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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

FACULTY OF PLANNING & PUBLIC POLICY CEPT UNIVERSITY

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur

Submitted by: Kanishk Harshwardhan Gadpale Guide: Prof. Subhrangsu Goswami

Code No. URP 1011

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis titled “Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur” has been submitted by Kanishk Harshwardhan Gadpale (EP 0711) towards partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Masters Degree in Planning with specialization in Environmental Planning. This is a bonafide work of the student and has not been submitted to any other university for award of any Degree/Diploma to the best of my knowledge.

Chairperson Guide Dissertation Committee 2012-2013

Dissertation

Date:

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

UNDERTAKING

I, Kanishk Harshwardhan Gadpale, the author of the thesis titled “Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur”, hereby declare that this is an independent work of mine, carried out towards partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Masters Degree in Planning with specialization in Environmental Planning, at the Faculty of Planning and Public Policy, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. This work has not been submitted to any other institution for the award of any Degree/Diploma.

Kanishk Harshwardhan Gadpale EP 0711 Environmental Planning Date: 28.06.13 Place: Ahmedabad

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

CONTENTS
List of tables ........................................................................................................... ix List of figures .......................................................................................................... x List of maps............................................................................................................. x List of Annexure .................................................................................................... xi EXECUTIVE SUMMERY ................................................................................... xii 1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 1 1.1 BACKGROUND........................................................................................... 1 1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY ............................................................................... 2 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION ............................................................................. 4 1.4 AIM ............................................................................................................... 5 1.5 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................... 5 1.6 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................ 5 1.7 SCOPE & LIMITATION .............................................................................. 6 1.8 CHAPTERISATION..................................................................................... 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction .................................................................................. 7 Chapter 2 - Literature review........................................................................... 7 Chapter 3 - Baseline profile of Nagpur city .................................................... 7 Chapter4 – Data analysis ................................................................................. 7 Chapter5 – Conclusion .................................................................................... 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................... 9 2.1 BASICS ON STREAM ................................................................................. 9 2.2 CHANNEL EQUILIBRIUM ...................................................................... 12 2.3 IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ................................................................ 13 2.4 THE VALUE OF STREAMS AND THEIR IMPROVEMENT ................ 16 2.4.1 Quantifying the value of stream ........................................................... 16 2.5 WHAT STREAM NEEDS .......................................................................... 17 2.5.1 Areas of concern for having healthy stream ......................................... 18 2.5.2 Management objectives for helping the stream .................................... 18 2.6 INCENTIVES FOR URBAN STREAM RESTORATION (IMPROVEMENT/REJUVENATION) PROJECTS ....................................... 21 Page iv

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 2.7 WHAT IS RESTORATION? ...................................................................... 22 2.7.1 Watershed perspective .......................................................................... 23 2.7.2 Neighborhood perspective .................................................................... 24 2.7.3 When to act ........................................................................................... 24 2.8 TECHNICAL’S UNDERSTANDING OF STREAM NECESSARY FOR URBAN RIVER STAKEHOLDER .................................................................. 25 2.8.1 Overview of stream corridor................................................................. 25 2.8.2 Cross section of stream corridor ........................................................... 26 2.8.3 Floodplain ............................................................................................. 27 2.8.4 Hydrology ............................................................................................. 30 2.9 LEGISLATION AND ITS ENFORCEMENT ........................................... 34 2.9.1 IPC 1860 ............................................................................................... 35 2.9.2 1948, the factories act .......................................................................... 36 2.9.3 The river board act of 1956:- ................................................................ 36 2.9.4 The national Indian canal and drainage act of 1973 ............................. 36 2.9.5 The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 .................. 36 2.9.6 Environmental protection act in 1986 .................................................. 37 2.9.7 Public nuisance action against the polluters ......................................... 38 2.9.8 Common law right to riparian owners to unpolluted water .................. 38 2.9.9 National water framework act .............................................................. 38 2.10 WATER QUALITY CRITERIA .............................................................. 40 3. BASELINE PROFILE OF NAGPUR CITY .................................................... 41 3.1 REGIONAL SETTINGS OF STUDY AREA ............................................ 41 3.2 THE CITY GROWTH ................................................................................ 41 3.3 CITY PROFILE .......................................................................................... 45 3.3.1 Physical and Geographical character .................................................... 45 3.3.2 Demographic characteristic .................................................................. 49 3.3.3 Density .................................................................................................. 51 3.3.4 Literacy and Sex Ratio ......................................................................... 54 3.3.5 Population Forecast .............................................................................. 54 3.3.6 Land use ................................................................................................ 54 Page v

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.4 BASIC INFRASTRUCTURES .................................................................. 55 3.4.1 Water supply ......................................................................................... 55 3.4.2 Sewage system ...................................................................................... 58 3.4.3 Storm water drainage ............................................................................ 61 3.4.4 Solid waste management ...................................................................... 64 3.4.5 Access of Slum dwellers to Basic Services .......................................... 71 3.5 PHYSICAL PROFILE OF NAG RIVER ................................................... 74 3.5.1 Physical profile of the rivers ................................................................. 74 3.5.2 Origin of the Rivers .............................................................................. 77 3.5.3 Physical status of River ........................................................................ 80 4. DATA ANALYSIS ........................................................................................... 81 4.1 ENVIRONMENT STATUS OF RIVER .................................................... 81 4.1.1 Flow in the river ................................................................................... 81 4.2.2 River water quality ............................................................................... 82 4.3 ASSESSMENT OF WATERSHEDS ......................................................... 88 4.3.1 North zone (watershed of Pillli River) ................................................. 90 Central zone (watershed of Nag River) ......................................................... 92 4.3.2 South zone (watershed of Pohra River) ................................................ 94 4.4 ASSESSMENT OF NAG RIVER STRETCH ............................................ 97 4.4.1 Activities on Nodal points .................................................................... 97 1} Chainage segment 0-720: ......................................................................... 99 2} Chainage segment 720-2750: ................................................................. 100 3} Chainage segment 2750-4635: ............................................................... 101 4} Chainage segment 4635-5435: ............................................................... 105 5} Chainage segment 5435-6020: ............................................................... 107 6} Chainage segment 6020-7541: ............................................................... 109 7} Chainage segment 7541-8586: ............................................................... 110 8} Chainage segment 8586-8748: ............................................................... 112 9} Chainage segment 8748-10410: ............................................................. 114 10} Chainage segment 10410-12315: ......................................................... 115 11} Chainage segment 12315-13070: ......................................................... 117 Page vi

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 12} Chainage segment 13070-15952: ......................................................... 118 13} Chainage segment 15952-16732: ......................................................... 120 14} Phutala Nallah stretch: .......................................................................... 122 4.5 ASSESSMENT OF PILLI RIVER STRETCH......................................... 126 Bridge on road connecting Mahavir Hanuman Chowk near ring road........ 126 Nallah connecting Pilli river near Anant Nagar Church close to Vaz Villa 127 Bridge across Pilli River on Ambedkar Road (Gorewada road) near Gorewada WTP ........................................................................................... 128 Gorewada lakes overflow point ................................................................... 128 4.5 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS ................................................................. 130 4.5.1 Times of India and Maharashtra times Drive ..................................... 130 4.5.2 Other activities .................................................................................... 130 4.5.3 Nagpur Municipal Corporation's mega drive to clean Nag River and Stakeholders................................................................................................. 131 4.5.4 Notices and removal of encroachments on NMCs Nag River drive .. 135 4.5.4 Stakeholders and NMCs efforts to improve River water quality ...... 137 4.5.5 Denotification of part of Nag River from its origin to Ambazari lake 141 5. Summing up .................................................................................................... 145 5.1 ISSUES...................................................................................................... 145 5. 1.1 Problems of pollution in river and its impact .................................... 145 5. 1.2 River water quality monitoring.......................................................... 146 5. 1.3 Discharge of sewage into the river .................................................... 147 5.1.4 Flow in river ....................................................................................... 147 5.1.5 Inadequate sewage network and storm water drainage network ........ 148 5.1.6 Disposal of garbage in Nallahs and Rivers. ........................................ 149 5.1.7 Deposition of silt and garbage ............................................................ 149 5.1.8 Slums on the banks of river ................................................................ 150 5.1.9 Denotification of first stretch of Nag River ........................................ 151 5.2 EFFECT OF PROPOSALS AND ACTIVITIES ...................................... 151 5.2.1 Proposed Decentralized waste water treatment plants ....................... 151 5.2.2 Proposed Sewage treatment plants ..................................................... 152 Page vii

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 5.2.3 Proposed sewerage and storm water network..................................... 152 5.2.4 Eco-tourism project near Gorewada ................................................... 153 5.2.5 Reuse of wastewater ........................................................................... 153 5.2.6 Construction of check dams across the river ...................................... 154 5.3 RECOMMENDATION ............................................................................ 155 5.3.1Plantation of trees on the banks of river: ............................................. 155 5.3.2 Plan for timely cleaning and desilting on the river stretch ................. 155 5.3.3 Strategic Plan for slum improvement and relocation ......................... 155 5.3.4 Denotification process of first stretch of the river should ceased....... 156 5.3.5 NMC should ask for River environmental monitoring from organizations other than MPCB .................................................................. 156 5.3.6 Discharge of only waste water and DEWATS technology ................ 156 Annexures ........................................................................................................... 157

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Impact of urbanization ............................................................................. 13 Table 2 Water quality criteria ............................................................................... 40 Table 3 Chronological growth of Nagpur city ...................................................... 42 Table 4 Nagpur City population ........................................................................... 49 Table 5 Nagpur Metropolitan population ............................................................. 50 Table 6 The capacity and location of W.T.P’s...................................................... 56 Table 7 Future water demand of city of Nagpur ................................................... 57 Table 8 Water demand and supply till 2031 according to master plan ................. 57 Table 9 Sewage generation from three sewage zones in Nagpur ......................... 59 Table 10 Zone wise STPs and length of sewer lines (proposed and existing) ...... 60 Table 11 Length of storm water drains ................................................................. 63 Table 12 Length statement of SWD..................................................................... 63 Table 13 Length of drains and Project cost and other details ............................... 64 Table 14 Solid waste statistics .............................................................................. 64 Table 15 Average bins and MSW generation in a ward ....................................... 67 Table 16 Composition of solid waste generated ................................................... 68 Table 17 CHF international Slums scenario done in 2007-08 .............................. 72 Table 18 Salient features of Nag River ................................................................. 80 Table 19 Flow in Nag River.................................................................................. 81 Table 20 Zone wise sewage condition .................................................................. 88 Table 21 Zone wise storm water drainage status .................................................. 89 Table 22 Current Length of drains, implemented projects costs .......................... 89

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Watersheds and streams orders ................................................................ 9 Figure 2 Watersheds and streams orders .............................................................. 10 Figure 3 Factors affecting channel equilibrium .................................................... 12 Figure 4 Spatial structure. ..................................................................................... 27 Figure 5 A cross section of a river corridor. ......................................................... 27 Figure 6 Hydrologic and topographic floodplains. ............................................... 28 Figure 7 Landforms and deposits of a floodplain. ................................................ 30 Figure 8 A storm hydrograph. ............................................................................... 30 Figure 9 A comparison of hydrographs before and after urbanization. ................ 32 Figure 10 Relationship between impervious cover and surface runoff. ............... 32 Figure 11Population growth of Nagpur city ......................................................... 50 Figure 12 Decadal Growth rate ............................................................................. 50 Figure 13 Proposed reuse of sewage water by NMC through various partners.... 61 Figure 14 Nag River BOD Figure 15 Pilli River BOD ..................................... 83 Figure 16 Nag River COD Figure 17Pili River COD ....................................... 84 Figure 18Nag River DO Figure 19Pili River DO ............................................. 84 Figure 20Nag River SS Figure 21Pilli River SS ............................................... 85 Figure 22Nag River BOD Figure 23Nag River COD ....................................... 87 Figure 24 Nag River DO ....................................................................................... 87

LIST OF MAPS
Map 1Growth of the Nagpur city and its physical situation ................................. 44 Map 2 Nagpur and its location in India ................................................................ 45 Map 3 Authorized and Unauthorized slum distribution across the city and zonal population density ................................................................................................. 52 Map 4 ward wise population density .................................................................... 53 Map 5 Drainage Map of the city ........................................................................... 76 Map 6 Physical situation of Rivers in Nagpur city .............................................. 78 Map 7 Physical situation of Rivers in Nagpur city ............................................... 79 Map 8 Locations of flow measurement ................................................................ 81 Map 9 Locations of MPCB monitoring stations ................................................... 83 Map 10 Locations of NEERI monitoring stations ................................................. 86 Map 11 Chainages and landuse along the Nag River ........................................... 98

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

LIST OF ANNEXURE
Annexure 1 Ward Wise Density ......................................................................... 157 Annexure 2Zone wise slum population .............................................................. 157 Annexure 3 Land use as per Development Plan 1986-2011 ............................... 159 Annexure 4 Land use as per Development Plan 1921-2031 ............................... 160 Annexure 5 Benchmark for sanitation and sewerage system ............................. 161 Annexure 6 Benchmark for storm water drainage .............................................. 162 Annexure 7 Types of Vehicles and capacity....................................................... 162 Annexure 8 Zone wise slum population ............................................................. 163

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

EXECUTIVE SUMMERY
All the necessities of life that a man is surrounded with are dependent on availability of water and therefore tend to settle in groups near water bodies. Therefore most of the cities are founded near to the rivers. Rivers have been standing as the lifeline of cities; however past practices after industrialism they have been polluted, and covered up with roofing. They became marginalized waterscapes from the urban life. As an example, the scenes as river water quality deterioration and emerging bad-smelling rivers have been seen in developed cities. Conservation of resources, environmental preserves, resources

management, environmental restoration, and the consideration of quality of life in human settlements are ancient history. Second part of the last century rivers are been rehabilitated for healthy environment, ecological perspective and matters concerning physical state of river. While in recent decades more attention is given to quality of life, sustainability, and their role as Urban River and riverfront. Therefore the aim is to study the impact of urbanization on streams, lakes and other water bodies. It includes knowledge about the problems that are been faced by people because of pollution in streams and water bodies in their community. To know about the factors those are responsible for the pollution and degradation of water bodies in urban areas. And to explore and quantify the different type benefits that can come out of improvement these water bodies. To explore the possibility of improvement, upliftment, rejuvenatation and restoration for the streams and water bodies of urban environment. India is facing river related problems which are been faced way back by developed countries after industrial revolution. Indian cities have turned backs on their streams, stream corridors and their watersheds. Civic bodies don’t even have a clue about what next step they should take. The whole problem is new to India. The case of Nag River at Nagpur is taken into consideration for this study. Three watersheds that are in this city have three rivers flowing in each watershed. All these three rivers are the part of Nag River. Each of these three watersheds Page xii

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. have different extent of urbanization and therefore gives good opportunity to study different phases of impact on streams observed in most of the urbanized areas. It is necessary to have basic understanding about the behavior and characteristics of the streams. As well as a study about citizens and stakeholder’s response to improve or to even restore the streams in their community. For this a very valuable inputs from book written by Ann Riley called “Restoring Streams in Cities A Guidebook for Planners, Policymakers and Citizens” are incorporated into the literature part of this study. To understand the physical characteristics of the stream an Handbook called “Stream Corridor Restoration Principles, Processes, and Practices” created by ‘The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group’ and published by ‘National Engineering Handbook, USDANatural Resources Conservation Service’ is been used. This document is produced by a unique team of experts from universities, consulting firms and authors of famous books on rivers and streams including Ann L. Riley. Subject will focus on examination of different sources of pollution and their causes. Understand the physical and environmental condition of the river. How and why River is getting polluted through Nallahs, storm water drains, sewage systems etc. Studying the land use along the River, Investigation of actions taken by various stakeholders for the improvement of streams, measures taken to reduce the pollution in the River. The study will naturally include collection of all available information, analysis of environmental and ecological constraints, field visits, evaluation of technologies in use, survey investigations, photography, mapping of the existing land use along the river body, stakeholder’s analysis, segmental evaluation of Nag river in central zone along its course etc. First the study area is taken, although Nagpur was very easy for travelling through, it is a good location to study this subject. By going through readily available materials such as City Sanitation plan, City Development Plan, Environmental Status Report the dynamic of the city was understood. Study of these government documents make it possible to understand the management of sewer and storm water in city. Civic body has divided city into three zones. And these three zones have their own first order stream channel (i.e.Nallahs) and Page xiii

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. second order stream channels (i.e. river). And finally when these three second order stream channels i.e. three rivers meet near the boundary of Nagpur Municipal Corporation they form a third order stream channel called Nag River same as the second order stream channel in cental zone. These three zones are different is characteristics and in the extent of urbanization. Central zone is more historic and dense in population while other two are new. After Gathering the drainage maps and sewerage maps for the city it is possible to understand the mechanism and network of streams present in the city. This also made it very easy to survey these River stretches and take photographs for later understanding. It was also been understood from this drawing that which points on the streams are necessary to visit for survey. Altogether the study of these documents and maps made it easier to ask more specific questions to the officials and gather more specific required data. Visiting institutions such as NEERI, LUSS&P, ISRO remote sensing division had no constructive benefits. NMC had asked NEERI to do environmental monitoring of Nag River, and NEERI had published the report on it in public domain and have monitoring data till year 2010. But attempt to gather these monitoring data was unsuccessful. From irrigation department flood line map of Pilli river is obtained. In Nagpur Municipal Corporation water resource department called as Pench cell is of very great help for this study. From here the information about ‘River rejuvenation project’ submitted for approval from NRCD is gathered. Gradient of river, salient features of Nag River, Landuse along the stretch of the Rivers, Proposals under the rejuvenation plan and the description of all the nodes identified on the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures, significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity etc. of Nag River was gathered. This made it easier to do assessment of chainages (segments) of the Nag river stretch. Visiting all the stretch of Nag River made it possible to assess the condition river, cause of pollution, Landuse problems, encroachments, erosion and flood problems. Visiting all these stretches with someone who was residing in the city for so long make it always more beneficial to understand it much better way and know about all the historic development activities. Meeting with developers of Eco-development project for Nag River Page xiv

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. helped to understand about the water bodies in Nagpur much better way. As a result it was possible to understand what is really happening with the streams and water bodies of Nagpur. It is evident that civic body of Nagpur is not considering the full watershed of streams that are flowing in its jurisdiction. But only considers the area that is been inside the municipal boundary. MPCB which is the main organization who directs all types of entities for the prevention of pollution, itself is not performing their job. NMC is recently acting in the direction of prevention of pollution of water inside the city as well as outside the city into Nag rivers distributor rivers because High court’s order. It is the PIL from the peoples who are suffering outside the city that High court has to response in action. MPCB is also indulged in denotification of Nag River under the pressure of industrial lobby to set up industries on this first stretch that bring water to the Lake. That will cause serious problem for the city in future because the water in Ambazari Lake and the river through the city will get extremely polluted with toxic industrial waste. Comparison between the environmental monitoring data of NEERI and MPCB shows that MPCB is manipulating their monitoring data. NEERI in its report clearly stated that mere sewage is flowing in River, while MPCB stats show that the fishes can survive in that water. It is also understood only by considering the control over dumping of garbage into the stream which is already flowing waste water most of the toxicity, BOD, COD can be decreased. Because until present NMC never given any focus on improvement of Nag rivers and other water bodies. Therefore citizens are unaware of the fact that streams can be improved and the properties prices near to these areas can increase. As soon as NMC have begun their Nag River cleaning campaign people started to show huge response in considering the healthy rivers for Nagpur. Coefficient of roughness and runoff coefficient are the important variables which are to be considered by municipalities in India. Because this variable decides whether the water in river is able to carry away its silt particles, weather she is corrosive or not etc. And especially about the rivers like in Nagpur. Because in rivers of Nagpur most of the flow is generated by sewage, therefore the flow in river usually seen increasing Page xv

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. after 9 am and after that only in evening it decreases. Historically this rivers use to flow perennially when sewage was not the problem and the water from the river is been used for farming and bathing purposes. This results in problems such as corrosion, siltation, overflowing the capacity of STPs that are at the far end of the city resulting in less efficiency. If was possible to take photographs on all the stretches of river, but photographs some stretch of river are missed. NEERI has full environmental monitoring data on the survey they have conducted on thirteen monitoring stations on Nag River probably from before year 2003 to year 2010. But only 2003-2004 year data can be incorporated into this study. Taking care of streams, improving them, or even restoring the streams is a problem very new to municipalities of India. Although they are getting polluted in past half of the century they recently become the problem for Indian cities. Practice of urban stream restoration techniques in foreign countries practiced toady are simply carry forward of 1930s governmental literatures on restoration techniques. Today we in India need to take advantage of the learning of foreign countries in this sector. There is a need to do more research in this sector because of the emerging need of Indian cities to have pollution free streams and prevent the pollution of other water resources outside city limits. In case of Nagpur there is a need to study the future development in the corridor of rivers. Like to increase the prospects of development of along the Nag River, it will require removal of slums and their relocation. And to make this area more attractive to real estate developers it is also been needed that the river should be odour less and clean without any debris. But better goal would be to consider Nag river corridor for riverfront development. And for this postulate it is needed that the water flowing should be clear. Only the partially treated waste water can be flown in the river and all the sewage that is generated will be carried out by different pipe lines. Waste water generated by buildings and homes will be treated at that point with the responsibility of property holder and then only be flown into the river. Northern watershed of Pilli river need that mistakes should not be repeated there that are failed in Nag River. There is also a need for the study of southern Page xvi

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. watershed of Phohara River. Because of upcoming MIHAN project, this area is quickly getting developed and therefore there is a vast area to assess the future planning for the streams of Phora river because this hub will host millions of travelers across the world, and therefore have huge future prospects of development. Therefore this area could be researched taking its future prospects into consideration.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND As it is seen, rivers have been standing as the lifeline of cities, however past practices after industrialism we have polluted them, and covered them up. They became marginalized waterscapes from the urban life. As an example, the scenes as river water quality deterioration and emerging bad-smelling rivers have been seen in developed cities. Planning done in order to manage rivers and their floodplains is one of the oldest and most accepted forms of planning our environment. Conservation of resources, environmental preserves, resources

management, environmental restoration, and the consideration of quality of life in human settlements are ancient history. It would be foolish assume that water pollution, soil erosion, stream sedimentation, flooding, and loss of riparian forests have not been problems for the human race before-and given the historical record, they will probably continue to be well in future. It would also be improper to proceed with discussion of restoration without recognizing that historical concepts and practices are responsible for the development of field of restoration. There is a need to look at river not only as channel flowing water but as a corridor. River corridor is a term developed in planning field. River corridor includes more than channel which carries water most of the time like floodplain which carries its higher flows, riparian trees, plants that grow on higher groundwater tables and moist soil along the drainage way etc. This stream related environment is to be taken into consideration while planning. River planning or more appropriately watershed planning can be divides in to three fields: 1) River corridor planning: - focused on development of local or regional multi-use parkways or greenways along the river. 2) Floodplain managers: - who identify, regulate and manage flood hazard areas and 3) Comprehensive watershed managers:- who make and attempt to implement plans that address water quality, water supply, flood control and environmental needs in a coordinated way for a region. Page 1

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Practice of urban stream restoration techniques are simply carry forward of 1930s and earlier traditions. Further exploration of the historical roots of environmental restoration, resources management, and design of landscapes and town relevant to today’s restoration practices. Take us back to Roman Empire. Now as we observe streams and rivers in urban India are on the verge of collapse or are already dead. We also know that these types of problems are already faced in foreign countries after industrial revolution. And the similar this we observe all around the worlds nowadays especially in developing countries also. In India either they are encroached or sources of water to them are dried up. Some places they are converted into sewage drains. Because water is being pumped from upstream sites of the city silt and hardened garbage is observed inside Indian rivers. Although we also find that there are no incentives by civic body to clean their streams, as like they are not responsible for it. Also because of insufficient STPs sewage drained by city is problematic for downstream towns, and also for themselves. We find no success story from any Pollution control board about restriction of rivers pollution from municipal or industrial sources, or about restoration activity. Although if unofficially observed pollution control board are themselves observed as manipulating river pollution test data, to stay away from high courts questioning. This shows that all over the India these departments are irresponsible by taking into account, that they will stay safe from high court behind the curtains of their laboratory walls.

1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY India is facing river related problems which are been faced way back by developed countries after industrial revolution. It would be an incorrect perception that these developed countries are not facing any problems in their streams today, and the correct point of view would be that we in India are not utilizing their learning of past into our streams corridors. Indian cities have turned backs on their streams, stream corridors and their watersheds. Civic bodies don’t even have a clue about what next step they should

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. take. The whole problem is new to India. And to develop foreign practices as per our community to help rivers is not that much difficult either. We find that property prices along the streams are low. Slums are situated on the banks of stinking and polluted rivers, whether they are authorized or unauthorized. Streams are regarded as sewage drains. We can find cases that these types of problems are tackled in many countries and they do have quantified benefits related to it. Studying these cases you can find that it is not difficult to use these same strategies in India. Therefore there is a need to quantify the benefits that, restoration of rivers can achieve for the city, instead of just to cover streams with concrete or to channelize them. Wherever civic body used such practices they observed to have created more problems for the city. Therefore River needs holistic approach for its management, rather than treatment of short term symptoms. Nagpur city is drained by three rivers which form three watersheds in city. These three watersheds are called north zone, central zone and south zone and are almost parallel to each other. This gives city to appropriately manage its sewer and storm water efficiently in future as well as today. As we see centrally located Nag river is mostly been drained by the sewage city generate which is about 450 MLD. Historically this rivers use to flow perennially when sewage was not the problem and the water from the river is been used for farming and bathing purposes. Streams from outside the municipal boundary limits drain the lakes situated on the west side of the city. These lakes are artificially created in historic time to trap the water. And now what Nagpur Municipal Corporation says is that all the three rivers in city have their origin from overflow point of these lakes. This statement itself is blunt and unscientific. When a stream is situated in a city municipality has a responsibility for its environment, for which they should consider all area of watershed that rivers covers. As the matter of fact Nag River is one of the 20 rivers that are been notified by state environment department. Nag Rivers is notified in two stretches. First stretch from its origin to Ambazari Lake is notified as ‘A-II’ class and the second stretch from Ambazari lakes overflow Page 3

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. point to confluence point with Kanhan River as ‘SW-II” class. Under the

influence of industrial lobby MPCB is in negative intention to denotify the first stretch of Nag River. That will cause serious problem for the city in future because the water in Ambazari Lake and the river through the city will get extremely polluted with toxic industrial waste. Kanhan is completely polluted by Nag and then it goes to Vainganga. 30km stretch of Vainganga River which is an 'A II' grade river is completely polluted. Gosekhrud dam and its backwater is of no use to peoples, even cattle’s and animals can not drink that water. City lacks STPs to clean the sewage, as well as their no guarantee that these STPs will perform sufficiently. Although in future there will be additional STPs and decentralized STPs will be added into the strength. But the Pollution control boarding is hiding the true pollution level in rivers to stay safe from high courts questioning, whereas mere sewage is flowing inside the river. As per cities previous record 400-450 TPD of solid waste is lifted out of 820 TPD of solid waste generation. This rest of the waste is been dumped into the river by workers in to the city. Although today bin free city scheme is implemented in Nagpur there were many points along the rivers that are been used to place bins to collect local garbage into one place for further displacement but is dumped by workers into the river as being lethargic and irresponsible about their duties. Many stretches of streams are bundied by concrete walls. And in some places are been channelized to create more space.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION What are the different sources of pollution and how are they affecting river environment? What is the physical and environmental condition of the river? What are the initiatives taken by stakeholders and officials? What are the benefits of river improvement activities?

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

1.4 AIM To find impact of urbanization of urban water bodies

1.5 OBJECTIVES To identify problems faced by urban streams. To identify causes and sources of pollution in streams. To understand the benefits of stream improvement activity in urban areas. To find scope for the uplifting or improvement of streams in urban area.

1.6 METHODOLOGY First the study area is taken, although Nagpur was very easy for travelling through, it is a good location to study this subject. By going through readily available materials such as City Sanitation plan, City Development Plan, Environmental Status Report the dynamic of the city was understood. Study of these government documents make it possible to understand the management of sewer and storm water in city. Civic body has divided city into three zones. And these three zones have their own first order stream channel (i.e.Nallahs) and second order stream channels (i.e. river). And finally when these three second order stream channels i.e. three rivers meet near the boundary of Nagpur Municipal Corporation they form a third order stream channel called Nag River same as the second order stream channel in cental zone. These three zones are different is characteristics and in the extent of urbanization. Central zone is more historic and dense in population while other two are new. After Gathering the drainage maps and sewerage maps for the city it is possible to understand the mechanism and network of streams present in the city. This also made it very easy to survey these River stretches and take photographs for later understanding. It was also been understood from this drawing that which points on the streams are necessary to visit for survey. Altogether the study of these documents and maps made it easier to ask more specific questions to the officials and gather more specific required data. Visiting institutions such as NEERI, LUSS&P, ISRO Page 5

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. remote sensing division had no constructive benefits. NMC had asked NEERI to do environmental monitoring of Nag River, and NEERI had published the report on it in public domain and have monitoring data till year 2010. But attempt to gather these monitoring data was unsuccessful. From irrigation department flood line map of Pilli river is obtained. In Nagpur Municipal Corporation water resource department called as Pench cell is of very great help for this study. From here the information about ‘River rejuvenation project’ submitted for approval from NRCD is gathered. Gradient of river, salient features of Nag River, Landuse along the stretch of the Rivers, Proposals under the rejuvenation plan and the description of all the nodes identified on the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures, significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity etc. of Nag River was gathered. This made it easier to do assessment of chainages (segments) of the Nag river stretch. Visiting all the stretch of Nag River made it possible to assess the condition river, cause of pollution, Landuse problems, encroachments, erosion and flood problems. Visiting all these stretches with someone who was residing in the city for so long make it always more beneficial to understand it much better way and know about all the historic development activities. Meeting with developers of Eco-development project for Nag River helped to understand about the water bodies in Nagpur much better way. As a result it was possible to understand what is really happening with the streams and water bodies of Nagpur.

1.7 SCOPE & LIMITATION As to find out the impact of urbanization on urban water bodies this study will examine the different sources of pollution and their causes. Understand the physical and environmental condition of the river. Sources of the pollution and how the River is getting polluted through Nallahs and storm water drains and sewage systems carrying sewage. Studying the land use along the River so that the scope for the rejuvenation activity can be identified. Investigation of actions taken by various stake holders for the rejuvenation of Rivers as well as the measures taken to reduce the pollution in the River. The study will naturally Page 6

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. include collection of all available information, field visits, evaluation of technologies in use, survey and investigations, photography and mapping the existing land use along the river body, analysis of environmental and ecological constraints. Depending upon the available environmental data the study covers the environmental status of the river stretch within the area under Nagpur Municipal Corporation only. 1.8 CHAPTERISATION

Chapter 1 - Introduction This chapter discussed the scenario of urban rivers in India and world. It focuses direction of the study towards the factors which are to be taken into consideration when studying urban River. Chapter 2 - Literature review In this chapter firstly it is understood that what the urban river is in present context. How different activities affect the river and how that can become the problem of civic body. How a river can be a positive part of the urbanization, how can the stakeholders, activists, citizens can come forward to restore the streams in their community. For that it is also necessary to understand the basics of technical knowhow on river. Chapter 3 - Baseline profile of Nagpur city This chapter to understand the condition of the urban river and its surrounding, environmental condition , physical profile, physical status, landuse alongside the Nag River is studied and assimilated so as to give the condition of Nag River. As well as basic infrastructure: like water supply, sewerage system, storm water drainage, solid waste management, slums dwellers access to services; City profile: like physical, geographical & demographic characteristics; landuse, density, literacy, sex ration and population forecast are compiled in such way to be able to analyze the impact of theirs on the urban River. Chapter4 – Data analysis In this chapter all the watershed that are present in Nagpur, their condition, scope. The importance of watershed that is been outside the city boundary and its impact Page 7

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. of river bodies in Nagpur. Segment wise assessment of Nag river, as landuse along that stretch, pollution causing areas and factors, water quality, proposals etc. And then stake holders and their effort to restore the Nag River. It consists of various moments, drives by citizens and technical suggestions given by citizens and activist. It also encompasses the planning, praposals and efforts by Nagpur Municipal Corporation and official’s personal interest to revive the river. Later it is discussed what will be the affect of construction of bunds and check dams along the river stretch. As well as the effect of construction of pilot STPs. It will be also understood that the how much the city needs to improve the environmental condition and pollution in river and also the pollution in river. Chapter5 – Conclusion In this chapter it is discussed about major issues that are been faced by municipality and citizens. Which are the proposals and actions taken by municipality and citizens to improve rivers condition. Are these proposals temporarily ceasing the problems or can they create more problems. All the findings and actions that are through the thesis after analysis are concluded in this chapter.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 BASICS ON STREAM
Streams are a resource most generally taken for granted and completely ignored. But wherever we are, we all live in watersheds and depend upon it. To begin learning about a local stream, river we have to become familiar with the watershed they run through and the history that comes with them. (Riley) No one has quantified the differences between streams, brooks, creeks, gulches, washes and Rivers and These mostly loosely defined terms represent cultural and regional customs more than they define or standardize a geographic feature. The question of what a creek or stream is in a geographical or geologic sense must be answered in the context of what a watershed is. (Riley)

Figure 1 Watersheds and streams orders

Source: (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group)Stream corridor restoration principles, processes and practices, 2001.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 2 Watersheds and streams orders

Source: (Riley) Restoring Streams in Cities, 1998

Everyone lives in watershed. A watershed is the land area drained by a particular stream or river. A good way to classify a stream is to avoid the terms inherently used as creek, nallah, stream, river and gulch etc. Small streams join to form larger streams in a branching pattern that forms a drainage network. Therefore, larger watersheds are made up of a joining of smaller watersheds. The different channels draining these watersheds can be designated by how many Page 10

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. tributaries they have or by order. A first order stream channel has no tributaries, when two first order streams join; they create a second-order stream. When two second order streams join they create a third order stream and so on. One can designate a stream by its order; therefore others can immediately get a concept of the size of the drainage area concerned. Fig 2.1 and Fig 2.2 demonstrates a watershed within a watershed, a zoomed out watershed showing first and second order stream channels. (Riley) Stream drainages follow the lowest topography and form valleys and become separated from each other by ridges or divides. Streams drain the water into one water stream system on one side of the ridge, while the streams on the other side drain into a separate valley. Topographic maps use contour lines to designate divides, valleys, and drainage pattern and to connect points of the same elevation. If the lines are evenly spaced and far apart, they represent a gently sloping landscape. Closely spaced and jagged lines indicate a Sleep and rough landscape. A topographic map gives a three dimensional picture of a watershed. The boundaries of the watershed are indicated by the hill and ridges for drainages. By measuring the drainage area you can understand how the stream and its watershed relate to other watersheds. Find out what stream, river, or other body of water your stream flows into. This other body of water may have a great deal of influence on the behavior of the stream. (Riley) Ann L. Riley in her book Restoring streams in cities says, “A community can choose the option of consigning an urban stream to an open or closed storm sewer, or it can decide to manage the stream as a community amenity. A stream can be used as a dynamic economic feature to draw shoppers and tourist to a business district. Some communities use their streams as educational laboratories in classrooms from kindergartens to university graduate schools.” (Riley) She also said that, “Stream-channel restoration project combined with some watershed management activities (such as fencing, erosion control, and treeplanting projects) and land-use planning and regulations can turn a stream from a public to a public amenity. Stream restoration methods can anticipate and respond Page 11

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. to the problems of flood and erosion damage caused by urbanization and provides design concepts to be used in lieu of the most common destroyers of the urban stream environment: rock or concrete rubble (riprap) bank stabilization projects, channelization or stream straightening and vegetation removal projects, and culverting of piping of streams underground. In densely built-up cities, for example, badly damages streams can be repaired and redeemed as aesthetic resources with some ecological integrity.” (Riley)

2.2 CHANNEL EQUILIBRIUM
In one weighting pan is balanced with sediment load and streamflow on the other. The hook holding the sediment pan can slide along the horizontal arm according to sediment size. The hook holding the streamflow side slides according to stream slope.

Figure 3 Factors affecting channel equilibrium

Source: (Lane) E.W. Lane, “The Importance of Fluvial Morphology in Hydraulic Engineering” Proceedings of American Society of civil Engineers.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Lane’s balance illustrates that a change in any of these four variables indicates the need for a corresponding change in one or more of the other variables to restore equilibrium. For example, if a stream is capable of carrying more sediment than it has entering it, it will erode and transport material from its bed and lower its elevation. That will lower the base level for its tributary streams, which will erode in turn, producing a greater sediment load to the main stream. As the eroding channels flatten their grades, their ability to carry away sediment is diminished. As the amount of material carried down the streams increases and the streams ability to transport the sediment decreases, the streams begin to reach a state of equilibrium. The quantity of sediment, assuming the sediment size and water discharges remained the same, directly influences the slope. Alluvial streams that are free to adjust to changes in these four variables generally do so and reestablish new equilibrium conditions. Non-alluvial streams such as bedrock or artificial, concrete channels are unable to follow Lane's relationship because of their inability to adjust the sediment size and quantity variables.

2.3 IMPACT OF URBANIZATION
Table 1 Impact of urbanization Change in Land or Water Use 1 Possible Hydrologic Effect

Transition from pre-urban state: Decrease in transpiration & increase in Removal of trees or vegetation, storm flow. Increased sedimentation of construction of scattered city- streams. type houses & limited water & sewage facilities.

2 3

Drilling of wells

Some lowering of water table

Construction of septic tank & Some increase in soil moisture & perhaps sanitary drains. a rise in water table. Perhaps some waterlogging of land & contamination of nearby wells or streams from overloaded sanitary drains system. Page 13

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 4 Transition from early-urban to Accelerated land erosion and stream middle-urban stage: Bulldozing sedimentation and aggradation.

of land for mass housing; some Elimination of smallest stream by filling topsoil removal; farm ponds or culverting. filled. 5 Mass construction of housed; Decreased infiltration resulting in

paving of streets; building of increased storm water and flood flow & culverts. lowered ground-water levels. Flood at channel construction (culverts) on

remaining small streams. Occasional overtopping or undermining of banks of artificial and natural channels. 6 Discontinued or abandonment of Rise in water table. some shallow well. 7 Diversion of nearby streams for Decrease in flow between points of public water supply. diversion & disposal. Fish and other aquatic life decline of are extinguished. Riparian areas degrade or disappear. 8 Untreated or inadequately Pollution of streams or wells. Death of Inferior

treated sewage discharge into fish and other aquatic life. streams or disposal wells.

quality of water available for supply & recreation areas. at downstream populated

9

Transition from middle- to late- Reduced infiltration & lowered water urban stage: Urbanization of area table, Streets & gutters act as storm completed by addition of more drains, creating flashy and higher flood houses & streets, & of public, peaks & lower base flow of local streets. commercial, buildings & industrial

10 Larger quantities of untreated Increased waste discharged into

pollution

of

streams

&

local concurrent increased loss of aquatic life. Page 14

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. streams. Additional degradation of water available to downstream users. 11 Abandonment shallow pollution. 12 Increase in population requires Increase in local steam flow if supply is establishment of new water from outside basin. Decrease in local wells of remaining Rise in water table. because of

supply & distribution system, stream flow if supply includes local construction of distant sources also. Wide-scale loss of river

reservoirs, diverting water from system for fish, wildlife and recreation. upstream sources within or

outside basin. 13 Channels of upstream put in Increased flood damage if culverts are artificial channels & culverts. undersized and increased backup flows. Increased downstream flood flows if channelized or culverted. Changes in channel geometry & sedimentation load. Aggradation and /or degradation up- and downstream of project or structure. Stream-channel stability problems and loss of floodplain storage. 14 Construction of sanitary Removal of additional water from area,

drainage system & treatment further reducing infiltration recharge of plant for sewage and aquifer. Degradation of stream channels

improvement of storm drainage used as storm water conveyance system. system to move water to rivers, bays, lakes etc. 15 Drilling of deeper, large-capacity Lowered ground water level, decreasing industrial wells. pressure of artesian aquifer: perhaps some local overdrafts & local subsidence. Overdraft of aquifer may result in salt Page 15

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. water encroachment in coastal area and in pollution of contamination by inferior of brackish waters. 16 Increase use of water for air Overloading of sewers & other drainage conditioning. facilities. Possibly some recharge to water table, owing to leakage of disposal lines. 17 Drilling of recharge wells. 18 Wastewater utilization reclamation Rising of ground water (level) surface. and Recharge to ground-water aquifers. More efficient use of water resources.

Source: (Riley) Restoring Streams in Cities, 1998 adopted from U.S. Geological Survey Circular, “Water Facts and Figures for Planners and Managers,” J. H. Feth, 1973.

2.4 THE VALUE OF STREAMS AND THEIR IMPROVEMENT
Ann L. Riely in her book restoring streams in cities says, “Streams and rivers are industrial transportation corridors, industrial water supplies, and domestic and agricultural supplies. Their water produce fish for sport fishing and provide for a recreational industry of white water rafting, kayaking and canoeing. They inspire trails, greenbelts, and parks and can enhance the values of commercial areas and downtowns of cities by attracting people to them. They can even be tourist attractions. Riparian (streamside) vegetation along streams has important value for aesthetics, shade, and wildlife habitat”. (Riley)

2.4.1 Quantifying the value of stream Resource economist can be engaged in describing and quantifying the value of streams using strategies such as, 1) Recreation oriented study to identify expenditure associated with a river site. Cost of gear and travel to recreate at the stream are to be quantified to provide rupee figure showing how much the river users are willing to spend to enjoy the resource. Page 16

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 2) Quantification of changes in real estate and business location values near the stream or can be associated with its ability to create a higher quality of life. 3) Redistribution of benefits and costs associated with modifying the river like a stream of river project such as flood control or hydroelectric project. 4) Inherent values that public places on knowing the resource is there or for the ecological value or regional identity or other broad concepts. 5) Evaluation of relative benefits of environmental restoration projects that are the part of or substitute of conventional public works, storm-water management, erosion and flood control projects. (Riley) A unique contribution of the urban waterway movement is the broad range of objectives it brings to the field of environmental restoration. No drainage ditch, culvert, irrigation or barge canal, trapezoidal flood channel, concrete waterway, pond, lake, wetland, or degraded creek goes unvalued. The greatest value of improvement, upliftment, and mainly restoration projects however may be the restoration of a sense of community pride and participation. (Riley) “The natural bible for the urban waterway restoration movement is Robert Pyle's The Thunder Tree: Lessons from an Urban Wildland, in which he describes the critical part an irrigation canal, the Highline Canal in Colorado, played in his personal development. Notwithstanding the purpose of the canal, to divert the Platte River to promote settlement of the Denver area, the canal provided a lifeline of rich, natural experiences for city-bound youth. Because urban areas are increasingly devoid Of any kind of natural environment, much of countries youth grows up with little sense of geographic place and suffer from a depravation of Pyle describes as "The extinction of experience."” Ann L. Riley in her book. (Riley)

2.5 WHAT STREAM NEEDS
Most of the times local authorities just do the removing the vegetation and rocking. In some places the large urban streams are put underground or somewhere straighten out to make new land available for development and to reduce flood damage. Big apartment buildings built on to the edge of the bank is Page 17

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. also observed were the stream is used as a dumping ground for garbage and become a public nuisance. But this idea is most of the times never occurs to the official that the efforts taken by the civic body towards physical problems of the river can be directed and towards turning it into a community feature. Like creating open spaces, trails, promenades and pedestrian footbridges that can put the town or a city on the map for tourist and provide with many new positive character. (Riley)

2.5.1 Areas of concern for having healthy stream There are five major areas of concerns for those who want to have healthy stream that enhances their neighborhood or city, 1) To save existing healthy streams from the impact of new urban development by putting landuse regulations in place. A common destroyer of stream is placement of structures too close to banks of the stream. 2) If there are structures near to the banks then there is a need to use the most environmentally and aesthetically sensitive technology available to protect the stream and the structures. 3) Negotiation for environmentally sensitive stream-channel maintenance practices by engineering officials and a need to remove culverts and concrete linings. 4) Address the water pollution through conventional treatment facilities and restoration methods. 5) To address the need for an adequate water supply for life in the stream. (Riley)

2.5.2 Management objectives for helping the stream So to help the stream one of more of the following management objectives has to be considered, 1) Landuse planning and site design to regulate stream corridors 2) Usage of environmentally sensitive flood, erosion and channel instability solution 3) Usage of environmentally sensitive maintenance strategies Page 18

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 4) Replacement of culverts and concrete lined channels with more natural environment 5) Improvement of water quality, water supply and Habitat for stream life (Riley)

1) Landuse planning and site design to regulate stream corridors “Landuse planning and site design can protect a natural waterway from the classic degradation caused by thoughtless urban development. Landuse keeps hazardous zones such as floodplains and river meander zones away from development. These hazardous areas can be can be designated as open spaces, parks, recreational areas, trails, hiking and bicycle path and transportation corridors. Site design standards are regulations provide guidelines for how to design a development once the development is properly located in the community by the land-use plan. Site-design measures can call for protection of streamcorridor buffer zones, minimal impervious surfaces and impacts to native vegetation, and sound storm water management. Buffer zones of natural streamside vegetation and the use of natural and storm-water detention areas instead of sewer pipe greatly reduce the impacts of development on streams by reducing creek storm flows and runoff pollution. Setback requirements that site structures away from creeks lower the risk of future property damages from overbank flows and changing stream meanders. Adequate land-use planning and site-design measures create cost savings for community by avoiding problems to begin with. Trail planning can also be integrated into this. Such as trails for walkers, joggers and hikers along the stream if the undeveloped zone follows along the stream. Planning to add a trail later without an existing undeveloped public right-of-way is much more difficult but is done as part of greenways movement to make urban and suburban centers more livable.” (Riley)

2) Usage of environmentally sensitive flood, erosion and channel instability solution If there is a situation where structures are very near to the stream and the area is flood prone, then we need to use most environmentally sensitive Page 19

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. technology available to protect both streams and structures. Restoration alternatives itself can be the substitute for the conventional engineering practices to reduce flood and erosion. Temporary dams can be inserted in doorways and over windows before the stream crest into town. Rock walls or landscape Bern can be added to development to avoid floodwater damage to structures. Structures can be elevated to the higher foundation. (Riley)

3) Usage of environmentally sensitive maintenance strategies Conventional flood-control projects do not include aesthetics or ecological values in their objectives. Vegetation is removed to increase the space for the channel for flood flows. While cleaning of silt from the river, removal of garbage, debris, furniture, old boots, and shopping carts, plastic can itself increase the channel capacities for flood flows. Instead municipalities create a way for eater to pass through and also removal of vegetation for increased capacity of river span to hold water. While cleanup projects can be the way to get start the restoration process. (Riley)

4)

Replacement of culverts and concrete lined channels with more natural

environment “In many urban areas only remnants of the former riparian environment remain. Streams are often relegated to culverts and buried underground to act as storm sewers. If not buried, they are contained in sterile concrete channels and locked behind chain-link fences. Many cities regret the loss of their streams and rivers as historical, aesthetic, and environmental assets and are trying to undo some of the damage.” (Riley) “The city of Milwaukee Wisconsin is making plans to remove the concrete from lincoln Creek in the center of town. Providence, Rhode Island, removed slabs of concrete bridging a river in order to restore the city's waterfront. The cities of Napa, Arcata, El Cerrito, and Berkeley, California; Salt Lalte City, Utah; and San Antonio, Texas, and Providence, Rhode Island, have dug up once buried streams and rivers and restored natural channels. Bellevue, Washington: St. Paul, Page 20

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Minnesota; Portland, Oregon; and Denver, Colorado are among those cities that have plans to "daylight" creeks and jackhammer out concrete.” (Riley)

5) Improvement of water quality, water supply and Habitat for stream life To dale, most nonprofit efforts to restore stream environments have focused on water quality and fish habitat improvement. In the past two decades ricer restoration programmers involving stream bank repair and vegetation have become a part of state and local body responsibilities to comply with the nonpoint-source pollution control requirements (Riley)

2.6 INCENTIVES FOR URBAN STREAM RESTORATION (IMPROVEMENT/REJUVENATION) PROJECTS
Many restoration project around the world are the result of incentives that drawn the attention towards the resource. Some of them are revegetation projects or trail building or landuse planning projects. We can see there are the reasons involved why cities, rural towns and neighborhoods have been motivated to enhance their local streams. Following are the incentives that motivate the communities in various cases. (Riley) • • • • • • • • • • • • Reduce flood damage Reduce damage from a historic or cultural resource Preserve or restore a historic or cultural resource Encourage the return of birds and wildlife in urban refuges Develop pedestrian and bicycle trails. Upgrade the quality of life in urban and neighborhood environments. Restore a regional or local identity. Provide greenbelts, open spaces and parks. Create boating and other instream recreation opportunities. Create interesting educational opportunities for schools. Return or improve recreational and commercial fishing. Revive a decaying downtown and a depressed commercial economy. Page 21

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. • • • Create meaningful jobs and provide job training. Increase property values. Correct the performance problems and reverse the damage of large or small engineering projects. • • Provide a safe food source for family fishers. Return public life and commerce to urban waterfronts.

2.7 WHAT IS RESTORATION?
River rejuvenation, Improvement, upliftment, are no river restoration, but all these activities includes some or other activities and factors of restoration. Restoration in urban area needs complicated compromises and agreements to establish the objectives based on natural history and human settlement history that has shaped the current land uses and ecological systems. (Riley) Ecological and urban settlement needs can be met if we create a landscape that is more self sustaining than existing conditions. That is changing the river into a greater balance. This balance means that it is not excessively eroding or depositing sediment. It will also have biologically diverse aquatic life and will have nutrients, algae, proper temperature and other chemical parameters. (Riley) Returning the physical feature of river or a stream will then not need much of the attention towards sedimentation, erosion and pollution problems. Physical features of the River are streamside trees and shrubs, the channel with its natural width and depth, pools, riffles and meanders. (Riley) Restoration is not a fish hatchery, or even Fisheries restoration is not a fish hatchery. Where fish are raised at great expense in captivity and released to rivers. Because rivers and lakes stocked fish cannot support life cycle for itself therefore they must have been continuously been restocked. Therefore fisheries restoration is a reintroduction of wild genetic stock to the river that can support its life cycle by itself. That means recreating spawning and rearing habitats, removal of barriers to migration and restoring the shelter, favorable temperatures and water quality. (Riley)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Restoration is not a just a landscaping. Landscaping in restoration means that it should be at its best so that it can create new environments that provide sanctuary, adventure, symbolism, recreation, entertainment and sustenance. Landscaping is used to mitigate for landuse changes such as building of freeway, offices, parking lots, housing developments and of water projects. Landscaping in restoration is not the screening of structures by usage of planting designs or to say creation of native garden with water running through it. (Riley) Restoration is not just planting trees and shrubs along a stream channelization project even if the native plant species are used. It should be done as an add-on to the watersheds. Restoration is the revegetation of stream banks so that they do not collapse under high velocity of flows but continue to work as a component in a dynamic system in which meandering, aggradations and degradation of the channel occur in balance. (Riley) Restoration is not the construction of small and large dams in channels. It is not rip rapping and armoring of stream banks in to the place. So that only the banks upstream and downstream and across are subjected to the changing dynamics f the stream. Armoring of river is the classic example of an intervention causing the need of never ending series of adjustments in response to new problems it causes. So ultimately authorities have to armor more of the banks of river. (Riley) Most plans excessive erosion by a localized remedy such as placing rubble or rock against the bank at the erosion point. But many of these are unable to stop the erosion as expected. What is needed is to seek the cause of the instability and why it was eroding. And design the restoration so that it corrects the imbalances in the entire system. (Riley)

2.7.1 Watershed perspective A stream with sedimentation problem needs an answer to from where the sedimentation load is coming from. The source may be the new housing development or a culvert put in wrong gradient just few feet away. It will be very difficult to band aid symptoms of permanent change in the watershed such as Page 23

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. badly designed watershed or a development project were large amount of sediments are contributing to the stream channel. Therefore improvement of river also needs to address larger problems. It has to take in account the storm water drainage system designed or to be designed for the city. But these imbalances can be remedied by upstream catchment basins, gully check dams that control upper hill erosion and revegetation projects. Solution sediments caused by culverts is to redesign them or completely remove them replacing the bridges or simple fords if at upstream grade crossings. (Riley)

2.7.2 Neighborhood perspective River Restoration, rejuvenation, Improvement activities in cities and town must include community. The greatest value of these projects can be the new sense of community identity and pride created by the participation in restoration or rejuvenation project. Planning and project implementation should include all citizens who may have a stake in the project. Because if key people felt left out in decision making or because of misunderstanding about what the project will do, then because of public opposition the whole project can stop. Therefore it is necessary to obtain minimum vandalism and assumption of long-term vigilance for the project. (Riley)

2.7.3 When to act A varity of human chages and natural disasters can destabilize the streams equilibrium. In many situations, a stream will find a new equilibrium without intervention. In other situations, a stream will defy attempts to manipulate it by blowing out, eroding, and bypassing bank protection projects. Sometimes native plant species will return naturally and more quickly than replantation. There is a significant history of failure of make- work type of project on streams that may do more harm than good to the correction of imbalances in channels and watersheds. Therefore a planner, municipal authorities first consult local professionals, geomorphologist, hydrologist, and knowlwgable peoples for help who knew rivers past. (Riley) Page 24

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

2.8

TECHNICAL’S

UNDERSTANDING

OF

STREAM

NECESSARY FOR URBAN RIVER STAKEHOLDER
2.8.1 Overview of stream corridor Practitioners categorize streams based on the balance and timing of the stormflow and baseflow components. There are three main categories: 2.8.1.1 Categories of streams:• Ephemeral streams flow only during or immediately after periods of precipitation. They generally flow less than 30 days per year. • Intermittent streams flow only during certain times of the year. Seasonal flow in an intermittent stream usually lasts longer than 30 days per year. • Perennial streams flow continuously during both wet and dry times. Baseflow is dependably generated from the movement of ground water into the channel. (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group 1-16) 2.8.1.2 Spatial structure of the stream:Landscape ecologists use four basic terms to define spatial structure at a particular scale— matrix, patch, corridor, and mosaic. See Fig 2.3. • Matrix: It is the land cover that is dominant and interconnected over the majority of the land surface. Often the matrix is forest or agriculture, but theoretically it can be any land cover type. • Patch: It is a nonlinear area (polygon) that is less abundant than, and different from, the matrix. • Corridor: It is a special type of patch that links other patches in the matrix. Typically, a corridor is linear or elongated in shape, such as a stream corridor. • Mosaic: It is a collection of patches, none of which are dominant enough to be interconnected throughout the landscape. (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group) 2.8.1.3 Structure within the Stream Corridor Scale • Riffles and pools

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. • • • • • Woody debris Aquatic plant beds Islands and point bars Examples of corridors might include: Protected areas beneath overhanging Banks The thalweg, the “channel within the channel” that carries water during low-flow conditions. • Lengths of stream defined by physical, chemical, and biological similarities or differences. • Lengths of stream defined by humanimposed boundaries such as political borders or breaks in land use or ownership.

2.8.2 Cross section of stream corridor In cross section, most stream corridors have three major components. The three main components of the river corridor can be subdivided by structural features and plant communities. (Vertical scale and channel width are greatly exaggerated.). • • Stream channel, a channel with flowing water at least part of the year. Floodplain, a highly variable area on one or both sides of the stream channel that is inundated by floodwaters at some interval, from frequent to rare. Transitional upland fringe, a portion of the upland on one or both sides of the floodplain that serves as a transitional zone or edge between the floodplain and the surrounding landscape.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 4 Spatial structure.

Source: (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group), Stream corridor restoration principles, processes and practices, 2001.

Figure 5 A cross section of a river corridor.

Source: (Sparks), Bioscience, vol. 45, p. 170, March 1995. ©1995 American Institute of Biological Science

2.8.3 Floodplain The floor of most stream valleys is relatively flat. This is because over time the stream moves back and forth across the valley floor in a process called lateral migration. In addition, periodic flooding causes sediments to move Page 27

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. longitudinally and to be deposited on the valley floor near the channel. These two processes continually modify the floodplain. Through time the channel reworks the entire valley floor. As the channel migrates, it maintains the same average size and shape if conditions upstream remain constant and the channel stays in equilibrium. (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group)

2.8.3.1 Two types of floodplains see Fig 2.5 • Hydrologic floodplain, the land adjacent to the baseflow channel residing below bankfull elevation. It is inundated about two years out of three. Not every stream corridor has a hydrologic floodplain. • Topographic floodplain, the land adjacent to the channel including the hydrologic floodplain and other lands up to an elevation based on the elevation reached by a flood peak of a given frequency (for example, the 100-year floodplain). Professionals involved with flooding issues define the boundaries of a floodplain in terms of flood frequencies. Thus, 100year and 500-year floodplains are commonly used in the development of planning and regulation standards. (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group) Figure 6 Hydrologic and topographic floodplains.

Source: (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group), Stream corridor restoration principles, processes and practices, 2001. Page 28

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 2.8.3.2 Floodplain Landforms and Deposits Topographic features are formed on the floodplain by the lateral migration of the channelthat result in varying soil and moisture conditions and provide a variety of habitat niches that support plant and animal diversity. See Fig 2.6. (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group)

Types of Floodplain landforms and deposits • • Meander scroll, a sediment formation marking former channel locations. Chute, a new channel formed across the base of a meander. As it grows in size, it carries more of the flow. • Oxbow, a term used to describe the severed meander after a chute is formed. • Clay plug, a soil deposit developed at the intersection of the oxbow and the new main channel. • Oxbow lake, a body of water created after clay plugs the oxbow from the main channel. • Natural levees, formations built up along the bank of some streams that flood. As sediment-laden water spills over the bank, the sudden loss of depth and velocity causes coarsersized sediment to drop out of suspension and collect along the edge of the stream. • Splays, delta-shaped deposits of coarser sediments that occur when a natural levee is breached. Natural levees and splays can prevent floodwaters from returning to the channel when floodwaters recede. Backswamps, a term used to describe floodplain wetlands formed by natural levees. (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 7 Landforms and deposits of a floodplain.

Source: (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group), Stream corridor restoration principles, processes and practices, 2001.

2.8.4 Hydrology 2.8.4.1 Storm hydrograph It is a tool used to show how the discharge changes with time (Figure 2.7). The portion of the hydrograph that lies to the left of the peak is called the rising limb, which shows how long it takes the stream to peak following a precipitation event. The portion of the curve to the right of the peak is called the recession limb. Figure 8 A storm

hydrograph.

Source: Interagency Restoration Group),

(The

Federal Stream Working corridor principles,

Stream

restoration processes 2001. and

practices,

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 2.8.4.2 What is Streamflow:A distinguishing feature of the channel is streamflow. As part of the water cycle, the ultimate source of all flow is precipitation. The two basic components are: • Stormflow, precipitation that reaches the channel over a short time frame through overland or underground routes. • Baseflow, precipitation that percolates to the ground water and moves slowly through substrate before reaching the channel. It sustains streamflow during periods of little or no precipitation. Streamflow at any one time might consist of water from one or both sources. If neither source provides water to the channel, the stream goes dry.

2.8.4.3 Change in Hydrology after Urbanization The hydrology of urban streams changes as sites are cleared and natural vegetation is replaced by impervious cover such as rooftops, roadways, parking lots, sidewalks, and driveways. One of the consequences is that more of a stream’s annual flow is delivered as storm water runoff rather than baseflow. Depending on the degree of watershed impervious cover, the annual volume of storm water runoff can increase by up to 16 times that for natural areas (Schueler 1995). In addition, since impervious cover prevents rainfall from infiltrating into the soil, less flow is available to recharge ground water. Therefore, during extended periods without rainfall, baseflow levels are often reduced in urban streams (Simmons and Reynolds 1982). Storm runoff moves more rapidly over smooth, hard pavement than over natural vegetation. As a result, the rising limbs of storm hydrographs become steeper and higher in urbanizing areas (Figure 2.8). Recession limbs also decline more steeply in urban streams. Impervious cover directly influences urban streams by dramatically increasing surface runoff during storm events (Figure 2.9). Depending on the degree of watershed impervious cover. Impervious cover in a watershed results in increased surface runoff. As little as 10 percent impervious cover in a watershed can result in stream degradation.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 9 A comparison of hydrographs before and after urbanization.

Source: (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group), Stream corridor restoration principles, processes and practices, 2001. Figure 10 Relationship between impervious cover and surface runoff.

Source: (The Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group), Stream corridor restoration principles, processes and practices, 2001.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 2.8.4.4 Discharge Three types of discharge:a) Channel-forming (or dominant) discharge. If the streamflow were held constant at the channel-forming discharge, it would result in channel morphology close to the existing channel. However, there is no method for directly calculating channel-forming discharge. An estimate of channel-forming discharge for a particular stream reach can, with some qualifications, be related to depth, width, and shape of channel. Although channel-forming discharges are strictly applicable only to channels in equilibrium, the concept can be used to select appropriate channel geometry for restoring a disturbed reach. b) Effective discharge. The effective discharge is the calculated measure of channel-forming discharge. Computation of effective discharge requires longterm water and sediment measurements, either for the stream in question or for one very similar. Since this type of data is not often available for stream restoration sites, modeled or computed data are sometimes substituted. Effective discharge can be computed for either stable or evolving channels. c) Bankfull discharge. This discharge occurs when water just begins to leave the channel and spread onto the floodplain. Bankfull discharge is equivalent to channel-forming (conceptual) and effective (calculated) discharge. Bankfull discharge

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

2.9 LEGISLATION AND ITS ENFORCEMENT
The existing water law framework in India is characterised by the coexistence of a number of different principles, rules and acts adopted over many decades. The early Northern India Canal and Drainage Act, 1873 sought, for instance, to regulate irrigation, navigation and drainage in Northern India that introduced the right of the Government to ‘use and control for public purposes the water of all rivers and streams flowing in natural channels, and of all lakes’. 1873 act refrained from asserting state ownership over surface waters. Nevertheless, it asserted the right of the Government to control water use for the benefit of the broader public. Thus, the Madhya Pradesh Irrigation Act, 1931 went much further and asserted direct state control over water: ‘All rights in the water of any river, natural stream or natural drainage channel, natural lake or other natural collection of water shall vest in the Government’. Colonial law in this area remains relevant to-date because acts like the 1931 MP act are still in force. Further, in MP again, the Regulation of Waters Act, 1949 reasserted that ‘all rights in the water of any natural source of supply shall vest in the Government’.17 The much more recent Bihar Irrigation Act, 1997 still provides that all rights in surface water vest in the Government.18 In general, water law is largely state based. This is due to the constitutional scheme, which since the Government of India Act, 1935 has in principle given power to the states to legislate in this area. Thus, states have the exclusive power to regulate water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage, hydropower and fisheries. Parliament also enacted the River Boards Act, which provides a framework for the setting up of river boards by the Central Government to advise state government concerning the regulation or development of an inter-state river or river valley.25 This act has, however, never been used in practice. While the intervention of the central government in water regulation is limited by the constitutional scheme, the importance of national regulation in water has already been recognised in certain areas. Thus, with regard to water pollution, Parliament did adopt an act in 1974, the Water Act.27 This act seeks to prevent and control Page 34

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. water pollution and maintain and restore the wholesomeness of With regard to surface water, existing rules still derive from the early common rule of riparian rights. Thus, the basic rule was that riparian owners had a right to use the water of a stream flowing past their land equally with other riparian owners, to have the water come to them undiminished in flow, quantity or quality.28 In recent times, the riparian right theory has increasingly been rejected as the appropriate basis for adjudicating water claims. The existing legal framework concerning water is complemented by a human rights dimension. While the Constitution does not specifically recognise a fundamental right to water, court decisions deem such a right to be implied in Article 21 (right to life). The right to water can be read as being implied in the recognition of the right to a clean environment. In Subhash Kumar v. State of Bihar, the Supreme Court recognised that the right to life ‘includes the right of enjoyment of pollution free water and air for full enjoyment of life’.36 In the Sardar Sarovar case, the Supreme Court went further and directly derived the right to water from Article 21.

2.9.1 IPC 1860 Section 268 of the code deals with measures to check the spread of diseases posing danger to life and prescribes punishment including imprisonment for those held responsible. However such laws were mainly concerned with public health and not specifically with the environment. Section 277 of the code specifically deals with water pollution. This section provides that whosoever voluntarily corrupts or fouls the water of any public spring or reservoir so as to render it less fit for the purpose for which it is ordinarily used, shall be punished with either imprisonment for a term, which may extend to three months or with a fine, which may extend to Rs. 500 or both. However this section was never found to be applicable to the pollution of rivers.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 2.9.2 1948, the factories act came on the scene and the rules formed there under (section 12) stated that the factories have to make proper arrangement for the disposal of effluent and state government can regulate by making the rules.

2.9.3 The river board act of 1956:This provides for the creation of river boards for regulation and development of interstate rivers and river valleys.

2.9.4 The national Indian canal and drainage act of 1973 Under section 70(5) which a person corrupting or fouling the water of any canal so as to render it less fit for which it is ordinarily used can be punished either a fine up to 500 Rs. or imprisonment up to one month or both. However several laws enacted to control pollution did not cover the specific problem of water pollution until 1974, when legislation explicitly directed at protecting the environment was put on the status books for the first time with the water (prevention and control of pollution) Act. Finally the comprehensive environmental protection act in 1986 came into picture.

2.9.5 The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 The water act, 1974 as amended to deals comprehensively with water issues. It empowers the Government to constitute Pollution Control Boards to maintain the wholesomeness of national water bodies. It enables Central and State Pollution Control Boards to prescribe standards and has provisions for monitoring & compliance and penal provisions against the violators of the Act. The same boards SPCB and CPCB were later empowered to enforce the Air Act. The water Act empowers the pollution control boards to lay down and maintain water standards, the actual provisions for enforcement such as penalties, imprisonment, etc are largely confined to source specific standards for individual polluters.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. It provides the permit system i.e. “Consent” procedure to prevent and control of water pollution. The Act empowers State Boards to issue directions to the defaulters. The state pollution control boards can demand information from any person in order to ensure compliance with the Act. This information can include flow of stream and other characteristics of stream and well including extraction of water from them, discharge of trade effluent into a stream and details regarding installation and operation of pollution control equipments. Failure to comply with direction in this regard is punishable by imprisonment up to and or a fine of up to Rs.10000 and additional daily fine of Rs.5000 can be imposed for continued noncompliance (section 20 (2) and (3)) and section 41. The board can close down certain activities if it is apprehended that pollution may occur or if it has occurred. It can also move the courts for discontinuation of power and water supply. Noncompliance with board’s directions is punishable by imprisonment from 1.5 to 6 years plus a fine. If non-compliance continues a daily fine up to Rs. 5000 can be imposed if non-compliance continues for more than a year after the first conviction the prison term could be increased to 2-7 yrs section 24,32,33 (2), 33A and 41(2) and (3).

2.9.6 Environmental protection act in 1986 The environmental protection act of 1986 also authorizes the central government to intervene directly in order to protect the environment and also allows PIL for the same purpose. The nature of penalties allowed under the Act is similar to those authorized under the Water Act. The Environment Protection Act has a broad coverage in which ‘Environment’ includes water, air and land and there exists an interrelationship among water, air, land, human beings and other creatures. It empowers to take measures in protecting and improving the quality of the environment through preventing, controlling and abating environmental pollution. The Government is authorized to set national standards for ambient environmental quality and controlling discharges to regulate industrial locations, to prescribe procedure for Page 37

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. hazardous substance management and to collect and disseminate information regarding environmental pollution. The Act provides for severe penalties for those who fail to comply with or contravenes any provision of the Act. The Act framed by the government aim at prevention and control of water as well as maintenance and restoration of the wholesomeness of water. The Act authorizes the central government to establish standard for quality of the environment and the emission and the discharge of the pollutants from any source. The Act establishes general and industry based standards for certain type of effluent discharge.

2.9.7 Public nuisance action against the polluters Public nuisance is defined by any action, which injures, annoys or interferes with the quality of life of a class of person who comes within the neighborhood. Private nuisance may be explained as substantial and unreasonable interference with the use and enjoyment of land. The remedies prescribed for public nuisance are, Section 268 of IPC of 1860 Section 133-144 of code of criminal procedure of 1973 Section 188 of IPC

2.9.8 Common law right to riparian owners to unpolluted water Riparian Owner is one who has title to land adjacent to a stream. According to Indian Act 1882 every riparian has to be continued flow of waters of the natural streams in its natural condition or unreasonable pollution.

2.9.9 National water framework act A draft national water framework act is prepared by Sub-Group set up by the Planning Commission’s Working Group on Water Governance for the Twelfth Plan. 1) The proposed national water law is not intended to centralise water management or to change the Centre-State relations in any way. What is proposed is not a Central water management law or a command-and-control law of the Page 38

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. usual kind, but a framework law, i.e., an umbrella statement of general principles governing the exercise of legislative and/or executive (or devolved) powers by the Centre, the States and the local governance institutions. 2) No administrative machinery or institutional structure (except for a national water Information system) is envisaged at the Centre under this framework law, and consequently no penal provisions are envisaged. This is not intended to exclude the necessary administrative machinery, institutional structure and penal provisions in State laws within this framework. 3) However, the law is intended to be justiciable in the sense that the laws passed and the executive actions taken by the Central and State Governments and the devolved functions exercised by PRIs will have to conform to the general principles and priorities laid down in the framework law, and that deviations can be challenged in a court of law.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

2.10 WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
Table 2 Water quality criteria

Drinking Water Source without conventional treatment but after disinfection Outdoor

A

Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 50 or less

• • •

pH between 6.5 and 8.5 DO 6mg/l or more BOD 5 days 20°C 2mg/l or less

bathing B

Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 500 or less pH between 6.5 and 8.5

(Organised)
• •

DO 5mg/l or more BOD 5 days 20°C 3mg/l or less Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100ml shall be 5000 or less pH between 6 to 9

Drinking source conventional treatment disinfection Propagation Wild life

water C after

DO 4mg/l or more BOD 5 days 20°C 3mg/l or less

and

of D and

• • •

pH between 6.5 to 8.5 DO 4mg/l or more Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less pH betwwn 6.0 to 8.5 Electrical Conductivity at 25°C micro

Fisheries Irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal BelowE E

• •

mhos/cm Max.2250
• •

Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26 Boron Max. 2mg/l Not Meeting A, B, C, D & E Criteria

Source: (Central Pollution Control Board)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

3. BASELINE PROFILE OF NAGPUR CITY

3.1 REGIONAL SETTINGS OF STUDY AREA
Nagpur city situated in regarded as the centre of India. All the distances by road are measured from zero mile situated in city from British period. It in Maharashtra state as a winter capital or to say second capital of the state. City limits encompasses 217.56 square kms of area. Geographical location is 21º45’ N to 20º30’ N and 78º15’ E to 79º45’ E, at 274.5 mtrs to 652.70 mtrs above sea level. The whole district of Nagpur is located in Deccan Plateau. 28% of Nagpur is covered by Forest and generally have dry tropical weather. All major highways such as NH-7 (Varanasi - Kanyakumari ) and NH-6 (Mumbai - Sambalpur Calcutta), major railways trunk route (Mumbai, Chennai, Howrah, Delhi) pass through the city. Many Important institutions and offices of central and state government are located in Nagpur. (City Sanitation Plan) (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

3.2 THE CITY GROWTH Most people think that city got its name from the name of Nag River which flows through the city like a serpent. But some many think that it related to worship Naga deities or serpent gods. This region finds its mention in Vedic and Mauryan texts. In context of present historic track of this area the Nagpur city in first foundation is laid by a Gond kind of Deogad called “Bakht Buland Shah” in 1703AD. His successor Chand Sultanconstructed three mile long wall around his city by Nag River. After that it became the capital of Raghoji Rao Bhonsle’s kingdom in 1743AD. Period of Raghoji Rao Bhonsle’s witnesses’ peace with cultural and economic prosperity during which Cottage and handloom industry started developing here. After that only in 1817 is annexed by the British after the defeat of Appasaheb Bhosale in the Battle of Sitabuldi. In 1915 Sir Patrick Geddes visited the city. He raised Consciousness for a planned city development. As a result in 1936 Nagpur Improvement Trust (N.I.T.)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. was established to carry out planned development in the city. From mid-19th century till 1956 the British Government made Nagpur the capital of the new state named Central Province. After 1956 it became the second capital of Maharashtra. It is still considered as the winter capital of the state. It enjoyed the status of being the administrative centre for Central India during the ancient and medieval eras. Therefore it carries a legacy of economic and cultural prosperity. As we see the district is in Deccan plateau and surrounded by forests around it proximity to tribal areas that ensured the preservation of its natural resources, i.e. minerals and forests up till now. Although in we presently see that city has lost its politically prime position, natural aspects of geography, climate and location is positioning this city favorable for prospering as an economic hub.

Table 3 Chronological growth of Nagpur city The Gond rule (16861742) Nagpur city's foundation was laid by the Gond King of Deogad "Bakht Buland Shah" in the year 1703. Chand Sultan, successor to Bakht Buland Shah, constructed a three-mile long wall around his City by the Nag River The Gond king chose the higher bank i.e. Northern bank of the Nag river as the site for the fort. Agriculture was practiced in areas near to the settlement. Development pattern: the king established his fort in the vicinity of 18 older prosperous settlements. As population increased the settlement spread over a larger area amidst the agriculture lands. The Bhosales rule 17421817) In 1743, it became the capital of Raghoji Rao Bhonsle’s kingdom. The Bhonsle period witnessed peace with cultural and economic prosperity. Cottage and handloom industry started developing during this period. As the Landform was gentler it was well drained into the Nag river basin. The old fort was developed on a hillock on the west of the present city. The extended walled fortress was called Mahal. Development Pattern: The development spread predominantly on the western direction. The settlement crossed the Nag river at certain Page 42

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. locations.bhosales constructed the two major tanks: a) Ambazari b) Futala The British regime Phase 1 (1817-1901) Phase 2 ( 1901-1947) The city was annexed in 1817 by the British after the defeat of Appasaheb Bhosale in the Battle of Sitabuldi. Consciousness for planned city development was raised by Sir Patrick Geddes, who visited the city in 1915. The Nagpur Improvement Trust (N.I.T.) was established in 1936 to carry out planned development in the city. E British chose the higher ground to site their civil station after conquering the Bhosala kingdom. The city presented two different types of growth patterns. The East-Old city continued to congest the fort and surrounding while the West- the civil station which was bounded by the seminary hills on the west and north and Nag River on the south. Development Pattern: The Old city continued to grow at a faster rate, as trade was predominant on the eastern part. The growth also continued on the west and southwestern part of the city along the Nag River. Establishment of road and rail network. Industrial belt planned abutting Nag River. Railway line divided the city into east and west Nagpur- the old and new city. Nag River divided the city into north and south Nagpur with distinct edges. The Post The British Government made Nagpur the capital of the new state Independ ence named Central Province in mid-19th century and it remained so till 1956, after which it became the second capital of Maharashtra. But after Independence the natural resources saw the worst degradation. The city grew prominently in the south due to the Industrial Estate. The eastern and Northern part of city, agriculture was practiced. The infrastructure could not support the increasing demand of the city, causing environmental degradation. Thus Nag River treated as an urban drain. Page 43

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Source: (Sahasrabhojanee) (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

Map 1Growth of the Nagpur city and its physical situation
LEGEND GOND PERIOD1686 - 1742 BHOSALA PERIOD 1742 - 1817

BRITISH PERIOD 1817 - 1901 BRITISH PERIOD 1901 - 1947 POST INDEPENDENCE PERIOD
GOREWADA TANK

MUNICIPAL LIMIT 2001
VE R

LI PIO

RI

RIVER PIOLI

GOREWADA PIOLI R

IVE R

SEMINARY HILLS STARKY POINT HAZARI PAHAD
IV HIGH LAND DR E

NAIK TALAO LENDHI TALAO SITABULDI HILL JUMMA TANK MAHAL
NAG RIVER

TELANKHEDI GARDEN

TELANKHEDI LAKE MAHARAJBAGH PANDHRABODI TANK AMBAZARI TANK

CIVIL LINES

TULSIBAG GARDEN

NAG ROAD

P.K.V. LANDS SAKKARDARA TANK AND GARDEN

HISTORIC AREAS
SONEGAON TANK AIRPPORT

CONCENTRATION OF HERITAGE STRUCTURES HERITAGE STRUCTURES HISTORIC GARDENS RIVERS AND RIVULETS LAKES AND TANKS HILLS AND KNOLLS RESERVED FOREST AGRICULTURAL LAND

Source: (Nag River Basin Eco-Development Project), (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

3.3 CITY PROFILE
3.3.1 Physical and Geographical character Map 2 Nagpur and its location in India

Source: (Census of India) Nagpur city lies on the Deccan plateau of the Indian Peninsula and has a mean altitude of 310 meters above sea level. West of the Nagpur is occupied by the Deccan trap formation and the east part of the city is occupied by the metamorphic and the crystalline series. Although area in west I,e, occupied by Deccan trap does not rise into the hills of substantial great height. Though we can find low ranges of hills which are the extension of the prominent Satpura Ranges in the form of Starky Point, Seminary Hills, Ramnagar Hill and Sitabuldi Hill. The southern area of the city is similar to its western part. South east, east and the north-east part has the plain surfaced covered with alluvial deposit of the Kanhan and its tributaries. Topography of Nagpur is very suitable for its residents. Because Topography of the city has a natural gradient in the direction of West to East. (Physico-chemical characteristics of bore well water to assess water quality for drinking purpose inOmkarnagar region of Nagpur city) There are two major rivers flowing within the Municipal city limits. But as the matter of fact Third River in southern watershed of the city is also is the part of urban growth and its impacts on its corridor. So the main Nag River which is in Page 45

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. the central zone or to say central water shed or central drainage zone of the city. According to NMC it starts from the Ambazari Lake’s overflow point. But according to Nag rivers official record of notification it starts from the Lava region outside the municipal boundary limits. From Western end of the city it runs through the middle of the city and then goes towards the East and meets Pili River just outside the municipal boundry. People beleave that Nagpur city is named after the Nag River. But although some believe its name is related to religious history of some kind, were people use to pry to Naga deities. Nag River has a stretch of 16.5km in city boundary and the watershed of this River or otherwise to say basin of this River is named as Central Zone. The River in northern zone is called as Pili Nadi. It also has the length of 17 kms. It starts from the overflow Point of Gorewada Lake at the Northwest end of the city and runs through the North part of the city forming the Northern watershed called as North zone. Then it flows towards the Eastern end of the city to finally meet the Nag River just outside municipal boundary limits. Now the River named Pora River originates from Sonegaon Lake. It flows from the western part of the city towards southeast, and outside the southern part of the city. Now this rivers watershed is named as South Zone. And all these rivers finally drain into the Kanhan River and then to the Vainganga River. That means Godavari is a tributary to Vainganga, and Kanhan is tributary to Godavari, Nag is tributary to Godavari and finally Phutala Nallah, Pili Nadi, Pohra streams are tributaries to Nag River. Soil in the surrounding areas of the city is black-cotton having clayey structure. The black cotton soil previously been used for agricultural purpose. But now it is covered with habitat, and industrial and developmental activities. View of agriculture the soil of Nagpur is productive because it has very good water holding capacity. The organic matter content is less than 0.75%. The soil pH varies from 8-8.5. The soil which is procured and left for the development in all parts of the area from east to west (Kalmana area to Amravati road area) and North-south (Katol side area to Buttibory) is very fertile and productive in view that plantations and greenery is easy to maintain in Nagpur. (Physico-chemical

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. characteristics of bore well water to assess water quality for drinking purpose inOmkarnagar region of Nagpur city) • • Altitude (from mean sea level ) – Avg. elevation of 312.42 meters Terrain – The city generally have plain terrain with steady gradient slope from west to east with three watersheds parallel to each other. However there are many hilly areas that can be considered as effect of cities location in Satpuda ranges. Such as Seminary Hills, Ramnagar Hilltop, Sitabuldi hill these hills are very green and have parks and various green patches. Seminery hills is the area developed by Britishers for themselves, it is a very posh area. • Climate – Extremely hot and dry summer and cold winter. Except for the monsoons, when the humidity is high, the air is generally dry. That means that relative humidity is less observable here. Therefore for those who don’t like humid areas Nagpur is the best place to live apart from extremely hot summer. • • • Annual average rainfall – 1161.54 mm Maximum temperature– 44 ⁰ C to 48 ⁰ C Minimum temperature – 10 ⁰ C to 08 ⁰ C The climate of Nagpur city is characterized by enormously hot summer and a cold winter. The city experiences tropical climate and record the rise of temperature up to 48 0C in summer season i.e. during (March to May). The cold season is from December to February and temperature drops down to as low as 6 0C to 8 0C. The southwest monsoon season is from June to September while the period October-November constitutes the post-monsoon season. As per the data collected from the nearest Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), Nagpur’s average annual rainfall is 1161.54 mm. The maximum and minimum humidity is 70% and 20% respectively. Nagpur Municipal limit consists of 12 lakes, two Rivers and five Nallahs. These 12 Lakes cover area of about 3.13 sq.km. Nag River is 15.73 kms in length Page 47

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. and Pili River is about 12.11 kms in length inside the city. Both the Rivers cut across the city. As the matter of fact the origin of the Nag river is from Lava Besa areas, this origin is been recognized as the AII class river until it reaches to the Ambazari Lake. But the NMC recognizes its origin from the Ambazari overflow point only. And SBCB is indulging in derecognizing of that stretch. If this stretch get derecognized in future Nag River will be flowing toxic industrial substances and restoration will be far more difficult to even postulate. As well as the water in Ambazari will be of no use if this happens. Well on to the point on the southern watershed of the city called as south sewage zone or south drainage zone have Pohra River, although it is not presently in NMC limits development is observed along its corridors. There are many other Rivers that will be the part of larger Metropolitan region of Nagpur in future. But as a matter of fact Pohra River has already become the part of the city although not officially. • Lakes: Gorewada, Futala, Ambazari, Sonegaon, Sakkardara, Gandhisagar, Lendi Talao, Naik Talao, Dob Talao, Pandrabodi, Sanjay Nagar Khadan and Pardi • Nallahs: Chamar Nallah, Shakti Nagar Nallah, Hudkeshwar Nallah, Swawalabmi Nagar Nallah and Sahakar Nagar Nallah

Exact data about the pollution of all these water bodies is not available. But as only by the observation they are highly polluted because of free flow of untreated sewage. In the matter of observable facts individually by any person about the pollution in River bodies of the city, data from SPCB cannot be trusted.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.3.2 Demographic characteristic The population of any city is directly linked to the increased service area and correspondingly more environmental impacts associated with it. The population of Nagpur city shows naturally increased growth trend. As per census 2011 the population of Nagpur city is 2405421 and its urban / metropolitan population is 2497777. The decadal variations up to the year 2011 has been calculated based on the earlier census data. The population trends of Nagpur City are showing a declining growth rate over the decades. It is observed that the decadal growth rate of population during 1971-1981 was 40%, which has dropped to 26% in the decade 1991-2001 and further to 18 % in 2001-2011. The overall growth rate pattern implies that there is need to improve the economic activities of the city and improve the infrastructure facilities in the city. However the growth rate from the past two decades has almost been constant. Further considering the development projects and investments in the pipeline, Nagpur's growth rate will revive and the population may double at a faster pace in future. For graphical interpretation of the population trend of the Nagpur city. (Census of India) Table 4 Nagpur City population 2011 Population Literates Children (0-6) Average (%) Sexratio Child Sexratio 961 921 2,405,421 2,018,598 237,865 2001 1,226,610 1,060,359 123,851 96.16 1991 1,178,811 958,239 114,014 89.99

Literacy 93.13

Source: (Census of India)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Table 5 Nagpur Metropolitan population 2011 Population Literates Children (0-6) Average Literacy (%) Sexratio Child Sexratio Source: (Census of India) Figure 11Population growth of Nagpur city 4000000 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0
Decadel variation

2001 1,275,750 1,102,638 129,522 96.20

1991 1,222,027 992,781 119,156 90.02

2,497,777 2,095,419 248,678 93.17 958 920

Population (persons)

1951

1961

1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

2021

2031

Popultaion

449000 644000 866000 121700 162281 205132 242000 285494 336805 195000 222000 351000 405818 428502 368680

Source: (Census of India) Figure 12 Decadal Growth rate
50 45 40 35 30 25 %… 20 15 10 5 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021

Source: (Census of India) Page 50

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.3.3 Density As per the census of 2001, 8.04 lacs people resides in slums out of the total population of 22.00 lacs i.e. 26.54% population resides in slum. (Census of India) As per 2001 census there are total of 424 slums but as per a survey done by CHF International in 2007-08 they are increased to about 450. CHF international has some different criteria’s for identifying the slums as compared to census survey. CHF survey pointed out that about 135 slums are unauthorized. (CHF international) So according NMC nearly 40% of the population resides in 427 pockets of slum. In last eight years these pockets have high growth of 22%. And 50% of the population was below poverty line in 2005 as per NMC statistics. Although exact statistics regarding access to basic services by the urban poor is not available with NMC but according to stakeholder discussions it is pointed out that Vulnerability to flooding in low-lying settlements, low ability to pay for basic services, negligence onwards informal sector establishments in the planning process and lack of consultations with the stakeholders while planning for the urban poor are some few of the problems. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) As per NMC out of 427, 292 slum pockets are notified. Some of these notified pockets already have good living conditions, infrastructure and pucca housing. According to NMC these pockets should be de-notified to ensure focused investments in the less developed pockets. For slum redevelopment, slum rehabilitation schemes are being planned under public-private partnership arrangements. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) Details of ward wise density are in annexure 1.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Map 3 Authorized and Unauthorized slum distribution across the city and zonal population density

Lakes Streams Autorised slum Unauthorised slum ABOVE 50000/Sq.km

15000to20000 / Sq.km 10000to15000 / Sq.km 5000to10000 / Sq.km

Source: (CHF international) and (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Map 4 ward wise population density

Source: (Census of India) and (Pazare) Population density pattern along Nag River: The density has been highest in the wards forming the city core, ward no.80 sitabuldi is 332 person per hectare. Ward no 48 civil lines, which are well planned by colonial period, have low Page 53

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. density. The wards on the east of the city, forming low lying and flood prone areas are not developed with population density varying from 10 to100 people per hectare. The population density along the river increases from west to east, highest in the centre and gradually decreasing towards the fringe.

3.3.4 Literacy and Sex Ratio Average literacy rate of Nagpur city is about 93.13%. Male literacy is 93.13% and female literacy is 89.99%. (I.e. Total literate people in Nagpur city are 2018598. Out of that 1060359 are male and 958239 are female.) (Census of India) Sex ratio of the city is 961 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 921 per 1000 boys. Total children (0-6) in Nagpur city are 237,865 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 123,851 boys while 114,014 are girls. The child forms 9.89 % of total population of Nagpur City. (Census of India)

3.3.5 Population Forecast The Nagpur district consists of Nagpur Municipal Corporation, 10 municipalities, 13 panchayat samitis and 778 gram panchayats. The total area covered is about 9897 sq. km. of which Nagpur city accounts for 217.65 sq. km. (2.2%). The district population (as per Census of India - 2001) was 40.51 lakhs of which 20.52 lakhs (about 50%) were in Nagpur city. The average population density of Nagpur is quite low as compared to other comparable cities of India. The figure was 95 persons per ha in 2001. It is estimated that 36% of the population in the city of Nagpur lives in slums. See figure 11 for Population growth and projection.

3.3.6 Land use The total area within the Municipal Corporation’s limit is 217.56 sq. km. of which only 83.40 sq. km. (38%) is developed. 38% land is under agriculture and forest cover and 4% is under various water bodies and Nallahs. As per the UDPFI (Urban Development Plans Formulation and Implementation) guidelines, Page 54

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. the land use distribution of developed land (as proposed in Development Plan) conforms to the guidelines in the case of residential usage. But the land under parks and gardens (recreational spaces) is only 2%. This deficiency can be easily fulfilled by the large forest cover in the city. Also the land under commercial use is also low; therefore there is a need to increase it further. Proportion of land earmarked for public and semi-public use is sufficient and can be decreased. See Annexure 3 for details for Land use as per the development plan of 1986-2011. And see Annexure 4 for the details for Land use as per the development plan of 1921-2031.

3.4 BASIC INFRASTRUCTURES
3.4.1 Water supply There are two major sources of raw water and one minor source as listed below. i) Kanhan river: 46 Mm³ ii) Pench Kamptee Khairy Reservoir of Water Resources dept.: 190 Mm³ iii) Gorewada Lake of N.M.C.: 6 Mm³ City is supplied with about 520 to 540 Million liters of water per day from the above listed sources. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) Additionally there are approximately 450 open wells with electric pumps and about 5000 nos. of borewells with hand pumps. Water from open wells and bore wells is also used by citizen for non potable use. All part of city does not get continuous/ sufficient water. The main reason for the same are inequitable distribution of water due to non availability of adequate size pipe line network, less number of service reservoirs and physical losses. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) Table 7 showing the current installed capacity of WTPs relatively giving the idea how much the city has water demand.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Table 6 The capacity and location of W.T.P’s Name of W.T.P. Source Rated capacity Present W.S. Year of commen cement Pench water treatment Pench Reservoir 133 MLD 145 MLD 1994 136 MLD 145 MLD 1982

plant stage I, Gorewada Pench water

treatment Pench reservoir

plant stage II, Gorewada Pench water

treatment Pench reservoir

120 MLD

118 MLD

2003

plant stage III, Gorewada Gorewada station Kanhan Kamptee. water

pumping Gorewada lake works, Kanhan river Total

16 MLD

16 MLD

1936

108 MLD

120 MLD

1942

513

544

Source: (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) About 80% of the population is covered under drinking water supply. 40% of the population receives 190 Lpcd, 30% 100 Lpcd and 30% 80 Lpcd of water. However it can be seen that the water supply is not equal in all the areas of the city and only 40% of the population is receiving a desirable level of water supply as per the UDPFI guidelines. According to which 135 lpcd is an absolute minimum figure, while 150-200 lpcd is the desirable level and nearly 60% of the population is below the minimum level of 135 lpcd. (Environmental Status Report) To overcome this issue N.M.C. has proposed a project, “Rehabilitation Plan to Implement Continuous (24x7) Water Supply to the City.” This project is approved for about Rs. 387 cr. Under the scheme of Javaharlal Neharu National Urban Renovation Mission (JnNURM). About 70% of funds will come from Govt. of India & Govt. of Maharashtra, while 30% fund will be invested by the Private Operator. (City Sanitation Plan) Look at table 8 for current and future projected demand of water. In table 9 showing the resources NMC has captured Page 56

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. and supplied it to the city, as well as future demand and supply after capturing new resources.

Table 7 Future water demand of city of Nagpur S. No. 1 2 Estimated population Treated water demand at consumer end in MLD (including peri urban areas) 3 4 Raw water demand in MLD 637.4 Raw mm3. Source: (Augmentation to Nagpur city water supply scheme Pench-IV) water demand in 232.65 834.18 304.47 1089.24 397.57 2,830,000 515.12 3,690,000 674.18 4,750,000 880.7 2011 2021 2031

Table 8 Water demand and supply till 2031 according to master plan Year Demand [treated water] Projection 2004 2011 583.88 (actual) 691.35 470 (actual) 657.98 +113 Pench Kanhan Augmentation 2021 2031 913.62 1222.25 827.76 997.55 +175 +175 Rahri I Rahri II IV + Supply Projection Future planning

Source: (Augmentation to Nagpur city water supply scheme Pench-IV)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.4.2 Sewage system The existing sewerage (underground) system covers about 70% of the city. Only 40% sewage flows through the sewers out of the total sewage generated. The remaining flows throughout the city’s open drains. This situation gets worse in the period of monsoon. Normally City generates 345 MLD sewer, while in monsoon it increases to 600 MLD. Pumping and treatment facilities are insufficient, out of the total sewage only 100 MLD is collected and treated. (City Sanitation Plan) However NMC just built a new 100 MLD STP in 2011. Sewage system is divided into three zones – North, South and Central. The condition is worse in the north sewage zone. (City Sanitation Plan) To see the current status of city on benchmark of sewerage system sees annexure 5. North Sewerage Zone North Sewerage zone has 6 sub zones with any of area of about 84.18 Sq.km 366.30 kms sewerage (i.e. undergrounds) is available in this zone 3 sewerage treatment plants are proposed 763.70kms of sewerage system proposed in north zone The planned estimated cost in about Rs. 552.413 crores (City Sanitation Plan) Central Sewerage Zone Central Sewerage zone has 5 sub zone with an area of 73.73 sq.kms 696.075 km underground sewerage is available 2 sewerage treatment plants are proposed Length of proposed Sewer line is 238.62 kms Estimated cost of the project is Rs.333.37 crores (City Sanitation Plan) South Sewerage Zone South Sewerage Zone is divided into 4 sub zone with any of area of 37.59 sq.km 2 STPS are proposed Page 58

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Existing length of sewer lines is 452 kms Proposed sewer line – 192.67 kms Estimated cost - 336.36 crores (City Sanitation Plan) Following in table 10 is the sewage generation from three separate zones and their future projection. Table 9 Sewage generation from three sewage zones in Nagpur Proje North cted year Sewerage Zone Central Sewerage Zone South Sewerage Zone Total Total

project sewera ed ge

popula generati tion on (MLD) po Sewerage pop ulat ion Sewerage (MLD) po pul ati on 117.44 MLD 113 136 4 185.39 MLD 150 399 1 189.5 MLD 142.55 MLD 67 78 28 10 76 33 8 281.63 MLD 206 712 9 260.45 MLD 16 66 17 8 209.95 MLD 59684 59 752.03 MLD 135.63 MLD 40517 07 510.52 MLD 85.4 MLD 27412 34 345.39 MLD Sewerage (MLD)

pul (MLD) ati on 2011 93 20 42 2026 14 71 37 8 2041 22 35 15 2

Source: (City Sanitation Plan)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Length of sewer line in Nagpur is about 1670 km. The waste water got collected by the h open drains in many places, so therefore NMC proposes to complete 100% sewerage cover by 2041. This proposal includes collection, transportation & treatment of sewage. Talking about central sewage zone 120 lpcd of Sewage is generated and adding the 5% extra for ground water percolation to it becomes the total of 126 lpcd sewage. (City Sanitation Plan) Table 10 Zone wise STPs and length of sewer lines (proposed and existing) Zones Available sewer North 366.30 kms Central 696.075 km South 452 kms 238.62 kms 192.67 kms Sourcs: (City Sanitation Plan) 2 2* Proposed sewer Proposed STP *Existing STP of Central Zone in Bhanadewadi of 100 MLD capacity is expanded with the additional 100 MLD in 2011 and 92 MLD in 2026.

763.70kms 3

3.4.2.1 Best Practices by Nagpur Municipal Corporation Under the JNNURMs ‘reuse of waste water’ Nagpur Municipal Corporation and MAHAGENCO (thermal electricity generating company) has a proposal of building 110 MLD STP and this treated water will be used by MAHAGENCO that will generate 15 crores of annual revenue for NMC. Construction of 110 MLD STP is also undertaken by MAHAGENCO under the agreement. Currently irrigation department is using treated and raw sewage from NMC for irrigation purpose with the expenditure of 5 crores on lift irrigation. Figure 13 demonstrates the NMC’s reuse of wastewater through various partners.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 13 Proposed reuse of sewage water by NMC through various partners

Source: (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) 3.4.3 Storm water drainage Existing storm water drainage uses the three major streams in city. Now as we already know city is divides into three watershed called North zone, Central zone and South zone. These entire watersheds are parallel to each other from west to east. All the ra rain in water in Northern watershed i.e. North zone is drained into Pili River similarly Central zone by Nag River and Southern zone by Pohra River. Although Pohra River officially falls outside the municipal boundary, but it is a integral part of the city and its future development. And the corridor of this River is also urbanized and will have more development opportunities in future. (City Sanitation Plan) Pilli River starts form the overflow point or also called the gate of Gorewada tank at north north-west west corner of the city. It run through the northern part of the city and finally meets Nag River just outside the municipal boundary. Therefore it collects all the Rainwater in these areas through major and minor Page 61

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Nallahs. Similarly Nag River from Ambazari overflow point in west till the east collects all the storm water in central zone using minor and major Nallahs. Similarly Pohra River collects all the storm water of south zone. Currently, only 30-35% of the roads have storm water drains. These storm water drains also carry sewage and hence often get chocked and flooded in rainy seasons. Both coverage and design of the network need to be improved. (City Sanitation Plan) To see the current status of city on benchmark of storm water drainage system sees annexure 6. Drainage Basin in Storm water drainage Project Area Project area is divided in three river valleys. 1st in north zone i.e. Pilli river basin, 2nd in central zone i.e. Nag river basin and 3rd in south zone i.e. Pohra river basin. Preparation and finalization of master plan/ perspective for storm water drainage system for year 2041 is in process. Ts consultancy is awarded to to M/s Shah Technical Consultants (P) Ltd., Mumbai by NMC. The inception report and the master plan report for consultancy work is already was been submitted to NMC. In project implementation it is proposed that execution of the project will complete in three years of span. Project Implementation This plan is well planned for the 3 year implementation as according to City sanitation plan report. There are three phases of works or priority given, because it will suit the works that are been proposed in this master plan and the other works that are been carried out through other plan such as River rejuvenation plan and improvement of sewerage. So the phases of work should be like this according to storm water drainage perspective plan/ Master plan are as follows, • 1st phase: Rejuvenation of River and improvement of culverts and bridges. Page 62

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. • • 2nd phase: Improvement of nallaha 3rd phase: Development of roadside drain if need arises works shall progress from the downstream side of the river and outfall of nallahs as per the feasibility. The road side drain can be developed along with the development of roads. (City Sanitation Plan) Table 11 Length of storm water drains length of drains (road side) North zone Central zone South zone Total Existing drains 323.48 461 153 937 kms Proposed 1690 961 1390 4041 kms

Source: (Nag River rejuvenation plan) Table 12 Length statement of SWD S.No . 1 Close Drain RCC UCR 2 Open Drain RCC UCR 3 Pipe Line RCC SWG 4 Unlined Drain Total (Existing) Proposed SWD Particulars North Zone 165361 0 59561 4237 88543 635 5147 323.48 kms 1690 kms Source: (City Sanitation Plan) Page 63 Central Zone 207249 315 37877 362 212157 1560 1483 461 kms 961 kms South Zone 70977 0 7388 0 72802 187 1682 153 kms 1390 kms 443587 315 104826 4599 378101 2382 8312 942.12 kms 4041 kms Total

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Table 13 Length of drains and Project cost and other details S.No. Particulars North Zone 1 2 Total Length SWD in meter 323484 Central Zone 386256 118000 (31%) 37119 South Zone 230000 130000 (57%) 30265 115686 939740 322000 Total

Length of drain replaced in 74000 meter (25%)

3

Length of Major Nallah in 48302 meter

4

Length of Minor Nallah in 27625 meter

18375

30595

76595

5 6

Length of river in meter

34547

47930 754

47930 1067

130407 3079

Total estimated capital cost in 1258 crore

7

Total O & M cost in crore

10

10

10

30

Source: (City Sanitation Plan) 3.4.4 Solid waste management The present municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Nagpur city is approximately 800 metric Tonnes/day. The waste generated is mostly mixed waste and collected from residential houses, commercial complexes, shops, banks, offices, road sweepings, hotels, etc. Table 14 Solid waste statistics Total waste generation in city 875 MT 350 – 400 grams per capita Capacity (fleets) of waste 960 MT.

transportation With frequency of once to twice a day door-to-door scheme 60% coverage of residential and waste collection 75% of the waste

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. commercial establishments vermi-composting Separately collected waste from hotels, restaurants, mess etc. is used. 1/3 of daily 8-10 tons of food waste in converted into vermin compost Recycling by rag pickers paper, plastic, metal, brick stone and glass NMC is saving about Rs. 500 lakhs annually. disposal land of municipal solid 54 acres waste 10 kms from the centre of the city 750 tons per day of municipal solid waste Source: (City Sanitation Plan) 3.4.4.1 Collection of Municipal Solid Waste a) Street Sweeping: There is about 3400 kilometers of road that is swept by NMC sweeprs called as ‘safai karmacharis’. Every day one sweeper has to sweep average of about 700 meters of road. According to density of population this length is predefined for every sweeper, it is maximum up to 900 meters to 500 meters. This system is called as beat system. Where every employee sweeps the fixed road length. At present there are about 7500 sweepers out of which 6000 is the daily working strength of the group. Out of this 6000 daily strength 5000 workers are engaged in road sweeping. Solid waste is collected from sweeping is carried to nearest collection centre and from there to dumping yard. (City Sanitation Plan) b) Door to door Collection Nagpur Municipal Corporation has a scheme called “Bin free city”. Under this scheme 100% house to house collection of garbage is ensured with segregation of waste. The percentage of segregation waste is also increasing. Through M/s. Kanak Resources Management on contract basis NMC is collecting door to door collection of waste since June of 2008. It is carries out using vehicles Page 65

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. such as ghanta gadi (Hand Cart), Cycle rikshaw, and automobile vehicles: TATA mobile 207, TATA ace, Mahindra loadking, TATA 407 etc. Because of “Bin free city” scheme bins or containers are reduced from 700 to only 170 in numbers. This garbage collected from shops to offices, from houses to markets etc is mostly directly transported to dumping station through collection points. (City Sanitation Plan) 3.4.4.2 Segregation of Waste Laborers who are engaged in door to door collection of waste do the most of the segregation of waste. They separate recyclables like plastics, papers, metal etc. and themselves sell it to recyclers called ‘Kabadiwala’. NMC has authorized contractors who do the door to door collection to carry out this segregation activity were laborers are free to sell recyclables to ‘Kabadiwala’. Because segregation in done before transportation waste to the dumping yard NMC is saving around 12 lakhs rupees on 60 TPD ( tonnes per day) of waste. Mechanical segregation facility is also established at Bhandewadi dumping yard were remaining segregation is performed. Through awareness campaigns segregation of waste on house hold level is also encouraged so at Door to door collection phase efficiency and quality of segregation will also get better. (City Sanitation Plan) 3.4.4.3 Storage of Municipal Solid Waste According to “Bin Free” city project no solid waste is to be stored anywhere inside the city with given some of the exceptions. According to this garbage from households, markets, streets sweeping etc is to be directly shifted to the dumping area. Although were commercial activities are found throughout the day, they have been provided with containers because they continuously produce solid waste. (City Sanitation Plan)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Table 15 Average bins and MSW generation in a ward Approximate area of each ward Approximate population of ward Approximate generation of MSW No. of community bins in a ward No. of community bins in all the ward No. of community bins in market area No. of community bin in scattered wards Source: (City Sanitation Plan) 1.5 to 2 sqr. Km. 18000 to 2000 5 to 6 Metric Tons 0 to 2 60 80 30

3.4.4.4 Transportation of Municipal Solid waste As we know from 3.4.4.1 – b) that Door to Door collection is done on a contractual basis, and all the necessary transport vehicles are provided by Municipality. They include vehicles used for Door to Door collection to the heavy transport vehicles which carries compressed garbage to the dumping site. Therefore contractors are hired at the rate 449/- per Ton for collection and transport. In this process waster is not exposed to the public or to the environment. Following is the list of vehicles used for transportation of Solid waste in city. (City Sanitation Plan) Details about types of Vehicles and their capacity are in annexure 7.

3.4.4.5 Processing of Municipal Solid Waste a) Processing And Disposal of MSW For the disposal of solid waste Bhandewadi compost depot is reserved for this purpose in City Development Plan. Solid waste disposal land is about 10 kms away from the centre of the city. It is 54 acres and is fenced with 8 ft. high wall. Facilities like Concrete roads, drinking water, street lights are provided in the dumping ground. At present about 750 tons of municipal solid waste arrives here per day. The work of treatment, processing and disposal is done on contractual basis. Nagpur Municipal Corporation has chosen M/s.Hanjer Biotech Energies Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai for doing this work, as per the Municipal Solid Waste Page 67

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. (Handling & Disposal) Rules 2000. This tender is on BOT basis for 12 years for which M/s.Hanjer Biotech Energies Pvt. Ltd has estimated the rate of Rs. 26 crores. According Hanjer Biotech’s DPR the following constituents shall derive from Nagpur Municipal Corporation solid waste. The details of which are as in following table. (City Sanitation Plan)

Table 16 Composition of solid waste generated Manure Pallets & RDF Bricks & sand Plastic & other recyclable Rejects Source: (City Sanitation Plan) The project work as per companies DPR was started around in year 2010. As a first phase of inception of the project, the garbage dumped since past 30-40 years scattered all over 54 acres has been brought to one place. Now this garbage will be covered with HDP liner and a thick layer of soil, on which plantation will be done. Currently about 600 tons of garbage is daily being processed and disposed scientifically. Manure, green coal, bricks, sand etc. are produced out of this municipal solid waste. The capacity of this recycling plant is about 1000 TPD. And land fill site for the waste that is rejected in this process is also under construction. (City Sanitation Plan) b) Vermicomposting Food waste from hotel, restaurant, mangal karyalaya etc is collected separately, is done which is collected separately and used for Vermi-composting. Nearly 8-10 tons of food waste is collected daily, out of which 1/3 is converted into vermi-compost. Vermi-compost is used for NMC garden and is also open for sale. (City Sanitation Plan) 30 30 17 5 18 % % % % %

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.4.4.6 “Biin Free City” Project, its evolution and success In year 1996 there were about 2000 dust bins/ open dump site across the city. The number of vehicles was about 60-70. One vehicle is use to collect garbage from 2-3 dust bins in one day. And therefore it was not possible at that time to clear all 2000 dust bin spots in a single day. As a result garbage was laying everywhere around dust bins and because of rotting use to smells pungent or worse. As well as if there is a need to have a dust bin somewhere, it is been opposed because nobody will want a dust bin near to his home. (City Sanitation Plan) In year 1997 Nagpur Municipal Corporation introduced some mechanical means to collect and transport the garbage. They procured dumper placer with containers. In period of 1997 – 2000 about 700 containers are placed all over the city by reducing the total number of dust bins. Some old dustbins/open dump sites were closed permanently. On some places instead of many nearby dust bins a single container was placed on one spot. But still the idea behind keeping containers instead of dust bins is that citizens will put their garbage into these containers. Most people throw garbage outside the containers. Most of the containers are observed have spillage of garbage. Usage of containers made sure that, the garbage in that container will be collected more frequently. But providing containers was not sufficient solution for the city, although the number of dust bins/open dump sites were reduced from 2000 to 1200 in year 2000. This

reduction in bins by use of machinery was sufficiently able, to make a point of view, for civic body, to consider the scope of improvement in this direction. (City Sanitation Plan) After Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 were enforced, solid waste management got improved everywhere in Indian cities. These rules are enforced on the recommendation of committee constituted by Hon’ble Supreme Court of India. Collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste are the main contents of this rule. (City Sanitation Plan) Page 69

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. In year 2003-2004 Door-to-Door collection of garbage is introduced by Nagpur Municipal Corporation with the help of NGO. Locally it is been called as “Swachata Door Aplya Dari”. Door-to-Door collection is one of the important requirements of SWM rules 2000. In this scheme the generator of the waste that is households, shops, hotels etc has to collect and store garbage it generated in small container. And further that garbage is be handed over to the garbage collecting person on daily basis. A volunteer visits every house and collect garbage in cycle rikshaw / ghanta gadi on daily basis. In a span of 6-7 hours the volunteer collect and unload his ghanta gadi to the nearest container/ dust bin by his vehicle. One cycle of loading and unloading takes about 2 hours of time by these rickshaws. This system also ensured that garbage will not spill outside the containers and the garbage thrown outside of the container by people is also been unloaded thus deducing unpleasant scenes. (City Sanitation Plan) In year 2003-2007 the number of container / dust bins was further reduced to 600 during. The “Swachata Door Aplya Dari” i.e. Door to Door collection scheme was well appreciated. Due to spillage of garbage around the container and dust bins, demand to close or shift the containers is still sustained. (City Sanitation Plan) In year 2007 NMC started giving an idea about making Nagpur a Bin free city. The idea is that to synchronize the existing Door to door collection system with closed body fabricated hydraulic automobiles vehicles up to the dumping site directly, or through intermediary transfer stations. Looking at this project it would be an ideal PPP project, but also cooperation between residents and the civic body is also very necessary to make the project successful. So on contract basis M/s. Kanak Resources Management agreed to cover all type of commercial establishments and total of 5 lakhs houses with population of about 27 lakh. This consist vegetable markets, restaurants, road side eateries and approximately 66000 shops in the city. (City Sanitation Plan) In year 2008 finally the new scheme named “Bin Free City” was introduced to overcome all shortcomings. Under this system most of the Page 70

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. residential areas are freed from containers/ dust bins. Earlier the garbage collected from every house with the help of small vehicle or ghanta gadi is been stored at place like containers/ dust bins. Exceptionally on some places 4.5 CUM closed containers are used or kept in the corners to collect the waste. In this system the primary collection is being directly transferred to bigger vehicles (compactors), these vehicles compress the garbage so as to accommodate more amount of garbage so as to directly transfer the garbage to the landfill site. As a result small vehicles are able to coverer more houses because of less time consumption, because earlier they have to unload their garbage into the containers that takes time. Because garbage is directly been shifted to temporary transfer stations without storage at any place, the need to keep containers/ dust bin within the residential areas is been vanished or to say concurred with some exceptions. Only commercial areas that continuously produce garbage have been provided with containers. The Municipal Corporation also allowed and agrees with contractor for collecting the user charges from the beneficiaries, and it happened without using the force. (City Sanitation Plan) Number of container/ dust bin till year 2011 has been brought down to about 170, and it is also proposed to reduce the number up to 70-80 shortly. This is the result of Nagpur cities conceptualization of door to door collection of Municipal Solid waste in the year 2000 in two zones. Seeing the encouraging response in year 2002 Nagpur Municipal Corporation implemented this door to door collection scheme in all the ten zones of Nagpur successfully in association with a NGO. As a result fruitful results are being enjoyed today. 3.4.5 Access of Slum dwellers to Basic Services According to 2001 census 26.54% (8.04 lakhs) population resides in 424 slums. But according to CHF international survey done in 2008 number of slum is 450. Out of these 135 were unauthorized as per CHF international survey. And about 36% (i.e. 858983) of total estimated population in 2008 is living in slums. And approximately 171645 peoples only live in Zone 6 which is in the center of the city. Zone 6 is a small area with the densest population. Slums scenario as per Page 71

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. CHF international is shown in table 18. Details about zone wise slum population and percentage of slum population in zones as per the survey of CHF international is give in annexure 8. Table 17 CHF international Slums scenario done in 2007-08 % of slum population Population Households Total Area Notified slums Not notified slums Average piped water Network coverage Average sewerage Network coverage Average storm water drain Network coverage Average road coverage Access to toilets Garbage collection service Slums were Sewerage network is below 70% Slums were SWD network is below 70% Bins OR Door to Door garbage collection Source: (CHF international) 36% 858983 171645 17 sq.km 65% 35% 66% 72% 57% 78% 70% 64% 31% 55% 64%

So according NMC nearly 40% of the population resides in 427 pockets of slum. In last eight years these pockets have high growth of 22%. And 50% of the population was below poverty line in 2005 as per NMC statistics. Although exact statistics regarding access to basic services by the urban poor is not available with NMC but according to stakeholder discussions it is pointed out that Vulnerability to flooding in low-lying settlements, low ability to pay for basic services, negligence onwards informal sector establishments in the planning process and lack of consultations with the stakeholders while planning for the urban poor are some few of the problems. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) Page 72

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. As per 2001 census and NMC that out of 427, 292 slum pockets are notified. Some of these notified pockets already have good living conditions, infrastructure and pucca housing. According to NMC these pockets should be denotified to ensure focused investments in the less developed pockets. For slum redevelopment, slum rehabilitation schemes are being planned under publicprivate partnership arrangements. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

3.4.5.1 Notification of slums 65% slums (i.e. 287) are notified while 35% (i.e. 159) are not notified as per census data. Not notified slums also include 22 newly identifies slums pockets. This distinction weather the slum is notified or illegal or not notified have the priority in our federal system as well as state and municipal systems for the benefit of various schemes and facilities provided by the government.

3.4.5.2 Services to notified slums a) Water Facilities: 66%of the slum areas have piped water supply, but the supply is irregular and the quality of is also compromised because of damaged water supply pipes. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)As per the survey conducted by CHF international daily average duration of water supply in slums is 2 to 3 hours a day. (CHF international)That is either in morning or partially in morning and evening or evening. Slums in zone 3, 4, 5 and 9 are water scarce. While in summer season’s water supply to these water scarce zones is only through tankers brought by NMC. (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) Out of 446 Slums about 31% have less than or equal to 70% of piped water network. That means almost 70% of slums have 70% of piped water supply network. b) Sanitation: The socio-economic survey conducted by CHF international found that 70% of the households have individual toilets. However lack of piped water

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. connection and irregularity of water supply obstruct use of the toilets. (CHF international) c) Sewerage Lines 72% of slums are connected to the city’s sewer system. But most of lines are either defunct or chocked. As a result open drains flow the human waste, and is hazardous for both health and environment. As well as most of the existing sewer lines in slums also act as storm water drain. On some many instances water pipelines are in close proximity to sewer lines, increasing the probability of tampering. Out of 446 slums about 31% of slums have less than or equal to 70% of sewerage network. Means only 70% of slums have 70% of piped water supply network. And 55% of slums have less or equal to 70% of storm water drain network. Means only 45% of slums have 70% storm water drain network (City Sanitation Plan) d) Garbage Collection: Garbage collection is either in the form of door-to-door collection or the existence of bins that are provided by the NMC to cover to over 64 percent of slums. Frequency and efficiency of unloading of these bins and door to door collection system is inadequate. (City Sanitation Plan)

3.5 PHYSICAL PROFILE OF NAG RIVER

3.5.1 Physical profile of the rivers There are two major rivers flowing within the Municipal city limits. But as the matter of fact Third River in southern watershed of the city is also is the part of urban growth and its impacts on its corridor. So the main River the Nag River which is in the central zone, or to say is in central water shed or in central drainage zone of the city. According to NMC it starts from the Ambazari Lake’s overflow point. But according to Nag rivers official record of notification it starts from the Lava region outside the municipal boundary limits. From Western end of the city it runs through the middle of the city and then goes towards the East and meets Pili River just outside the Page 74

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. municipal boundry at N21.06431, E79.305807 co-ordinates. People beleave that Nagpur city is named after the Nag River. But although some believe its name is related to religious history of some kind, were people use to pry to Naga deities. Nag River has a stretch of 16.5km in city boundary and the watershed of this River or otherwise to say basin of this River is named as Central Zone. The central zone of Nagpur city comprises of 1/4th of the city municipal area being drained by the Nag River. The nineteen kilometer stretch of Nag River is extremely polluted today. The River in northern zone is called as Pili Nadi. It also has the length of 17 kms. It starts from the overflow Point of Gorewada Lake at the Northwest end of the city and runs through the North part of the city forming the Northern watershed called as North zone. Then it flows towards the Eastern end of the city to finally meet the Nag River just outside municipal boundary limits at N21.06431, E79.305807 co-ordinates. Now the River named Pora River originates from Sonegaon Lake. It flows from the western part of the city towards south-east, and outside the southern part of the city. Now this rivers watershed is named as South Zone. And all these rivers finally drain into the Kanhan River i.e. at N21.093489, E79.463231 co-ordinates, and then Kanhan River into the Vainganga River at N21.076171, E79.591262 co-ordinates. That means Kanhan is tributary to Vainganga, Nag is tributary to Kanhan and finally Phutala Nallah, Pili Nadi, Pohra streams are tributaries to Nag River. 30-km stretch of Vainganga Rivers which is an 'A II' grade river is completely polluted. Gosekhrud dam is of no use for peoples, cattle’s and animals for drinking. So the poetic description of Nag and Pili River is like they rise from the necklace of reservoirs. And after 20 kms from city Phora River carrying the sewage collected from South zone also connect to Nag River. However Phohra River was first turned into a canal and then into a nallah. Because of urbanization all the prominent bends of this River are removed by canalization making it impossible to distinguish between roads on today’s city map.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Map 5 Drainage Map of the city

Source: (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.5.2 Origin of the Rivers There are two major rivers flowing within the Municipal city limits. But as the matter of fact Third River in southern watershed of the city is also is the part of urban growth and its impacts on its corridor. According to Nagpur Municipal Corporation Pili Rivers starts from the overflow Point of Gorewada Lake. Pohra Rivers starts from the Sonegav Lake and Nag Rivers starts from Amabazari lakes overflow point and the small stream joining Nag also starts form a overflow of a lake. But as we study the universal fact about the small rivers or urban rivers and streams, it is very unusual that streams are starting from a lake. As we know NMC is a stake holder of these streams in city but also there are national and state level stakeholders of Rivers. Nag River is one of the 20 notified rivers in the state. And this notification itself states that Nag Rivers is starting way outside the boundary of Nag River from a village called Lava. She is notified in two parts, first stretch from its origin in Lava village up to Ambazari Lake, where it has been classified as A-II class. The second part begins from Ambazari Lake's overflow point to its confluence with Kanhan River near Ambhora village. This has been classified as SW-II class. State environment department notifications imposed various restrictions in the vicinity of rivers, keeping in mind their conservation. No-development zone for a river stretches to 500 meters from a A-II class river. Green category industries are allowed between 500 meter to 1km. Orange category industries are allowed up to 2km and beyond that any other industries can be set up. And already 10 industries situated on the river bank had submitted proposals for expansion to MPCB. As well as industrial lobby is forcing MPCB to take action to denotify the first streach of the river. This will cause serious damage to the Rivers flowing in city, urbanization and health its population, because industries will flow their waste into the stream. As well as water from Ambazari will also be of no use if this lobby succeeds. Page 77

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. It seems that by asking Nagpur Municipal Corporation about the origin of river MPCB is covertly indulged in trying to pass the industrial lobby of denotification of River. Water in Phutala Lake and Gorewada Lake gets collected through streams through storm flow and base flow across the year. Therefore these streams are also the part of cities environment although they are currently outside the municipal limits. Map 6 Physical situation of Rivers in Nagpur city

P IO

LI

RI VE

R

GOREW ADA TANK

PIOLI RIVER

GOREW ADA PIOLI R I

VE

R

SEM INARY HILLS STARKY POINT HAZARI PAHAD
HIGH LAND D R
IV E

NAIK TALAO LENDHI TALAO SITABULDI HILL JUM MA TANK M AHAL
NAG RI VER

TELANKHEDI GARDEN

TELANKHEDI LAKE MAHARAJBAGH PANDHRABODI TANK AM BAZARI TANK

CIVIL LINES

TULSIBAG GARDEN

NAG ROAD

P.K.V. LANDS SAKKARDARA TANK AND GARDEN

SONEGAON TANK AIRPPORT

LEG END
HISTO R IC A RE AS C O NC EN TRA TIO N O F H ER ITA GE S TRU CTU R ES H ER ITA GE S TRU CTU R ES H ISTO R IC G A RD EN S R IVE RS A ND R IV ULE TS LA K ES AN D TA NK S H ILLS A ND K NO LLS RES ER VE D FOR ES T AG R IC U LTUR AL LAN D

Source: (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) (Sahasrabhojanee) Page 78

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.
LI

P IO

RIV ER PIO LI

GOREW ADA PIO LI R I

VE

R

SEMINARY HILLS STARKY POINT
HIG H LAN D D

HAZARI PAHAD
VE RI

NAIK TALAO LENDHI TALAO SITABULDI HILL JUMMA TANK MAHAL
NA G RI VE R

TELANKHEDI GARDEN

TELANKHEDI LAKE MAHARAJBAGH PANDHRABODI TANK AMBAZARI TANK

CIVIL LINES

TULSIBAG GARDEN

NAG ROAD

P.K.V. LANDS SAKKARDARA TANK AND GARDEN

Map 7 Physical situation of Rivers in Nagpur city

Source: (Nagpur Municipal Corporation) (Sahasrabhojanee) Page 79

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 3.5.3 Physical status of River Water in reservoirs that are the origins of the Rivers Nag and Pili feeding water to these Rivers. Although if that flow is continued naturally the flow in the Nag River would be only 4 to 7 mld only. The water in Ambazari Lake is used for Industrial purpose and 16 MLD of Water from Gorewada Lake is treated and supplied to the city. The flow in Nag River is due to the Domestic waste of 174.9 MLD and Industrial waste of 0.492 MLD. Table 18 Salient features of Nag River
Chainage 0-720 7202750 27504635 46355435 54356020 60207541 75418586 Length (m) Width (m) Existing Depth Slope (m) (m) Width (m) Natural Catchment Depth Slope (m) Remarks (m) (Ha)

720 2030 1885 800 585 1521 1045

45-54 20-32 20-22 20-27 24-30 27-30 30-42

0.73.98 1.1-2.3 1.393.98 1.393.08 1.833.12 2.594.04 1.394.02

23.47 3.01 2.43 1.88 1.54 2.02 1.03 20 20 27 30 30 40 2 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.33 2.5 2 2 1.67 1.67

696.94 698.94 196.69 1299.3 282.88 288.29 302.91
Flooding Flooding Flooding nr. Rly. Crossing Flooding Flooding Wide section with shallow depth flooding Flooding River section reduces, flooding River section reduces, flooding River section reduces, flooding Meet pili river, flooding

85868748

162

42

1.39

0.59

42

2.9

1.67

234.2

874810410 1041012315

1662

40-45

1.394.75 1.524.12

1.57

45

2.9

1.49

367.64

1905

27-44

1.07

45

2.9

1.49

573.34

1231513070

755

28-30

3.094.3

2.54

45

3

1.49

487.45

1307015952 1595216732

2882

24-33

1.854.48 0.73.99

1.47

45

3

1.49

300.14

780

45-55

-2.383333333

307.13

Source: (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

4. DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 ENVIRONMENT STATUS OF RIVER
4.1.1 Flow in the river Map 8 Locations of flow measurement

Source: (Impact of Urbanization on river environment-A case study of Nag River in Nagpur) Table 19 Flow in Nag River Location 1 Inside VRCE (100 mu/s) 2 Dhantoli (100 mu/s of dagi pool) 3 Ramabai Ambedkar nagar 4 500 mu/s of confluence with pili River 5 100 mu/s of confluence point Flow Cu.m/sec 0.075 0.075 1.7 2.03 2.56 Flow MLD 6.48 45 147 175.4 221.2

Source: (Impact of Urbanization on river environment-A case study of Nag River in Nagpur)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 4.2.2 River water quality There is a great difference between the water quality tested by MPCB and NEERI. Also MPCB has their monitoring location on places were least most possible pollution can be found if it is correctly tested. High court is directly blaming MPCB for making Nagpur city so crippled that its sewage water has polluted a distant A-II grade River. High court is asking MPCB for the compensation for the environmental damage that has been occurred, on Gosekhud dam, and its back water. Instead of acting in direction to reduce pollution it seems that MPCB is so irresponsible for its deeds that MPCB has been indulge in denotification of first stretch of Nag River that is an important part to restore and prevent the pollution of Nag rivers corridor inside the city and beyond. Denotification will cause heavy industrial activity in the watershed of first stretch of Nag River. That will directly and heavily impact the health of Nag River and citizens of Nagpur. Therefore it is highly unlikely that MPCB is not adulteration Environmental monitoring data.

4.2.2.1 According to MPCB River water quality according to MPCB suggests that the river is not highly polluted and can sustain fishes etc. MPCB only have three monitoring locations on Nag River and two on Pilli River. Location of these monitoring stations is shown in. Temporal variation in BOD for Nag and Pilli River respectively is shown in and. Similarly for COD and, DO and

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Map 9 Locations of MPCB monitoring stations

Source: (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

Temporal variation in environmental quality of the Nag and Pilli River
Figure 14 Nag River BOD
NAG RIVER TEMPORAL VARIATION IN BOD

Figure 15 Pilli River BOD PILI RIVER BOD TEMPORAL 60 VARIATION 40 20 0

60 40 20 0

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 16 Nag River COD NAG RIVER TEMPORAL VARIATION IN COD 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) Figure 17Pili Pili River COD PILI RIVER COD TEMPORAL VARIATION

Figure 18 18Nag River DO NAG RIVER TEMPORAL VARIATION IN DO 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 200720082009 2009201020112012 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 19Pili Pili River DO PILI RIVER DO TEMPORAL VARIATION

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

Source: (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 20 20Nag River SS NAG RIVER SS TEMPORAL VARIATION 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Figure 21Pilli Pilli River SS PILI RIVER SS TEMPORAL VARIATION

Source: (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) According to the graphs above BOD and COD seen in river can sustain fish life in river. But according to observation river water is very polluted and have bad odour. The bad smelling river cannot sustain fish life life.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 4.2.2.2 According to NEERI Map 10 Locations of NEERI monitoring stations

Source: - NEERI, Nagpur.

But according to NEERI scenario is very different. Their monitoring reports show that mere sewage is flowing inside the river. And the amount of COD present in this sewage is even very high as compared to ordinary sewage would have. It is very important to find out the cause of this high amount of COD in water.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies bodies: : Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Figure 22 22Nag River BOD Figure 23Nag Nag River COD

Source: - NEERI 2004, Nagpur.

Figure 24 Nag River DO

Source: - NEERI 2004, Nagpur.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

4.3 ASSESSMENT OF WATERSHEDS
Below table 21 giving comparative outlook on current and proposed projects on sewage. The proposed STPs in year 2011 are in progress. Construction of STP in central zone is almost complete but the linking it to the pumping station for commencement is still awaiting. Refer table 22 and table 23 to have idea about situation of sewage network now and then in future. Table 20 Zone wise sewage condition
Zones Availa ble sewer Propo sed sewer Pilot STP (Decen tralized ) North 366.3 kms 763.7 kms 5 MLD 5 MLD (Total 250 MLD) Central 696 kms 238.6 kms 3 MLD 3 MLD 5 MLD 5 MLD (Total 292 MLD) 2* 3 100 MLD in 2011 185 (work progress) 100 MLD in 2021 50 MLD in 2031 100 (existing) 100 MLD in 2011 (work progress) 92 MLD in 2026 South 452 kms 192.6 7 kms (Total 200 MLD) *Existing STP of Central Zone in Bhanadewadi of 100 MLD capacity is expanded with the additional 100 MLD in 2011 and 92 MLD in 2026. 5 MLD 2 100 (Unknown) 100 (unknown) MLD MLD 136 MLD 210 MLD is in MLD 190 MLD 260 MLD is in MLD 282 MLD Propose d STP Status Projection of Sewage generation 2026 2041

Source: (Nag River rejuvenation plan) (City Sanitation Plan)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Table 21 Zone wise storm water drainage status Particulars North Zone Central Zone Close Drain (Existing) Open Drain (Existing) Pipe Line (Existing) Unlined Drain (Existing) Total (Existing) Prposed SWD Source: (City Sanitation Plan) 1690 kms 961 kms 1390 kms 4041 kms 323.48 kms 461 kms 153 kms 942.12 kms RCC UCR RCC UCR RCC SWG 165361 m 0m 59561 m 4237 m 88543 m 635 m 5147 m 207249 m 315 m 37877 m 362 m 212157 m 1560 m 1483 m South Zone 70977 m 0m 7388 m 0m 72802 m 187 m 1682 m 443587 m 315 m 104826 m 4599 m 378101 m 2382 m 8312 m Total

Table 22 Current Length of drains, implemented projects costs S.No. Particulars North Zone 1 2 Total Length SWD in meter 323484 Central Zone 386256 118000 (31%) 37119 South Zone 230000 130000 (57%) 30265 115686 939740 322000 Total

Length of drain replaced in 74000 meter (25%)

3

Length of Major Nallah in 48302 meter

4

Length of Minor Nallah in 27625 meter

18375

30595

76595

5 6

Length of river in meter

34547

47930 754

47930 1067

130407 3079

Total estimated capital cost in 1258

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. crore 7 Total O & M cost in crore 10 10 10 30

Source: (City Sanitation Plan) 4.3.1 North zone (watershed of Pillli River) North sewage zone or north storm water drainage zone defined by Nagpur Municipal Corporation fall almost in the watershed of Pilli River. Gorewada Lake is in the watershed of Pilli River, and River then extends from the overflow point of this lake. Watershed on upside extending outside the city is of importance for the health of river inside the city and also the water in Gorewada lake, that municipality is been using for drinking water purposes. Gorewada Lake collects most of the water from adjacent areas which are outside the city. This Lake is artificially created by Britishers, for their water needs for their colonies in civil lines area. The water in Gorewada is use by NMC for drinking water purposes; therefore it is not flown into the river. Although base flow of water from upper side of this watershed creates flow into the Pilli river. A good Flow is observed into the river just after kilometers from dam. Eventually this river starts to flow through less urbanized areas. And then onwards it collects sewage from some urbanized patches. Almost the entire corridor of this river is not encroached upon. The streams seem to have enough space for itself to adjust itself, modify and react to natural disturbances. On some places there are some slums situated close to the bank of Pili River. These slums seem to be new and can easily be eradicated. Many new buildings and housing societies are coming in surrounding areas; real estate development is just getting started here. The upstream of the North watershed that is Gorewada Lake, its surrounding areas, and forest in those areas is under the proposal of development of wild life tourism. This area will be developed for wild life tourism into a sanctuary. Eastern part of zone is fully sewered while western part is partially sewered. There are about 376 kms of existing sewerage network (i.e. underground). And additional of 763.7 kms of sewerage system is proposed for this zone. Three sewerage treatment plants are proposed for this zone. Existing Storm water drainage network is about 323.48 kms and about 1690 kms of drains Page 90

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. are proposed. Out of these 323.48 kms of storm water drains 25% drains are replaced with new drains.

Proposed STP (Activated sludge process) 100 MLD in yr 2011 100 MLD in yr 2021 50 MLD in yr2031 (work is in progress)

Water quality of treated sewage water proposed will be, TSS TSS 400 mg/l 350 mg/l → 30 mg/l → 20 mg/l

Proposed Decentralized Waste water treatment plant (Pilot STP): 5 MLD 5 MLD

As per the ‘Rejuvenation of Rivers in Nagpur’ plan awaited for clearance from NRCD (National River Conservation Department) Following are the future proposals for this zone.

1. One time desilting and cleaning of all existing sewers 2. Provision of street sewers in streets which are not severed at present 3. Provision for trunk sewer and main and sub-main sewers to connect up the existing and new street sewers and convey their flow to the proposed final pumping station for the zone. 4. Replacing undersized existing sewer lines. 5. Repairs of deteriorated existing sewers. 6. 757 kms of new sewers proposed under Sewage Development scheme upon natural terrain & topography of Nagpur in this zone. 7. Sewer size ranges from 150mm SW pipes to 2600mm RCC pipes.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 8. Two road side lift pumping stations and one terminal pumping station proposed. This terminal sewage pumping station will be located at Vandhra and will pump sewage to STP. 9. Proposed to have an independent STP for North zone located at Vandhra.

Water treated by STP’s in North zone will go to MAHAGENCO power plant for reuse in their cooling towers and ash handling. Water from Pilli River will not be sufficient for MAHAGENCO so the treated water from central zone will be pumped to STP location on Pilli River and then will be pumped to MAHAGENCO.

Central zone (watershed of Nag River) Central sewage zone or central storm water drainage zone defined by Nagpur Municipal Corporation fall almost in the watershed of Nag River. Ambazari Lake and Phutala Lake are in the watershed of Nag River, and River then extends from the overflow point of Ambazari lake and a stream from Phutala lake meets to Nag at sangam. Watershed on upside extending outside the city is of importance for the health of river inside the city and also the water in Ambazari lake, that municipality is been selling for industrial water purposes. Ambazari Lake collects most of the water from adjacent areas of stream which is outside the city. This stream starts from village called Lava. This Lake is artificially created by Bhosale kingdom, for their water needs in core old city area along Nag River. Because Ambazari lakes water is sold to industries by NMC; it is not flown into the river because it is a source for NMC to generate revenue. Ambazari lakes water is not usable for drinking water purposes, because it’s upstream is been polluted by urbanized areas situated on watershed of this stretch of river. Phutala Lake which is built by Bhosales for its use in gardens is now used for fish farming by NMC. A stream then extends from the overflow point of this lake. Presence of green areas and experimental agricultural farms, on Phutala stream seeps into the groung and therefore the groundwater quality around Lake and the part of stream that is flowing through posh areas is good. Nag River is a one of the 20 notified Page 92

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. rivers by state environment department. And the stretch from origin near Lava village till Abbazari Lake is categorized into A-II Class River. And the stretch extending from Ambazari lakes overflow point onwards is categorized into SW-II class. Although the water from Ambazari Lake is obstructed by dam, base flow can be observed in nearby stream after desilting in summer season. According to historic memories from people, River use to have flow in it for entire year. People use to bath in river and the water was been used for rice fields. Therefore we can presume that the water that was flowing in rivers was created by base flow, because Nagpur situation in Deccan trap, bringing water from distant Satpuda ranges from inside the ground i.e. baseflow. Central drainage zone or central sewage zone is sewered with 696 kms of sewerage network and 238.6 kms of sewerage network is proposed. It need about 1000 kms of sewerage network to reach 100% sewered network benchmark. Existing Storm water drainage network is about 461 kms and about 961 kms of drains are proposed. Out of these 461 kms of storm water drains 31% drains are replaced with new drains.

STP Activated sludge process 100 MLD (existing) (work in progress)

100 MLD in yr 2011 96 MLD in yr 2026

Water quality that is been proposed for this zone by all these proposals will be, TSS BOD 400 mg/l 350 mg/l → 30 mg/l → 20 mg/l

Proposed Decentralized Waste water treatment plant (Pilot STP): 3 MLD 3 MLD 5 MLD 5 MLD Page 93

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Under JNNURM project “reuse of waste water” 100 MLD of STP is proposed that will be erected by MAHAGENCO with secondary treatment of sewage that will be collected. Under the agreement between Nagpur Municipal Corporation and MAHAGENCO plant is now been erected near exiting Bhandewadi STP. This STP will start to function after some time. And the trunk mains, Diversion mains, pumping main will be erected under “River rejuvenation plan” submitted to NRCD. Also state minor irrigation department is lifting treated and raw sewage water for the irrigation of 875 hectare at the cost of 5 crore.

4.3.2 South zone (watershed of Pohra River) Watershed of Pohra River extends way beyond the municipal boundary limits. Pohra River starts from Sonegaon lake overflow point situated near Airport. Most of the NMC defined south sewerage zone or say south drainage zone is on the north side of Phora River valley. Recently MIHAN (Multi-Model International Passenger and Cargo Hub Airport at Nagpur) project is underway in this watershed. In this project development of existing airport of Nagpur into the international passenger and cargo hub airport with huge SEZ. Therefore it is a composite project of airport, road terminal, rail terminal, SEZ and various other allied services like housing, health city, international school etc. As a result urban development is extending toward south direction and real estate market is at boom in Nagpur. Because of this urbanization increasing pollution from this zone is observed. NMC has proposed to situate 2 STP of 100 MLD capacities in this zone. MIHAN project should also take the responsibility of pollution caused by its projects and development caused by this project. Although huge part of the catchment of Pohra River falls outside NMC boundary, NMC should enforce the responsibility to those who have jurisdiction in that area and are developing that region. Because in future it will come under NMC’s jurisdiction. And the efforts that are been taken by NMC to protect Rivers like Kanhan and AII grade Vainganga will go to vain. Currently only the part of the zone is sewered that is Page 94

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. inside NMC boundary. That is about 452 kms of existing sewerage network. And 192.67 kms of sewerage network is proposed for this zone. There is no existing sewage pumping station. But there are six pumping stations will be provided for this zone and out of these six pumping stations two will be the terminal pumping stations. And two STP are proposed for this zone, near Chikhli. Existing Storm water drainage network is about 153 kms and about 1390 kms of drains are proposed. Out of these 153 kms of storm water drains 57% drains are replaced with new drains.

Two STPs at Chikhli Water quality of treated sewage water proposed will be, TSS TSS 400 mg/l 350 mg/l → 30 mg/l → 20 mg/l

Proposed Decentralized Waste water treatment plant (Pilot STP): 5 MLD

As per the ‘Rejuvenation of Rivers in Nagpur’ plan awaited for clearance from NRCD (National River Conservation Department) Following are the future proposals for this zone.

1. One time desilting and cleaning of all existing sewers 2. Provision of street sewers in streets which are not severed at present 3. Provision for trunk sewer and main and sub-main sewers to connect up the existing and new street sewers and convey their flow to the proposed final pumping station for the zone. 4. Replacing undersized existing sewer lines. 5. Repairs of deteriorated existing sewers. 6. 192.67 kms of new sewers proposed under Sewage Development scheme upon natural terrain & topography of Nagpur in this zone. 7. Sewer size ranges from 150mm SW pipes to 2600mm RCC pipes. Page 95

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 8. Six sewage pumping station are proposed for this zone, out of these six two will be the terminal pumping stations. These two terminal pumping station will then pump sewage to STP’s. 9. Proposed to have two STP for South zone located at Chikhli.

From this zone secondary treated sewage water will be supplied to MIHAN and SEZ located on south of the city. (MIHAN = Multi-Model International Passenger and Cargo Hub Airport at Nagpur). 39 MLD of non-potable water will be supplied to MIHAN and its SEZ by year 2035.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

4.4 ASSESSMENT OF NAG RIVER STRETCH
4.4.1 Activities on Nodal points Proposals on Nag River as per “River rejuvenation plan’ submitted to NRCD.
Proposals Waste water treatment plant (Pilot STP) Check dams Rain water harvesting Nodes P2, P5, 2, 4, 11, All P2, P3, P5, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16

River front dev. E.g. Const. of Ghats, 3, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 decks, & floor beds Sanitation for economically weak section. 9, 10,11

Enhancing water quality through eco. technologies Ecological park and green zone Heritage and recreation Pedestrian bridge Cycle tracks Green buffers Percolation well Water retention pond

P5,12, 15,

9, 10 P2, 4, 11, 16 Nag River & Phutala tributary Nag River & Phutala tributary Nag River & Phutala tributary Nag River & Phutala tributary 16

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Map 11 Chainages and landuse along the Nag River

Source: (Nag River rejuvenation plan) (Nagpur Municipal Corporation)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 1} Chainage segment 0-720:

Length of the stretch – 720m Catchment area – 696.94 ha

Landuse along the stretch: This stretch starts from overflow Point of Ambazari Lake, is the dam that is been created by Bhonsale empire to trap water. Stream then enters into area owned by Haldiram’s Krazy castle a waterpark; it has been well maintained by Haldiram’s. Almost all the area on Southern side of this stretch is open and has green cover.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity: - None

Proposals and activities along the stretch: Excavators dug in two streams in this area which will cause free flow of water overflow from river. Excavation also

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. caused fresh water springs to come to surface in a summer season. Beatification of Nag river stretch by Krazy castle outside its boundary limits.

2} Chainage segment 720-2750:

Length of the stretch – 2030 m Catchment area – 698.94 ha

Number of check dams: 10 Length of check dams: 20 m Spacing between check dams: 210 m Height of the check dams: 0.7 m

Landuse along the stretch: Almost half of the stretch has open green cover on southern side. While the remaining stretch passes through mixed and residential landuse. Whereas this area is more posh as compared to others resulting in good quality of wastewater. As well as because of the presence of agricultural land nearby base flow is added to the stream and also the groundwater quality is good.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 1: NIT skating stadium Encroachment (concrete) by NIT skating stadium. (Nag River rejuvenation plan) Page 100

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Node2: Behind Dharampeth high school In this area Natural vegetation is found in agricultural land. Therefore Groundwater and wastewater quality in this stretch is good. It is an important location to preserve the ecology of this area. This stretch has a 10 meter wide basin, because of deposition of garbage collected by water runoff from settlement and slums. Silt is deposited deposit on the edges of bank. (Nag River

rejuvenation plan)

Proposals and activity along the stretch: This area is more posh as compared to others resulting in good quality of wastewater. As well as because of the presence of agricultural land near to the stream base flow (ground water percolation) is also added to the stream. Groundwater quality of this stretch is good. Presence of silt deposits on the edges of river in this stretch is also cause by soil carried away in runoff from the agricultural land.

3} Chainage segment 2750-4635:

Length of the stretch – 1885 m Catchment area – 196.69 ha

Pilot STP of 5MLD at 4557 meters from the overflow Point of Ambazari Lake.

Number of check dams: 4 Length of check dams: 20 m Page 101

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Spacing between check dams: 440 m Height of the check dams: 1.1 m

Landuse along the stretch: Most of the stretch is surrounded by residential and mixed landuse. There are many institutions, like laboratories, libraries, NMC in this stretch which are along the bank of the river. After sangam there is a large stadium on south side of the river. At The end of Node 4 a very little part of stretch is surrounded by green cover just after the stadium on south side and commercial landuse is observed on north side.

Nodal Points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node2: Behind Dharampeth high school

In this area Natural vegetation is found in agricultural land. Therefore Groundwater and wastewater quality in this stretch is good. It is an important location to preserve the ecology of this area. This stretch has a 10 meter wide basin, because of deposition of garbage collected by water runoff from settlement and slums. Silt is deposited deposit on the edges of bank. (Nag River

rejuvenation plan)

Node3: Canal road Ramdaspeth

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Public road is in direct contact with the river. Masonry wall alongside the bed of river and have extensive vegetation. Well defined footpath accessible to public can become a landmark of the city. High amount of silt is extracted in this area in river cleaning drive my NMC. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node4: Sangam of Nag River and Phutala Nala

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

This is an important junction because stream meets with Phutala Nala stream, therefore this site is called as sangam. It has shiv mandir, ghats and heritage value. It was an important landmark in the past and now has a heritage value. At this point river gets boost in its flow and its size almost doubles. There are slums on both sides before reaching sangam. At this point a gigantic Mall is under construction. Reconstruction of side walls and STP are proposed near to this point. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Proposals and activity along the stretch: Reconstruction of side walls and STP are proposed near to this point. Because of the heritage value on Node 4, this node will be developed accordingly with beatification, reconstruction of side walls, construction of banks for religious activities and gardening. Also Construction of a giant mall so close to the river basin is very questionable. How it got permission to do so. Because of its giant structure it is blocking the visual connection to river as well as the success and advantage of proposed beautification of this place is also compromised. Green cover at the end of Node 4 and the stadium near to it

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. makes possible for NMC to construct STP for this location in these areas. NMC has proposed an STP of 5 MLD near stadium.

4} Chainage segment 4635-5435:

Length of the stretch – 800 m Catchment area – 1299.3 ha

Number of check dams: 2 Length of check dams: 27 m Spacing between check dams: 650 m Height of the check dams: 1.3 m

Landuse along the stretch:

At the starting point of this stretch there is a

commercial landuse on north side and afterwards it has mixed landuse. Green cover Landuse on Southern side of the stretch. Two major Nallahs (streams) meet

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. this chianage of river. These streams follow the direction of railway line and are in their space.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 4: Sangam of Nag River and Phutala Nala (Second Half, eastern part) After this point river gets boost in its flow and its size almost doubles. Slums are located on the right side of the river. Stadium is located on the south side of the stream and green cover is also present on the south side of this stretch. Reconstruction of side walls and STP is proposed near to this point. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node 5: Morris playground and Joshi Wadi

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Playground wall of school is 35 m higher than water level. Therefore there is no visual connection of river and School. This play ground can also be utilized to increase the capacity of pilot STP in future wich is located on the opposite site where the slums are located. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

5} Chainage segment 5435-6020: Length of the stretch – 585 m Catchment area –282.88 ha

Number of check dams: 1 Length of check dams: 30 m Spacing between check dams: 600 m Height of the check dams: 1.2 m

Landuse along the stretch: This stretch is mostly been covered by industrial, commercial landuses. And there is some mixed landuse on northern side of western half of the stretch. Two Nallahs from south are meeting this stretch of river. These streams collect water from Hanuman Nagar, Rambagh slum etc.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 6: Mokshadham crematorium

Crematorium along its northern edge and barrister rajabhau Khaobragade marg on southern edge. Encroachment by crematorium by extending deck over it. And dumping under its project. It is not possible to access the river edge along the Northern side. High compound wall blocking visual access. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node 7: Dhobi Ghat On northern edge there is 4 meter high compound and six story residential building which has no visual contact with the river. On southern edge there Ghat road from were river is not accessible. At one point there is a mosque and Dhobi ghat. Waste water of this dhobi ghat is not treated after washing clothes. Lack of

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. vegetation along the two edges especially the northern. Heavy siltation is got hardened. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

6} Chainage segment 6020-7541: Length of the stretch – 1521 m Catchment area –288.29 ha

Number of check dams: 3 Length of check dams: 30 m Spacing between check dams: 720 m Height of the check dams: 1.2 m

Landuse along the stretch: The major part of this stretch flows through industrial landuse. While remaining is surrounded by mixed landuse and some residential. There are three main streams meeting the river, two from north and one from south. One that is coming from south collects water from wards: medical college, Untakhana Nagar, Chandan Nagar, Siraspeth etc. While first Nallah coming from North collects water from Ganeshpeth, Kernel Baug and Model Mill. The other second one collects water from Loh Pura, Pardesi telipura, Empire Mills, Ganji peth, Mahal, Nagar Bhavan etc.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 7: Dhobi Ghat On northern edge there is 4 meter high compound and six story residential building which has no visual contact with the river. On southern edge there Ghat road from were river is not accessible. At one point there is a mosque and Dhobi ghat. Waste water of this dhobi ghat is not treated after washing clothes. Lack of vegetation along the two edges especially the northern. Heavy siltation is got hardened. (Nag River rejuvenation plan) Page 109

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Node 8: Model Mill The river edge along the mill has compound wall defining its boundary with the river, but the extensive vegetation within the compound of the mill gives the feeling of a natural edge of the river. This vegetation must have a lot of flora and fauna therefore is worth preserving. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node 9: Ashok Chowk – I On Northern edge informal settlements and on southern edge residential buildings are present. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node 10: Ashok Chowk – II There is high compound wall on southern edge and accumulation of hardened siltation. And north side model mill compound, informal settlement and dumping. Stream joining the river has completely covered by construction of concrete slab over it. Therefore degrading water because of lack of sunlight. Garbage from slums. (Nag River rejuvenation plan) Therefore rejuvenation of this junction is as equivalent to rejuvenation of river.

7} Chainage segment 7541-8586: Length of the stretch – 1045 m Catchment area – 302.91 ha

Pilot STP of 5MLD at 7607 meters from the overflow point of Ambazari lake.

Proposed, Number of check dams: 2 Length of check dams: 40 m Spacing between check dams: 660 m Height of the check dams: 1.1 m

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Landuse along the stretch: There is a small patch of green landuse just at the beginning of this stretch, and there are other green patches that are nearby to the river but are not adjacent to it. First half of this stretch enters through mostly residential and some mixed land uses. And Mostly industrial landuse along the north side of the second half of this stretch. There are four small Nallahs connecting to the river coming from adjacent residential areas. And one big Nallah coming from north direction. First Nallah from north collects water from nearby locations, Second Nallah from North collects water from Killa (military base), Chitanawispura, Third Nallah from North collects water from Mahal, Ayachit Nagar, Chitanavispura, Shivaji Nagar. And the Nallah coming from south collects water from Reshimbag.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 11: Temple and ground opposite Reshimbag River is coming direct contact with open space. On Northern side there are 2 temples in playground. High tension electrical pillars are present in open space. In this open space there is no vegetation. Southern side has high compound wall of the school limiting is visual connection with river. STP can situated. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node 12: Institutional belt Series of school in direct proximity of the river therefore best permissible chance for rejuvenation. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Proposals and activity along the stretch: Decentralized STP of 5 MLD is proposed at “Behind the Lokanchi Shala” i.e. 7607 meters on chainage of river or to say 7607 meters from the overflow point on Ambazari along the river.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 8} Chainage segment 8586-8748: Length of the stretch – 162 m Catchment area –234.2 ha

Number of check dams: 1 Length of check dams: 42 m Spacing between check dams: 660 m Height of the check dams: 1.1 m

Landuse along the stretch: This is a very short stretch with industrial, mixed and commercial landuses on northern side. And on south there are residential landuses. A major Nallah called as Hathi Nallah is coming from north direction meets rivers in this stretch. There is also one small Nallah that is connecting to the rivers coming from the same north direction. Hathi Nallah a major Nallah coming from north brings water from zone with High population density. Watershed of Hathi Nallah consists of wards such as, Bagadganj, Nababpura, Ayachit Nagar, Gandhibag, Jagannath, Hansapuri, Mahatma Gandhi ward, Bhagwan Mahavir ward. Many slums are situated in Hathi Nallas watershed; therefore this Nallah brings extremely polluted water. And regular cleaning of garbage and silt out of this Nallah can itself uplift the condition of the River onwards. As a result most of the problems faced because of the pollution of the river outside the city can be taken in control.

Hathi Nallah:

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

There is another Nallah parallel to Hathi Nallah that flows highly polluted sewage in to this chainage segment of river.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 12: Institutional belt Series of school in direct proximity of this stretch of the river, therefore best permissible chance for rejuvenation. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 9} Chainage segment 8748-10410:

Length of the stretch – 1662 m Catchment area –367.64 ha

Number of check dams: 2 Length of check dams: 45 m Spacing between check dams: 806 m Height of the check dams: 1.2 m

Landuse along the stretch: Most of the stretch stream is passing through the mixed landuse category. There are open spaces at the end of this stretch.two major Nallahs bringing water from far south come attach to this stretch, out of these two streams one is at the beginning and the other one is at the end of the stretch. There are also some short Nallahs who drain water from adjacent residential areas. The first one carries water from Sakkardara, Omnagar, Harpur, Shiv Nagar, Nandanvan. Second Nallah drains water from Wathoda, Darshan colony, Kumbhartoli.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Node 13: Nandanvan slum

Only stretch surround by slums on both side. River basin here is wider and goes on widening. Depth is very less about 2 feet maximum. There is a bridge were sewer line enters near this bridge towards Northern edge through the slums. Heavy siltation, cattle can move in river course. The river bed might be wider but the flow of water through it is lesser than almost half its width. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

Node 14: Residential edge On northern side there are slums witch continue until node 15. On southern side there are 8 newly developed residential complexes going not over the height of G+3 which are showing back toward the river and around them are slum dwellers. Basin here is about 50 meter wide with hardened and heavy siltation on both sides. Therefore ½ of river has water flowing through it. This is the example of attitude of building complexes towards the river. Therefore river is continued to be treated badly. Slums are going to be converted into housing apartments in due time here. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

10} Chainage segment 10410-12315: Length of the stretch – 1905 m Catchment area –573.34 ha

Number of check dams: 3 Length of check dams: 45 m Page 115

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Spacing between check dams: 806 m Height of the check dams: 1.2 m

Landuse along the stretch: Major part of this stretch has commercial landuse along its stretch. But almost all of the Southern side of the river is open and have no urban development, but this area categorized into residential landuse and some of areas are reserved for green cover. In this stretch one large and major stream coming from south direction drains into the river. There are two small Nallahs that also drains into the river from north side of the river. The stream which is coming from south is collecting the water from most part of the Wathoda ward and some part of Bhandewadi. The other two Nallahs coming from north collect water from Sonbazi nagar, Adarsh Nagar, Wardhaman nagar, Minamata Nagar, Harihar Mandir.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 15: St. Xavier's school Junction

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

On southern side there is 30 to 40 meter open space. Northern side is accompanied by informal settlement and the housing societies. There is no urban development beyond school, which is used for agricultural purposes. There is no direct access to public at any edges and urbanization here is yet to affect. Southern side has heavy hardened silt in high quantity. Basin is 50 meter wide. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

11} Chainage segment 12315-13070:

Length of the stretch – 755 m Catchment area –487.45 ha

Number of check dams: 1 Length of check dams: 45 m Spacing between check dams: 806 m Height of the check dams: 1.2 m

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Landuse along the stretch: Most of the southern side is open and have no urban development. And the northern part is also not dense and developed. But as well the land on southern side is allotted to commercial landuse development, and on north mixed landuse is present. One big Storm water drain connects to the river from north direction and a small Nallah from south direction at same point near the end of this stretch. This drain collects water form Chandra Nagar, Phukat Nagar, Son Bazi Nagar, Surya Nagar, Jalaram Nagar. And the stream coming from south collects water from Thowkar wadi, Bhamdavan, Tall pura. Images show the rivers condition on Bhandewadi road. Here large pumping station is under construction for pumping the water from here to treatment plant. Around this area there is many real estate activity is in under developement.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity: - None

12} Chainage segment 13070-15952: River around bridge near Prajapati chowk on ring road

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. River around bridge on Bhandara road near old Pardi Naka

Length of the stretch – 2882 m Catchment area –300.14 ha

Number of check dams: 5 Length of check dams: 45 m Spacing between check dams: 806 m Height of the check dams: 1.2 m

Landuse along the stretch: Apart from the a patch in south side of the river which has residential landuse, most of the river is covered by green cover and open spaces on both sides, which come under landuse as green cover or may be agriculture or forest cover. There is a one stream that is connecting near the end of this stretch of river. This stream collects water form Dhana Laxmi Moholla, Bhawani Nagar, Rajesh steel industries, Punappura and from many open Page 119

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. cultivated lands. The abouve image showing river around bridge near Prajapati chowk on ring road.

13} Chainage segment 15952-16732:

Length of the stretch – 780 m Catchment area –307.13 ha

Number of check dams: 1 Length of check dams: 45 m Spacing between check dams: 739m Height of the check dams: 1.1 m

Landuse along the stretch: One this stretch there is no urban development, most of it is open land and cultivated areas. There is an orange garden near to the sangam of river.

A huge stream from Nag rivers watershed i.e. from central zone comes meet Pilli River just few meters before Pilli River meets Nag River.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Nodal points identified of the basis of heritage/ religious, institutional structures and significance of ecology, Physical and visual connectivity:-

Node 16: Sangam of Nag and Pili River This node is surrounded mostly by agricultural lands. This area is reserved for no development/ agrizone and area between the two rivers is reserved as “brick Kilns”. Because Pilli River and Nag River meet each other in this last stretch inside the municipal boundary limits. This node is very important in ecological and historical point of view. NMC is planning to develop the area around sangam of these two rivers. (Nag River rejuvenation plan)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 14} Phutala Nallah stretch:

Phutala Nallha starts from the overflow point of Phutala Lake. Phutala Nalla is in good natural state. At its origin and along some stretch it flows through Page 122

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Agricultural College therefore is protected from pollution. The condition of the stream in this area is very good. But then it further flows through developed areas and congested areas where it receives waste water from adjacent areas. Just before meeting to Nag River it flows through

Node 1: Agricultural college land downstream side of Phutala Lake Overflow of the Phutala Lake is the starting point of this Phutala stream. Starting point has the huge quantity of silt and garbage accumulated. But instantly when it goes through the land of agricultural university it spreads it garbage over here. Because this area is full of trees and different species Agricultural University had conducted a forestry experiment in this region. Therefore the cleanliness and environmental condition of the water is very good. It is Ideal to keep River in its natural habitat through this region. (Nag River rejuvenation plan) The huge quantity of garbage found on the starting point of Phutala Nallah is caused by the garbage thrown into the Lake by people.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Node 2: Open patch along the river before Ravi Nagar crossing

After passing through agricultural college it enters into residential colony. Therefore a drastic change in water quality is observed. Nagpur management institute lies on the other edge of this part of the Nalla. The presence of two important actors on the edges of this part of the stream gives the node the potential to retain its natural condition.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Node 3: Canal road (a) – Dharampeth

On this part of the stream Southern side the Road called canal road and on the Northern side there are residential buildings having their compound walls erected so as to disconnect the view of the stream and smell from the stream, which stretches almost the entire length of the node. Because one side of the stream has foot path side to the road and also the basin of this stream is 8 meter wide, it is the ideal location for the River front development.

Node 4: Canal Road (b) – Dharampeth This is the extension of the canal road area with similar problems and requires similar measures to be taken undertaken. On the southern side of the steam is parallel foot path and Housing societies on the Northern side. It can be the important landmark of the city. It has 8 to 10 meter wide basin. Silt, debris and Garbage accumulation is observed. And it has the potential for the Riverfront development.

Node 5: Sita Mata Mandir – Dharampeth This node starts from the NIT garden. NIT garden at the beginning lacks proper compound. River in its further course has many institutes after the junction. Then Page 125

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. there a temple which has open spaces between river and itself. This Hanuman and Sita mata mandir situated on the bank of the River is visited by large quantity of devotees. This part of the Phutala stream is more polluted the canal road. Various land users erected compound wall that make up the River boundary.

Node 6: Section through Mahrajbaug and institutional land River now passes through Agricultural college and Maharajbaug where it gets isolated from urban development and flows through environment of dense vegetation. This is one of the last places in the city were the Phutala Nallah is in its actual habitat allowed to flow without any human defined edges . Therefore has good quality of water flowing through it and is rich in nutrient value. The edge being green almost through the year and thus the necessity to provide additional vegetation is reduced. This node has very less traffic and it environmentally is not compromised. And therefore is very important from the point of view of ecology. The more this area remains unaffected by human intervention the chances of Revival of the River increases.

4.5 ASSESSMENT OF PILLI RIVER STRETCH
Most of the description of this stretch is covered under sub section4.3.1 North zone (watershed of Pillli River). Extensive study of Landuse, gradient of river bed is not studies. Although to have brief visualization of how is the condition of streams in this watershed, Photographs are included below with their geographical location. If will help researchers who want to study this area further in future. Bridge on road connecting Mahavir Hanuman Chowk near ring road. 21.187188 N ; 79.071623 E

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Nallah connecting Pilli river near Anant Nagar Church close to Vaz Villa 21.187593 N ; 79.058129 E

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

Bridge across Pilli River on Ambedkar Road (Gorewada road) Gorewada WTP 21.193955 N; 79.047059 E

near

Gorewada lakes overflow point 21.198101 N; 79.045949 E

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

4.5 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS
4.5.1 Times of India and Maharashtra times Drive TOI-MT had began the Save Nag River: My City, My River campaign from March 26 to April 12.The response generated by the Nag Walk, the morning awareness walk along Nag River, has strengthened hope for rejuvenation of the River with different sections of the society showing intent to take the movement forward. Neglected for over 25 years, as part of NMC's efforts, mayor Anil Sole and municipal commissioner Shyam Wardhane planned mass public participation campaign from may1 to may 15. (The times of India) Besides cleaning riverbed and stopping sewage from flowing into the river. NMC held a human chain event. On the second day of campaign, responding to a call by the civic body, around 25,000 citizens came out on an exceptionally hot Wednesday morning to form a human chain along the river's stretch. The response considerably boosted NMC resolve to restore the health of city's iconic river. NMC claimed some 50,000 citizens turned out in support of the river and expressed gratitude for the response. If popular support could cleanse a river, the Nag would already be in its pristine condition. At the end of NMC's 15day campaign, there has been a sea change in the river and its surroundings. (The times of India)

4.5.2 Other activities 'Shramdan' project was also organized between 7am and 9am every day between May 1 and 15 parallel to NMCs ‘save Nag River’. (The times of India) Many youths from Slum Soccer Club under the banner of Krida Vikas Sanstha entered the riverbed near Shankar Nagar garden and cleaned up the stretch on their own. The youths arrived at Sangam in their football gear at 7am. They collected garbage removed by the sanitary workers from the riverbed and kept it aside on the bank. (The times of India) A song is also made by Vibes Entertainment it has been composed by Ashish Welekar, head of art department, JJ School of Arts, Mumbai. They came Page 130

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. up with it as their contribution towards the city's river. The past and changed scenario of the river has been highlighted in the song that also appeals to the citizens to save their river. (The times of India) A total of 1023 persons signed the Save Nag River pledge during the signature campaign conducted by NGO Zero Gravity. (The times of India) Volunteers of NGO Zero Gravity led the rally, shouting slogans on drum beats urging citizens to save the River. They also approached the residents during the door-to-door signature campaign. (The times of India) Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) volunteers regularly patroled the bridges over the river between 11pm and 1am to prevent people, including food stall owners, from throwing garbage and leftover food into the River. (The times of India) Enlisting the help of NGOs, educational institutions and social organizations for creating awareness among people and for beautifying (like painting) the walls along the river was also discussed. NMC will also erect nets at different spots, where people dump garbage, to protect the river. (The times of India) Also, a competition has been organized for architects. Till May 15, they can submit a design for the rejuvenation of the river. The first prize of the competition will be Rs. 50000. (The times of India)

4.5.3 Nagpur Municipal Corporation's mega drive to clean Nag River and Stakeholders According to peoples living on the banks of River, NMC's garbage collection service is very poor and hence those living on the banks of the river are kind of forced to throw waste into it. You can't keep a month's garbage in your dustbin. Desilting and other proposed works played a vital role in rejuvenation of Nag River. These works are not part of rejuvenation plan submitted to the central government under National River Conservation Plan. The river may get back its lost glory if desilting work is followed by rejuvenation project. Page 131

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Nagpur Municipal Corporation's mega drive to clean Nag River started from May 1 to 15. Seven teams comprising 31 top officials have been constituted to monitor the works on the theme of VIBGYOR (seven colours of a spectrum). For smooth implementation of works, the river has been divided into six stretches by mayor. Ambazari lake overflow point to Panchsheel square (indigo), up to Baidyanath square (blue), up to Juni Shukrawari (green), up to KDK college (yellow), up to Pardi bridge (orange), thence up to confluence with Pilli river beyond Bharatwada (red). The responsibility of each stretch is given to a team of 4-5 officials as executive engineer, an assistant commissioner, a sub-divisional engineer and a health officer. Each group in each of the six sections of the river will keep a tab on the work being carried out in their respective stretch of the river and inform the core committee about the progress. Six types of responsibilities are set to each group. They have been asked to identify and suggest sites along Nag River for establishing micro STPs. Also identify sites for establishing public toilets to prevent open defecation near the river. The number of encroachments and proposed action are also asked to be identified. Groups are asked to enlist the government and private bodies interested in helping the campaign. Technical works like assessment of silt and soil, locations from where machines like JCBs could enter the river for cleaning process and where everything could be dumped. Plan to arrest sewage flowing into the river. Spots where solid waste is dumped etc also done. The team also ensured to no one put garbage into the river, adding they also have submited a review report in their patch to the centrally formed core committee. The NMC campaign's core group, comprising Prakash Urade, Dr Milind Ganvir and Dr Ashok Urkude, supervised the 1,200 sanitary workers who cleaned up the river. They gave all credit to NMC's health department and its officials. (The times of India) Around 18 proclanes and JCBs are used for the desilting work. Trucks are deployed to take away the silt for disposal. Over 10 excavators and 1,200 workers are engaged in the work. During the 15-day campaign, over 5,000 tonne garbage was excavated from the river and transported to Bhandewadi dump yard and other selected sites. The total garbage collection of entire city is about 800 tonnes per Page 132

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. day. Only one of the day of campaign i.e seventh of may 1,722 tonne of silt is transported to Bhandewadi dumping yard using 317 truck trips. (The times of India) The retaining wall along the river is also repaired wherever possible, and painted too. Realizing that the Nag River has lost its natural gradient due to the piling up of garbage and silt all along its 17.68km course. “Pollution levels in the river will automatically come down if the gradient is maintained and garbage is not permitted to be dumped. Instructions have been given to maintain the gradient during the cleaning work beginning on May 2,” said municipal commissioner Shyam Wardhane. (The times of India) At the starting point, the river has been cleaned and channelized into two streams from the overflow point. At the bridge at the entrance of Ambazari crematorium, a small landscape has been created on the river bank with lush green grass. (The times of India) “The area looked beautiful after tall shrubs and garbage were removed at the overflow point. Excavator machine was pressed into service to dig up the Nag River stream. The stream created at the area will allow free flow of water overflowing from the lake. Natural water springs were visible after digging the stretch. Fresh water was seen coming to the surface level. The second stream will also be corrected at the point," said supretending engeneer Urade. (The times of India) At Shankar Nagar the clean stretch of river was inviting enough for some ducks to take up residence here. Some landscaping has been done too, with some lemon saplings too. Interestingly, citizens residing nearby, who are used to neglecting the river, were seen watching the clean river from the banks along with their kids. (The times of India) The stretch of Canal Road at Ramdaspeth is at its best, looking beautiful without any garbage on its banks. From here onwards, the river's width goes on increasing up to Ashok Square. The River’s width is at least 50-60 meters here, with the stream itself almost 30 meter wide after the desilting. The stretch near St

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Xavier's school is also as wide, giving the Nag River the look of any big river like Wardha or Painganga, if one overlooks the quality of water. (The times of India) The efforts taken by NMC workers can be seen on the stretch from Pardi bridge to Punapur. This is the longest stretch of over 4km, and the river is very wide. Interestingly, the river wears a completely changed look, as the entire garbage has been removed from the riverbed. (The times of India) Interestingly, the civic officials painted the bridge near Ambazari crematorium to give it a better look. The river is now breathing easy with the free flow of water. With all obstacles cleared, the water has started flowing, which itself a solution to many problems, like foul smell, breeding of mosquitoes etc. (The times of India) If popular support could cleanse a river, the Nag would already be in its pristine condition. Responding to a call by the civic body, around 25,000 citizens came out on an exceptionally hot morning to form a human chain along the river's stretch. The response considerably boosted NMC resolve to restore the health of city's iconic river. NMC claimed some 50,000 citizens turned out in support of the river and expressed gratitude for the response. (The times of India) The NMC also plans to take the help of Haldiram, which operates Krazy Castle near the Ambazari overflow point, for beautifying a stretch of the river outside its boundary walls. Firstly as an experiment, the civic body has constructed a weir in the riverbed at Shankar Nagar to arrest the flow of solid waste and reduce the pollution in the water. (The times of India) After that at Sangam point, two stone bunds have been constructed in the river to stop garbage and reduce pollution to some extent. From here onwards, the river's width goes on increasing up to Ashok square. (The times of India) Then four more loose stone barrage shaped stone bunds were constructed in the riverbed near Shankar nagar. The blackish sewage water after passing through stone bund has started to wear clean look. The sound of water passing through stone bund and the process forced all the officials to stay at the spot for long time. The engineers released guppyi fish into the water. The guppy fish help Page 134

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. the water remain clean by eating the mosquitoes and waterborne insects. A barricade type net also installed in the riverbed to arrest the garbage and other waste. The sanitary workers removed the floating material which got arrested at stone bund. (The times of India) Dr Ashok Urkude said that more stone bunds will be constructed in the stretches where big nullahs join the river. Floating material in the river is being arrested at the bunds. Besides, the pollution level too is getting reduced. Sanitary workers will be appointed at each bund to clean the garbage and waste. (The times of India) The cash-strapped Nagpur municipal corporation (NMC) is helpless in stopping the flow of sewage into the river or ensuring its treatment. However, since managing sewage is necessary to ensure the Nag River remains a clean water body, all eyes are on two projects pending with the central government for clearance. Mayor Anil Sole and municipal commissioner Shyam Wardhane are hoping for total rejuvenation of the river within two years if gets the projects are approved.

4.5.4 Notices and removal of encroachments on NMCs Nag River drive Notices been sent to people who discharge sewage directly into the River. Teams of save Nag River campaign also guiding people on how to connect their sewage outlet to the main trunk line. In case of economically weak families, NMC be also providing aid. (The times of India) After the six-hour inspection, Wardhane directed the officials to issued a notice to N Kumar Group for constructing pillars on the riverbed at its upcoming mall near Alankar theatre on VIP Road. (The times of India) VNIT (Vishveshwaraiya National Institute of Technology) after it was found that the sewage line coming from the institution's premises was broken at the river stretch near Corporation Colony. Officials also removed encroachments along the river bank at Ashok Square. Ambazari Lake’s overflow point is looking scenic after successful cleaning work. (The times of India)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Group cleaning the stretch near Baidyanath square noticed huge quantity of garbage dumped into the riverbed from Rai Udyog complex. The complex owners are slapped with Notice. (The times of India) The river bank between Yashwant stadium and Dhantoli railway-underbridge is mostly slums. There are a number of cattle-sheds also. Cattle owners continued to throw waste generated from sheds into the river. Some were not ready to listen and others complained about lack of facility for daily collection of waste. Firstly Assistant commissioner Mahesh Moroney, executive engineer Shashikant Hastak and corporator Munna Pokulwar explained the need to save the river and assured them the waste would be collected daily. But then NMC health department has slapped notice on eight cattle sheds. Veterinary officer Gajendra Mahalle told that the cattle-shed owners have been asked to vacate the river's bank in 48 hours. NMC will initiate action if the owners fail to vacate the bank on their own. All these sheds are illegal as they are not registered and are an encroachment. The premises of cattle-sheds are unclean and filled with filth. The waste generated here is dumped in the river causing pollution. (The times of India) Similarly, the health department served notices on 10 meat vendors near the river's bank at Jagnade square and Pardi. The teams working in these stretches found huge quantity of meat waste dumped in the river by these vendors. Vendors were found dumping waste even in stretches cleaned up just days ago. (The times of India) Health department official said action will be taken against vendors if they continued to run the establishments after 48 hours. Police help has also been sought to initiate action. NIT constructed a parking slab covering the river's 176 meter stretch. They said it will not be demolished. According to them, plans are afoot to only ensure there are no obstacles to the smooth flow of water in the river. If that is the case, NIT is mocking the norms issued by the state environment department. (The times of India)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. With a motive to conserve the rivers, the environment department had formed river regulation zone (RRZ) policy and notified 20 rivers of the state, including the Nag River, in 2000. The act came into effect on July 15, 2000 and witnessed amendment in regulations on June 30, 2004 and July 13, 2009. There are various types of prohibitions on construction and other activities along the river. However, NIT constructed the parking slab right on the river in 2003, adjacent to its skating rink. (The times of India) The NMC has resumed the drive to seize plastic bags below 50 micron thickness for prevention of water bodies' pollution, especially the Nag River, choking of drains and safety of cattle. Action has been taken against 21 shops between January 4 and March 31. The civic body seized 656 kg plastic bags during the drive and also penalized these shops. (The times of India)

4.5.4 Stakeholders and NMCs efforts to improve River water quality NMC special officer for lakes and rivers Mohammed Israil, "NMC submitted the Nag River rejuvenation plan under national rivers conservation plan (NRCP). The plan's project is estimated at Rs126.30 crore. NRCD will submit the plan with IIT, Roorkie for technical validation. Then it will go to MoEF for final approval.” (The times of India) Mohammed Israil said that the plan has been divided into 15 nodes along Nag River and 7 nodes along Phutala stream, “Different types of works have been planned at these 15 sites, right from NIT skating rink to Nag River's confluence with Pilli River on city's outskirts. Similarly, six nodes have been finalized for Futala nullah. Development of sangam point at Yashwant Stadium will be the attraction. Sewage treatment plant (STP) with 5 million litres per day (MLD) capacity will be constructed at this point to ensure clean water. A ghat will be constructed so that citizens could walk up to the river. An amphitheatre is also planned at this point.” (The times of India) All the 22 locations have been termed as nodes and classified into five categories based on existing structures or significance including heritage and religious, institutional, ecological, physical connectors and visual connectors. Page 137

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Israil added that three more STPs will be constructed along with development of river's stretch on canal road, Ramdaspeth, Morris College ground, Ashok Square, Reshimbagh, St Xavier's School and confluence point. Futala nullah's stretch will be developed in Agricultural College area, Ravi Nagar, Canal Road, Dharampeth and Maharajbagh. In a boost to Nagpur Municipal Corporation's 'Save Nag River' campaign started on May 1till May 15, the state government has also submitted to the Centre government a sewage project costing Rs1,328.88 crore. The NMC also plans to take the help of Haldiram, which operates Krazy Castle near the Ambazari overflow point, for beautifying a stretch of the river outside its boundary walls, right up to the NIT skating rink. The stretch of the Nag River inside Krazy Castle has been well maintained by Haldiram's. (The times of India) Pradyumna Sahasrabhojnee, a town planner, says, "They should concentrate on building decentralized sewage treatment plants. Efforts like cleaning and beautification of river and its side areas is like buying jewellery for a terminal cancer patient. It will do nothing for its health." (Sahasrabhojanee) "The bigger plans which can actually rejuvenate the river, like putting up a new sewage line pipe, is a dream not about to happen soon. But for the time being, it would help if proper desilting of the river is done to create more space for water," says Vijay Nayudu, president of NMC Contractors Welfare Association. (The times of India) Shyam Pandharipande, Vidarbha coordinator of Jal Biradri, says that true results will be achieved if sewage treatment is done at source. "The best way is to set up mini sewage treatment plants in every locality. Treatment of grey water on the premises and its recycling too can help reduce the burden on the river". (The times of India) Water expert Shyam Pandharipande also stressed on non-conventional models. "Underground biodigesters for treating sewage should be constructed along the river wherever possible. They should also be built in open spaces elsewhere". (The times of India) Page 138

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Mayor Anil Sole has started scouting for land to construct mini sewage treatment plants (STPs) on Nag River as Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) only has limited land on the banks of the iconic river. He has also urged prominent industrial and business houses to construct mini STPs as a public service gesture. (The times of India) “NMC have identified several locations for constructing mini STPs. Letters will be sent to the concerned institutions to provide land. The target is to set up as many STPs as possible," the mayor told. (The times of India) NMC has already written a letter to Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT) and Central Labour Training Institute (CLTI) in Gandhi Nagar to provide land to NMC for construction of a mini STP. Rajya Sabha MP Ajay Sancheti has showed willingness to construct the STP. (The times of India) Unless NMC is able to acquire land for construction of mini STPs its dream of rejuvenating Nag River will not be fulfilled. The plan submitted to central government envisages construction of five mini STPs having capacity of 5 MLD each. The flow of Nag River is 200 MLD. NMC will lay two pipelines along both banks for transporting 175 MLD sewage flowing into the river to the main STPs at Bhandewadi. It is obvious that if a continuous flow in Nag River is to be maintained significant portion of the 200 MLD flow will have to be treated and released into the river. (The times of India) The mini STPs will be set up at Shankar Nagar, Sitabuldi, Mokshadham, Reshimbagh and Nandanvan. NMC will feed sewage from the main sewage pipelines to the STPs by a smaller pipeline. They will release the treated water into the river. Bunds will be constructed at some distance to arrest the water and beautification will be done along the banks in these spots. In between these spots, the river will have a very thin flow. (The times of India) The Nagpur Improvement Trust (NIT) will also construct two mini-STPs at Lava, the origin of the river, and Punapur, near Bhandewadi, just outside NMC limits. (The times of India) Executive engineer Prakash Urade said that NMC will construct STPs of 1 MLD or 2 MLD capacity where land for 5 MLD was not available. "A 5 MLD Page 139

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. STP needs 5,000 sq ft land and another 5,000 sq ft as buffer area. There is problem of odour and noise in STPs and hence a buffer area is required in which trees are planted. It is not easy to get 10,000 square feet land on the banks of the river so smaller STPs will be built". (The times of India) However, acquiring land is easier said than done. NMC had issued work orders for constructing mini STPs at Mokshadham, Shankar Nagar and Reshimbagh over a year ago. But, a builder has staked claim to the Reshimbagh land and obtained a stay from the court. Shankar Nagar STP is facing strong opposition from people living nearby. (The times of India) Environmentalist Sudhir Paliwal pointed out large number of spots along the river where 10,000 square feet open land was available. "Many charitable institutions on North Ambazari Road have huge open spaces on the backside. The land was leased to them for public purpose years ago. Some of them are practically dysfunctional and the lease has expired years ago," he said. (The times of India) Concurring with Paliwal, an NMC official said land could be acquired by compensating the institutions by giving additional floor to space index (FSI) or transfer of development rights (TDR) or both. "Many institutions have lot of open land but they can't use it for commercial purpose as per the lease. If NMC provides them TDR they may agree to hand over the land as TDR fetches very good price," he pointed out. (The times of India) The environmentalist pointed out that slum had come up on many open spaces along the river. "The slum-dwellers can be provided tenements in a multistorey building built under slum rehabilitation authority (SRA) scheme and a part of the land can be used for a STP." (The times of India) Another environmentalist Girish Khorgade said Nagpur improvement trust (NIT) should give land for STPs wherever possible. "A huge plot is lying unused since years near Shankar Nagar square. There are many such plots along the river". (The times of India)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 4.5.5 Denotification of part of Nag River from its origin to Ambazari lake Even as the city is gearing up to save and conserve Nag River, many big industries are eyeing the prohibited area from the river's origin to Ambazari Lake to set up industries. Many big buildings have already defied rules to come up within the River's no-development zone. Even government departments are keen to sound the death knell for the river, as is evident from Maharashtra Pollution Control Board's (MPCB) recommendation to denotify the River. But after the denotification industries will come and start to flow their toxic waste into the stream. This will ultimately cause water in Ambazari Lake to also get polluted and will be of no use. As well as more toxic quality of sewer will be added to the Nag River which is flowing through the city. Untill now MPCB has not given any permission to new industries in the restricted areas of Nag River. The existing industries are very old and had come up before notification. Buildings other than those of industrial nature do not come under MPCB's jurisdiction, unless any proposed structure is over 20,000 square meters in area. An official from MPCB said that 10 industries situated on the river bank had submitted proposals for expansion. All these proposals were sent to the head office in mumbai. The head office will taken final call and submit proposal to environment department. The environment department, not the MPCB, would finally decide on denotification, Nag River is one of the 20 notified rivers of the state. The state environment department notifications over last decade had imposed various restrictions in the vicinity of rivers, keeping in mind their conservation. Nag River is notified in two parts, first stretch from its origin in Lava village up to Ambazari Lake, where it has been classified as A-II class. The second part begins from Ambazari Lake's overflow point to its confluence with Kanhan River near Ambhora village. This has been classified as SW-II class. According to prevailing norms, the no-development zone for a river stretches to 500 meters from a A-II class river. Green category industries are allowed between 500 meter to 1km. Orange category industries are allowed up to 2km and beyond that any other industries can be set up. Page 141

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. The Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC) is also to be blamed for Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) recommendation for denotifying a part of Nag River starting from its origin point to Ambazari Lake. The civic body has acknowledged that the river's origin was Ambazari Lake’s overflow point despite having many evidences to prove that it originated from a hillock near Lava village. MPCB said it wrote to the NMC for verification about the river's origin. "The civic body, through a letter dated August 7, 2012, acknowledged that the river originates from Ambazari lake's overflow point and that there is no evidence of river's origin from hillocks near Lava village. Besides, the river does not exist in few parts from hillocks near Lava village up to Ambazari Lake. The source of water for the river is only sewage. Besides, industrial waste also flows into the river. Therefore, the river's stretch from origin to Ambazari Lake can be derecognized”. MPCB contradicted it proposal by mentioning that Nag River was among the 20 rivers notified by the State environment department under river regulation zone (RRZ) policy implemented through notification dated July 15, 2000. The board also mentioned damage to Nag River due to illegal constructions, sewage and garbage disposal permitted by Wadi Gram Panchayat. It also stated that the industrial waste is let into the river from few industries situated in MIDC Hingna. Still, the MPCB wants to prove that there is no evidence of the river's origin. The biggest proof of the Nag River's origin is the Central Provinces District Gazetteers published in 1908. The gazetteers mentions, "Nag River is a tributary of Kanhan river which rises in the hills to the West of Nagpur and flows in a serpentine course past the city, joining the main river at Saongi in east of the district." Besides, the eco city foundation formed by the NMC itself claimed to have detected the river's origin at hillocks near Lava village in 1999. Going ahead, the NMC submitted the river's rejuvenation plan with the Centre on the foundation's recommendation. Activists of the foundation have video footage of the river's stretch from its origin to Ambazari lake. Page 142

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. The RTI revelation points towards NMC's role in conspiracy allegedly planned by the MPCB to benefit certain industries that proposed to construct its units along the river's bank. Already, NGO Zero Gravity has submitted a memorandum signed by over 10,340 citizens to the MPCB opposing the proposal. (The times of India) However, Nag River's stretch from its origin at Mahadev Nagar near Lava village to Wadi paints a dismal picture. Houses have been not only constructed in the no-development zone but also in the riverbed. Further violations of norms come to front from Amravati Road to outskirts of Hingna MIDC area. A fivestorey building has come up in the riverbed area. Also, huge quantity of industrial waste has been dumped along the river adjacent to Vanrai's nursery. (The times of India) The river is also no longer connected to Wadi Lake, which it was till 1999. Apart from old buildings, five big commercial buildings have also been constructed on the river bank in the Hingna MIDC area. Two big commercial buildings are under construction. Similarly, small industrial units are operating along the river bank. Besides these, two new industries, including a big steel factory, have come up on the river bank. (The times of India) Former sarpanch of Wadi gram panchayat Naresh Charde told that NIT was responsible for the encroachments. NIT is the authority that issues permits to buildings in Wadi gram panchayat area. Buildings are being constructed blatantly on the river bank and also on the riverbed. Gram panchayat has been asking the district administration to mark the river's boundary, so that steps may be taken for its conservation. Neither the collector's office nor NIT is showing any interest. NIT even regularized seven layouts under 572 schemes under Gunthewari Act. More layouts are proposed to be regularized under 1,900 schemes," he said. (The times of India) The river's stretch between Hingna MIDC and Ambazari Lake is blessed with nature's bounty. Denotification move possesses a great threat to these birds but also the entire ecosystem around this stretch of the river.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. On visiting the river's stretch between Hingna MIDC and Ambazari Lake, one feels like entering in a lush green forest. The area has presence of large number of peacocks and birds. Though contaminated to a great extent, it offers abundant water for the birds. Fortunately, the MIDC water supply department has prohibited general public from entering the area. The catchment of Ambazari lake towards the Hingna MIDC side, from where the Nag River enters into the lake, is also visited by migrated birds in large numbers. Bird activist Gopal Thosar said, “Once this catchment area used to be covered with rich bird life. The area is ideal for the birds due to lack of noise and human activity. The bird life will be completely destroyed if this stretch is denotified”.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

5. SUMMING UP

5.1 ISSUES
5. 1.1 Problems of pollution in river and its impact The major challenge that MPCB and NMC are facing is that the polluted water in Nag River is polluting an A-II class river. Nag River is a tributary to Kanhan River and Kanhan River is then tributary to Vainganga River which is an A-II class river. The water in dam built on Vainganga and its backwater is been completely polluted, that even cattle can’t drink out of it, fishes are barely surviving in this water and are dying. The reason behind this scenario is that Nagpur city currently produce about 450 MLD of sewerage, out of it only 70 MLD is getting treated. State minor irrigation department is now lifting treated and raw sewage water for the irrigation of 875 hectare. According to MAHAGENCO’s agreement with NMC under project of “reuse of waste water” by JNNURM; sewage water from river will be treated and then sent to MAHAGENCO for generation of electricity. And some of the treated sewage water from south zone will be supplied to MIHAN and its SEZ. It is been expected that upto year 2026 entire treated water will be fully used for irrigation and economic purposes, therefore will prevent the further pollution of its downstream rivers. Although the problem of polluted water will be taken care of by reusing it elsewhere, the extremely polluted water in river flowing inside the city will be the problem for city itself. Nag river is merely flowing sewage, but the garbage, solid waste that is been dumped gets deposited onto the banks of river and river bed. Garbage gets stuck on many culverts. This make sewage more polluted with toxic chemicals and parasites. Many children’s living near to the bank of the river found to be having respiratory diseases. Polluted water of river is contaminating the ground water of surrounding area. Many areas were people have insufficient water supply use water from their well for bathing purposes, even sometimes for drinking. Contact with toxicity causes cancer. As well as odor coming out of river Page 145

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. is very annoying for citizens. All the constructions that are been found near to the river are facing opposite to the river to restrict eye contact with her. On many places high compound walls are erected. People don’t have hope that river can be revived. Therefore along the river property prices are low because of the ugly polluted smelling river. Municipality Labors also don’t feel wrong for dumping waste into the river that is supposed to be lifted from Bins into the trucks for disposal at dumping stations. If we quantify the benefits that will come out after the uplifting of river condition, the cost of rejuvenation activity, and full sewer and storm water networking will be very feasible as compared to benefits it will generate for city. Nagpur has to act in this direction.

5. 1.2 River water quality monitoring MPCB is an organization who is responsible for the monitoring of different types of pollution and governs the control on pollution caused by any organization. Formation of this organization is such envisioned that it cannot be influenced by any organizational structure in negative way. Now in case of Nagpur Nag river was consistently polluting other rivers like Vainganga an A-II class river. Therefore MPCB is responsible for this consistent pollution in the river. Because Municipality is disposing untreated sewage into streams flowing outside the city. Board had failed to control the pollution in river by directing municipality to treat its sewage, to suggest and direct civic body in direction to prevent solid waste flowing in stream. On a public interest litigation high court asked MPCB for the reason and cause of polluted Vainganga River and Goshekhurd dam. And therefore as a responsible entity in this jurisdiction high court ordered MPCB to pay compensation for the damage. Considering environmental monitoring report of MPCB only for last six years, we can find that BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) are below maximum limit or just moderately higher than the maximum limit for some years. That means this water can sustain fishes, does not have odor,clear looking and only the suspended solids are flowing in river that are carried away by the stream. Page 146

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. But Nagpur Municipal Corporation asked NEERI (National

Environmental Engineering Research Institute) to conduct a survey to assess the pollution in Nag river, results shows that merely sewage is flowing in the river. NEERI has done these survey on 13 monitoring locations Nag river as compared to three monitoring location of MPCB. Whereas MPCB lab tests show healthy river water in Nag. Every citizen has experienced Nag River as a very bad smelling Nallah. This means that the environmental monitoring data is been manipulated by MPCB, to stay unquestioned by high court and disable those who file PIL’s in community intrest.

5. 1.3 Discharge of sewage into the river As urbanization occurred in Nagpur, it has started to use Nag River and streams to flow out their waste water. As more and more resources from distant places are captured by city, streams and rivers of Nagpur are been used excretes the waste out of the city, same as does an organ use arteries and veins. This we can observe in all urban rivers as a part of growth cycle of the urbanized area through the world.

5.1.4 Flow in river Even if a stream is clean and straight it has a coefficient of roughness (n) about 0.030, for major rivers it is 0.035, for sluggish stream it is about 0.040. While Nag rivers on all the stretches have been observed as having coefficient of roughness (n) about 0.021, that is even lesser than for clean earth channel. That means even in the presence of silt and hardened garbage in the bed of river, she is smooth. While range of runoff co-efficient for Nag rivers is between 0.60 – 0.70. That means river is quit self sufficient in flowing out soil particles, so as to prevent itself from getting silted. This also means that river is also very corrosive in nature. Heavy silting and hardened garbage was observed in River bed, which is been there from many years. Recently it was been desilted.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. River gets most of its flow from the sewage that city generates. In historical times in summers seasons river use to have flow because of base flow that is been carried to it from Deccan traps. This natural flow was very less as compared to today’s sewage flow, which is 142.55 MLD for Nag River, 117.44 for Pilli River and 85.4 MLD for Pohra River. 1.7 cu.m/sec of flow is observed in the center of the city near Ramabai Ambadkar Nagar. Nagpur Municipal Corporation has proposed construction of about 35 check dams on Nag River with height of about 1.2 meter on average. This will decrease the velocity of flow, resulting in erosion control, arresting of silt, easy removal of silt and dumped garbage, storage of water in intervals, and continuous flow of water through the day in summer seasons. It will also results in to percolation of water into ground, increasing groundwater table, contrary to that polluted groundwater is an issue around Nag River.

5.1.5 Inadequate sewage network and storm water drainage network Inadequacy of sewerage and storm water drainage network disables municipality to prevent garbage dumping and reduce suspended solids in river. Inadequate sewerage means that sewage is flown in natural drains or in storm water drains. This results in inability to correctly and efficiently trap the sewage water inside the city to filter it out of garbage and to treat it through decentralized sewage system. Efficiency of this Pilot STP depends on the quality of sewage that they get. Extremely toxic polluted water is very difficult for any type of STP to treat. Therefore to prevent this toxicity, inhibition of garbage disposal from any point is necessary. Existence of full sewerage network will highly upgrade the quality of sewage coming from highly dense area of city were most of the slums are located. This highly polluted sewage can be directly flown towards pumping station or STP location for treatment instead of letting it into the river until it reaches pumping station or STP.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 5.1.6 Disposal of garbage in Nallahs and Rivers. Disposal of garbage into Nallahs and rivers is a major factor that contributes to the pollution of waste water and sewage that is been flown out of houses. Garbage thrown by people release toxic chemicals out of materials such as plastics. The organic material that is been thrown into the streams and nallahs are use by anaerobic bacteria, who needs absence of oxygen to survive. These oxygen hating bacteria degrade the quality of river extremely low, and are very unhealthy for environment. STP then becomes useless in treating this type of sewage water. As per today’s society behavioral patterns and its efficiency to operate on social dynamic, we can assume that mere awareness drive can do nothing to solve this problem. Currently door to door collection captures about of 75% of the waste that city generates. And this scheme covers only 60% of the residential and commercial establishments. Therefore improvement of coverage of door to door collection and the increase coverage of sewerage and storm water network will improve the streams condition indirectly. Also to trap the garbage and to prevent it from getting silted up and get hardened, release its toxic contents into water, NMC in its river rejuvenation plan will setup around 35 check dams across Nag River with average height of 1.2 meter. These check dams will entrap garbage and silt that is been eroded from the banks of river. As a result it will be very easy for municipal labors to remove the garbage out of river and preventing it from getting dissolved into the water. It will also be easy to monitor this cleaning process of garbage and silt across the river by managers who will keep an eye on the process.

5.1.7 Deposition of silt and garbage Because of the corrosion of soil on the banks of river silting is been observed all along the course of the river. This silt consist in itself the garbage that was been flowing in the river. As a result regular cleaning up of garbage from river is difficult. Garbage that gets deposited in the bed and along the bank of river is home for deadly toxic anaerobic bacteria. Garbage continuously seep toxic Page 149

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. chemicals in water. Therefore the sewage water that is been flown by house hold got more polluted with toxic chemicals and bacteria. This makes the condition of the streams and river more worse, and treating of this sewage is more difficult than just ordinary sewage. Even STPs that treat this water are useless in this regard. Therefore early prevention of garbage in river and prevention and regular cleaning of silt out of river is required. Coefficient of roughness (n) is about 0.021 and the range of runoff co-

efficient for Nag rivers is between 0.60 – 0.70, that figures show that river is quite capable of carry away soil particles that tend to deposit in bed of river. While it also shows that river is also capable of corroding its banks. And because most of the water that flows in river is sewage water, the flow of water in rivers and streams does not keep constant through the day. In morning the flow in river is at its peak and therefore corrodes soil on some places of the banks. While in afternoon and night this flow is very less resulting in siltation at some places. Also civic body just recently in May of 2013 has cleaned and desilted the river for first time. Earlier they use to make a channel in river before the monsoon so as to prevent any flooding and excessive corrosion by providing space for water to flow. Desiltation resulted in wider pan of river, giving river its natural gradient. This will intern make River less corrosive and the siltation that is caused by soil will be reduced. Also on the banks of river there were no trees so that roots can hold the soil in its place to prevent it from getting corroded. Nagpur Municipal Corporation in their river rejuvenation plan proposed around 35 check dams of 1.2 meter height across the stretch of river. They will trap the garbage and siltation causing soil. It will also make cleaning of river easier for municipality.

5.1.8 Slums on the banks of river Most of the slums are along the bank of river present on Chainage segment 8748-10410 and onwards. On chainage segment 8586-8748 a very large stream called Hathi Nallah brings most polluted water in the city. This stream flows through most dense areas of city were most of the slums are located. Many Page 150

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. of these slums are on the banks of this stream, and throw their garbage into the stream. Slums dwellers on the banks of river and stream do not care to collect their daily garbage and deposit into bins provided in the area. They usually throw their waste into the river. Door to door collection from these areas is also not yet been fully functional. Plantation of trees along the stretches is also very difficult were there are slums along the banks of river.

5.1.9 Denotification of first stretch of Nag River Nag river is one of 20 rivers that are been notified under state environment department. It is notified into two stretches. The first one is from Lava to Ambazari lake’s overflow point and from that point onwards is the second stretch. This first stretch of river is very vital to the environmental condition of river inside the city. Denotification of this stretch will quickly cause industries to settle along this stretch. As a result the industrial toxic waste and the waste generated by other development caused by industrial establishments will be flown into the stream. This will ultimately cause pollution in Ambazari lake water and pollution in Nag River. The first few stretches of Nag that are not highly polluted and the good groundwater quality around these areas will also be hampered due to this activity.

5.2 EFFECT OF PROPOSALS AND ACTIVITIES
5.2.1 Proposed Decentralized waste water treatment plants Nagpur Municipal Corporation has proposed two 5 MLD decentralized waste water treatment plant (pilot STP) and two of 3 MLD capacity. These plants are situated until Reshimbaug i.e. nearly in mid of the city. On some points NMC is facing difficulties in getting space for the construction of these plants or opposition by people on some locations. Until the sangam sewage line do not throw their sewage into the river, only the waste water is been flown into the river in these areas. But later after Page 151

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. sangam either sewer lines are directly or through Nallahs are flowing their sewage into the Nag River. Later after Reshimbag the sewage withdrawal becomes more worsened and the water inside the river becomes more polluted. Although NMC is trying to enhance the ambience of river through the use of decentralized treatment plant, the water flow of the river is very high as compared to their capacity these plants. If NMC succeeds in enhancing the river environment form overflow points till sangam and then from there to Reshimbag till Lokanch shada, then citizes will come forward to support the more advanced, complex techniques and proposals to enhance the quality of streams and rivers in Nagpur.

5.2.2 Proposed Sewage treatment plants All the sewage treatment plants that are proposed for Nagpur in all three sewage zones will sufficiently treat all the sewage generated by city until year 2016. And also there will be enough margin for enhancing the capacity further as per the cities growth until year 2041. In Monsoon season sewage water in river gets doubled. This situation will be handled by complete networking of sewage and storm water drainage system.

5.2.3 Proposed sewerage and storm water network Currently the Sewage network coverage of the city is about 70%. But only 40% of the sewer flows from sewer lines. The proposed sewerage plan will almost nearly achieve the 100% benchmark of sewage networking. This will result in capture of all the remaining 60% of the sewage that is flowing in open drains and storm water drains. As well as 100% networking of storm water drainage will be achieved until year 2014. The 30% areas that are not yet covered with sewerage network are the major cause why river is getting polluted with garbage and high concentration of sewage black water. Therefore after the

completion of 100% benchmark for storm water drains and 1195 kms of proposed sewerage that will nearly come close to 100% benchmark, only the gray water will be flown into the river from these areas and the parallel sewage lines will Page 152

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. carry sewage directly to the location where the STPs are located. As a result only gray water will be excreted into the river that will inhibit the odour coming out of the river. Suspended solids and garbage that are flowing in the river form high density areas will reduce and in turn COD and BOD of the water in river will also reduce. These proposals will greatly enhance the ambiance of rivers and streams in Nagpur, which will benefit in healthy development along the streams and rivers and boost property values.

5.2.4 Eco-tourism project near Gorewada Forest Development Corporation of Maharashtra Limited having an Ecotourism project near Gorewada Lake considering the boost in visitors to the city in future because of the MIHAN cargo hub plus SEZ project. In this project Bio Park (Zoo) will be created and different types of safaris will be created. Gorewada Lake comes under the boundary of Nagpur Municipal Corporation, and the city is using its water for drinking water purposes. Although this project will concentrate to educate people about ecology, wild life, and human evolution this project can be of exploitive nature that will result in pollution of Gorewada Lake and its watershed. But this project is also be beneficial in the perspective of generation of revenue for civic body.

5.2.5 Reuse of wastewater Reuse of waste water will directly solve the most important problem that city is facing. This problem is that pollution of A-II Class River because of the pollution of Nag River. State minor irrigation department is now already lifting treated as well as raw sewage water for the irrigation of 875 hectare with the cost of 50 million rupees. It is been expected that upto year 2026 entire treated water will be fully use for irrigation and economic purposes, therefore will prevent the further pollution of its downstream rivers. Therefore reuse of waste water not only solve the problems for NMC but also will create revenue and saving of water resources.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Under JNNURM project “reuse of waste water” NMC will reuse its treated sewage water for different purposes. MAHAGENCO has erected 100 MLD STP with secondary treatment, near Bhandewadi in agreement Nagpur Municipal Corporation. The benefit to NMC is that erection of STP without any expenditure, the waste water that is contributing to the pollution in A-II Class River will decrease and the also freshwater resource will be conserved. MAHAGENCO will also use the treated water from north zone i.e. from Pilli River for its use in future. This has led to the saving of fresh water, only if we consider the 100 MLD of water from STP that MAHAGENCO has erected, that amount of water can cater the needs of about 0.8 million peoples. 39 MLD of treated sewage water will be supplied to MIHAN and SEZ will also contribute to the water savings.

5.2.6 Construction of check dams across the river Nagpur Municipal Corporation in their river rejuvenation plan have proposed construction of 35 check dams along the stretch of Nag River of height around 1.2 meters. The intention behind construction of these check dams is to have continuous flow of water through the day even in summer season. The most substantial benefit NMC is expecting that these check dams will capture the garbage and silt in the river. Therefore the cleaning of garbage and silt will be easier and the gradient of river will always be maintained. All the stretches of Nag River have coefficient of roughness (n) of about 0.021 and runoff co-efficient of about 0.60-0.70. That means river can easily carry particles that use to sediment in bed. As well as river have high corrosive power. Most of the flow in river is generated by the sewage city generates. Therefore flow of water in river is as peak in morning hours and in some degree evening. It is necessary for the STPs to get constant inflow of sewage through the day so as to treat all the sewage that city generates in a day. It is observed that the 100 MLD STP that is located in Bhandewadi currently only treats 70 MLD of sewage water in a day because of the variation in the flow of sewage in river through the day.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Construction of check dams across the stretch of Nag River will decrease the speed of the flow of water in it. This will in turn help to reduce corrosion on the banks and therefore decrease the amount of sedimentation. The particles and garbage that is been flowing into the river will be cached by the check dams. Therefore the cleaning of garbage and silt out of the river on these specific points will be very easy for NMC. And keeping the gradient of the river to its natural form will be very easy. Constant flow of water across the day will make sure that all the proposed STPs will handle all the sewage that city generates.

5.3 RECOMMENDATION
5.3.1Plantation of trees on the banks of river: Siltation in Nag River is caused by the irregular speed of water and corrosion on the banks of river. On many places the soil on the banks of the rivers is very loose. This causes corrosion on many places and therefore siltation. Tress with high soil holding capacity can be planted along the banks of rivers.

5.3.2 Plan for timely cleaning and desilting on the river stretch Now that NMC have constructed small bunds and about 35 check dams that will trap the silt and garbage flown by the rivers. It is now very necessary for NMC to have timely cleaning and desilting activity on river stretch. NMC should already prepare the management framework for this process and integrate into the solid waste management system.

5.3.3 Strategic Plan for slum improvement and relocation NMC should develop a strategy for the improvement and relocation of slums considering the future prospects of development along the corridor of the Nag River. Slums are already making it difficult for river to be free of garbage. Relocation of all the slums that are near to banks of river at once is difficult and opposition can hamper the other plans of NMC. Therefore they need to be gradually relocated, so that the process could not get hampered. Page 155

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 5.3.4 Denotification process of first stretch of the river should ceased Denotification should be ceased to prevent the industrial pollution in Ambazari and Nag River. Shifting of existing industries to another location can eventually improve the quality of water in Ambazari lake.

5.3.5 NMC should ask for River environmental monitoring from organizations other than MPCB By manipulating environmental data MPCB can staying away from the problems faced by the city and downstream areas by the pollution in rivers. Therefore NMC should ask NEERI of CPCB for the environmental monitoring of the river and compare them with MPCB’s monitoring data. This will result in dragging MPCB to take responsibility for the condition of river.

5.3.6 Discharge of only waste water and DEWATS technology NMC already planned pilot STPs along the stretch of Nag River. But application of DEWATS technology in houses and building again will improve the waste water flowing in the river. And all the sewage that is been flown into the river could be carried out by sewer line parallel to river. This can be possible through full sewage networking coverage project. To keep the flow in river waste water is needed, therefore there is a need to invent a method through which only the waste water can be carried into the river.

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur.

ANNEXURES
Annexure 1 Ward Wise Density Density person/ha. 00-050 51-100 101-150 151-200 201-250 251-300 301-350 351-400 401-450 451-500 501-550 551-600 601-650 701-800 801-900 901-1000 Total in- no. of wards in % ward each range 13 19 23 9 14 19 11 9 3 3 3 1 5 3 0 1 136 10% 14% 17% 6% 10% 14% 8% 7% 2% 2% 2% 1% 4% 2% 0% 1% 100% 10% 24% 40% 47% 57% 71% 79% 86% 88% 88% 90% 93% 97% 99% 99% 100% %cumulative

Source: (Census of India)

Annexure 2 Zone wise slum population Zones Area Population Slum population % of slum

population 1 2 3 42.02 31.82 11.45 230624 203242 228664 47696 86926 38530 20.68 42.77 16.85 Page 157

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 13.43 11.78 4.25 11.23 34.5 26.84 30.24 217.56 202753 235000 233058 214049 306319 356741 254557 2465007 114119 79990 120005 113382 97981 96995 63159 858783 56.28 34.04 51.49 52.97 31.99 27.19 24.81 35.91

Source: (Census of India)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Annexure 3 Land use as per Development Plan 1986-2011

1984 Sr. Major land use Area in no. purpose hectare 1 Residential 2 Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Public purpose 5 Public utilities 6 Roads 7 Railway 8 Airport 9 Garden & play ground 10 Developable vacant land Sub-Total Agri.&forest,w ater bodies,draina ge,sweave,tc

2011

% to % to Total Area in % to % to Total developed Area area hectare developed Area area area area 3500 42 16.09 6705.71 44.61 30.822 185 225 2000 100 555 440 525 150 660 8340 2.22 2.7 23.98 1.2 6.65 5.28 6.29 1.8 7.92 100 0.85 1.03 9.19 0.46 2.55 2.02 2.41 0.69 3.03 38 61.67 501.35 494.88 2311.97 148.9 1753.89 872.69 993.24 1250.81 0 15033.44 6722.61 3.3 3.29 15.38 0.99 11.67 5.8 6.61 8.32 0 100 2.304 2.275 10.627 0.684 8.062 4.011 4.565 5.749 0 69.1 30.9

13416

Total Area

21756

21756

Source: (Nagpur Improvement Trust)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Annexure 4 Land use as per Development Plan 1921-2031

Sr. Major land Area in no. use purpose hectare

2021 % to % to Total Area in develope Area area hectare d area 44.01 3.9 3.94 15.17 0.98 11.51 5.73 6.52 8.21 0 30.822 2.758 2.758 10.627 0.684 8.062 4.011 4.565 5.749 0 7000 700 800 2312 150 1800 900 1000 1300 0

2031 % to % to develope Total d area Area area 45.94 4.4 5.01 14.48 0.94 11.28 5.64 6.26 8.14 0 32.175 3.217 3.677 10.627 0.689 8.274 4.137 4.596 5.975 0

1 Residential 2 Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Public purpose 5 Public utilities 6 Roads 7 Railway 8 Airport 9 Garden & play ground 10 Developable vacant land

6705.71 600 600 2311.97 148.9 1753.89 872.69 993.24 1250.81 0

Sub-Total 15237.21 Agri.&forest, 6519 water bodies,drain age,sweave, tc Total Area 21756

100

70.036 29.964

15962 5794

100

73.368 26.632

21756

Source: (Nagpur Improvement Trust)

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Annexure 5 Benchmark for sanitation and sewerage system S. No 1 2 Coverage of toilets Coverage of 100% sewage 100% Proposed indicator Benchmark Current status 80% 70% Expected target Mar 2012 85% 75%

network services 3 Collection efficiency of 100% sewage network 4 Adequacy of sewage 100% 24% 46% 24% 46%

treatment capacity 5 Quality treatment 6 Extent of reuse and 20% 1% 3% of sewage 100% 100% 100%

recycling sewage 7 Efficiency in redressal of 80% customer complaints 8 Extent of cost recovery in 100% sewage management 9 Efficiency in collection of 90% sewage charges Source: (City Sanitation Plan) 60% 65% 100% 100% 50% 60%

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Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Annexure 6 Benchmark for storm water drainage Benchmarks for Storm water drainage Sr . N o Proposed indicator Bench Current status mark Expected target Year of

fulfillme nt /

achievem ent

1

Coverage of storm

100%

24%

30% 60% 100%

2011-12 2012-13 2013-14

water drainage network Existing network of SWD is 960 km since 2010 and

approximate

75%

existing

needs to be replaced with adequate SWD) 2 Incidence of water 0 45% 10-15% 2011-12

logging and flooding Source: (City Sanitation Plan) Annexure 7 Types of Vehicles and capacity Types of Vehicle Qty. Capacity ton) TATA Ace TATA 407 Mahindra Load king TATA 207 80 10 6 5 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 3 2 2 2 Page 162 (in Trips/day

Impact of urbanization on urban water bodies: Case of Nag River at Nagpur. Compactors Dumper Placers Hook Loader TATA 909 TATA 1210 Tippers Rickshaws JCB Total 10 13 3 5 14 12 450 3 510 14 4.5 18 5 6 10 0.03 63.03 tons/day Source: (City Sanitation Plan) Annexure 8 Zone wise slum population Zones Area Population Slum population 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 42.02 31.82 11.45 13.43 11.78 4.25 11.23 34.5 26.84 30.24 217.56 230624 203242 228664 202753 235000 233058 214049 306319 356741 254557 2465007 47696 86926 38530 114119 79990 120005 113382 97981 96995 63159 858783 % of slum 2 5 3 2 2 5 3 31

population 20.68 42.77 16.85 56.28 34.04 51.49 52.97 31.99 27.19 24.81 35.91

Source: (CHF international)

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