:¬:
join, attack
¡::

settle, establish
.::
tongue, speech
¸::

watch, gaurd, retain
~::
rain
~::

leave, abandon
:::
sell, deliver
~::

opposite
¬::
salt
¬::

strange, alien
~::
deliver, eggs
:::

pour out
¡::
reign, king
¡::

cover
¡::
present, offering
¬::
pull, break up/out
.::
restrain, withhold
.::

tie, fasten
:.:
mix
¡::

pleasent, agreeable
:.:
perverse, treachery
:.:

shake
~.:
rebel
¬~:

fall
:c:
smear, anoint
¬::

break into pieces
,c:
draw out/away/in
¡::

set, place, erect
:.:
rule
:::

innocent, faithful
¬.:
look
:::

strip, snatch, take
:.:
wither, fade, foolish
:::

gaurd
~.:
dry, desert, south
:.:

branch
~.:
declare, tell, show
¬.:

spot, speck
¬;:
instrument, song
¸.:

avenge, revenge
:;:
touch
..:

go, come around
_;:
strike, smite
_.:

reach, overtake
.::
approach, brought
:.:

bite, usury
¡::
willing, impell
:¬:

arm, battle, arrange
;::
impell, expell,
thrust
¬¬:

saw
~::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

128

English Root English Root
give
¸::

heel
:;.
break out
.::

exchange
:~.
tear, break down
,::

evening, raven
:~.
pluck, draw away
;::

order, prepare
¡~.
fold together
¡::

uncircumsiced
:~.
carry, burden
:::

cunning, subtle
:~.
shut
~.:

heap
:~.
travel, go about
~¬:

drop, cloud
_~.
foolish
:::

turn the neck
_~.
forgive
¬::

fear, tremble
,~.
flour
:::

green herb
::.
lean, lay
¡::

smoke
¸:.
mourn, lament
¬c:

oppress, violence
;:.
write, scroll
~c:

ten
~:.
castrate
:~:

smooth, polish
::.
hide, conceal
~::

ready, prepare
¬:.
work, serve
¬:.

meet, occure, attack
..c
twist, weave, round
::.

weary, exhausted
~.c
roll, revolve
:..

tremble, fear
¬:c
order, arrange, flock
~¬.

escape
::c
help
~:.

leap, limp, hop
¬:c
surround, crown
~:.

cut, hew, idol
::c
hide, eternity
::.

work, wages
:.c
stand
¬:.

impel, urge, move
:.c
labor, toil, mischief
::.

visit
¬;c
deep, profound
;:.

seperate, divide
¬~c
earth, dust
~;.

sprout, blossom
¬~c
suffer, pain, grieve
:..

oppress
¡~c
close, strong, bone
:..

break, divide
:~c
restrain, detain
~..

break, scatter
,~c
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

129

English Root English Root
break, crush, tear
;~c

cut
:~;
scatter, decide
:~c

attend, listen
::;
strip, pull off
::c

bind, tie
~:;
rebel, sin
.:c

lie with, copulate
.:~
flax, wick, linen
::c

four
.:~
open
¬:c

lie down
,:~
sudden
.:c

shake, tremble
:.~
righteous
;¬.

foot, walk
:.~
pass over, prosper
¬:.

tremble,sudden
..~
side
.:.

follow after, chase
_¬~
spring, grow up
¬:.

wide, spacious
:¬~
cry out, assemble
;..

mercy, compassion
:¬~
small, young
~..

wash, bathe
,¬~
turn, leap, goat, bird
~c.

distant
;.~
leprosy, wasp
.~.

ride, rider
::~
refine
_~.

go about, trade
::~
collect, company
,:;

get, gain, acquire
::~
bury, sepulcher
~:;

tread
::~
precede, early, east
:¬;

creep, reptile
::~
seperated, devout
:¬;

hungry
:.~
little, small
¸:;

shake, tremble
:.~
burn
~:;

murder, slay
¬.~
bind, join
~:;

stamp, spread out
.;~
sling, cut/cast out
.:;

wicked
.:~
divination
::;

staff, tribe
:::
anger
_.;

flow, hair, robe
:::
draw or come near
:~;

satisfy, fill
.::
bald
¬~;

seven, swear
.::
horn
¸~;

break
~::
tear, rend
.~;

cease, rest
:::
Learn to Read Biblical Hebrew

130

English Root English Root
raise, high
:.:

measure, horrible
~.:
give presents, bribe
¬¬:

fear, storm, hair
~.:
slaughter, kill
:¬:

family
¬c:
lion
:¬:

judge, justice
:c:
laugh, scorn
;¬:

pour out
¡c:
bruise, pound
;¬:

low
:c:
black, early, dusk
~¬:

bright, pleasent
~c:
corrupt, destroy
:¬:

rest, quiet
:;:
adversary, hostile
¸::

weigh, weight
:;:
wash, overflow
_::

cover, covering
_;:
write
~::

loath, pollute
,;:
lay down, layer
:::

lie, false
~;:
forget, neglect
¬::

remnant
¬~:
childless
:::

burn, consume
_~:
act wisely
:::

swarm, abound
,~:
shoulder, journey
:::

hiss
;~:
rest, dwell
¸::

weave, comb
;~:
drink full, intoxicate
~::

root,spring up,origin
:~:
bribe, hire, wage
~::

weigh, ponder
¸::
send
¬::

palm tree
¬::
throw
¡::

abhore, abomination
:.:
entire, complete
:::

strike, nail, note
.;:
draw or pull out
_::


three
:::


destroy
¬::


fat
¸::


hear, obey
.::


gaurd, protect
~::


sun, windows
:::


lean, rest
¸.:


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