Key Terms Binocular:  Describes a microscope with two eyepieces Condenser  The lens system under the microscope

stage that focuses light onto the specimen Depth of Focus  The thickness of a specimen that is entirely in focus under a microscope  Higher magnification has lower depth of focus Eyepiece Lens  The lens of a microscope into which the viewer looks; same as the ocular lens Field of View  The area of the specimen that can be seen after it is magnified Microspectromphotometer  An instrument that links a microscope to a spectrophotometer Monocular  Describes a microscope with one eyepiece Objective Lens  The lower lens of a microscope, which is positioned directly over the specimen Parfocal  Describes a microscope such that when an image is focused with one objective in position, the other objective can be rotated into place and the field will remain in focus Polarized Light  Light confined to a single plane of vibration  Light that is confined to a single plane of vibration is said to be planepolarized Polarizer  A device that permits the passage of light waves vibrating in only one plane Real Image  An image formed by the actual convergence of light rays on a screen Transmitted Illumination  Light that passes up from the condenser and through the specimen Vertical or Reflected Illumination  Illumination of a specimen from above; in microscopy it is used to examine opaque specimens Virtual Image  An image that cannot be seen directly. It can be seen only by a viewer looking through a lens

Chapter 7: The Microscope

Compare and contrast the comparison microscope to the compound microscope. the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has a magnification that ranges from 10x to 100.000 times the numerical aperture of the objective being used In its usual mode. Describe how a microspectrometer is used to examine trace evidence Introduction • A microscope is an optical instrument that uses a lens or a combination of lenses to magnify and resolve the fine details of an object • The magnified image seen by looking through a lens is know an a virtual image • An image viewed directly is known as a real image • The object to be magnified is placed under the lower lens called the objective and is viewed through the upper lens.Key Points       The maximum useful magnification of a compound microscope is approximately 1. the respective magnification will be 450 x The polarizing microscope has found wide application for the examination of birefringent materials present in soil? A scanning electron microscope can be used to determine whether or not a suspect has recently fired a gun The “fingerprint” IR spectrum can be seen using a microspectromphotometer Essay Questions 1.000x If an eyepiece lens with a magnification of 10x is combined with a 45x objective. 2. called the eye-piece .

o Objective Lens: the lens closest to the specimen. to illuminate the specimen.The Compound Microscope  In the basic compound microscope. another objective can be rotated into place and the specimen remains very nearly in correct focus. but by a much smaller magnitude. and an optical system which illuminates the object under investigation and passes light through a series of lens to form an image of the specimen.  Vertical or Reflected Illumination: when the light comes from above and reflects off the specimen. o Body Tube: the hollow tube on which the objectives and eyepiece lenses are mounted. o Eyepiece or Ocular Lens: the lens closest to the eye. o Coarse Adjustment: the knob used to focus the microscope lenses by moving the body tube. o Parafocal: when the microscope is focused with one objective in place. o Fine Adjustment: the knob also used to focus the lenses by moving the body tube.  The magnification of the image can be calculated by multiplying the magnifying power of the objective lens times the magnifying power of the eyepiece lens. The Optical System o Illuminator: artificial light. o Condenser: lens system under the microscope stage that focuses light onto the specimen. the object to be magnified is placed under the lower lens (objective lens) and the magnified image is viewed through the upper lens (eyepiece lens).  Monocular: a microscope having only one eyepiece.  Binocular: a microscope having two eyepieces.  Transmitted Illumination: when the light is directed up through the specimen from the base. o Stage: the plate on which the specimens are placed. usually several objectives are mounted on a revolving nosepiece. usually supplied by a light bulb. o Arm: the C-shaped upright structure.  .  The Mechanical System o Base: the support.  The microscope is composed of a mechanical system which supports the microscope.

the objects under investigation are observed side by side in a circular field that is equally divided into two parts The Stereoscopic Microscope  Is actually two monocular compound microscopes properly spaced and aligned to present a three dimensional image of a specimen to the viewer. and ink evidence The Scanning Electron Microscope  The scanning electron microscope (SEM) bombards a specimen with a beam of electrons instead of light to produce a highly magnified image from 100 x to 100.The Comparison Microscope  The comparison microscope consists of two independent objective lenses joined together by an optical bridge to a common eyepiece lens  When a view looks through the eye-piece lens of the comparison microscope. 0000x  Its depth of focus is some 300 times better than optical systems at similar magnification  The bombardment of the specimens surface with electrons normally produces x-ray emissions that can be used to characterize elements present in the material under investigation . fiber. who looks through both eyepiece lenses  It is used for evidence not requiring very high magnification (10x-125x) Polarizing Microscopy  The examination of the interaction of plane-polarized light with matter is made possible with the polarizing microscope  Polarizing microscopy has found wide applications for the study of “birefringent” materials (materials that split a beam of light in two. each with its own refractive index value)  The determination of these refractive index data provides information that helps to identify minerals present in a soil sample or the identity of a manmade fiber The Microspectrophotometer  It is a spectrophotometer coupled with a light microscope  The examiner studying a specimen under a microscope can simultaneously obtain the visible absorption spectrum or IR spectrum of the material being observed  Useful in the examination of trace evidence. paint.

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