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1.1 THERMAL POWER STATION:A generating station which converts heat energy of coal combustion into electrical energy is known as thermal power station. A steam power station basically works on the “RANKINE CYCLE”. Steam is produced in the boiler by utilizing the heat of coal combustion. The steam is then expanded in the prime mover (i.e., steam turbine) and is condensed in condenser to be fed in to the boiler again. The steam turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy of turbine into electrical energy.
1.2 POWER TO PROGRESS:Energy provides the power to progress. The natural resources of a country may be large but they can be turned into wealth if they are developed, used and exchanged for the other goods. This cannot be achieved without energy. Availability of available energy and its proper use in any country can result in its people rising from substantial level to the highest standard of living. It has been found that countries whose national output is mainly agricultural and whose population lives mostly in rural communities enjoy low per capita growth of energy consumption. Another factor on which the growth of energy consumption is dependent is the extent to which industrial activity forms a part of gross domestic product. As a country develops, the pattern of its energy usage undergoes a distinct change. Once energy is made available in excess of domestic needs, it has been found that it is not used solely as a consumer good but becomes a factor of growth.
1.3 DEMAND OF ELECTRICITY:1
A large proportion of energy is being met all over the world by electricity. This trend will further be stimulated because of increasing availability of clean electricity. This applies especially to developing countries because their industrial progress is based on modern technologies, which require electricity.
1.4 ESTABLISHMENT OF POWER PLANT:To meet the above mentioned demand of electricity; BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION was established in 1975 by GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. It has an installed capacity of 720 MW with a derated capacity of 705 MW. The water source for this plant is agra canal. It has 3 units of 95 MW and 2 units of 210 MW. The first 3 units of 95 MW were commissioned on july 1973, august 1974 and march 1975 respectively. Later on 2 units of 210 MW were commissioned on December 1978 and December 1981. Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006 through GOI’s Gazette notification.
1.5 CLIMATIC CONDITIONS:The site is situated in the zone of humid climate. Some important meteorological data are: Maximum ambient temperature is 46 °C. Average annual wet bulb temp. is 23.2 °C. Maximum humidity is 87%. Average annual rainfall is 50 inches. Mostly the wind direction is western and north western. 1.6 COMMON FACILITIES:2
(1)FUEL OIL FACILITIES: The heavy fuel oil with the following characteristics is used for firing the boiler and for keeping full spray when operating at load. Oil is used for burning the coke in the boiler. In PTPS two types of oil are used viz. 1. Furnace oil(F.O) Properties of L.D.O:(1) (2) Flash point C.V =66° C =10,000 kcal/kg
2. Light Diesel oil (L.D.O). Properties of F.O.:(1) (2) 2. Coal;Coal is the main fuel used in power house having following proportion:(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) C.V Moisture content Sulphur Volatile matter Fixed carbon Size = 3610 to 4300kcal/kg =10% to 11% = 00 to 0.40% = 20.5 to 34% = 29.6 to 34% = 0 to 10/20 mm Flash point C.V. =115° C =10,000 kcal/kg
Ash deformation temp.=1200° C
= 1350° C SALIENT DATA MAIN GENERATOR Maximum continuous KVA rating Maximum continuous KW Rated terminal voltage Rated Stator current Rated Power Factor Excitation current at MCR Condition Slip-ring Voltage at MCR Condition Rated Speed Rated Frequency Short circuit ratio Efficiency at MCR Condition Direction of rotation viewed Phase Connection Number of terminals brought out MAIN TURBINE DATA 24700KVA 210000KW 15750V 9050 A 0.49 98.4% Anti Clockwise Double Star 9( 6 neutral and 3 phase) 4 .(8) Ash fusion temp.85 lag 2600 A 310 V 3000 rpm 50 Hz 0.
For cooling water temperature (degree 24.7 in mm of Hg BHEL UNITS Boilers Manufacturer/Supplier – BHEL Teruchirapalli.24. condensing steam with reheating 5 .645. .Reheated steam pressure at inlet of 23.24.652.8 interceptor valve in kg/cm^2 ABS 2 2.30.21. Hyderabad Type .5.Rated output of Turbine 210 MW Rated speed of turbine 3000 rpm Rated pressure of steam before emergency 130 kg/cm^2 Stop valve rated live steam temperature 535 degree Celsius Rated steam temperature after reheat at 535 degree Celsius inlet to receptor valve Steam flow at valve wide open condition 670 tons/hour Rated quantity of circulating water through 27000 cm/hour condenser 1.27.Steam flow required for 210 MW in 68.67.Three casing.4.99.24. 139 atm. 380 tonnes/hr.Rated pressure at exhaust of LP turbine 19.65.662 ton/hour 3.49. Rated output – Working pressure – Feed water temp.540°C ± 5°C Steam turbine Manufacturer – BHEL. Dry bottom.55. Pulverized Coal fired boilers.9. 240°C Superheated steam temp. Tamil Nadu Radiant drum water type.33 Celsius) 1.
50 Hz Stator wdg connection .50 Hz Hydrogen .535°C Rated cooling water temp.5 Kg/cm2 Power factor .85 Frequency .2.117500 KVA Voltage .3 phase Rating of 210 MW Generator Capacity .5 Kg/cm2 Stator wdg connection . .B 6 .9050 A Voltage (rotor) .3.10500V Speed .15750 V Current (stator) .3000 rpm Hydrogen .6475 A Frequency .0.0.2600 V Speed .85 (lagging) Stator current .30°C Manufacture by Bharat heavy electrical Limited (BHEL) Rating of 95 MW Generator Capacity .3000 rpm Power factor .247000 KVA Voltage (stator) .Rated speed – 3000 rpm Rated steam temp.3 phase star connection Insulation class . .310 V Current (rotor) .
S:PART – I RUSSIAN UNIT PHASE – I For 50 MW units Unit number 1 – 4 4 x 1=4 boiler One boiler for each 50 MW units PHASE – II For 100 MW units Unit number 5 & 6 2 x 1=2 boilers Two boilers for each 100 MW units Total number of boilers in Russian unit = 8 PART – II INDIAN UNIT For 110 MW units Unit number 7 – 10 7 .IN the thermal power plant steam is the first necessary source to generate the Electricity. Equipment used for the production of steam is boiler. it again sent in to the boiler in case of re-heater boiler BOILER DISTRIBUTION AT B. and from there to turbine.P.T. In boiler water is heated up to certain temperature to get steam. Steam thus generated by boiler passes through super heaters.
The furnace chamber economizer is situated in the way of exhaust flue gases.T. (4) ECONOMISER:-Economizer is used to preheat the feed water. Thickness : 97 mm WATER WALLS:Inside the furnace there is a large number of vertical tubes for the production of steam.S are:Length Diameter : 15000 mm : 1800 mm Capacity of drum : 70 tonnes/hr. All the tubes are connected with bottom header by which water is filled inside the tube and very nearer to each other when water is heated. the economizer is also heated which in turn heats the feed water flowing through it. The shape of the boiler is spherical and dimensions used in P. BOILER DRUM:It is stock of water which is situated at the top of the furnace. There is provision for entry of coal oil through the pipes inside the chamber for burning. steam is collected in the upper part of the tubes and through the upper header steam is ejected. (5) AIR PREHEATER:-Air pre-heater is an equipment used for 8 (1) . (3) FURNACE CHAMBER:-Furnace chamber is a closed vessel inside the chamber fire bents.4 x 1 = 4 boilers One boiler for each 110 MW units Total number of boilers in Indian unit = 4 MAIN PARTS OF BOILER 1. When flue gases pass through that area.P.
FORCED DRAUGHT FAN:-Forced draught fan is used for the supply of air inside the furnace for burning.P. (8)REHEATERS:-Reheaters are used to raise the temperature of steam. 3.heating the passing air before reaching the boiler furnace.A FAN (Primary Air Fan):-It is used for carrying pulverized coal dust from p. 5. CONDENSATE PUMP:-It is used for pumping the hot condensate back to the boiler.T. temperature of steam is raised. 4. P. Two primary fans are used for each unit at P. Through reheater.c. Inside the cyclone separator. we get superheated steam with very high temperatures. (6) SUPER HEATER:-By the super heaters. CYCLONE SEPARATOR:-It is connected with the ceiling inside the furnace. 2. Superheaters are placed in the boiler before the steam inlet into the turbine. the steam pipe is injected and after passing steam.feeder. AUXILARIES:1. INDUCED DRAUGHT FAN:-Induced draught fan is used for evacuating flue gases through the chimney. the moisture of steam and water be massed and through separator steam be taken with steam raise.S. 9 . Reheaters are connected into the furnace chamber. (7)BURNERS:-Burners are used for firing into the furnace chamber.
T. 2 feed pumps are used (One is reserved and the other is working). FOR 50 MW UNITS:220 tonnes/hr.P. Feed water temperature Superheated steam temperature Place of boiler215°C 540°C 32 m 2. 115 atm. In P. three coal feeder fans are used for each unit. Rated output – Working pressure in boiler drum – Working pressure at main valve outlet – 100 atm. Working pressure in boiler drum – 146kg/m2 Working pressure at main valve outlet – 139 atm.P. CIRCULATING WATER PUMP:-By the use of circulating water pump. 10 . BOILER FEED PUMP:-It is used for water supply to the boiler. COAL FEEDERS:-It is used for feeding the pulverized coal inside the furnace. FOR 110 MW UNITS:Rated output – 375 tonnes /hr.6.S. we pass the cold water which is used to cool the hydrogen gas present in the turbine. Capacity = 27 tonnes/hr.S. 7.T. 8. In P. BOILER SPECIFICATIONS:- 1.
3. pitch – 64 mm Diameter of furnace chamber – 8. 5.240°C (after HPH “1”) Superheated steam temperature . 7.540°C Place of boiler40 m OTHER DIMENSIONS:- 1. 3. High temperature inside the furnace. 4. 89 mm thickness. 4. 2. 60 X 5 mm Internal diameter of boiler drum – 1600 mm. Chocking due to salt accumulation.Feed water temperature . 6. 2. 3. Internal dimension of furnace chamber – 7160 X 9792 mm Water tube dimensions – Dia.26 m Tubes made of steel sheets of 22k grade. Ceiling super heater – I Ceiling super heater – II Platen super heater Convective super heater – I Convective super heater – II Wall super heater Aux. Injector – 5 TUBE LEAKAGE PROBLEMS:It is the main problem in the boiler arising due to the following factors:1. 11 . 2. TYPES OF SUPERHEATERS USED:- 1. High slaging factor.
6. ID fans 2. If generator trips 12 . P. 5. 8. Boiler drum high level (+ 200 mm) 4.200 mm) 5. 7. feeders 16 Nos. 5. Boiler drum level low (.C. INTERLOCK AND PROTECTION OF BOILER Boiler will trip off:1. Furnace draft high/low Nos. FD fans 3. 2 Nos. 3 Nos.4. Ball mills 2 Nos. fans 4.A. feeders 3 Nos. Vapour fans 3 Nos. Furnace explosion. 2 Nos. Slag crusher 4 Nos.C. P. Both ID fans trip 6. Furnace draft reaches ± 40 mm wc 3. of equipment in each boiler:1. R. Both FD fans trip 2. If turbine trips 7.
If there is no fire in furnace Fig 1:.External view of ( BOILER) Fig 2: Internal view of ( BOILER) 13 . If both PA fans trip 3. If all PC feeders trip 2.Boiler should be tripped off:1.
P – Low pressure After each pressure section in the steam turbine. Due to this movement of the rotor. bearings are connected. Due to injection of steam. rotor is rotating and a generator is directly coupled with the steam turbine shaft.P – High pressure 2. The turbine is divided into three parts:1.STEAM TURBINE (RUSSIAN & INDIAN UNIT) The 110 MW condensing steam turbine is designed directly coupling with Hydrogen cooled generator. M. PRINCIPLE:-There are two parts of a turbine:1. Stator part Rotor part The blades of the turbine make some angle with the shaft. The steam turbine is designated for operation with live steam at 36 kg. Rotational energy of the 14 . L.P – Medium pressure 3. pressure and 535-540°C temperature as measured before the entry into the turbine emergency stop valve. 2. the turbine is easy to operate. The steam turbine has three cylinder mixed blades with a wheel as the governing stage and so pressure stage. H.
P.P.1900-2200rpm STEAM EXTRACTION:The steam turbine has five outlet steam extraction pipe for the extraction of steam. which is operated electrically.1900-2200rpm L. electricity is produced in P. So again the extracted is sent to boiler for reheating steam and is in to M. Cylinder.turbine shaft is directly transferred to the rotor of generator and after rotation.S. WORKING:At the starting position. heater.P. steam is firstly injected in the medium pressure cylinder of the turbine.T. cylinder section. Before again injecting after this operation. after rotation.P.2355rpm M. 110 BHEL UNITS BASIC PARAMETERS:15 . Due to injection we raise the speed of turbine rotor blades up to 500 rpm.P. Besides steam up to 7 tonnes/hr. side. Cylinder.P. 2nd and 3rd extraction line. Pipes are insulated with thermosetting materials.P. 63 rpm). After this operation. main steam line stop valve is opened which is operated at the H. turbine. Before this operation. Turbine is flexible one with having following critical speed H. we give some rotation (approx. is extracted from 1st. by the bearing gear. steam up to 25 tonnes/hr.P. the steam pressure is constant but temperature decreases. steam is injected to L. turbine. turbine. For feed water heating up to 218°C in L. is used for heating up deaerator from 2nd or 3rd extraction line steam pipes.
P.1. temp. Looking from the front the front bearing pedestal: . cylinder:-2 rows of curtis wheel + 8 action wheel Medium pressure cylinder:-2 action wheels. Weight of M. 9.P casing = 545°C SYSTEM OF THE TURBINE (110 MW) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 4 control valve + 2 interceptor valves H.) Low pressure cylinder:-4 action wheel of double flow direction Weight of low pressure cylinder:-24000 kg.P. Rated temperature of steam just before stop valve = 535°C 6. Max.4 atm. Max. Rated speed = 3000 rpm 4. Max. Economical output = 95 MW 3. pressure before M. Rate pressure of steam just before stop valve = 130 atm. Number of non-regulated extractions = 8 16 . Rated pressure before medium pressure casing = 27. (approx. Rated output measured at the terminals for the generator as Per cms. temp. before medium pressure casing = 535°C 10. before M. Rated temp.P casing = 35 atm. 7. pressure of steam just before the stop valve = 146 atm. Max. 5. 11. 080030-110 MW 2.clockwise Rotors rotate at 62 rpm on bearing gears. cylinder:-11000 kg. of steam just before the stop valve = 545°C 8.
P part an by two interceptor valves (IV) on the M.GOVERNING REGULATING AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT OF THE TURBINE The quantity of steam entering the turbine is regulated by means of four governing valves (GV) on the inlet to the H. Axial shift becomes ± 0. The amount of opening at any instant of these valves is given by the pressure of secondary oil.065mm 17 .5 kg/cm2 2.P part. Condenser vacuum drops to(-)0. The non-uniformity of the regulation can be changed continuously in the range of 3 to 5. INTERLOCK & PROTECTION OF TURBINE:Turbine will trip automatically if:1.5% by the means of nonuniformly changer (NUC) and by that the proportion of change of output of the set can be influenced with respect to the other machines connected to the common grid when there is a change on loading on grid. The tension of the spring in the transformer can be varied by the speed changer and by that it is possible to vary the speed before synchronizing and to vary the load after synchronizing the alternator of the grid. Control oil pressure drops to 7.08 kg/cm2 4.0 kg/cm2 3. Oil pressure drops to 0. Lub. which is indirectly dependent on the primary oil pressure and directly dependent upon the spring force in the transformer. The pressure of the primary oil is directly dependent upon the speed of the set through the speed-sensing element.
Primary oil pressure becomes 3. If generator trips Turbine should be tripped if:a. If all C. Return bearing oil temperature reaches 70°C d. Sudden entering of water in turbine resulting cooling of some turbine parts c. If boiler trips 7. There is sudden increase of high vibration or some metallic sound b.5. If all condensate pumps trip f.05 kg/ cm2 6.W. Temperature of bearing Babbitt metal reaches 85 ° C e. pumps trip 18 .
YOKE (frame): Cast iron for small machine and welded steel for large machine.e. STATOR:. Large generators are used to generate bulk power at thermal. comes the armature winding in which voltage is generated i.INTRODUCTION:Alternators (A. A. hydroelectric and nuclear power stations. Its main function is to convert mechanical power from a prime mover to electric power at a specific voltage and frequency.Stationary part. 19 .C generator) are also known as synchronous generator. output is taken from stator.
EXCITER:-Excitation means production of flux by passing current in the field winding (rotor) from d. As a rotor has no more residual magnetism. makes less winding losses & the operation is less noisy (due to uniform air gap). Generator is excited.e steam gas turbine-turbine. which produces the main field flux in which supply is given through d. In PTPS cylindrical rotor is used. dc is supplied to the rotor through brushes and slip ring. the field flux the armature conductors. 1. field winding occurs 2. Actually. which provides greater mechanical strength & permits more accurate balancing. turbo generator or turbo. Rotor is smoother machine. PRINCIPLE-VOLTAGE GENERATION:-A prime mover (machine) supplies the mechanical energy input to the alternator i. Slots are at regular intervals & parallel to the shaft on which d. ROTOR:*salient pole rotor *cylindrical rotor Rotor is a rotating part. voltage is generated.c.c.C. so first of all to make it electromagnetic i. STATOR WINDING: A 3-phase winding puts in the slot in star connection.c. 20 . armature conductor on the stator. Cylindrical rotor is two or four pole type alternator.CORE: Assembled with high grade silicon content steel lamination to reduce iron losses. D. generator.e. B.e. It is driven by steam or gas turbine i. 4. Brushes excite in which to eliminate the use of brushes & slip ring. 3.
e.AVR(Automatic Voltage Regulated):►It controls the system voltage with alternators. if sudden loss of load on the system i. (EVRElectronic Voltage Regulator). Scheme Diagram:- AVR Exciter FB SB FWR Automatic Voltage Regulator 21 . ►To prevent. ►If any fault in the system-to increase the excitation for maximum synchronizing.
Phase sequence. VI. A) over fluxing B) over current C) over load & over balanced load V. PROTECTION(ELECTRICAL):I. MOTORING :22 . Frequency. Voltage.supply frequency & grid frequency should be matched ii. Negative phase sequence relay Phase to phase fault. Loss of excitation under power.e positive phase sequence) it should be at 60deg. II.DC Generator Field Breaker Slip Ring Brushes Alternator FWR=Field winding of rotor SYNCHRONISM CASE:i. Phase to earth. either lagging or leading.generated voltage & that voltage should be matched iii. III. Anti-motoring (Failure of Prime Mover).matching phase sequence(i. IV.
trip 2. Prime Mover ii. Generator breaker ON 23 . A. Prime mover(turbine fails). SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR:-Only generator beaker fails & remaining three is function.trip B. Generator breaker ON Then the Generator will act as Induction motor. Prime mover(turbine fails). 1. Excitation-zero(field breaker trip) 3.i. AVR iii. Generator Breaker. In case as motoring. INUCTION MOTOR:-If Prime Mover & remaining three will function. Excitation-zero(field breaker trip) C.
Internal parts OBSERVATION:TRANSFORMER a)Parts b)interconnection c)Damage e)Application d)Protection Internal A)Internal parts:i. i. which transfers electrical power from one circuit to another circuit at constant power and frequency. Coil(winding) Core(silicon steel sheet) Oil(mineral oil/porcelain oil) External Coil:-In the power transformer there are two types of winding(wire) a. Step down transformer. Step up transformer-low voltage to high voltage 2.high voltage to low voltage There are mainly two parts of transformer:1. iii. There are two types of transformer:1.Transformer is a static device. Flatted winding:-(copper) for large transformer 24 . Round winding:-For small transformer b. External parts 2. ii.
Conservator iii. Breather (lungs) v.) iv.In the winding there are two types of connection:►Star connected secondary side ►Delta connection primary side In actual winding are:►Single winding.Oil:In the transformer mineral oil is filled in the oil tank. Bushing (LV.Auto transformer ►Double winding.Three phase transformer ii. Radiator (oil pump fan) iv. Explosion vent or PRV (pressure release valve) vi. Oil tanker (trans. HV. Tap changer vii. porcelain oil etc.Double magnetic circuits ►Three winding. MV) 25 .EXTERNAL PARTS:i. Its main function ►Cooling of winding due to movement of oil ►Insulating B). body) ii.Core:It is made of silicon steel sheet laminated with insulation (mica.
Thermo signalizer x. Earthing bus bar i) Oil tanker:-Body of the transformer (ferro-magnetic material) in which mineral oil is filled up. iv) Breather:-It is connected to conservator.. it has diaphragm made up of Bakelite foil or aluminium foil.e. Aux. For coupling of radiator internal fan and oil pump is used to circulates the oil & distribution in different section of radiator to keep cool. which is harmful to insulator & transformer oil (Acidic). Transformer xii. CT & PT xi. v) Explosion vent (Whistle):-It is connected over the transformer. Bucholze relay ix. iii) Radiator:-Radiator is used for natural cooling of oil. to release gas as pressure increases. If it gets no way to exit. to gets blast and break the Bakelite foil. 26 . it forms high gas. ii) Conservator:-Conservator is cylindrical hollow tank & it is connected with transformer body. it will come out with explosion i.e. Oil layer is goes up & down during this incident making a chance of introduction moisture air in oil. It acts on oil reservoir to maintain the level of oil in the transformer. When it is on “LOAD” and “NO LOAD” in either case. PRV (pressure release valve) is used i. It contains silica gel. Its main function is to remove moisture in air ingress through pump. Nowadays instead of explosion vent.viii.
vi) Tap changer:-Tap changer is connected to secondary winding transformer. 5. It contains • Steam:-methyl chloride gas is filled.T.P. of contact points (winding) of different voltage and operated manually.e. VIII) Bucholze Relay:-It is a gas detector relay used to protect transformer from minor fault and heavy fault. It has combination of four small size bulbs. 27 . • Capillary tube:-It is covered by PVC. IX) Thermo Signalizer:-It is used for measuring temperature. oil of the tank gets over heated and gases formed it is connected. In capillary tube methyl chloride gas also filled it is made of copper.e. It is used for alarm. 9. The up $ down in oil level disturbs the equilibrium of the gas flouts no mercury will come in first contact and a signal arrived in the control room either an alarm or a glowing bulb. Its and needle pointers. Tap changer may work in different modes i. It contains no. 17 steps tap changer are used to maintain the voltage level of transformer. off load & auto load.S. In the P. closed and transformer will trip. Any types of fault or short circuited or sudden damage in insulator. on load. when tempt will increase contact their no signalizer make contact at 65° C and tripped the transformer. vii) Bushing:-Bushing is a type of insulator situated at the top of transformer body. Further it large volume of gas generated again equilibrium will disturb will disturb and mercury comes in second contact i. Its main function is to introduce flux or electrical connection from power transformer to switch yard.
Helps in phase test.5MVA) are connected to provide power supply in unit. # Main bus bar measuring instrument. PT is used to measure voltage at rated current.e. It is also used as protective device. situated at bus bar. electrical leakage goes to ground (zero potential) otherwise current will conduct in all body of transformer and a chance shock. # Transfer bus (aux. CT are used to measure current at rated voltage.it is solid material made of copper.• In the upper piping of the transformer. transformer of rating (7. It is used in plant near the connection and generator and bus bar i.bus) used for connecting feeder or equipment (selector or transfer switch) b) Interconnection:. XII) Earth (Grounding):-Two purpose of earth a) To earth. associated with it. b) XIII) Bus bar:. XI) Auxiliary Transformer:-Two aux. It is used in switched yard. The ups and down in the oil level due to formation of gas. For one phase one CT is used. Disturbs the mercury equilibrium in the relay and the 1st enunciation (alarm) comes. X) CT and PT:-both are instruments. It helps in connecting switches and other equipment of power transmission. It is aluminum size 10mm (large for HV).Star connection (secondary side) Delta connection (primary side) c) Damage :28 . relay etc.
2) Up & Down in oil level in the conservator. a moisture air is introduced and makes oil acidic. 6) Foil in diaphragm is of bakelite (should be blasted) e) Application:c) Use in communication and electronic system (Transformer will amplifier) d) Generator transformer used in plant.873.315. f) To match source and load for maximum power transfer. 3) Output should be taken with help of bushing.5 KV Line current (hv) .2 A Temp rise .45 Celsius Oil quantity -40180 lit Weight of oil -34985 Kg 29 .1) Due to movement in oil it will be heated and damage the insulating material. Rating of transformer No load voltage (hv) .2 A Line current (lv) . 2) Cooling of winding is necessary. e) Distribution of transformer used for industrial used.229 KV No load Voltage (lv) -10. 4) Earth is necessary otherwise shocked. d) Protection:1) Winding should be insulated. 5) Fan & oil pump is used to keep cool radiator.
50 Hz Fig 5: Transformer 60 MVA The main function of the switch yard is :It makes available the generator power at plant to the people.Total weight .84325 Kg Phase .147725 Kg Core & winding . Power generated transmitted via switch-yard 30 .3 Frequency .
S In the PTPS switch yard the main equipment in .T.C) BASL (jindal) Hatia-I grid Hatia-I grid (Line Hatia-1) 3.To protect the plant due to sudden damage happening Outside the plant Switch yard scheme (in PTPS) 1 to 10 units 1 to 4-50 MW PTPS 132KV Hatia …………………… Russian 5 to 6-10 MW PTPS220KV hatia-1 Hatia 7 to 10-110MW. a) 220KV Hatia-1 grid (Line Hatia-1) b) 4. installed are As…. a) 132KV b) 132KV 2. LA Lighting arrester 31 5C 6C 8C 9C 1b 220KV 400KV Hatia-1 grid TTPS (TVNL) 2b P.T..Indian (BHEL) ……….V.P.S (OUTGOING FEEDER) 1.P. a) 132KV b) 132KV Ramgarh (D.Hatia-2 PTPS (Outgoing feeders) P.
Rating of CT is very small i. It has one turn of primary winding i. the HV is due to lashing thundering sky. so the main function of LA is to divert the incoming High voltage for round i. 2) CT:It is the protective device. It self formed the primary of the CT.e.e. 15VA and more exists to 30VA. the heavy current is used to be measured without breaking the ckt. Few data of CT used at PTPS:32 . earthed this HV ..with the help of CT. which measures the current at rated voltage. the conductor of the Ckt.CT PT Current transformer Potential transformer Autotransformer Insulator Bus Bushing Wave trap 1) Lighting arrester (LA):As overload voltage is enclosed transmission line due to Lightening.e..
Each phase of the system has different PT one such data of PT at P.Turn ratio 1200/1 A Frequency Voltage Capacity 50Hz 240KV 26.T.4KVA 3) PT (Potential Transformer):It is also protective device used to measure the voltage. AutoT2) b) Main function it primary side generation is low and demand on secondary is high .S:Rated Burden Voltage ratio 4) Auto Transformer:a) There are two auto transformer used in switch yard (Auto T1.P.there are four types of CB in PTPS a) OCB (Oil Circuit Breaker) 33 400/600VA 220KV/110V (measurement) .120MW 5) Circuit Breaker:. then autotransformer will maintain from other side generation with no loss of power and viceversa.150MVA . Rating. Used for voltages above 380V . It has more turns is primary and less turns in secondary so that potential is reduced to measure the voltage by using low capacity volt meter.
By charging closing coil (Electrical supply in given to coil). Current coil made up of copper. 34 . switch having no any protection i.e.b) VCB (Vacuum Circuit Breaker) c) ABCD(Air Blast ckt Breaker) d) SF6(Sulfur hexa fluoride gas ckt Breaker) CB is the protective device act as switch but the main difference between breaker and switch. PRINCIPAL:It has coils namely closing coal and tripping coal and spring charging mechanism which may either be charged by motor (spring charging motor) or manually by manual operating handle. manually on/off but in case of CB it has a protection device like Relay. FUNCTIONS:To make &break the normal operating current. the breaker may be mode “ON” by local/remote switch similarly by emerging tripping coil (Electric supply given to coil) we may make the breaker “OFF” by local/remote switch or the breaker may trip on Protection such as earth fault/over current in the transmission line by itself. ABCD Air used to burn off arc extinguisher.takes place due to heating Oil . SF6-SF gas is used to burn off the spark. To open & closed on load. OBC Oil used to burn off the sparking .
It is a disconnection switch and to be operated on load not (When circuit break closed position). trap the communication among P.6) Isolator :. 35 . protect to shock. 7) BUS:-Bus is a system .S grid and substation connected to it.e. Through it terminal should be taken out for transmission i.e. At PATRATU THERMAL POWER STATION in 33KV switch-yard –two buses are used to charge the station transformer and also used to supply the power to the Patratu thermal power station.T.P.It is a type of insulator and design above 2000amp. 9) Wave Trap:-Wave trap is an equipment installed in switchyard for telecommunication on line. In 132 KV switch-yard three buses is used for same purpose. with help in transmission of voltage as per availability and requirement. 8) Bushing:. It is necessary to facilitate manual work on transmission line &circuit breaker. It has coupling capacitor i.
Fig 6: Switch yard Fig 7: Air Blast Circuit Breaker 36 .
The drum rotates and 37 . small pieces of slag(less than 25 mm.C. ASH DISPOSAL PUMP HOUSE:There are four ash disposal pumps that have been installed at each ash disposal pump house. The plant constructed with extension stage I and II provided one wagon trippler and a crusher house having two crushers of capacity 600 tonnes/hr. three flush away from under E. the second one is reserve. They are working on reserve and repair combined with hydraulic removal of product of combustion that is slag and under boilers and E. Bunkers through a series of conveyor belts. Coal received in rail wagon is straight way uploaded on the wagon triples and transferred to R.P.There are present widespread belt conveyor systems to feed the raw coal bunkers of the various boilers. The entire plant consists of three wagon trippler.) go through the holes of screen and big pieces of slag go to drum with tooth. These house to slag and ash dump which are crested through three pipelines of diameter 400 mm. This plant is being further extended by provision of another wagon trippler and conveyor system for 2 x 110 MW units under installation in stage IV extension. There is also provision to upload coal on truck hoppers and then to feed by blade feeders as well as by bulldozing coal to conveyor system in case of non-availability of wagon triples. The plant had to be extended with another wagon trippler and a crusher house and an additional conveyor system for the 2 x 110 MW units constructed in stage III extension. In addition. each.S. Here slag is framed to crusher from the ferapent conveyor. One pipeline is on working. two crusher houses and a system of conveyor belts.P are present.S.
The source of coal is Khalari and Barkakana.00.Unloading capacity is 500 tones/hr. Coal handling consists of the following steps:I) Coal delivery II) Unloading III) Preparation IV) Transfer (Conveyor) V) Storage (Yard) VI) Implant handling VII) Crushing and pulverizing VIII) Weighing and measuring IX) Feeding the coal into furnace The coal storage capacity of the plant is 3. 2.catches pieces of slag passing between the drum and crushing. Swing feeder 3. QUALITY OF COAL:1. Ash content of coal: 41%≈ EQUIPMEMTS USED:1.000 tones and the feeding capacity is 5oo tones/hr. Grade of Coal E &F 2. Calorific value of coal 4000 Kcal/kg 3. The pieces are grinded. Traveling Tripler 38 . COAL DELIVERY EQUIPMENT:Coal delivery equipment is one of the major components of plant cost. Wagon Tripler:.
Bunker hopper R C Bunker Power supplied to conveyor Material Used Width Top cover Bottom cover Grade : 0.15mm : 1.50mm : m 24 For the generation of steam . Belt feeders 9. we used coal is large amount. Belt scales 8. Magnetic drum 7.4KV/440V : Nylon (6 ply) : 1200mm : 3. Reclaim hopper 5. Vibrator feeder 6. Coal is classified as:*Peat *Lignite *Bituminous and *Anthracite 39 . 11. It is fossil fuels.4. Crushers 10.
2. 6. 3.To crush or break the coal in to 25mm size. To remove impurities & provide good flame to boiler MAIN PARTS:1.The main features of coal handling are:1. Russian 400MW.For every conveyor two trippler give bunker coal on both side as requirement. railway bogey. Crusher:. It helps in unloading.In which there are square holes. (Belt Feeder):. RCH (Reclaim Hopper) + Swing Feeder(SF):. 5. B. so that large size coal don’t pass to conveyor. gearbox. Travelling trippler:.Indian 440 MW 2. Fixed Trippler A&B Plough Feeder Blade Feeder(BF) 2.F. It is used to carry coal from one place to another place. Bunker hopper:.Yard 40 .Help to carry this coal.To send coal to yard to swing feeder with the help of bulldozer. Wagon Trippler:-It is a set of motor. To crush large size Raw Coal in to small size (25 mm) 4.Set of belt of different sizes. To know the calorific value (required fired as steam is used) 3. RC Bunker:Raw coal bunker TST (telescopic tube):. 4. Conveyor:.
size. From crushers. through conveyors. so that the dust may be absorbed. 5. Advantages:1. it carries on the ball milling and from ball milling in the form of dust it goes to storing bunker in powder form. Economical 41 . Through conveyors at crushers.OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN COAL HANDLING:1. PROTECTION:a) At the time of bringing in wagon trippler. Load carrying capacity:. over a distance of 400 meters. 6. it goes to furnace. 7. Average speed:. canvas or balata. 3. From bunker hopper coal is carried with the help of conveyors. otherwise coal will be remains in boggy.50 – 100 tonnes/hr. It may be underground or aboveground. From storing bunker. near the wagon trippler. c) Grease & Oil should be given in bearing properly. Loading coal with the help of cranes in the wagon machine 2.Consists of an endless belt made of rubber. BELT CONVEYORS:. The belt conveyors are successfully used on inclination up to 20° to the horizontal. where from other side ash comes out through conveyors. The crushers the coal into 20 mm. few water is mixed/sprayed in to coal. 4. b) Do wait till bulb gets “OFF”.60 – 100 m/min. By wagon pusher it is brought on the railway track. Bulb off means the bucket is completely tilted and coal is filled into the bunker hopper.
Rate of coal transfer can be easily varied by just varying the speed of belt. 4.on the drum and crushing.2. Disadvantages:. 2. Not suitable for short distances and greater heights. Cannot be used if inclination is more than 20°.Wagon Trippler 42 . Repair and maintenance costs are minimum. Power consumption is minimum. Fig 8 :. The pieces are grinded 1. 5. 3. Coal can be easily protected from rain by overhead.
43 . But the water available contain many impurities.Fig 9 :. Sometimes iron. Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials like mud. manganese or silica are also present. etc. sand. In the Thermal Plant. sodium and potassium salts.Conveyor Belt Fig 10:. steam is produced by heating of water and steam passed through turbine to move the generator for the production of electricity. To produce steam.Bunker Hopper WATER TREATMENT PLANT Water is an essential part of any power house for electricity generation. pure water is required. sediment. which are :1.
a) USE OF ALUM:-Firstly water is stored in the water tank. The above impurities damage the boiler and turbine to a great extent. At the source (Filtration Plant) 2. At the plant. acid. Water contains muddy particles. bleaching powder is used for the extraction of bacteria. Dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and bicarbonates. 4. 1. etc. c) BY USE OF CHLORINE:-Water is passed through the chlorine layer which results in removal of oil or acidic particles. water is treated in two stages:1. In Patratu Thermal Power Station. Thus it is required to check the water and make special treatment before using it in the power plant. AT THE SOURCE:. Other materials such as oil. sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium. When the alum is dissolved the muddy particles being heavy settle at the bottom and the fresh water is collected. b) BY USE OF BLEACHING POWDER:-After collection of the fresh water. 44 . 3.In the filtration plant water is treated in three stages to remove solid particles by mixing alum. Dissolved salts and impurities which include carbonates. chloride and bleaching powder. bicarbonates.2.
P. b.S.T. d. one of cation and the other of anion.C.W. In this two layers are formed.B (Mixed Bed):-It is also called ion separator.W.E (Anion Exchanger):-By passing through the anion exchanger. This process removes all the acidic particles in water.P is FFI. *After all these processes. f. One feed pump is working and the other is kept reserve for emergency. The starting of CWTP. c. De-mineralized water should have the following specifications:45 .T. Passed through M. TEST OF WATER:Before feeding the water to boiler. g. mixed salts which are present in the water are removed. M. the de-mineralized water is tested for satisfaction.P.T.W. Due to light weight anion is collected at the upper part and the heavy cation ions are collected at the bottom part.T (DeMineralized Water Tank).T (Multi Grade Filter).T. water is collected in the D.C.F (Activated Carbon Filter). Stored in the raw water tank.G. This is a complex polymer compound which contains free ions. Filtration through A.E. In this process sand particles are extracted and the sand free water is collected.*After this the collected water reaches the “Chemical Water Treatment Plant” (C.M. e.S. The anion resin used in P.C. There are 2 feed pumps present at P. In this process organic carbon is removed. water is passed through C. by the help of feed pumps. Filtration by A.E (Cation Exchanger):-After passing through A. Here it goes through various processes discussed below:a.F. Filtration by C.P). Use of Degasser:-Here the reaction gases produced after passing through the cation exchanger are released into the atmosphere.
02 ppm Conductivity – Less than 1 µ/cm.Water treatment plant INTRODUCTION:- 46 . PH value – 7 Fig 11 :.Hardness – Nil Silica – Less than 0.
a) Manometric lab:Pressure b) Temperatures lab c) Auto-protection lab SECTION:a) Pressure:DIRECT MOUNTING INSTRUMENT:A. oil and gas. It employs to measures pressure of steam.. 2) Instrumentation measuring:. not suitable for fast controlling system.e.In PTPS instrumentation is divided in to four sections. uses electronics regulator or pneumatic regulator. Pressure Gauge:.In PTPS the control system is divided in to three types :a) Manual control:-Oil type control system i.Latest technology . water.The C&I plays important role in industry and plant in the form of control record and gives information to all part of the plant about its running position &condition. controlling from UCB. c) Automatic control:.It is used as primary instrument in control system employing electronics controller. Flow Level 47 . 1) Control system:. b) Remote control:-It uses valves and dampness operated by electrical motor.
F. Induction coil:. 10. Pressure measuring transducer:.B. Push button for turbine trip is passed. Distribution oil pressure is low 7kg/ cm2 9.50m 3. 12.It consist Burden tube-hollow (alloy steel) metallic part (plunger) Non metallic material which oscillate within induction coil according to tension in burden tube. 4. 127V .D fans trip. 0. 2. Oil pressure is very low 0.66mm. 48 . Amplifier.6 kg/cm2 7.) is high +0.Two winding PW &SW in which induced voltage is different. Push button for M. Axial shift (mech.single phase reversible motor rating. 30. Motor.F. Turbine lub. Furnace drought very high and low +/. Primary oil pressure is very high 3.50 Hz.14. Both F.5kg / cm2 11.6KV is dead 5. Vacuum is very low (-)ve 0. Drum level very high and very low+/-200mm. M. Protection:Tripping of boiler and turbines:1.7rpm. e. 6. C.R trips d.To amplify the signal.05kg/ cm2 8.R is passed 6.
which convert mechanical pulse to electrical pulse. it starts to expand and in the way compress the iron core of induction coil and so the E. It has two inlets. 1) DPT (Differential Pressure Transducer):. INDIRECT MOUNTING INSTRUMENTS:It uses transmitter or transducer. It was observed on the suitable calibrated scale (metering scale) corresponding to the pressure. Damage:• Circuit problem • Mechanical fault (line leakage) • Burnt diode resistance. • Hole in pipe-pressure high (6kg/cm2) i.f. Inductor (metering instruments) PRINCIPLES:Burden tubes. DPT is an instrument used to measure the pressure difference of two pipe and a signal reading (mean value).If is an electronics transmitter which operates on the force balancing principle and provide a UMA to 20ma output signal proportional to the measured condition.M. which produce the electrical pulse.e. tension becomes high and so unbearable case.F Change takes place to the amplifier. Blow drum (Base) 49 . amplify (current) feed to a synchronous motor that turns the pointer of the metering to appropriate reading. through which pressure is supplied.
used to measure low temperature low temperature range but not accurate reading. pipe:.B:.Linked by horizontally.Inside it plunger is vertical placed. • Air pressure. Thermo signalizer:. • Feed water flow. Seal hollow plate:. It stars to rise i.Middle It consist of following parts:I) II) Hollow. Thermometer:. SECTION.It is a calibrated glass tube in which mercury filled as heating (hot) .e. Null Point adjustment necessary. III) Induction coil. 2. measuring temperature of the spot.TEMPRATURE:Direct measurement:1. USES:• Deaerator • Condenser level. Consist:- 50 . DAMAGE:Flow should be jammed (Stop). a.
Metering instrument.As requirement d. It consists a) Extension lead.M. Setting Level:.e.Made up of copper material and covered by PVC c. Indicator (Dial):.In which methyl chloride gas filled inside hollow copper pipe. 51 . Steam:. RT (Resistance Thermometer):. insulated wire are joined parallel and form two junction as soon as heating one junction keeping other junction at constant temperature if result induced E. should not expand. b.F (millivolt) this signal amplification is used for temperature measurement.It should be sealed by glass rope i.e.e. • Leakage :.It works on the principle of wheat stone bridge and so known as bridge record. PRECAUTION:• Tube good conductor i. b) Nut of plug (use at where measure) c) Hollow tube (in which two insulated wire) 2. Capillary tube :. washer should be Light.a. Thermo couple:-it is based on see back effect accordingly to which two different metallic element i. INDIRECT MEASUREMENT:1.
comparators. indicating linked to the motor shaft. twist switch RCC cables.The resistance is 100 at 0°C b) PRT-The resistance of the material (platinum) is 46 at 0°C. SECTION-C GATE VALVE There are three types of valve:a) Isolating valve: .Operation valve which are regulated in dial from 0% through out to 100% and also has reversible function. This is amplified as feed to the control winding of the balancing meter. the reference winding being permanently supplied from a transformer. position indicators and signalizing system. c) CRT. The pointer and pen are cinematically linked to the motor shaft.Its main function to put in service or isolated it. Above are guided by three phase motor. b) Pneumatic valve: . SECTION-D:-AUTO PROFECTION:52 .53 the copper resistance transducer resistance 53ohm at 0°C PRINCIPLE:-The measuring circuit is balanced by variable resistance element (RT) in one of the arms.There three type of RT:a) PRT.works on air to shut off or regulate. starter switches. c) Regulating valve: . Any change of RT causes and unbalanced resulting in an AC error voltage. It is either shut off the valve or opens widely the valve. indicating and recording the measured variable on a calibrated scale and chart paper.
expansion help to measure it.Some expansion & heating occurs in stator & rotor but more and stator low. This is doing by collar in turbine rotor and using transmitter. d) Vibration measurement:Axial Vibration Vertical vibration I) II) Axial vibration no use of transmitter due to long shaft it will deliver from resultant measurement. 53 .Special measurement (turbine parameters) a) Axial shift of turbine:.Mechanically axial shifting in length i. IV) T o measure amplitude swing quartz &according to horizontal position wherever pressure applied In both end of vertical position.2 m=2mm in both direction backward forward. It will take the form of sinusoidal wave so to measure amplitude horizontal vibration III) The measurement (vibration) is generally 1 micron may be 50 micron but below to 100micron. c) Rotational Speed:-As a tachometer is used to measure the rpm of rotor but electrically. tachometer is used to measure in which a small generator.e. so diff. Differential expansion is approximately (+1mm) or contraction (-1mm). 1. b) Differential Expansion:.
Control Switches 54 .Fig 12:.
55 .Fig 13: Control Switch of Motor & Pump MOTOR MAINTENANCE Three phase induction motor i. AC motor is based on electromagnetic induction principle. It is used for industrial drags due to having good speed regulation and high starting torque.e.
the conductor has a tendency to move to the left hand side. Principle:A current carrying conductor placed in a slot of armature. efficient and requires little maintenance. rotor is free to move so starts rotating in the anticlockwise direction.A motor is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Armature current • Speed Vs. Torque There are many types of motors used in P. from Fleming’s left hand rule. tangential force acts to the rotor. a torque is developed on the rotor. It is robust. Characteristics:• Torque Vs. Armature current • Speed Vs. MOTOR 56 .T.P. cheap. a forced acted upon by the magnetic field from a north pole to the motor. Cooling tower.S for various works:in motor feeding pumps. Ball mill. I-D fan. etc.
Rotor Faults in stator:1.A. Overload:. Faults in rotor:- 57 . 2. the stator gets heated and damaged due to overheating. Faults in rotor:Faults in rotor:1.Friction will take place and damage it.C. Motor Universal Motor D.C. 3. Motor Three phase Single phase Compound Motor(IM) Wound Series (IM) Shunt Wound Squirrel cage motor Slip ring motor There are mainly two parts of a motor:a.If during the time of tripping care is not taken. 4. Stator b. If anyone phase found to be fault that means high voltage from phase sue to which it gets heated or damaged. Breakdown of shaft:.
2. o shear the shaft and the chance of breaking, if any type of joint takes place in shaft, temperature variation takes place and there are chances of damage. Protection:1. Joints should be welded or silver blazed. 2. Material should be perfect. 3. For cooling F.D.Fan, vent in stator and rotor is necessary. Uses:1. 2. 3. Used in water feeding pumps. In ball mill. In cooling tower.
Fig 14 :- Motor Rotor
Fig 15:- Motor Rotor
Fig 16:- Feed Pump Motor
Introduction: - It is the device used for the removal of dust and ash particle carried with exhaust flue gases of thermal power plant. Performance: -The performance of the precipitator depends on the physical and chemical properties of the gases and particles treated. Its design and performance are strongly dependent on the properties of the coal burnt in the furnace. The fly ash from low sulphur coal has electrical resistivity and is difficult to precipitate. Theory and experience indicates that when the dust resistivity exceed a critical value of 1010cm. The precipitator operating voltage is limited which in turn reduces the precipitator efficiency. The loss in performance increases quite rapidly for resistivity greater than 1010 cm; hence resistivity is a major factor in precipitator technology. Parts of ESP: 1. Casing -The outer structure of ESP in which all the parts of ESP resides. 2. Electrodes –It is of two types-a) Collecting Electrode b) Emitting electrodes. 3. Electricity.
The high voltage induces the ionization of gas molecules adjacent to the –ve electrodes and negative charge towards the collecting electrodes. 61 .WORKING PROCEDURE: -When a unidirectional high voltage is applied to the three emitting electrodes and earthed. the charged dust particles experience a force which causes the particle to attach through the collecting electrodes and finally get deposited in the hopper. A minor portion of the dust particle gets deposited on emitting electrode. the dust of flue gas from boiler passes between the row of collecting and emitting electrodes. On the wall of the collecting electrodes –ve charge gets deposited. In the presence of the high electric fields between the electrodes.
Hydrogen is used as a coolant in generator. It is also used for sealing of shaft of generator. 62 .
45 M/V 63 . equal to 1% of water flow of the above system. water coming from condensers of steam turbine is distributed uniformly in cross-section of cooling tower. which is heated in condensers by exhaust steam of turbines. sprayed by means of special devices and flows down to basin in separate small jets. Fans give air steam by means of which the circulating water is cooled. designated for operation under conditions of tropical climate.8°C Density of spraying – 6. The purpose of cooling tower is to cool the circulating water. Area of spraying of one cooling tower – 1200 m2 Capacity of one cooling tower . For better contact of air with water and for more effective heat transfer.Fan type cooling towers are installed at PTPS. Cooling towers are equipped with fans of induced type. Evaporation of water in cooling tower is about 2% of the water flow of closed circulating system condenser cooling tower. Temperature drop – 9. Between fan and level of water of supply water to be cooled. which change the direction of air steam and considerable carryover of water drops by air steam. there are wooden nets. One cooling tower (1-4) is designed for unit rate of 50 MW capacity and cooling tower number 5 and 6 are designed for 100 MW capacity units.7730 m3 /hr. Carryover of water from cooling tower is approx.
3. so we have to supply pure and filtered oil to the furnace chamber at satisfactory pressure. In circulation of LDO. if oil is more than the supplied oil to the furnace then it is sent back to the storage tank. we don’t need any heat of steam. 64 .INTRODUCTION: -As we all know that oil is one of the important sources of power production. Oil sections deal with all of the work which is done on LDO & FO Main equipments used in oil section are: 1) Unloading Header 2) Unloading feeder 3) General Filters and Course Filters 4)Unloading Pump 5)Storage Tanks 6)Transfer Pump Line Diagram of Oil Section: Wagon Header Filter Unloading pump Transfer pump Oil tan Supply channel Course filter Supply pump Steam heater Boiler surface Filter NOTE: 1.
smoking. cutting and welding. mechanical spark. The ex tent to which the industrial fires are caused by these sources are as under: - SOURCE Electricity Smoking Friction Hot surfaces Burner flame Spontaneous ignition Cutting and welding Mechanical spark Static spark Others Total %age 32% 09% 10% 15% 06% 05% 09% 02% 02% 10% 100% Causes of fire: 1.SOURCES OF FIRE : The main source of fire in any industry are electricity. static spark and other sources of exposure. cutting and welding 2. friction. overheating of material. burner flame ignition. hot surfaces. heat/ over heat 65 .
Friction 11. Open Flame 12. Spontaneous combustion 8. 4.3. Local spark 6. Spark or short ckt. Improper quenching 10. Static electricity 9. Metal spark 5. Elec. Others Important fire hazards in thermal power plant: a) Boiler i) Accumulation of coal dust ii) Air pre heaters iii) Fuel oil iv)Rejected coal from coal mills b) Turbine i) Oil leakages from bearing ii) Oil leakages from sealings iii) Oil leakages from governing system iv)Oil leakages from jacking system etc. c) Generator 66 . Mechanical fault 7.
Transformers iii) Switch gear rooms galleries THANKUCable FIRE PROTECTION 67 .i) Leakage of hydrogen ii) Exciter slip rings d) Oil facility i) Fuel oil in tanks ii) Oil splashes near oil transfer pump & motors iii) Oil splashes in tunnels e) Coal handling plants i) Spontaneous fire in coal heaps ii) Coal dust iii) Conveyor belts iv)Movable equipments f) Hydrogen plant : Electric equipment g) Switch yard i) Transformers ii) Breakers iii) CT/PT h) Transformers/Breakers/Cables i) Generator transformers ii) Unit Aux.
It includes: Smoke detection System. 2. It includes: Sprinkler System. Booster Pump System. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 1. CO2 injection system. Smoke detection System.Fire protection is a planned approach to the provision of adequate structural safe guard against the possibility of fire spread and the availability of fixed and portable appliances which will be readily available in emergency. First Aid Fire Fighting Equipment etc. Passive System: These are operated manually incase of fire. Heat Detectors. Active System: These are operated automatically incase of fire. Hydrant System. Landing Valves. Introduction: 68 . Fire Resisting Coating for HT cables etc.
Water and Land Pollution: It includes waste products like ash that are either thrown in water bodies or dumped in land. Steps for prevention and control of Pollution: 1. Efficiency of ESP should be increased. Devices such as gravity settlers should be installed. Intensive and planned plantation of trees on wide scale. Cl2 etc. 2. NO2. 69 . smoke and gases like SO2. Industrial waste treatment should be eco-friendly. Types of pollution: 1. 3. PAN (Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate) etc which are even more harmful for the environment. 4. 2. Its effects are not only local but global as well. CO2. There should be proper recycling of waste products. coming out of chimneys and other vents. Air Pollution: It includes dust. These primary pollutants on reacting generate secondary pollutants such as SO3. 5.Environmental degradation refers to the decrease in quality of the environment due to human activities or any natural cause.
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