Research Methodology

 

 

A way to systematically solve the research problem A science of studying how research is done scientifically Various steps of solving research problem along with logic behind following those steps Applying various research techniques Knowing the criteria by which certain techniques will be applicable to certain problems and others will not Exposing the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented

Research & Scientific Methods

Scientific method is the pursuit of truth determined by logical considerations Scientific method means a systematic interrelation of facts Scientific method formulates propositions explicitly & accurately and also mentions possible alternatives Scientific method involves experimentation & survey investigation Experimentation is done to test the hypothesis & to discover new relationship Survey investigation provides information which works as a basis for the researchers for their conclusions

Basic Postulates of Scientific Methods
   

 

Relies on empirical evidence Utilizes relevant concepts Committed to study objective considerations Presupposes ethical neutrality i.e. aims at nothing but making only adequate and correct statements about population objects Results into probabilistic predictions Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication Aims at formulating most general axions or what can be termed as scientific theories

RESEARCH DESIGN

1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7.

ACCORDING TO THE INTENT RESEARCH MAY BE CLASSIFIED AS : PURE RESEARCH APPLIED RESEARCH EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESCRIPTIVE STUDY DIAGNOSTIC STUDY EVALUATION BODY ACTION RESEARCH

3. ACCORDING TO THE METHOD OF STUDY RESARCH MAY BE CLASSIFIED AS : EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ANALYTICAL STUDY HISTORICAL RESEARCH SURVEY . 1. 4. 2.

2. 1. 3. 4. IN MANAGEMENT THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED RESEARCH DESIGNS ARE : EXPLORATORY DESCRIPTIVE DIAGNOSTIC EXPERIMENTAL .

 MEANING OF EXPLORATORY OR FORMULATIVE RESEARCH – IT IS PRELIMINARY STUDY OF AN UNFAMILIAR PROBLEM ABOUT WHICH THE RESEARCHER HAS LITTLE OR NO KNOWLEDGE. IT USUALLY TAKES THE FORM OF A PILOT STUDY .

TO MAKE THE PRECISE FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM 4. TO DETERMINE WHETHER IT IS FEASIBLE TO ATTEMPT THE STUDY .PURPOSES – 1. TO GENERATE NEW IDEAS 2. TO GATHER INFORMATION FOR CLARIFYING CONCEPTS 5. TO INCREASE THE RESEARCHERS FAMILIARITY WITH THE PROBLEM 3.

NEED FOR EXPOLATORY STUDY – IT IS NECESSARY TO GET INITIAL INSIGHT INTO THE PROBLEM FOR THE PURPOSE OF FORMULATING THEM FOR MORE PRECISE INVESTIGATION .

.EXAMPLE : A RESEARCHER WANTS TO STUDY THE PATTERN OF MARKETING STRATEGIES OF A MOST SUCCESSFUL MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISE. ― WHETHER OR NOT MARKETING EXECUTIVES WOULD DIVULGE ― -. TO KNOW THAT AT FIRST HE HAS TO KNOW WHETHER MARKETING EXECUTIVE WOULD DIVULGE THEIR MARKETING STRATEGY OR NOT.is AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH. IF AN EXPLORATION ON THAT DETERMINES THAT THEY ARE NOT READY TO DIVULGE THEN THE STUDY OF PATTERN OF MARKETING STRATEGIES CAN NOT BE DONE.

DISCOVERY OF SIGNIFICANT VARIABLES IN THE SITUATION 2nd LEVEL – DISCOVERY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES LEVELS OF EXPLORATORY STUDIES .– 1st LEVEL -.

STEPS/METHODS IN EXPLORATION – REVIEW OF PERTINENT LITERATURE – A STUDY OF RELATED ARTICLES & REPORTS MIGHT TURN UP A NUMBER OF LEADS AND CLUES FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION AN EXPERIENCE SURVEY – INFORMAL INTERVIEWS WITH PERSONS EXPERIENCED IN THE AREA OF STUDIES WILL HELP IN SECURING INSIGHT INTO THE SUBJECT . 2.1.

3.g. AN ANALYSIS OF INSIGHT STIMULATING CASES – AN INTENSIVE STUDY OF SOME SELECTIVE CASES CAN YIELD STIMULATING INSIGHT e. TYPES OF PEOPLE WHO PROVIDE INSIGHT STIMULATING INFORMATION OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM OF AN ORGANIZATION COULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING : .

2. 3.1. IT IS MORE SPECIFIC THAN AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IT IS DESIGNED TO GATHER DESCRIPTIVE INFORMATION FOR FORMULATING MORE SOPHISTICATED STUDIES . DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH – IT IS A FACT FINDING INVESTIGATION WITH ADEQUATE INTERPRETATION.

AND. IF POSSIBLE. OBJECTIVE.    CRITERIA THE PROBLEM MUST BE DESCRIBABLE AND NOT ARGUABLE – PHILOSOPHICAL AND CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR DESCRIPTIVE STUDY THE DATA SHOULD BE AMENABLE TO AN ACCURATE. QUANTITATIVE ASSEMBLAGE FOR RELIABILITY AND SIGNIFICANCE IT SHOULD BE POSSIBLE TO DEVELOP VALID STANDARDS OF COMPARISON IT SHOULD LEND ITSELF TO VERIFIABLE PROCEDURE OF COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA .

   OBJECTIVE A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY AIMS AT IDENTIFYING THE VARIOUS CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMMUNITY OR INSTITUTION OR PROBLEM UNDER STUDY IT DOES NOT DEAL WITH THE TESTING OF PROPOSITION OR HYPOTHESIS IT CAN REVEAL POTENTIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES THUS SETTING THE STAGE FOR MORE ELABORATE INVESTIGATION LATER .

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY vs. ANALYTICAL STUDY A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY EMPLOYS SIMPLE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES LIKE AVERAGES AND PERCENTAGES .

   DIAGNOSTIC STUDY THIS IS SIMILAR TO DESCRIPTIVE STUDY BUT WITH DIFFERENT FOCUS IT IS DIRECTED TOWARDS DISCOVERING WHAT IS HAPPENING. WHY IT IS HAPPENING AND WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT IT AIMS AT IDENTIFYING THE CAUSES OF A PROBLEM AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR IT .

PURPOSE A DIAGNOSTIC STUDY MAY ALSO BE CONCERNED WITH DISCOVERING AND TESTING WHETHER CERTAIN VARIABLES ARE ASSOCIATED .

DESCRIPTIVE STUDY     A diagnostic study is more directly concerned with causal relationships and with implications for action than is a descriptive study While a descriptive study is oriented towards finding out what is occurring. In such cases. the social scientist limits his effort to descriptive studies . a diagnostic study is directed towards discovering not only what is occurring but why it is occurring and what can be done about it A diagnostic study is more actively guided by hypothesis than is descriptive study A diagnostic study is not possible in areas where knowledge is not advanced enough to make possible adequate diagnosis.DIAGNOSTIC STUDY vs.

WHAT HE WANTS TO MEASURE AND MUST FIND ADEQUATE METHODS FOR MEASURING IT ALONG WITH A CLEAR CUT DEFINITION OF ‘POPULATION’ HE WANTS TO STUDY THE DSIGN IN SUCH STUDIES MUST BE RIGID .COMMON REQUIREMENT BY DESCRIPTIVE & DIAGNOSTIC STUIES IN TERMS OF RESEARCH DESIGN   THE RESEARCHER MUST BE ABLE TO DEFINE CLEARLY.

2.1. 3. THE DESIGN IN SUCH STUDIES MUST FOCUS ATTENTION ON THE FOLLOWING: FORMULATING THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY – WHAT THE STUDY IS ABOUT AND WHY IS IT BEING MADE? DESIGNING THE METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION – WHAT TECHNIQUES OF GATHERING DATA WILL BE ADOPTED? SELECTING THE SAMPLE – HOW MUCH MATERIAL WILL BE NEEDED? .

4. REPORT THE FINDINGS . COLLECTING THE DATA – WHERE CAN THE REQUIRED DATA BE FOUND AND WITH WHAT TIME PERIOD SHOULD THE DATA BE RELATED? 5. PROCESSING AND ANALYSING THE DATA 6.

IT AIMS AT DETERMINING WHETHER AND IN WHAT MANNER VARIABLES ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER .EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH MEANING 1. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IS DESIGNED TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF PARTICULAR VARIABLES ON A PHENOMENON BY KEEPING THE OTHER VARIABLES CONSTANT OR CONTROLLED 2.

MANURING AND CULTURAL PRACTICES WHICH INFLUENCE THE YIELD ARE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES . QUALITY OF SEED.EXAMPLE : CROP YIELD PER HECTARE IS A DEPENDENT VARIABLE AND THE FACTORS SUCH AS SOIL FERTILITY. IRRIGATION.

4. THESSE SHOULD BE IDENTICAL IN TERMS OF CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PHENOMENON UNDER STUDY ONE OF THE GROUPS IS USED AS EXPERIMENTAL GROUP AND THE OTHER AS CONTROL GROUP EXPERIMENTAL GROUP IS EXPRESSED TO AN EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE OR STIMULUS CONTROL GROUP IS NOT EXPOSED TO THE EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS’ OUTCOME IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE EFFECT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE PROCEDURE : . 3.1. 2. THE IDENTICAL GROUPS ARE SELECTED. 5.

IN SOCIAL SCIENCES. .CONDITIONS : IT SHOULD BE POSSIBLE FOR SELECTING EXACTLY IDENTICAL GROUP 2. IT IS DIFFICULT TO FIND EXACTLY IDENTICAL GROUPS OF PERSONS. THE TARGET GROUPS SHOULD BE AMENABLE FOR EXPERIMENTATION 1. WHICH DEAL WITH HUMAN LIFE. WE MAY GET APPROXIMATELY SIMILAR GROUPS ONLY 3.

5. . WHICH ARE DYNAMIC AND COMPLEX.4. 6. strictly controlled experimentation is rarely feasible with human beings. IT SHOULD BE POSSIBLE TO IDENTIFY ALL THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLES UNDER STUDY. Thus. BUT IT IS NOT POSSIBLE IN SOCIAL PHENOMENA AS OUR KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN MIND AND BEHAVIOUR IS LIMITED IT SHOULD BE POSSIBLE TO KEEP NONEXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES CONSTANT SO AS TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLES ON THE PHENOMENON BUT THEY ARE ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE IN HUMAN LIFE SITUATIONS.

UTILITY : USEFUL AND FAIRLY VALID EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IS POSSIBLE IN SEVERAL AREAS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES SUCH AS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL FINANCE. POLITICAL ADMINISTRATION. TEACHING TECHNOLOGY. WELFARE PROGRAMMES. MANAGEMENT OF ENTERPRISES AND INSTITUTIONS IT IS POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE REASONABLE DEGREE OF VALIDITY BY ADOPTING APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES . SOCIAL EDUCATION.

TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS THE MAJOR TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS ARE :  AFTER – ONLY DESIGN  ONE GROUP BEFORE – AFTER DESIGN  BEFORE – AFTER DESIGN WITH CONTROL GROUP .

IN A FERTILIZER APPLICATION EXPERIMENT CITED ABOVE THE CROP YOELD (Y) IS MEASURED IN BOTH E AND C PLOTS. THE EFFECT ON A DEPENDENT VARIABLE (Y) IS ASSESSED BY MEASURING IT IN BOTH EXPERIMENTAL (E) AND CONTROL (C) GROUPS AFTER E HAS BEEN EXPOSED TO AN INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (X).AFTER – ONLY DESIGN THIS IS THE SIMPLEST TYPE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. THE DIFFERENCE IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZER (X) . AFTER THE EXPERIMENT IS OVER.

SUPPOSE A RESEARCHER WANTS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A FILM IN CHANGING ATTITUDES TOWARDS DRINKING AND DRIVING. MEASURING Y BEFORE AND AFTER. . THE CHANGE IN SCORE ON AN ATTITUDE TEST GIVEN ON THE TARGET GROUP BEFORE AND AFTER SEEING THE FILM MEASURES THE FILM’S EFFECT. HE MAY EMPLOY THIS SECOND TYPE OF DESIGN. THE GROUP HAS BEEN EXPOSED TO X.ONE GROUP BEFORE – AFTER DESIGN : IN THIS DESIGN THE SAME GROUP IS USED AS E AND C.

THIS IS A BETTER DESIGN THAN THE PREVIOUS ONES.BEFORE – AFTER DESIGN WITH CONTROL GROUP : IN THIS DESIGN. BOTH THE E AND C GROUPS ARE MEASURED BEFORE AND AFTER E IS EXPOSED TO X. . THIS ELIMINATES THE IMPACT OF EXTRANEOUS FACTORS OCCURRING DURING TIME PERIOD.

EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESSEARCH : IT IS DIFFICULT TO ESTABLISH COMPARABLE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS EXPERIMENT IS OFTEN DIFFICULT TO DESIGN IT CAN BE USED TO STUDY THE PRESENT ONLY. AND CANNOT BE USED FOR STUDIES OF THE PAST OR THE FUTURE .

THE EFFECT OF EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES CAN BE CONTROLLED MORE EFFECTIVELY IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN THAN IN OTHER DESIGNS ABOVE ALL.  ADVANTAGES : EXPERIMENTATION HAS CERTAIN UNIQUE ADVANTAGES. AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OFFERS A MEANS OF TESTING SOCIAL VALUES . NO OTHER METHOD CAN EQUAL EXPERIMENTATION IN OBJECTIVITY.

DESIGN) : INVOLVES ONLY 2 PRINCIPLES – a. THE PRINCIPLE OF REPLICATION AND b.R. THE PRINCIPLE OF RANDOMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS .COMPLETELY RANDOMIZED DESIGN (C.

THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE DESIGN IS THAT THE SUBJECTS ARE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS IF WE HAVE 10 SUBJECTS AND IF WE WISH TO TEST 5 UNDER TREATMENT A AND 5 UNDER TREATMENT B, THE RANDOMIZATION PROCESS GIVES EVERY POSSIBLE GROUP OF 5 SUBJECTS SELECTED FROM A SET OF 10 AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY OF BEING ASSIGNED TO TREATMENT A AND TREATMENT B ONE – WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (OR ONE – WAY ANOVA) IS USED TO ANALYSE SUCH A DESIGN UNEQUAL REPLICATIONS CAN ALSO WORK IN THIS DESIGN

RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN (R.B DESIGN)


SUBJECTS ARE FIRST DIVIDED INTO GROUPS KNOWN AS BLOCKS SUBJECTS ARE RELATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS IN RESPECT TO SOME SELECTED VARIABLE THE VARIABLE SELECTED FOR GROUPINGTHE SUBJECTS IS ONE THAT IS BELIEVED TO BE RELATED TO THE MEASURES TO BE OBTAINED IN RESPECT OF THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE THE NUMBER OF SUBJECTS IN A GIVEN BLOCK WOULD BE EQUAL TO THE NUMBER OF TREATMENTS AND ONE SUBJECT IN EACH BLOCK WOULD BE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EACH TREATMENT THE R.B. DESIGN IS ANALYZED BY THE TWO-WAY ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (TWO – WAY ANOVA) TECHNIQUE

LATIN SQUARE DESIGN (L.S. DESIGN) IT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN VERY FREQUENTLY USED IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AN EXPERIMENT HAS TO BE THROUGH WHICH THE EFFECTS OF 5 DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF FERTILIZERS ON THE YIELD OF A CERTAIN CROP, SAY WHEAT, IT TO BE JUDGED. IN SUCH A CASE THE VARYING FERTILITY OF THE SOIL IN DIFFERENT BLOCKS IN WHICH THE EXPERIMENT HAS TO BE PERFORMED MUST BE TAKEN INTO COSIDERATION; OTHERWISE THE RESULTS OBTAINED MAY NOT BE VERY DEPENDABLE BECAUSE THE OUTPUT HAPPENS TO BE THE EFFECT NOT ONLY OF FERTILIZERS, BUT IT MAY ALSO BE THE EFFECT OF FERTILITY OF SOIL. SIMILARLY, THERE MAY BE IMPACT OF VARYING SEEDS ON THE YIELD. TO OVERCOME SUCH DIFFICULTIES, THE L.S. DESIGN IS USED WHEN THERE ARE 2 MAJOR EXTRANEOUS FACTORS SUCH AS SOIL FERTILITY AND VARYING SEEDS

THE LATIN - SQUARE DESIGN IS ONE WHEREIN EACH FERTILIZER, IN OUR EXAMPLE, APPEARS 5 TIMES BUT IS USED ONLY ONCE IN EACH ROW AND IN EACH COLUMN OF THE DESIGN THE TREATMENTS IN A L.S. DESIGN ARE SO ALLOCATED AMONG THE PLOTS THAT NO TREATMENT OCCURS MORE THAN ONCE IN ANY ONE ROW OR ANY ONE COLUMN THE TWO BLOCKING FACTORS MAY BE REPRESENTED THROUGH ROWS AND COLUMNS ONE THROUGH ROWS AND OTHER THROUGH COLUMNS) THE FOLLOWING IS A DIAGRAMMATIC FORM OF SUCH A DESIGN IN RESPECT OF, SAY, 5 TYPES OF FERTILIZERS, VIZ. A,B,C,D & E AND THE 2 BLOCKING FACTOR VIZ. THE VARYING SOIL FERTILITY AND VARYING SEEDS THE ANALYSIS OF THE L.S.DESIGN IS VERY SIMILAR TO THE TWO – WAY ANOVA TECHNIQUE

THERE ARE SPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN SEVERAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENA WHERE USUALLY A LARGE NUMBER OF FACTORS AFFECT A PARTICULAR PROBLEM SIMPLE FACTORIAL DESIGNS : IN CASE OF SIMPLE FACTORIAL DESIGNS.FACTORIAL DESIGNS FACTORIAL DESIGNS ARE USED IN EXPERIMENTS WHERE THE EFFECTS OF VARYING MORE THAN ONE FACTOR ARE TO BE DETERMINED. WE CONSIDER THE EFECTS OF VARYING TWO FACTORSON THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE .

NO ELEMENT OF CHANCE IS LEFT AND HIGHEST ACCURACY IS OBTAINED .SAMPLING DESIGN CENSUS & SAMPLE SURVEY :  ALL ITEMS IN ANY FIELD OF INQUIRY CONSTITUTE A ‘UNIVERSE’ OR ‘POPULATION’  A COMPLETE ENUMERATION OF ALL ITEMS IN THE ‘POPULATION’ IS KNOWN AS A CENSUS INQUIRY  IT CAN BE PRESUMED THAT IN SUCH AN INQUIRY WHEN ALL ITEMS ARE COVERED.

Evaluation Studies   Is one type of applied research. For assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of development project (eg: irrigation project) .

Purpose  Is directed to assess the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance. .

Types of Evaluation    Concurrent evaluation Periodic evaluation Terminal evaluation .

.Types of Evaluation  Concurrent evaluation: is a continuous process and partakes the nature of an inspection or social audit of an on-going programme.

Types of Evaluation  Periodic evaluation: is made after each distinct phase or state of a project has been completed. .

.Types of Evaluation  Terminal evaluation: is done after the completion of a programme or project . It may also involve a benefit-cost analysis.

Evaluation researcher measures whether the programme goals are being reached. Evaluation researcher deals with his client’s questions relating to the latter’s pprogramme. .Criteria of Evaluation Research    Evaluation research is usually conducted for a client who intends to use the finding as a basis for decision making. while the basic researcher formulates his own research questions.

It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem / for improving an existing situation. advancement.Action Research   Is a type of evaluation study. government.in the quest for development. excellence and promotion of welfare of people. Eg:. institutions and voluntary agencies undertake action programmes for achieving specific goals or objectives .

. social welfare programmes. human resource development programmes.Action Research  Eg: land reform programmes. agricultural extension programmes. rural development programmes etc.

It is also known as statistical method. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data.Analytical Study    Is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. .

Analytical Study  Aim: at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships .

It is used for measuring variables. comparing groups and examining association between factors.Analytical Study   Uses: extensively used in business and other fields in which quantitative numerical data are generated. .

Objective: is to draw explanations and generalizations from the past trends in order to understand the present and to anticipate the future.Historical Research   Is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past. .

Surveys     Is a fact finding study Is a method of research involving collection of data Data may be collected by observation or interviewing or mailing questionnaires. complex or simple statistical techniques depending upon the objectives of the study. . For analysis.

a social group. Eg:.a social – anthropological study of a rural or tribal community.Case Study   Is an in-depth comprehensive study of a person. a study of lifestyle of working women . a process. a situation. and institution or any other social unit. an episode. a community. a programme.

Helps to secure a wealth of information about the unit of study. .Case Study    Functions: insight into typical or extreme cases whose unique features are not reflected by usual statistical method. Examines complex factors involved in a given situation. which may provide clues and ideas for further research.

which cannot be gained through a general survey.Advantages     Are flexible with respect to data collection methods. Offer specific instances of tests of theories Give to the researcher a wider range of insights into human life. Can extend virtually to any dimension of the topic studied. .

Disadvantages     Limited generalization Time consuming Inadequate for an analysis of macro problems Errors of perception. judgment and overemphasis of unusual events. .

    BUT THE SLIGHTEST ELEMENT OF BIAS IN SUCH AN INQUIRY WILL GET LARGER AND LARGER AS THE NUMBER OF OBSERVATION INCREASES THIS TYPE OF INQUIRY INVOLVES A GREAT DEAL OF TIME. MONEY & ENERGY GOVERNMENT IS THE ONLY INSTITUTION WHICH CAN GET THE COMPLETE ENUMERATION CARRIED IN VERY RARE CASES SUCH AS POPULATION CENSUS CONDUCTED ONCE IN A DECADE .

CONSIDERATIONS OF TIME & COST ALMOST INVARIABLY LEAD TO A SELECTION OF RESPONDENTS I.    WHEN THE UNIVERSE IS A SMALL ONE.E. SELECTION OF ONLY A FEW ITEMS THE RESPONDENTS SELECTED SHOULD BE AS REPRESENTATIVE OF THE TOTAL POPULATION THE SELECTED RESPONDENTS CONSTITUTE WHAT IS TECHNICALLY CALLED A ‘SAMPLE’ AND THE SELECTION PROCESS IS CALLED ‘SAMPLING TECHNIQUE’. THE SAMPLE SO CONDUCTED IS KNOWN AS ‘SAMPLE SURVEY’ .. IT IS NO USE RESORTING TO A SAMPLE SURVEY WHEN FIELD STUDIES ARE UNDERTAKEN IN PRACTICAL LIFE.

THROWING OF A DICE ETC. THE NUMBER OF WORKERS IN A FACTORY AND THE LIKE ARE EXAMPLE OF FINITE UNIVERSE LISTENERS OF A SPECIFIC RADIO PROGRAMME. ARE EXAMPLES OF INFINITE UNIVERSE . TECHNICALLY CALLED THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSE CAN BE FINITE OR INFINITE THE POPULATION OF A CITY.    STEPS IN SAMPLE DESIGN TYPE OF UNIVERSE : THE FIRST STEP IN DEVELOPING ANY SAMPLE DESIGN IS TO CLEARLY DEFINE THE SET OF OBJECTS.

etc.SAMPLING UNIT   SAMPLING UNIT MAY BE A GEOGRAPHICAL ONE SUCH AS STATE. CLUB. VILLAGE. SCHOOL. OR IT MAY BE AN INDIVIDUAL . etc. IT MAY BE A SOCIAL UNIT SUCH AS FAMILY.. DISTRICT.

RELIABLE AND APPROPRIATE .SOURCE LIST   IT IS ALSO KNOWN AS ‘SAMPLING FRAME’ FROM WHICH SAMPLE IS TO BE DRAWN SUCH A LIST SHOULD BE COMPREHENSIVE. CORRECT.

NOR TOO SMALL. WHILE DECIDING THE SIZE OF THE SAMPLE COSTS TOO DICTATE THE SIZE OF SAMPLE THAT WE CAN DRAW . IT SHOULD BE OPTIMUM AN OPTIMUM SAMPLE IS WHICH FULFILLS THE REQUIREMENT OF EFFICIENCY. REPRESENTATIVENESS. RELIABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY WHILE DECIDING THE SIZE OF THE SAMPLE. THE RESEARCHER MUST DETERMINE THE DESIRED PRECISION AS ALSO AN ACCEPTABLE CONFIDENCE LEVEL FOR THE ESTIMATE THE SIZE OF POPULATION VARIANCE NEEDS TO BE CONSIDERED AS IN CASE OF LARGER VARIANCE USUALLY A BIGGER SAMPLE IS NEEDED THE PARAMETERS OF INTEREST IN A RESEARCH STUDY MUST BE KEPT IN VIEW.      SIZE OF SAMPLE THE SIZE OF SAMPLE SHOULD NEITHER BE EXCLUSIVELY LARGE.

BUDGETARY CONSTRAINT   COST COSIDERATIONS HAVE A MAJOR IMPACT UPON DECISIONS RELATING TO NOT ONLY THE SIZE OF THE SAMPLE BUT ALSO TO THE TYPE OF SAMPLE THIS FACT EVEN LEAD TO THE USE OF A NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLE .

   SAMPLING PROCEDURE THE RESEARCHER MUST DECIDE ABOUT THE TECHNIQUE TO BE USED IN SELECTING THE ITEMS FOR THE SAMPLE THERE ARE SEVERAL SAMPLE DESIGNS OUT OF WHICH THE RESEARCHER MUST CHOOSE ONE FOR HIS STUDY HE MUST SELECT THAT DESIGN WHICH HAS A SMALLER SAMPLING ERROR .

RESEARCHER MUST ENSURE THAT THE PROCEDURE CAUSES A RELATIVELY SMALL SAMPLING ERROR AND HELPS TO CONTROL THE SYSTEMATIC BIAS IN A BETTER WAY . PEOPLE PREFER A LESS PRECISE DESIGN BECAUSE IT IS EASIER TO ADOPT THE SAME AND ALSO BECAUSE OF THE FACT THAT THE SYSTEMATIC BIAS CAN BE CONTROLLED IN A BETTER WAY IN SUCH A DESIGN WHILE SELECTING A SAMPLING PROCEDURE.     SAMPLING ERRORS SAMPLING ERRORS ARE THE RANDOM VARIATION IN THE SAMPLE ESTIMATES AROUND THE TRUE POPULATION PARAMETERS SINCE THEY OCCUR RANDOMLY AND ARE EQUALLY LIKELY TO BE IN EITHER DIRECTION. EXPECTED VALUE OF SUCH ERRORS HAPPENS TO BE EQUAL TO ZERO SAMPLING ERROR DECREASES WITH THE INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THE SAMPLE. AND IT HAPPENS TO BE OF A SMALLER MAGNITUDE IN CASE OF HOMOGENEOUS POPULATION IN PRACTICE.

FOR THE UNIVERSE WITH A REASONABLE LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE . IN GENERAL.     CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SAMPLE DESIGN SAMPLE DESIGN MUST RESULT IN A TRULY REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE SAMPLE DESIGN MUST BE SUCH WHICH RESULTS IN A SMALL SAMPLING ERROR SAMPLE DESIGN MUST BE VIABLE IN THE CONTEXT OF FUNDS AVAILABLE FOR THE RESEARCH STUDY SAMPLE DESIGN MUST BE SUCH SO THAT SYSTEMATIC BIAS CAN BE CONTROLLED IN A BETTER WAY SAMPLE SHOULD BE SUCH THAT THE RESULTS OF THE SAMPLE STUDY CAN BE APPLIED.

NON-PROFITABILITY SAMPLING PROBABILITY SAMPLING .DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAMPLE DESIGNS BASICALLY 2 TYPES : 1. 2.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES OR METHODS PROBABILITY SAMPLING IS OF FOLLOWING TYPES:  SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING  STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING  SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING  CLUSTER SAMPLING  AREA SAMPLING  MULTI-STAGE & SUB-SAMPLING  RANDOM SAMPLING WITH PROBABILITY PROPORTIONAL TO SIZE  DOUBLE SAMPLING & MULTIPHASE SAMPLING .

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING MAY BE CLASSIFIED INTO :     CONVENIENCE OR ACCIDENTAL SAMPLING PURPOSIVE (OR JUDGEMENT) SAMPLING QUOTA SAMPLING SNOW-BALL SAMPLING .

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING      NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING IS THAT SAMPLING PROCEDURE WHICH DOES NOT AFFORD ANY BASIS FOR ESTIMATING THE PROBABILITY THAT EACH ITEM IN THE POPULATION HAS OF BEING INCLUDED IN THE SAMPLE NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING IS ALSO KNOWN BY DIFFERENT NAMES. PURPOSIVE SAMPLING & JUDGMENT SAMPLING ITEMS FOR THE SAMPLE ARE SELECTED DELIBERATELY BY THE RESEARCHER ORGANIZERS OF THE INQUIRY PURPOSIVELY CHOOSE THE PARTICULAR UNITS OF THE UNIVERSE FOR CONSTITUTING A SAMPLE ON THE BASIS THAT THE SMALL MASS THAT THEY SO SELECT OUT OF WHICH ONE WILL BE TYPICAL OR REPRESENTATIVE OF THE WHOLE JUDGEMENT OF THE ORGANISERS OF THE STUDY PLAYS AN IMPORTANT PART IN THIS SAMPLING DESIGN . eg. DELIBERATE SAMPLING.

IS ALWAYS THERE THIS SAMPLING DESIGN IN RARELY ADOPTED IN LARGE INQUIRIES OF IMPORTANCE IN SMALL INQUIRIES AND RESEARCHES BY INDIVIDUALS.NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING – CONTD. WORK WITHOUT BIAS AND HAVE THE NECESSARY EXPERIENCE SO AS TO TAKE SOUND JUDGMENT. THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM AN ANALYSIS OF DELIBERATELY SELECTED SAMPLE MAY BE TOLERABLY RELIABLE SAMPLING ERROR IN THIS TYPE OF SAMPLING CANNOT BE ESTIMATED AND THE ELEMENT OF BIAS.     INVESTIGATORS ARE IMPARTIAL. THIS DESIGN MAY BE ADOPTED BECAUSE OF THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGE OF TIME AND MONEY INHERENT IN THIS METHOD OF SAMPLING . GREAT OR SMALL.

    PROBABILITY SAMPLING ALSO KNOWN AS ‘RANDOM SAMPLING’ OR ‘CHANCE SAMPLING’ UNDER THIS SAMPLING DESIGN. EVERY ITEM OF THE UNIVERSE HAS AN EQUAL CHANCE OF INCLUSION IN THE SAMPLE A LOTTERY METHOD IN WHICH INDIVIDUAL UNITS ARE PICKED UP FROM THE WHOLE GROUP NOT DELIBERATELY BUT BY SOME MECHANICAL PROCESS RANDOM SAMPLING ENSURES THE LAW OF STATISTICAL REGULARITY WHICH STATES THAT IF ON AN AVERAGE THE SAMPLE CHOSEN IS A RANDOM ONE. THE SAMPLE WILL HAVE THE SAME COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS AS THE UNIVERSE .

  RANDOM SAMPLING IS CONSIDERED AS THE BETS TECHNIQUE OF SELECTING A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING FROM A FINITE POPULATION REFERS TO THAT METHOD OF SAMPLE SELECTION WHICH GIVES EACH POSSIBLE SAMPLE COMBINATION AN EQUAL PROBABILITY OF BEING PICKED UP AND EACH ITEM IN THE ENTIRE POPULATION TO HAVE AN EQUAL CHANCE OF BEING INCLUDED IN THE SAMPLE PROBABILITY SAMPLING—CONTD. .

ONCE AN ITEM IS SELECTED FOR THE SAMPLE.e. IN SUCH A SITUATION THE SAME ELEMENT COULD APPEAR TWICE IN THE SAME SAMPLE BEFORE THE SECOND ELEMENT IS CHOSEN . IT CANNOT APPEAR IN THE SAMPLE AGAIN SAMPLING WITH REPLACEMENT IS USED FREQUENTLY IN THIS PROCEDURE THE ELEMENT SELECTED FOR THE SAMPLE IS RETURNED TO THE POPULATION BEFORE THE NEXT ELEMENT IS SELECTED.    THIS APPLIES TO SAMPLING WITHOUT REPLACEMENT.PROBABILITY SAMPLING—CONTD.. i.

PROBABILITY SAMPLING – SIMPLE RANDOM PROCEDURE 1 : WE HAVE A FINITE POPULATION OF 6 ELEMENTS AND WE WANT TO SELECT A SAMPLE OF SIZE 3. (THE FIRST ELEMENT DRAWN IS NOT REPLACED) AND SIMILARLY THE PROBABILITY OF DRAWING ONE MORE ELEMENT IN THE THIRD DRAW IS ¼. SINCE THESE DRAWS ARE INDEPENDENT. THE PROBABILITY OF DRAWING ONE MORE ELEMENT IN THE SECOND DRAW IS 2/5. THE PROBABILITY OF DRAWING ANY ONE ELEMENT FOR OUR SAMPLE IN THE FIRST DRAW IS 3/6. THE JOINT PROBABILITY OF THE THREE ELEMENTS WHICH CONSTITUTE OUR SAMPLE IS THE PRODUCT OF THEIR INDIVIDUAL PROBABILITIES AND THIS WORKS OUT TO 3/6 X 2/5 X ¼ = 1/20 .

. TIPPETT’S RANDOM NUMBER TABLES ARE USED FOR THIS PURPOSE. TIPPETT GAVE 10400 FOUR FIGURE NUMBERS. GENERALLY. HE SELECTED 41600 DIGITS FROM THE CENSUS REPORTS AND COMBINED THEM INTO FOUR TO GIVE HIS RANDOM NUMBERS WHICH MAY BE USED TO OBTAIN A RANDOM SAMPLE.PROCEDURE 2: BY THE USE OF RANDOM NUMBER TABLES – VARIOUS STATISTICIANS LIKE TIPPETT. YATES FISHER HAVE PREPARED TABLES OF RANDOM NUMBER TABLES WHICH CAN BE USED FOR SELECTING A RANDOM SAMPLE.

THEN THE STUDENTS NUMBERED 9. (IF THERE IS ANY FRACTION IN THE QUOTIENT IGNORE THE FRACTION AND TAKE THE INTEGER OR WHOLE NUMBER). 69.ARE SELECTED AS THE SAMPLE. SAMPLING OF THIS TYPE IS KNOWN AS SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING. USING LOTTERY METHOD OR A TABLE OF RANDOM NUMBERS.COMPLEX RANDOM SAMPLING DESIGNS SYSTEMATIC SAMPLINGOR FIXED INTERVAL METHOD: THE MOST PRACTICAL WAY OF SAMPLING IS TO SELECT EVERY ‘ith’ ITEM ON A LIST. FROM A LIST OF 300 STUDENTS. SUPPOSE THE SELECTED NUMBER IS 9. 39 (24+15). 84 --. 24 (9+15). . THE QUOTIENT IS 15. SELECT A NUMBER RANDOM BETWEEN 1 & 15. DIVIDE THE POPULATION TOTAL OF 300 BY 20. Example : SUPPOSE IT IS DESIRED TO SELECT A SAMPLE OF 20 STUDENTS.

A RESEARCHER OPEWRATING ON A LIMITED TIME SCHEDULE WILL PREFER THIS METHOD  THIS METHOD IS CHEAPER THAN SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING .REAL SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING A SYSTEMATIC RE-ARRANGEMENT OF THE FRAME IS DESIRABLE FOR POPULATIONS WITH GREATER VARIABILITY ADVANTAGE :  IT IS MUCH SIMPLER THAN RANDOM SAMPLING – IT IS EASY TO USE  IT IS EASY TO INSTRUCT THE FIELD INVESTIGATORS TO USE THIS METHOD  THIS METHOD MAY REQUIRE LESS TIME.

STRATIFIED SAMPLING    IF A POPULATION FROM WHICH A SAMPLE IS TO BE DRAWN DOES NOT CONSTITUTE A HOMOGENEOUS GROUP. STRATIFIED SAMPLING TECHNIQUE IS GENERALLY APPLIED IN ORDER TO OBTAIN A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE THE POPULATION IS DIVIDED INTO SEVERAL SUB-POPULATIONS THAT ARE INDIVIDUALLY MORE HOMOGENEOUS THAN THE TOTAL POPULATION WE SELECT ITEMS FROM EACH STRATUM TO CONSTITUTE A SAMPLE .

    THE FOLLOWING 3 QUESTIONS ARE HIGHLY RELEVANT IN THE CONTEXT OF STRATIFIED SAMPLING: HOW TO FORM STRATA? HOW SHOULD ITEMS BE SELECTED FROM EACH STRATUM? HOW MANY ITEMS BE SELECTED FROM EACH STRATUM OR HOW TO ALLOCATE THE SAMPLE SIZE OF EACH STRATUM? .

THANK YOU .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful