Conference of Global Chinese Scholars on Hydrodynamics

WANG Tao, ZOU Jun Houston Offshore Engineering, 200 West Lake Park Blvd, Suite 1300, Houston, TX 77079, USA E-mail :

ABSTRACT: This paper introduces hydrodynamic aspects of in-place TLP tendon design and analysis with emphases on TLP hull/tendon/riser coupled dynamic analysis; tendon Mathieu instability; tendon springing and ringing responses; tendon bottom tension slacking due to wave overtopping; and tendon vortex induced vibration (VIV). KEY WORDS: TLP, hull/tendon/riser, coupled dynamic analysis, Mathieu instability, springing and ringing, tension slacking, wave overtopping, VIV

tendon transverse motions. It is meaningful for robust design by checking Mathieu’s equation to ensure no instability problems. It is well known that both tendon springing and tendon ringing are high-frequency tendon responses due to high-frequency resonant motions. However, ringing appears to be extremely bursting and transient (Natvig, 1994). Extensive experimental studies and

1. Introduction TLP tendons are pre-tensioned slender members, their tops are connected to the hull and bottoms are moored to the seabed, as illustrated in Fig.1. In deepwater, the TLP hull tends to interact more pronouncedly to its tendons and risers in terms of mass, stiffness and damping coupling. The TLP hull/tendon/riser coupled dynamic analysis forms a consistent analysis and design framework for deepwater field development and application. A traditional way of simulating the dynamics of a TLP is to use an uncoupled method, which ignores all or part of the coupling effects (mass, stiffness and damping) between the TLP hull and tendons/risers. Ormberg and Larsen (1998) found that the uncoupled analysis produced severely inaccurate results, especially for ultra deepwater application. Coupled time domain analysis technologies (Paulling and Webster, 1986; Kim et al., 1994; Ma et al., 2000; Zou, 2003) have been established. Further developments and validations have been reported by Zou (2003). Mathieu’s equation was applied in the investigation of the parametric responses excited by the interactions of tendon tension variation and lateral dynamics of tendons (Zhang et al., 2002). Mathieu’s instability could be triggered at a certain model of tendon lateral motion dependent on the magnitude of fluctuation of the tendon tension and damping of




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Fig. 1 TLP tendon components

Biography: WANG Tao, Senior Naval Architect; ZOU Jun, Manager of Naval Architecture

numerical simulations (Zou and Kim, 1996; Zou, 1997;

Zou et al., 1998) have been undertaken to investigate

Prior to hurricane Katrina and Rita. hull structural mass and inertia + hull added mass and inertia + mass where (nπ l )[ EI (nπ l ) 3 + T0 (nπ l ) + w] . {U } = unknown motion vector (6x1) in the sequence of surge. respectively. 387 . 2003) that the excitation of VIV on tendons due to GOM’s warm core eddies and deep submerged jets (also called cold eddies) can generate noticeable responses of the whole TLP platform. In 2005. 6-DOF Motion S olver Line Dynamic S olver (T endon and Riser) Motion Etc. The results reveal that the springing is due to weak asymmetric waves while the ringing is due to strong asymmetric waves. [C] = damping matrix (6x6). T0 represents tendon effective tension. 2003) were completed and compared with the measured results. Fourth. After substituting boundary conditions and including hydrodynamic damping. Fig. tendon springing and ringing were discussed. As observed in the North Sea. ml = πDhρ s + 0. 3. It has been reported (Leverette et al. {F} = load vector (6x1) of first. roll/pitch natural frequencies. 4) creating hull and deck structural high-frequency fatigue. 2. n is the tendon a= ml ω 2 mode. tendon VIV effects were presented. hit Gulf of Mexico (GOM). heave. 2. ρ s the density of steel. the progress of tendon Mathieu’s instability was reviewed. Tendon Mathieu’s Instability Zhang et al. This might imply the hull structural and/or deck structural modes have been excited by tendon VIV.& second-order wave loads + viscous loads + wind loads. tendon bottom tension slacking due to wave overtopping was highlighted. roll. we had investigated the wave overtopping effects on tendon dynamic responses on a three-column TLP. potential damping + viscous damping + wave drift damping on hull + damping of slender members. Katrina and Rita. Observations of these excitations due to VIV are typically very high-frequency responses.. Third. (2002) investigated TLP tendon Mathieu’s instability under parametric excitation. It should be noted that this approach yields dynamic equilibrium between the forces acting on the TLP and tendons and/or risers at every time instant. and w means tendon under water weight per unit length. 3) affecting operating personnel comforts. Reaction Loads Etc. and/or other applied loads. The results indicated that the wave overtopping on top of column was the source to cause tendon tension slacking. two strong hurricanes. It brought great interest in the investigation of tendon bottom tension slacking due to wave overtopping on the top of column(s) and/or even on top of the deck. Second.. physical wave basin model tests were performed and numerical simulations by “model the model” (Zou et al. {Fm } = load vector (6x1) of tendon and riser tensions at the connected locations. Tendon springing responses have significant impact on tendon fatigue while tendon ringing responses have considerable impact on the tendon extreme strength. forces are exchanged back and forth. ml stands for the effective tendon mass per unit length. l denotes the tendon length. The outline of this paper is as follows.25πD 2 ρ w . T ensions. causing tremendous damages and even capsizing one mini-TLP. Among TLP hull and tendons or risers. pitch and yaw. the hull/tendon/riser coupled dynamic analysis was briefly introduced. hull hydrostatic stiffness (heave and roll/pitch) + stiffness due to tendons and risers. h is tendon wall thickness. The TLP force model is introduced as a nodal load component in a finite element (FE) model of tendons and risers. First. strong nonlinear waves in the irregular wave train do create the ringing. Fifth. 2 Coupling process chart TLP hull/tendon/riser coupling process chart is illustrated in Fig. sway. Finally. TLP Coupled Dynamic Analysis A six-DOF coupled dynamic equation of motion is expressed as follows  + [C] U  + [K ]{ΔU} = {F}+ {F } [M ] U m and added mass of slender members. In 1998. The impacts of tendon VIV are 1) reducing tendon fatigue life. a beam equation (tendon model) had been recast into a general Mathieu’s equation form as follows: d2 f df +c + (a + b cos z ) f = 0 2 dz dz (2) {} {} (1) where [M] = mass and inertia matrix (6x6). 2) inducing excessive operating downtime. higher than those of heave. [K] = stiffness matrix (6x6).the tendon springing and ringing responses. conclusions were draw.

0 0. It has been found that the Mathieu instability will vanish fast with the presence of small damping in a higher-order unstable zone. Fig.0% 0.0% 2. From the Table 2.8 First Unstable Zone 0 2067 KN 6000 KN Second Unstable Zone 495 KN 3617 KN 11400 KN 12000 First Unstable Zone 10000 Second Unstable Zone 8000 b (parameter in Mathieu's equation) 2. In reality. the higher-order regions of instability are fading away faster than those of the low-order ones by the same amount of damping.29 826. 3 Stability diagram with and without damping To demonstrate the importance of the damping on suppressing Mathieu’s instability. Table 1 Tendon parameters Pretension (mt) Tendon Diameter (O.4 1. it has been noticed that maximum allowable tendon tension variations are very sensitive to the damping of tendon transverse motions. a case study has been followed and the TLP tendon parameter is given in Table 1.6 1. a ≈ 0. Cd is hydrodynamic drag coefficient.D.0% 4.3.25 and 1. careful examinations and assessments on the low-order resonance zones are recommended.25 and 14. Thus. ∇T is tension variation amplitude.) (m) Tendon Wall Thickness (mm) Tendon Length (m) Tendon Wet Weight (mt) 885.2 1. b= ∇ T ( nπ l ) 2 ml ω 2 Table 2 Maximum allowable tension variation . the higher-order regions of instability are more sensitive by damping than low-order ones.0% 1. From Figs. the damping of tendon transverse motions is much higher than 1% of critical damping. 4.0% 3. If damping is 0.4 6000 2. the limited damping effects on low-order resonance zones may not be adequate to suppress Mathieu’s instability. 3 and 4. 3 and 4. Thus no tendon mode n>1 is considered in this study.5 second are summarized in Table 2 and plotted in Fig.0 0. It clearly presents the characteristics of the springing and ringing.2 0% o f Critical Damping 0% o f Critical Damping 1 % o f Critical Damping 1 % o f Critical Damping 5% o f Critical Damping 5% o f Critical Damping 1 0% o f C ritical Damping 1 0% o f C ritical Damping 0.8 1. Since the low-order resonance zones are very important. Therefore tendon tension variations should be well within the allowable ranges.4 0.0 4000 1. maximum allowable tension variations dramatically 388 increase to 2067 KN and 3617 KN respectively for first and second unstable zones. D the diameter of the tendon.0% 5.4 Damping % 0. In Figs. 5 presents one segment of the filtered high-frequency tendon tension time series. The general stability diagram with damping effects as shown in Zhang et al.ρ w the density of water. if damping is 1% critical damping.2 0. 0% 1% 5% c= (4Cdρ w Du max ) (3πm l ω ) . 3. in which the springing is the highfrequency resonant tension response with the moderate amplitude while ringing is the transient and energetic event just like the Bell being knocked and . Tendon Springing and Ringing Tendon springing and ringing phenomena are due to the resonant pitching (rolling) and heaving motions at high frequencies.0 a (parameter in Mathieu's equation) Fig. Max Allowable Tension Variation (KN) 2. u max is maximum velocity of tendon transverse motion.0 are around the first and second unstable zones in Fig. the maximum allowable tendon tension variations for first and second unstable zone are 0 KN and 495 KN respectively for first and second unstable zones.8 2.8 0 0. It still remains extremely challenging for developing a Mathieu stability diagram with damping effects for the irregular waves with the specified spectrum.6 2000 1. 4 Maximum allowable tension variation Fig.6 0.0 1.6604 26.2 Maximum allowable tendon tension variations around the first and second unstable zone with incident wave peak periods of 7. Stability chart including damping effects has been generated by assuming regular incident waves. 4.6 0.5 58. z=ωt. (2002) is adopted and reproduced as Fig.

. 70 60 Wave Elevation (ft) 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Measured Log10(Probability Density) Gaussian Distribution High Freq Tension 1. 6 is slightly less than 6 while the extreme factor in Fig. It has been noticed that maximum extreme factor in Fig. 6 Probability distribution of springing tension • The importance of investigating tendon springing and ringing responses are lieu in two folds. 1994) while ringing is named if the extreme high-frequency tension exceeds seven times of the standard deviation and Kurtosis of the high-frequency tension is greater than 5. and clearly indicate that both springing and ringing events are non-Gaussian distributions. The springing (the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico) has significant impacts on tendon fatigue life. The springing is due to weak asymmetric waves while the ringing is due to strong asymmetric front-concave waves as shown in Fig. It is important to adequately account for the effects in the design either by physical model tests or hybrid method (minimum model tests + supplement numerical simulations – model the model). However. Zou.E-03 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Extreme Tension/STDEV Fig.E+00 Gaussian Distribution 1. 1997.E-01 High Freq. 1994).E-01 1.E-04 0 2 4 6 8 10 Extreme Tension/STDEV Fig. 1994. the other is to find what kinds of waves generate the springing and ringing and to develop reliable method to simulate. Due to the limited length of the To simulate strong asymmetric front-concave waves in numerical wave tank is extremely challenging in the near future. Jefferys and Rainey.E-02 Time (s) 1. (2000) had developed the methodology and successfully generated strong asymmetric waves in random sea way by employing both time and crest distortions. 7 Probability distribution of ringing tension • • • The ringing (the North Sea) has considerable impacts on extreme tendon strength. 7 is close to 10.E+07 0.E+00 1.E-03 Fig.. it is important to generate this type of wave train in the wave basin for model tests.E-02 -20 636 638 640 642 644 646 648 650 Time (s) 1. 5 Tendon springing and ringing No standard criteria has been officially agreed to differentiate the springing and ringing yet.frequency tension) and Kurtosis are frequently utilized to describe the springing and ringing events.0. 8. 1.E+00 paper and complexity of the problem. Zou et al.E+07 Ringing 1. such as extreme factor (extreme highfrequency tension / standard deviation high. 1999).0 (Davis et al.8 Measured strong asymmetric wave profile Fig. Zou1998.E+07 -2. only brief descriptions are highlighted as follows: Springing 1. parameters.0 (Jefferys and Rainey. Zou et al. Tension Tension (N) -1. one is to quantify the impacts on extreme tendon strength and fatigue life..E+07 1140 Log10(Probability Density) 1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1. Figs. Therefore. 1994. 389 .vibrating strongly. the springing is called if the extreme high-frequency tension does not exceed five to six times of the standard deviation and Kurtosis of the high-frequency tension is less or equal to 5. In general. Significant progresses have been made during past 10 years (Davis et al. 6 and 7 illustrate typical probability distributions of springing and ringing events. Non-Gaussian effects should be treated properly. 2.

only a few key elements involved are briefly introduced as follows: • Well proven and validated coupled dynamic time domain analysis program as base line. Strong excessive VIV on tendon will reduce its fatigue life. towing tests were carried out at the well-known Offshore Technology Research Center (OTRC) in 2004.0 ft/s). 10 Underwater View of Towing Tests Setup The prototype field is in 4. Towing tests consist of towing model in still water and in waves. 4500 4000 Simulated Measured Measured Wave 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 -1500 440 400 360 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 -40 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 Tnedon Tension (kips) Time (s) Fig. Re and St numbers of the prototype. • Account for the hull/tendon coupling effects. Wave overtopping has been investigated in coastal engineering for fixed structures for many years. It can be seen that both Re and St numbers are very close between the ideal and actual models. a few platforms experienced strong tendon VIV and its impacts on operating.5. it adds complexity and difficulty for proper simulation compared to fixed structures. 9 Simulated and measured tendon tension.. 390 Wave Elevation (ft) 320 . Fig. The wave overtopping on top of column was identified as the key factor to cause tendon tension slacking. overtopping velocities. Since Millennium profile exceeded the existing design current velocities at the depth.38 s respectively. However. Fig. The advantages of towing the entire model are as follows: • It is the closest model to the prototype. Tendon VIV Millennium eddy currents hit the Gulf of Mexico during the spring and summer of 2001. 10. • The damping effects from hull and TTRs are also inherently included. Strong asymmetric is referred to both horizontal and vertical axis. Fig. cumulative overtopping volume and mean overtopping rate. wave overtopping had brought our attentions when a three-column TLP physical wave basin model tests were performed in 1998 and tendon bottom tension slacking were observed in some runs.9. The measured natural periods of heave and roll/pitch are 3. all tendons and top tensioned risers (TTRs) attached without any truncation in length. the program should have the capability to model the model and account for wave overtopping: o Ability to de-composite the strong asymmetric wave as shown in Fig.000 ft water depth. o Capability to reconstruct and reproduce the measured strong asymmetric waves by the limited frequencies. o Validated weakly impact load model including weakly impact velocity and acceleration in both horizontal and vertical plans due to wave overtopping. impact human comfortable level. and induce ex. ideal model and actual model. especially after Hurricane Katrina and Rita and a mini-TLP being capsized. broad attentions have been draw and significant efforts have been made to suppress VIV impacts by devices and to develop reliable theory and tool to predict it. For floating platforms. Tendon Tension Slacking and Wave overtopping Wave overtopping of the TLP column(s) and/or deck is becoming a serious design issue.r. Prior to Hurricane Katrina and Rita. • Mean tension effects on different tendons due to mean offsets are inherently built in. This was the first time in the world to tow the entire platform in the wave basin. speed up to 6.t. Up to date. significantly differences are found w. 6. The towing tests are intended to simulate loop current conditions in a conservative and controllable way (uniform current from top to bottom. 2004). • Additional to the above.35 s / 3. with TLP hull.cessive operating downtime. The measured bending stiffness of tendon model pipe and axial spring were employed in the prediction. 9 shows an example of intending to reproduce the measured results. it still remains extremely challenging to develop robust model for accounting for layer thickness. 9 illustrated the comparisons of the measured and simulated results by the “model the model” method (Zou et al.75 s and 3. and strong asymmetric wave As illustrated in Fig. Tables 3 to 5 document the comparisons of natural periods of vibrations. Similarly. Thus.

3 2 3 3 4 5 5 Table 9 Comparisons of predicted and measured RMS tensions of high mean tension tendon Current (ft/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mode Period (s) 13.16E+02 1.2 12.8 4. 11(g). High pass filtering processes were repeating up to tendon mode #7 as shown in Fig.96 0.1 1.24 Ideal Model Actual Model 0.2 86.05E+05 6.4 1.8 7. 391 .21E+06 Ideal Model Actual Model 3.17 0. The measured data are filtered out low-frequency components (period longer than 28.1 1.6 Table 4 Re number comparisons Current (ft/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Prototype 2.24 4 0.3 43.7 9.3 5.66 7.02E+05 4.5 2.1 3.9 17.7 43.8 1.5 7.3 2.17 0. which might be caused by the difference between the predicted mean tensions and the measured.89 18.17 0.5 38. possible modes being excited by tendon VIV are shown in Tables 6 and 7.88 0.17 Table 6 Modes and periods of low mean tension tendon Current (ft/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Mean Top Tension (kips) 1849 1861 1967 2196 2515 2889 Mode Period (s) 13.76 0.1 2. Table 3 Natural periods of vibrations M ode Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Prototype (sec) 29.8 0.24 5 0.1 3.43 4.0 ft/s (no wave and wind).7 47.92 43. the towing speed is 5.7 7.02E+03 1.2 6.31 3. From Figs.2 s).2 second) since they are not due to tendon VIV based on Table 1 Actual Model.9 Actual M odel (sec) 28. Fig. It is also notice that good agreements have been reached at speed 3 ft/s for both low and high mean tensions and at speed 5 ft/s for high mean tension.8 2. In this case.those of the prototype.53E+03 1.3 2.8 3. especially mode #2.3 2.8 4.96 131.3 132.3 5.76 7.83E+03 2.2 87.01E+06 1.70E+03 1. In general.5 3. the high pass filtering progresses to isolate each mode contribution have been undertaken. it did include all possible modes due to tendon VIV.66 7.9 0.11E+02 6.8 2. #4 and #6 contribute more.5 2.31 0.36 7.5 3.3 38.68 4.64 0.9 114. 11(b) stands for second mode high pass filtered time series.64 4. In this test.98 0.17 0.24 6 0.8 4. • Mode numbers higher than 6 have virtually no contribution.44 3.85 0.44 3.24 2 0.4 14.17 0. For low and high mean tendon tensions in 30 degree towing.6 122. However. Fig.86 37.4 14.41E+02 6.42 7.8 4.17 0.7 0.22 1 140. the predicted tension RMS are significantly higher that those measured. 11(a) to 11g illustrate the high pass filtered time series of the measured tendon tension up to mode #7 per Table 3 Actual Model.17 0.96 83.17 0.8 7. which excludes first mode contribution by setting cut-off period 12.97 Table 5 St number comparisons Current (ft/s) Prototype 1 0.5 Current (ft/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 M ean Top Tension (kips) 1870 1946 2161 2532 3091 3740 M ode Period (s) 13.22 2 3 3 4 5 5 Table 7 Modes and periods of high mean tension tendon In order to investigate the contributions from different tendon modes.6 4.9 3.4 4.07E+05 8.6 0.43 4.22E+03 1.83E+02 9.10E+05 1.24 3 0. 11(a) denotes the first mode high pass filtered time series excluding mean and low-frequency components (cut-off period 28.03 2 3 3 4 4 5 Table 8 Comparisons of predicted and measured RMS tensions of low mean tension tendon C u rren t (ft/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 M od e P erio d R M SA /D P red icted M easured (s) R M STensio n R M STen sio n (kip s) (kip s) 13.17 0.42 0.36E+03 1.9 Ideal M odel (sec) 29.7 s.2 1.9 3. 11(a) to 11(g).68 4.05E+02 3.8 7.6 18.4 1. Figs.1 2.85 3.0 0. a few observations are summarized as follows: • It is clear that multi-mode vibrations contribute to the total tendon tension dynamics.4 88.04E+03 2 3 3 4 4 5 0. mode #2.7 9.17 0.5 74.87 0. and the predicted and measured tension RMS are compared in Tables 8 and 9.03 RMS A/D Predicted Measured RMS Tension RMS Tension (kips) (kips) 17.17 0.9 5.36 7.6 42.

tendon Mathieu instability. pp 55-67. H and Larsen. pp 40-51. CH (1996). WC (1986).mum towing speed 6. Vol 2. Honolulu. pp. Zou. J and Huang.” Int J Offshore and Polar Eng. RCT (1994). pp 291-293. pp587-605. W. Jefferys. tendon bottom tension slacking due to wave overtopping. Hawaii. TX. 11(e) Fifth mode high pass tension time series 200 [7] 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 [8] Time (s) [9] Fig. Paulling. ISOPE 2003 Conf. Vol 6. (1994). O. MW (1994). YH and Zhao. Texas A & M University. 11(f) Sixth mode high pass tension time series 200 Tension (kips) [10] 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 Time (s) [11] Fig. Houston. “A Proposed Ringing Analysis Model for Higher Order Tether Response. J. Further investigations are underway to explore why and thus might result better platform design to suppress tendon VIV impacts. TX. Leverette. TX. W and Thompson. ”TLP Hull/Tendon/Riser Coupled Dynamic Analysis in Deepwater”. KB. Leverett. EW (2000) “Deepwater Nonlinear Coupled Analysis Tool. Vol 1. Vol 4. Kim. 11(c) Third mode high pass tension time series 200 [1] [2] 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 [3] Time (s) Fig. “Ringing Response of TLP and GBS Platforms.” Proc OTC 12085. Kim.” Proc OTC 15289. “Mathieu Instability Evaluation for DDCV/Spar and TLP Tendon Design. No platform response was observed that would lead any concern for 392 Davies. pp 284-291. “A Consistent. MY. J (1997).” Proc 4th Int Offshore and Polar Eng Conf. Zhang. “Time Domain Simulation of Nonlinear Response of a Coupled TLP System in Random Seas.200 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 Time (s) Fig. and Huang. “Investigation of Slowly-Varying Drift Motion and Springing and Ringing of Tension Leg Platform System in Nonlinear Irregular Waves. ISOPE. and tendon vortex induced vibration (VIV). 11(d) Fourth mode high pass tension time series 200 [4] 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 [5] [6] Time (s) Fig.” Appl Ocean Res. Houston. 160-166. No 4. SJ and Spillane. Ma. Lee. Osaka. USA. Ormberg. Future works are also recommended. CT (1994). K (1998) “Coupled Analysis of Floater Motion and Mooring Dynamics for a Turret-Moored Ship. December. References Tension (kips) Tension (kips) 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 Time (s) Fig.” OMAE 1986. 1997.0 ft/s represents uniform current profile.” Ph D Dissertation in Ocean Eng. Tension (kips) Tension (kips) Tension (kips) . 11(a) 200 First mode high pass tension time series excessive operating downtime and human comfort. 11(b) Second mode high pass tension time series 200 Tension (kips) 100 0 -100 -200 50 70 90 110 130 150 Time (s) Fig. Zou.” Proc of the 11th Offshore Symposium. Zou. ER and Rainey. ISOPE. Zou. SNAME. ISOPE. JR and Webster. CH. Dooley. The progress in these aspects has been highlighted and discussed. B.11(g) Seventh mode high pass tension time Ssries [12] The platform behaves well. Large-Amplitude Analysis of the Coupled Response of A TLP and Tendon System. Zou. S.” Int J Offshore and Polar Eng. Houston. J and Kim. LB. EW (2002). Vol 2. H (2003) “Analysis of TLP VIV Responses to Eddy Currents. Rijken.” Proc Int Conf Behavior Offshore Structures. Conclusions This paper introduces hydrodynamic aspects of in-place TLP tendon design and analysis with emphases on TLP hull/tendon/riser coupled dynamic analysis. No 4. “Slender Body Models of TLP and GBS ‘Ringing’. The maxi. “Experimental Study of Impacting Wave Force on Vertical Truncated Cylinder.” Proc 7th Int Conf Behavior Offshore Structures. Liu..J. June 2003. MH. which is believed to be conservative compared to typical GoM eddy current. J (2003). 7. pp 569-585. Vol 20. tendon springing and ringing responses. Natvig.

Analysis. of Offshore and Polar Eng. (2000). Model Tests Vs.W. 95-102. CH (1998).H. Nonlinear and Non-Gaussian Effects on TLP Tether Responses. [16] Zou. pp.” Proc OTC 16584. and Kim. TX. Generation of Strongly Asymmetric Wave in Random Seaway. Xu. 315-324. C. 3. 11th Int. CT (2004) “Predictions of TLP Responses. J. (1999). Ormberg. pp. and Kim. No 2. [15] Zou. H and Stansberg. pp p81-89. Houston. J. Conf. France. 1. Vol. Brest. 393 . Vol.. Vol 8. Offshore and Polar Eng Conf. J. C. Proc. Proc 9th Int.” Int J Offshore and Polar Eng. “Ringing of ISSC TLP due to Laboratory Storm Seas. E.H. Huang. Y and Kim. J. [14] Zou.[13] Zou.

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