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# Physical Pharmacy POST-LAB DISCUSSION for Preliminary Period

Gillian O. Velasco,RPh

the values for both substances being determined at the same temperature unless otherwise specified .EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • Density (ρ) – mass per unit volume at a fixed temperature and pressure ρ=M/V .unit in cgs system: g/cm3 SI unit: kg/m3 • Relative Density – ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

999973 at 3. that’s why specific gravity is determined at 100°/25° 2.EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • Specific Gravity – ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water at 4°C or at some other specified temperature. the standard used is Hydrogen • Notations: 25°/25° .98°C * For gases. 4°/4° *First Figure: temperature of the air at which substance was weighed *Second Figure: temperature of water used Determination of Specific Gravity defined by the USP: “Unless otherwise stated. the US government adopted 60°F as the temperature at which alcoholometric measurements are to be made for government control of alcoholic liquids. .56° because many years ago.USP/NF Monograph for Alcohols – it complies with the test for Specific Gravity <841> (Method I – Pycnometric. Method II – Oscillating transducer density meter) . Alcohol – determined at 15. Theobroma oil – solid at 25°. 25°/4° . specific gravity basis is 25°/25°…” *Exceptions: 1.56°/15. *Water attains its maximum absolute density 0.

the difference between the two specific gravities is very small. • True Specific Gravity – also known as absolute specific gravity. . when measurements of masses for specific gravity determination is conducted in a vacuum. *As a rule.EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • Apparent Specific Gravity – when measurements of masses for specific gravity determination is conducted in air.

Hydrometer .EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • Methods of Determining Specific Gravity .Westphal Balance .Mohr .by the use of various types of pycnometer .

They require precision weighing scale and controlled laboratory environment. .High precision pycnometers are expensive. .If correctly used.EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • PYCNOMETER – fixed volume vessels used to be filled with sample liquid. Advantage: . . .Great care must be exercised to obtain accurate results. provides fast and accurate measurements of specific gravity Disadvantages: .Their good performaces depend on the skill of the operator.

so the upward force on the bottom of the object is larger than the downward force on top of the object.This principle applies to both liquids & gases and to objects which are completely or partially submerged .Reason for Bouyant Force: Pressure increases with depth.EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids Archimedes’ Principle “ Any object placed in a fluid will experience an upward or bouyant force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. .” .

. Precautions: .is an instrument that is calibrated to indicate the specific gravity of a liquid by the extent to which it is submerged into the liquid.There should be no air bubbles in the surface of the liquid and of the jar.There should be sufficient sample on the jar to allow the hydrometer to float freely. .EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • HYDROMETER .Allow the hydrometer to be completely stationary before noting the reading. .

. *It directly gives the relative density of the liquid but the results is slightly less accurate than pycnometric measurements.EXPERIMENT 1: Specific Gravity Determination of Liquids • WESTPHAL BALANCE – is an instrument in which the up thrust on a small sinker (a glass plumet) immersed in the liquid at a particular temperature is compared with the up thrust on the same sinker when immersed in water up to the same extent at the same temperature.

EXPERIMENT 2: Alcohol Determination by Specific Gravity Method USP Methods for Alcohol Determination <611>: Method I – Distillation Method II – Glass Chromatographic Method .

the advantage would be lost. Ground Glass Joints – are used to quickly fit leak-tight apparatus. passing the vapors through a cooling device called the condenser and collecting the liquid which condenses. once original smooth surface the glass has been damaged by grinding. .Its limitation is that.is the process of heating a solution to its boiling point. .EXPERIMENT 2: Alcohol Determination by Specific Gravity Method DISTILLATION .

. the distillate that can be collected is expected to contain alcohol.5°). therefore it will boil first. assuming that no interfering substances co-distill with ethanol which would affect the specific gravity of the distillate. the percentage of alcohol in a solution can be determined by knowing the specific gravity of the solution.EXPERIMENT 2: Alcohol Determination by Specific Gravity Method • Physical Property that is considered for distillation: BOILING POINT Alcohol has a lower boiling point than water (78. Because of the alcohol it contains. By the use of the USP Alcoholmetric Table. Thus. the distillate will have a specific gravity lower than that of distilled water.

used in the identification of an unknown substance .used to determine the proper procedures in formulating drugs because drugs with low melting point tends to soften during processes in which heat is generated . Importance of Determining the Melting Point: .EXPERIMENT 3: Melting Point Determination • Melting Point – the temperature at which the pure liquid and solid exists in equilibrium.used to determine the compatibility of various substances before inclusion in the same dosage form .it is used as indicator of purity of chemical substances (a pure substance must have a sharp melting point and a lower melting point range. impure substances may undergo decomposition prior to reaching its theoretical melting point) .

EXPERIMENT 3: Melting Point Determination Methods of Determining Melting Point .

EXPERIMENT 3: Melting Point Determination Methods of Determining Melting Point .

preventing discomfort. * Pharmaceutical solutions intended to be applied to delicate membranes and blood should be isotonic so that there would no contraction or swelling of the tissues with which they come in contact. • Isotonic Solutions – solutions that has essentially the same salt concentration and hence the same osmotic pressure as the RBC. .EXPERIMENT 4: Freezing Point Determination of Isotonic Solutions • Freezing Point – the temperature at which liquid passes into the solid state.The temperature at which solid and liquid exists in equilibrium. . Thus.

*Hypertonic Solution – causes the cell to shrink and become wrinkled or crenated. *Hypotonic Solution – causes the cell to swell and finally burst Hemolysis – a phenomenon wherein the cell swells and burst with liberation of hemoglobin .EXPERIMENT 4: Freezing Point Determination of Isotonic Solutions • Methods of Determining Tonicity 1. Hemolytic Method .the effect of various solutions of the drug is observed on the appearance of RBC suspended in the solutions.

EXPERIMENT 4: Freezing Point Determination of Isotonic Solutions 2. it is established that -0.52°C is the freezing point of blood and lacrimal fluid and it corresponds to the freezing point of 0.at present.09% NaCl solution .Referred from the freezing point of blood and tears . Methods that Determine Colligative Properties .based on the measurement of the slight temperature differences arising from differences in the vapor pressure of thermally insulated samples contained samples contained in constant-humidity chambers .