P. 1
The Influence of Culture on Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior

The Influence of Culture on Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior

|Views: 45|Likes:
Published by Usama Ibrahim
Impulseb uyingg enerateos ver$ 4 billioni n annuasl alesv olumei n theU nitedS tatesW. itht he
growtho f e-commercae ndt elevisions hoppingc hannelsc, onsumerhs avee asy accesst o impulsep
urchasinogp portunitiebsu, tl ittlei s knowna boutt hiss uddenc, ompellingh, edonically
complexp urchasinbge havioirn non-Westercnu lturesY. etc ulturafla ctorsm oderatme anya spectso
f consumer'ism pulsiveb uyingb ehaviori,n cludingse lf-identityn,o rmativien fluences,
thes uppressioonf emotiona, ndt hep ostponemenotf instangt ratificationF.r oma multi-country
surveyo f consumerisn AustraliaU, nitedS tates,H ongK ong,S ingaporea, ndM alaysiao, ur
analysess howt hatb othr egionalle velf actors( individualism-collectivisamn)d i ndividuaclu lturald
ifferencef actors( independen-itn terdependenset lf-concepts)y stematicalliyn fluence
impulsive purchasing behavior.
Impulseb uyingg enerateos ver$ 4 billioni n annuasl alesv olumei n theU nitedS tatesW. itht he
growtho f e-commercae ndt elevisions hoppingc hannelsc, onsumerhs avee asy accesst o impulsep
urchasinogp portunitiebsu, tl ittlei s knowna boutt hiss uddenc, ompellingh, edonically
complexp urchasinbge havioirn non-Westercnu lturesY. etc ulturafla ctorsm oderatme anya spectso
f consumer'ism pulsiveb uyingb ehaviori,n cludingse lf-identityn,o rmativien fluences,
thes uppressioonf emotiona, ndt hep ostponemenotf instangt ratificationF.r oma multi-country
surveyo f consumerisn AustraliaU, nitedS tates,H ongK ong,S ingaporea, ndM alaysiao, ur
analysess howt hatb othr egionalle velf actors( individualism-collectivisamn)d i ndividuaclu lturald
ifferencef actors( independen-itn terdependenset lf-concepts)y stematicalliyn fluence
impulsive purchasing behavior.

More info:

Published by: Usama Ibrahim on Jul 17, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/01/2014

pdf

text

original

Society for Consumer Psychology

The Influence of Culture on Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior Author(s): Jacqueline J. Kacen and Julie Anne Lee Source: Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 2 (2002), pp. 163-176 Published by: Society for Consumer Psychology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1480261 . Accessed: 17/07/2013 03:27
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

.

Society for Consumer Psychology is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Consumer Psychology.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 111.68.99.13 on Wed, 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

& Deaner. Kacen Departmentof BusinessAdministration Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Julie Anne Lee Departmentof Marketing in theUnited over$4 billionin annual salesvolume Withthe States. A recent special issue of the Journal of ConsumerPsythe growing chology dealt with culturalissues demonstrating interest in cultural differences in consumer behavior and of understanding the culturalconhighlightedthe importance text of consumerbehaviorin an increasingglobalized marketplace (Maheswaran& Shavitt. However. 1996).Locander. Furthermore. The Influence of Cultureon Consumer ImpulsiveBuying Behavior JacquelineJ. Sixth Street.& Pollio. Impulse buying generates of e-commerce andtelevision consumers haveeasyaccessto imchannels. This descriptionis largely based on interviews and surveys of Westerners. 1990. andthepostponement of instant From a multi-country gratification.2 billion annual store volume was generatedby impulse sales of items such as candy and magazines (Mogelonsky.edu thoughtful. A 1997 studyfoundthatanestimated $4.68.authorof WhyWeBuy: TheScience of Shopping(1999). Impulsiveconsumerbuying behavioris a widely recognized phenomenonin the UnitedStates. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .12(2).99.JOURNALOF CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY. increasing both the accessibility to productsand services and the ease with which impulse purchasescan be made.A few studieshave looked at consumers in Great Britain (Bayley & Nancarrow. The growth of e-commerce and the increasing conof many societies aroundthe world offer sumer-orientation occasions for impulse purchasing. LawrenceErlbaumAssociates. 1990) andhave foundthatUnited Statesconsumerstendto be more impulsive than comparableBritish and South African samples.Rook 1987. 1982). in Australia. Impulsive buying behavior is a sudden. Most of the researchon impulse buying focuses on consumersin the United States. growth shopping butlittleis known about thissudden. hedonically in behavior non-Western Yet cultures. our surveyof consumers showthatbothregional levelfactors andindividual cul(individualism-collectivism) analyses turaldifference factors(independent influence -interdependent self-concept) systematically impulsive purchasingbehavior.13 on Wed. influences.It accountsfor upto 80%of all purchasesin certainproductcategories(Abrahams.none of these studiesexaminedexplicitly the effect of culturalfactorson impulse buying behavior.HongKong. affirmsthatmanypurchases are being made on the premises of stores themselves as customers give in to their impulses. technologies such as television shoppingchannelsandthe Internetexpand consumers' impulse purchasing opportunities. 1998).Universityof Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Smith.Weinberg& Gottwald.Lightner. 2000). 1998. compelling. McConatha. & Friese.1997.1206 S. 163-176 Copyright? 2002. 1996). and South Africa (Abratt& Goodey. 1994).IL 61820. Paco Underhill.Champaign. Kacen.1998. Dittmar. pulsepurchasing opportunities. andit has been suggestedthatpurchasesof new products result more from impulse purchasing than from priorplanning(Sfiligoj.deliberateconsiderationof all informationand choice alternatives (Bayley & Nancorrow. compelling. We believe that This content downloaded from 111. Thompson. UnitedStates.Singapore. buying thesuppression of emotion. Inc. andMalaysia. 1995. but little is expanding known aboutimpulsive buying behaviorin non-Westernsocieties. Email:kacen@uiuc. pectsof consumer's impulsive including self-identity.Beattie. behaviorin which the rapidhedonicallycomplex purchasing ity of the impulse purchase decision process precludes Requestsfor reprintsshouldbe sent to JacquelineJ. cultural factors moderate ascomplex purchasing many normative behavior.

Jones. 1987. & Beatty. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Robertson.andJapan.Logue. (1995) hypothesizedthat impulse purchaseswere more likely to be items thatsymbolize or ideal self and as such should be affected by the preferred social categories such as gender.Young. It is describedas more arousing. Rook. 1995).Rook & Fisher. Pearson. 1998). They argued that women value their possessions for emotional and relationship-oriented reasons. and to desire immediate gratification(Hoch & Loewenstein. and impulse purchases (Dittmaret al. 1985) andis significantly correlatedwith thrill-seeking(Weun et al. Specifically.whereasmen value theirpossessions for functional and instrumentalreasons. (1978) who foundthat shoppersunder35 were more proneto impulsebuying comparedto those over 35 yearsold..and (2) a subjectivebias in favorof immediatepossession"(Rook & Gardner. see also Rook.Hilgard.1978. 1992)..Helmers.. 1995) and demonstrate less self-controlthanadults(Logue & Chavarro. see also O'Guinn& Faber.less deliberate. Cavarro. 1978.this articleexamines the effect of regionallevel (individualist-collectivist)andindividual difference level (independent-interdependent self-concept) culturalfactors on consumers' impulsive buysampleof over a thouing behavior. Weun. Weun et al. 1985. 1989). 1990. 1991.164 KACEN AND LEE culturalfactorssignificantlyinfluenceconsumers'impulsive buying behavior.Easting. includingSingapore.. Wood. 1987. Several studies demonstrate the effect of consumers' moods and affective states on impulsive buying behavior. Puri. while the impulse buyers in Weinbergand Gottwald's (1982) study were more "emotionalized"than nonbuyers.However. this findingconcerningthe relationshipbetween age and impulsiveness is consistent with studies of emotions and emo- This content downloaded from 111.Ahadi. Helmerset al. DeMoss.1993: Weinberg & Gottwald. Beatty and Ferrell (1998) also found that a consumer's positive mood was associated with the urge to buy impulsively. when is socially acceptconsumersbelieve thatimpulsepurchasing on their act able. This is consistentwith Bellengeret al. and demographicfactors.pleasurable feelings led to increasedunplanned spending.1962.& Nesdale. they found that of consumers' normativeevaluation of the appropriateness in a situation in moderparticular engaging impulse buying ates an individual's trait impulsiveness. Rawlings. 1995. & Volpe. 1995. Specifically.Logue & Chavarro.68. Rawlings et al. Traitimpulsiveness is characterized by unreflectiveactions(Eysencket al. p. Rossiter. 1998). 1994. Cognitive.therelationship is non-monotonic.. In addition. 1982). An individual'simpulsive behaviortendencieshave also been related to demographiccharacteristicssuch as a consumer's age. 1996. 1995. 3. 1995). Eysenck. Bellenger. The results of the study theirhypothesis:Men reportedmore personal(insupported dependent) identity reasons for their purchases whereas women reportedmore social (relational)identityreasons. 1987.. & Patton. (1994) discovereda positive association between consumers'feelings of pleasurein the shop- ping environmentand impulse buying behavior. Based on a national sample of adults in the beUnitedStates. developmental.Boldero.& Hirschman. social.This is especially important East Asian countries in leisure (Wong & activity many major Ahuvia.morecompleteunderstanding of the impulsive buying phenomenon. IMPULSE BUYING thatis purchase" Impulsebuyingis defined as "anunplanned characterizedby "(1) relatively rapiddecision-making.we investigate how culture systematically moderates impulse as shoppingis a buyingbehavior.. 1961. the theory of individualism andcollectivism holdsimportant insightsaboutconsumerbehaviorthatcan help us to gain a better.and more irresistiblebuying behaviorcomparedto plannedpurchasing behavior.Marcoolyn.In each of these studies. Because impulsivenessis linkedto emotionalarousal. Mischel.and consumer psychologistshave studiedthe generaltraitof impulsiveness and impulse control (Eysenck & Eysenck. Rook & Fisher. trait buying impulsiveness (Puri. self-identity(Dittmar et al. 1995. of engaging in normativeevaluation of the appropriateness impulsebuying(Rook & Fisher. These consumers often pay little attention to potential negative consequences that may result from their actions (Hoch & Loewenstein. Rook. 1995. although impulse buying occurred under both types of moods. Rook and Fisher (1995) recentlydeveloped a nine-itemmeasureof traitbuying impulsivenessthat was significantlycorrelatedwith impulse buying behavior.1993.99.13 on Wed. self-gifts (Mick.& Wiseman. 1985. 1994). Highly impulsive buyers are likely to be unreflectivein their thinking. 1990). King. 1995) highlightsthe role of perceived social image and the expression of self-identity in the purchase decision. 1998). & Pihl. and the psychologicalneedto maintaina relativelyhigh level of stimulation (Gerbing.to be emotionally attractedto the object. such as age (e.but when it is sothese tendenciesmay be thwarted. they impulsivetendencies. Rook & Gardner.. 1992).between the ages of 18 and 39 impulse buying increases slightly and thereafterdeclines. Thompsonet al. Researchon traitimpulsiveness indicates that younger individuals score higher on measuresof impulsivitycomparedto older people (Eysenck et al.1992. cially unacceptable The literatureon compulsive shopping (Elliot. Previous research conducted in the United States and Great Britain (individualistcultures) has shown that many factorsinfluence impulsivebuying behavior:the consumer's mood or emotional state (Donovan.& Allsopp.Hong Kong.Utilizing a multi-country sand consumersfrom both Westernand Easterncultures.g. Rook and Gardner(1993) found that consumers' positive moods were moreconducive to impulsive buying thannegative moods. clinical.Wood (1998) foundan inverserelationship tween age andimpulsebuyingoverall. 1987).. 1985).Consistent with this interestin culturaldifferences. 1998). 1998). 1996. & Faber.Donovanet al. 1991. Rook & Hoch. Dittmaret al..

He defines individualism a social patternthat consists of individuals who see themselves as autonomousand independent. This content downloaded from 111. & Bergami.As turalpatterns Kim. they learnto controltheirimpulsive buying tendencies. The theory of individualism and collectivism offers several insights into many of the variablesthathave been linked to impulsive buying behavior. The greaterlikelihood thatpeople in collectivist cultureswill considerthe negative consequences of their actions makes the suppressionof the relationshipmore probable. children in collectivist cultures are socialized to controltheirimpulses at an early age (Ho.1995 for a review).1993). These social patternsare expected to influence impulsive purchasingbehaviorthroughtheiraffect on a person's self-identity.e. Fromthis we conclude the following: H la: The relationshipbetween traitbuying impulsiveness and impulsive buying behavior will be stronger among people from individualistcultures compared to people from collectivist cultures. & Dean. preferringto focus on the positive consequences of theiractions and on theirown feelings and goals.and "display rules. it is likely thatpeople in collectivist cultureslearnto controltheir impulsive tendencies more than people from individualist cultures. we discuss this theoryand demonstrate well suited to the study of impulse buying. responsiveness to normative influences.such as family and co-workers. 1987). 1987. which promotes common goals and social harmonyover individual interests. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the factorsthathave been linked to impulse purchasingare also likely to be influenced by culture.68. workplaces.e. 1994. In short. These findings suggest thatas consumersage. Tsai & Levenson. Tanaka. 2000. Research shows that older individuals demonstrategreaterregulationof emotionalexpressionthan do younger adults (Lawton. morecollectivist)people fromtheUnitedStates. Accordingly. impulse trait-behavior These differencesbetween individualistsandcollectivists arebest explainedby examiningthe tenantson which the culof individualismandcollectivism arebased.." which emotions are expressed and how they are expressed (Ekman. Cultureinfluences both "feeling rules.Siegal. Rajogopal. the maintenanceof harmonywithin the group is dependent on members' ability to manage their emotions. Russell & Yik. ies are based on Confucianism.CULTUREAND IMPULSIVEBUYING BEHAVIOR 165 tional control. Weinberg & Gottwald. people in collectivist cultures often shift their behaviordepending on the context or what is "right"for the situation. 1995). 1992. and emphasize a rational analysis of their relationships with others (Triandis. 1994. Abe.Choi.people often ignore the potential negative consequences of their impulsive buying behavior (see Rook.& Kashima. Kleban.needs.In collectivist societies individualsare encouragedto suppress theirown hedonicdesiresin favorof groupinterestsandgoals.13 on Wed..and try to emphasize their as connectednesswith the in-group. In individualistcultures.g. 1996. Interestingly. who aremore likely to focus on the potentialnegativeconsequences of their behaviorand the effect of their actions on in-groupmembers (Triandis.In fact. quently. Several researchershave emphasized the importanceof examiningthe influence of cultureat the individuallevel as well as at the nationallevel (e.andYoon (1994) explained societies arebasedon thetenantof liberWesternindividualist to be ratioalism. Conversely. 1972). McConathaet al.Inthesesocieties individualsareencouraged own goals to their individual define nal and are given rights East collectivist societAsian andchoose freely.Kagiycibasi.. give priorityto their personalgoals. AND COLLECTIVISM INDIVIDUALISM Triandis(1995) defined collectivism as a social patternthat consists of individualswho see themselves as an integralpart of one or more collectives or in-groups. including self-identity. 1982)."how an individualinterpretsthe environment.give priority to the goals of the in-group. Wonge.1993). and rights. normative influences. 1988.Triandis.99. 1997). 1994). For instance.. Siegel. andgroupharThe tendencyto focus on grouppreferences to repressinan leads to cultures in collectivist ability mony ternal (personal) attributesin certain settings. People who aremore own their individualistare motivatedby preferences. 1992) are weaker in collectivist than individualistcultures.Within each society these differences are reinforcedat the cultural level throughsocial institutionssuch as schools. Lee.cultureis likely to impactan individual's emotional experiences by determiningthe appropriateexpressionof one's feelings (McConatha. andfamilies.. and the need (or lack of need) to suppressinternalbeliefs in orderto act appropriately. Collectivist culturesalso emphasizethe controland moderation of one's emotions more so than individualisticcultures (Potter. Schwartz. moreindividualist) people who grow up in China are likely to be betterat controllingtheirimpulses andemotions thanvery family-focused(i. In the thatit is next section. This may not be true for people from collectivist cultures. Consepersonal found that attitude-intention it has been (Bagozzi. the suppressionof emotion. Given thatimis related to pulsiveness sensation-seeking and emotional arousal (Rook. For instance. 2000) and attitude-behavior relationships(Kashima. 1985).1994). Among collectivists a person is generally seen as more mature when s/he puts personalfeelings aside and acts in a sothanin a way consistentwith mannerrather cially appropriate beliefs and attitudes (Triandis. people from Asian (collectivist) cultures have been foundto controlnegativeemotions and only display positive emotionsto acquaintances (Gudykunst. andpostponementof instantgratification(see Triandis. This patternis likely to carryover to the impulse trait-behavior relationship. Kim et al.People who are more collectivist areoften motivated by normsand duties imposed by the in-group. so thateven very ambitious(i. 1995).

Althoughusing culturalregion as an indicatorof individualismandcollectivism offers the advanthe morecomplex natureof the construct.Given thatadultsin individualist cultureshave demonstrated a slight increase in impulsive buying into their late 30's (Wood. Consequently.In each study. we do not anticipatea decline in impulsivebuyingbehavior for college-aged individualists. pleasureand arousalmay be universalcomponents of spontaneousbuying behavior. and (d) being indiplace and engaging appropriate rect in communicationand 'readingothers' minds. H2: The emotional factors of pleasure and arousal that characterizeimpulsive buying behaviorwill be more positively related to impulsive buying behavior among individualiststhanamong collectivists. and (d) being directin communication" (p. attitudes.Singelis (1995) defined an interdependent self-concept as one emphasizing"(a) exsuch as statuses. Collectivist) (independent interdeboth levels helps to address pendent self-concept).althoughthe differenpatternof trait-behavior tial effect of cultureshould be somewhat weakerthan at the regional-nationallevel.The prelimion a parsimonious of imnarystudyconcentrates explanation behavior: The basic is that pulsive buying hypothesis consumerswitha personality traitof impulsivenesswill make more frequentimpulsivepurchases. Using some of the more common criticisms associated with cross-cultural research. Hong Kong (25) highly collectivist countries.surveyswereadministered to studentsand non-studentsin highly individualistand highly collectivist countries purposefully selected from their positioning on Hofstede's (1991) ranking of individualismto include the UnitedStates(individualism score= 91) andAustralia(90) as individualistic countries andSingapore(20). We expect that measuringself-concept at the individual level across cultures should produce parallel although not identicalresultsto the cultural(i. (b) being unique and exandpromotpressingthe self.it does not fully differences that explain may be due to the influenceof social which institutions. 1994.becausecontrolandmoderation of one's emotions is emphasized more strongly in collectivist cultures.166 ANDLEE KACEN 1994. and relationfeatures ternal. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the differenceis thatin some cultures the probability that individualist selves. the moderating fect the impulsivebuyingbehaviorof people fromcollectivist culturesearlierthanthose from individualistcultures. (c) realizinginternalattributes ing one's own goals."'and an independentself-concept as one emphasizing "(a) internal abilities. "All of us carrybothindividualist andcollectivist tendencies. because people in collectivist cultureslearnat an earlierage to control theiremotionsandbehavior. In thesestudies.e.but thatthis relationship will be moremoderate in collectivistcultures. If so. (c) occupyingone's proper ships.it tage of capturing also includes the disadvantageof adding between-country variance to the often problematicwithin-countryvariance found in cross-culturalresearch.people fromcollectivistculturesshouldbe morelikely to rely on a moreinterdependent self-concept and people from individualist culturesshould be more likely to rely on a more independent self-concept in any given situation. 581). public and fittingin. norms. Thus. roles. and feelings. we expect to find a similar relationships. regional) level analysis.13 on Wed. using people's self-conceptas an indicatorof theirlevel of individ- This content downloaded from 111. On the other hand. one of the objectives of our researchis to determinein whatways impulsivebuyingbehavior differs across culturalcontexts. 1995.99. at the individual level across societies. and behaviors will be sampled or used is higherthanin others"(p. emphasizethe suppressionof hedonicdesires in favor of group interestsand goals. and ones sharedby people in both individualistand collectivist cultures. Triandis. (b) belonging in action. METHOD Overview Two studieswere conductedto measurethe influenceof cultureon consumers'impulsivebuying behavior. Although a person's self-concept reveals the partsof culture thathave been internalized by thatindividual.Conversely. 1998).. in theirearly adultyears. values.68. influenceof age is expectedto afFinally. thenfeelings of pleasureandarousalwill be positivelyrelated to impulse buying behavior among both individualistsand collectivists.culturaldifferenceswere comparedat two levels of analysis:culturalregion(WesternIndividualist vs. Malaysia highly and as (26). thoughts. However.The mainstudy examines this effect but also controlsfor the effect of affective statesandage variableson impulsivebuying behaviorto betterunderstand thiscomplex buyingbehaviorwithindifferent culturalcontexts. consumersfromthese culturesaremorelikely to suppressthe emotional component of their impulse buying experience thanthose from individualistcultures. H3: Age will negatively impact impulse buying to a greaterextent for collectivists comparedto individualists. Accordingto Triandis(1994). 1995). 42).we expect age to negativelyimpact impulse buying once collectivists reachcollege age. Hlb: The relationshipbetween traitbuying impulsiveness andimpulsivebuyingbehaviorwill be stronger for individualsclassified as havinga moreindependent (individualist)self-concept as comparedto those classified as having a more interdependent(collectivist) self-concept. Eastern and individual level vs. In addition. Singelis & Brown. Given the lack of researchinto impulse buying in non-Westernsocieties.

A single measureof impulsive buying behaviorwas used for this preliminarystudy.05) levels of analysis(see Table2).40 for collectivists. a comparison of correlationsand their variationacross culturalgroupings was conducted. the impulse model may fit poorly (see Marsh & Byrne. thinkaboutit later'describesme.001) and the individualself-concept(z = 1. 1995).but we also hypothesizethat for consumersin individualistculturesthe trait-behavior relationshipwill be strongerthanfor consumersin collectivist cultures. 1995).the effect was more distinctat the regionallevel thanat the individual level of measurementof culture.59 for independentand 0.two individualisticcountries(Australiaand United States) and two collectivist countries(Singaporeand were asked Malaysia). Those respondentswho scored a 2 or 3 were classified as independent (n = 217). The independent score was reversedand addedto the interdependent score to producea measureof independence-interdependence on a scale of 2 to 6. As expected.Using an individuallevel measureof culturein additionto a regionalor national level measure adds confidence that the results are due to the constructof cultureregardlessof its measurement (see Maheswaran& Shavitt.the correlation between traitand behavioralimpulsivenessequals 0.64 for individualist culturesand 0. This scale achieved satisfactory levels of reliability(rangingfrom . However. The personalitytraitof buyingimpulsivenesswas initially measured using Rook and Fisher's (1995) nine trait-buyitems. the results 'Justdo it' describesthe way I buy things. Respondentsindicatedtheirlevel of agreementwith 12 independence and 12 interdependenceself-concept statements found in Singelis (1994) on 9-point strongly disagree-stronglyagree scales. These two self-concept scales have been used frequently in cross-culturalresearch with consistentresultsandin this studyeach scale receiveda satis- factorylevel of reliabilityin each sample.CULTUREAND IMPULSIVEBUYING BEHAVIOR 167 ualism and collectivism measures the within-countryvariances. 1993). I buy it' describes me. using Nunnally's items and 12 (1978) criteriaof a > . 1994.butit fails institutional to pick up the morecomplex natureof the construct.defined in this questionnaire experience a sudden unexpectedurge to buy somethingthat you cannotresist."The survey included questions on impulsive purchasing behavior. andwhetherthiscountryis theone she or he has lived in most of his or her life. Triandis. 1994.68.(3) 'Buy now. the correlationbetween traitandbehavioralimpulsivenessequals0. or 3 on each. "How often do you buy things on impulse?"was measuredon a 4-point scale from 1 (almost every day) to 4 (almost never). respondents trichotomized witha scoreof 1. Of course. measuredon 5-point strongly ing-impulsiveness-scale disagree-strongly agree scales.All of these correlationsare significantlypositive at the . "one in which you purchase. Fisher's z-transformations revealed that the correlations differed significantlyin the expecteddirectionat both the culturalregion (z = 3. recognizingthateach personinternalizesnationaland influencesto a greateror lesser extent. As hypothesized.the buyingimpulsivenesstraitwas more stronglyassociatedwith impulse buying behaviorfor the individualistthan for the collectivist groups.and(4) 1 oftenbuy things withoutthinking.79 to . The cultural classification proceduredeveloped by Triandis(1995) was used to group participantsat the individuallevel of culture. 1994).Notably. As partof a largerstudy.2000. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . participants to complete a questionnaireconcerning a recent impulsive as.To test this. p < .2. Singelis & Brown. anddemographicitems includingthe countryin which respondent currentlylives. This content downloaded from 111. respondents' independent and interdependent self-concept (Singelis.70. Results As seen in the top portionof Table 2.Those respondentswho had not lived in theircountryfor most of theirlife were excluded from the sample at this level of analysis. respondents were classified into two groupsbasedon theircountryof residence: individualist(Australiaand United States) or collectivist (Malaysiaand Singapore). All nine of the traitimpulsiveness items were factor analyzed across culturalregions and reducedto a sub-scale of four items1that were most consistent across differentcultures(for details see Appendix A).87. 1995. it is possible thatthe nine items measureslightlydifferentconstructsin differentculturesand if so.99. Impulsepurchasesoccur while a personis in the store and involve rapiddecision making. Schwartz. those who scoreda 5 or 6 were classified as interdependent (n = 207) and those who scored 4 were classified as neither and removed from the analysis at the individualself-concept level. 1978).p < .93. The summarystatistics for this item are reportedin Table 1. traitbuying impulsiveness(Rook & Fisher. The 12 interdependent items were each and were independent averaged.001 level as expected. At the cultural region level.(2) 'I see it. The resultingsamples comprised245 respondentsfromthe individualistregion (n = 131 from Australiaand n = 114 from the United States) and 344 respondentsfrom the collectivist region (n = 160 from Malaysia and n = 184 from Singapore).92) in each of the countrysamples (Nunnally.13 on Wed. Similarly. The item. PRELIMINARY STUDY Participants and Measures to 706 studentsand non-students A survey was administered in fourcountries.46 for interdependent self-conceptsof culture. we predictthatpeople with highertraitbuying impulsivitywill make more frequentimpulse purchases. Respondentswere classified into culturalgroupingsbased both on theirculturalregion andtheirindividualself-concept score as follows.

03 2.02 1.4) Note.75 5.4) agree.76 5.37 2.70 5. 3) sometimes.11 2.96 1.85 1.42 2.49 6.36 Asian (n = 233) 0. .81 1.68.17 1.09 1.23 0.23 4. p < .63 1.90 2. inditrolling vidual difference.91 1.06 1.67 1.66 4. Itemswith threeasterisksaremeasured 1) very rarely. The impulsebuyingliterature suggests thatconsumers'emotionalstatesandtheirage influence theirimpulsivebuyingbehavior.3) neither. Itemswith two asterisksare measuredas 1) stronglydisagree. Items with four asterisksare measuredas 1) stronglydisagree.46 0.82 1. I buy things that I had not intendedto purchase*** I am a person who makes unplannedpurchases*** When I see somethingthat really interestsme.94 M SD Collectivist Region (n = 318) M SD Caucasian (n = 167) Main Study Impulsivebuying behavior(numberof times in last month) Traitbuying impulsivenesssub-scale (7-point) When I go shopping.98 3.4) neither.41 5.98 4.17 3.yet the theoryof individualism and collectivism would predicta less important role for TABLE1 Descriptionof Measures and SummaryStatistics for Scales IndividualistRegion (n = 230) Description of Measures PreliminaryStudy Impulsivebuying behavior(4-point)* Traitbuying impulsive sub-scale (5-point)** "Justdo it" describesthe way I buy things "I see it.53 2.13 1.2) disagree.27. Itemswith an (r) arenegativelywordedandarescoredinversely.64 1.89 1.01 5.57 2.16 1.98 1.18 4.30 1. thinkabout it later"describes me I often buy things withoutthinking 2.49 5.10 1.81 4.92 1.59 1. I buy it" describes me "Buy now.40. 6. Discussion The results from our preliminaryinvestigation indicate a betweentraitbuyingimpulsivenessand strongerrelationship impulsive buying behavior for individualists compared to collectivists.91 6.09 2. Although this finding highlights a significant difference between consumersin Westernversus Easterncultures.001).5) stronglyagree.63 5.03 0.13 on Wed.98 5.12 4.65 0.59 3.04 1.57 1.16 1.78 5.32 1. Our finding is consistent with otherresearchthat indicatesthe attitude-behavior relais in weaker collectivist in than individualist cultures tionship (Kashimaet al. This evidence suggests that culture does moderatethe impulse trait-behavior relationship.34 2.55 5.22 1.12 0.33 3.35 5.it is to examine othervariablesthat may also differenimportant tially affect the impulsive buying behaviorof individualists comparedto collectivists. I buy it withoutconsideringthe consequences**** I avoid buying things that are not on my shoppinglist (r)**** Arousalscale (8-point semanticdifferentialscales) Stimulated-relaxed(r) Calm-excited Frenzied-sluggish(r) Unaroused-aroused Pleasurescale (8-point semanticdifferentialscales) Happy-unhappy(r) Annoyed-pleased Unsatisfied-satisfied Contented-melancholic(r) 4.20 as 1) almostevery day.38 3.12 1.24 2.86 5.72 0.168 KACEN ANDLEE showed strongersupportfor our hypothesisat both levels of afterconanalysis when we comparedthe partialcorrelations = for variances < z p (culturalregion.52 0.68 1.76 1.51 1.94 1.28 1.91 5.4) sometimes.z = 4.22 4.87 1.29 4.001.26 6.39 5.07 4.38 6. 1992). which suggests thatcollectivists are less driven thanindividualiststo act on their traitbuying impulsiveness by making an impulse purchase.7) stronglyagree. 2) often.03 2.68 4. 7) very often.99. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..21 1.Itemswithone asteriskaremeasured as never. This content downloaded from 111.97 1.

In this study. 1989. 1995). large survey While this main studywas and extension. except that the words "impulsive purchase" were replaced with "spontaneous clothing purchase.42** .35* 1.59*** .99*** . one-tailed. (1998). education.68 . The mean age across all respondents was 24 years (range 19 to 45 years). we variedthe majormeasuresusinga differentbuyingimpulsiveness traitscale anda differentmeasureof impulsivebuyingbehaviorto attemptto generalizeourfindings. and other potentialconfounds. Studentswere chosen in all five countriesin an attempt to achieve demographicallymatched samples and thus minimize the variance in terms of age. the Midwestern United States (n = 168).98*** .001 or smaller. MAINSTUDY Due to limitationsinherentin using only one studyto uncover the buying impulsivenesstrait-behavior relationship.83 1. consistent with the historical of impulsive buying as "a purchasecharoperationalization acterizedby spontaneity" (O'Guinn& Faber.27*** 4. Using a different but equally reliable measureof traitbuying impulsiveness provides more assurance thatour resultsreveal culturalinfluences and arenot an was made of the measuresused.49 . "Howoften have you boughtthingsspontaneouslyin the last month?"Trait-buying impulsivenesswas measuredwith the five-item scale fromWeun et al.99. Malaysia (n = 53).46*** .40*** .88** 1. these variablesin the behaviorof collectivists due to cultural differences.and then to answera more generalset of questions relevantto this study regardingtheirtraitand behavioralimto the questionnaire was simipulsiveness.54 .anattempt artifact to bettermatchthe samplesby using only Universitystudents.. **p < . rather thanthe Rook and Fisher (1995) scale. 150). 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .05.68. ceptualreplication carriedout in a mannersimilar to the preliminarystudy.97*** *p <.90*** . study(1995).CULTUREAND IMPULSIVEBUYING BEHAVIOR 169 TABLE 2 Correlations of Trait Buying Impulsiveness Subscale With Impulsive Buying Behavior and Entire Trait Buying Impulsiveness Scale Correlation With Impulse Buying Behavior PreliminaryStudy Individualist Collectivist Independent Interdependent Main Study Individualist Collectivist Caucasian Asia Independent Interdependent Z Z= . (2) clothingis chasedon impulseaccordingto the Dittmar a productpurchasedand wornby consumersof both sexes and all ages.97*** .51** . We also extended our analysis to include the effects of consumers' age and affective feelings. as these variableshave as distinctcomponentsof impulsivebuybeen characterized ing behaviorin previous (individualist)studies.34** . Singapore (n = 72).08** . Additionaldatagatheredin Hawaii (n = 65) was separatedfrom the Midwestern United Statessample."The word "impulsive" may be more value-ladenin some culturesso the more neutral"spontaneous" was used. p.75 .Z2 Zfor Partial Correlations Correlation With Entire Trait Scale Sample Size .albeit a we conducteda conin four different countries. The productcategory of clothing was chosen for several reasons:(1) clothing was one of the most likely consumergoods to be puret al.36** .64*** .59 .as recommended by Lehmann (2001).45 . and (3) it is a productthatis readily availablein each of the countriesstudied. As part of a larger study.99*** .99*** .10.53** .13 on Wed.40*** .67** 2. ***p < . andHong Kong (n = 62). describednext.36 3.as Hawaiihas been foundto be morecollectivwere firstqueriedabouta recentspontaneousclothing pur2Respondents chase beforebeing asked moregeneralquestionsabouttheirimpulsivebuying behavior in orderto increase the saliency of the topic (see Sudman & Bradbur 1982).In addition.We examine the effect of consumers'age andaffective feelings in the main study. Respondents' affective feelings when engaging in impulsive buying behaviorwere assessed Participants and Measures A survey was administered to 481 studentsat large universities in five countries: Australia (n = 61). This content downloaded from 111.87*** .2The introduction lar to that of the preliminarystudy. participantswere asked to respondto questionsconcerninga recentspontaneousclothing purchase. ist thanindividualistdue to the mixed culturalbase (Kashima et al.57 .93** 6.88*** 237 336 212 201 194 164 173 241 127 157 .42 .49** .87*** 1.38 .94** 1.91*** .impulsivebuyingbehaviorwas measuredas.

(1) When I go shopping. 1994. and individual difference (independent-interdependentself-concept)levels to determinewhetherthe buying impulsivenesstraitexplains as much of the variationin impulsive buying behaviorfor one group as it does for the other.and (4) I avoid buying things thatare not on my shoppinglist.3 These pleasure-arousalscales have been used by others to assess consumers' affective responses (see Dawson.88) in each country sample. at the culturalregion level respondentswere classified into two groups based on their country of residence: individualist (Australia and United States . 1982. Results Two traditionalmethods. but not at the cul- The Russell-Prattmodel representsa modification of Mehrabianand Russell's (1974) Pleasure-Arousal-Dominanceparadigm.88. but not the ethnicity or in- dividual difference comparisons. Bloch.05) levels. These constructs were found to be consistent across cultures.94. dominance. Respondents from the more individualist countries (Australia and the United States) showed more variationin both ethnicity and at the individual self-concept level. According to the Russell andPrattmodel. and more often classified as interdependentthan as independent.At the ethnicity level.arousal. Fisher's z-test and moderatedregression analysis. although the reliabilitieswere noticeably lower for the collectivist countries thanfor the individualistcountries.68. the Hawaiian sample shared the characteristics of collectivist countries.99. and Hong Kong) were almost all of Asian ethnicity.Following the same procedureas in the preliminary studyproduceda 4-item scale4accountingfor 64%of the variancein the Caucasiansampleand 52%of the variancein theAsian sample(see Table 1 for items includedin this subscale and Appendix A for details of the factoranalysis). we tested the association between trait buying impulsivenessand impulsive buying behaviorat the culturalregion (individualist-collectivist).As expected. To deal with this a moderatedregression conanalysiswas also conductedto determinethe differential tribution of traitbuyingimpulsiveness. I buy it withoutconsideringthe consequences. This content downloaded from 111. Holbrook& Batra. 1978.several demographicitems were included.However. Malaysia (n = 50) and Hong Kong (n = 58). As in the preliminarystudy. & Ridgway.170 ANDLEE KACEN scales measuringpleasureand by eight semantic-differential arousalbased on Russell and Pratt(1980). individual difference (independent-interdependent self-concept).1987).I buy thingsthatI hadnot intendedto purchase. Using the same method. were used to assess moderationfor this with our study. as demonstratedin Appendix B. Donovan et al. respondents were classified into two groups based on their self-reportedethnicity (coded as Caucasian and Asian). (1998) achieved satisfactorylevels of reliability(ranging from . Respondents were classified into three cultural groupings: cultural region. As in the preliminary study. all five items were submittedto a maximumlikelihood exploratoryfactor analysis for each ethnicitygroup. This is due to the larger internationalstudentpopulationat the universities sampled in Australiaand the United States. individual difference. the four pleasure items and the four arousal items were submittedto maximum likelihood exploratoryfactoranalyses for each culturalregion (see Table 1 for the items and summary statistics). and sex. The thirddimension.Next. ethnicity. and 174 from the collectivist region including Singapore (n = 66). Watson & Tellegen. 1985). two majordimensions. Table 3 details the percentageof respondents from each country allocated to the cultural region. p < . See Table 1 for scale items and summarystatistics. (2) I am a personwho makesunplanned (3) WhenI see something purchases. Malaysia. whetherthis countryis the one she or he has lived in most of his or herlife. For this reason reliabilities and equivalencies were assessed using the ethnicity groupings.pleasure. The five-itemtraitbuyingimpulsivenessscale fromWeun et al.68 to . In addition. and Hong Kong).it is possible thatthe correlation of impulsive with behavior a to distintrait fails buying just personality the of from trait situational variables guish impact (like mood) or demographicvariables (like age) that also vary within the sample. the Fisher's z-test results of the cultural differences in trait-behaviorimpulsiveness correlationsare consistent with the first study (see Table 2).ethnicity(Caucasian-Asian). age.has been found to be less robustand not always replicable across studies (Russell..pleasureand arousal can represent all affective states. Respondentsfromthe morecollectivist countries(Singapore. Donovan & Rossiter.05) and individual difference (z = 1.and age across cultures. A Fisher's z-transformation revealed that the correlations differed significantly at the ethnicity (z = 1. First. p < .such as the countryin which respondentcurrentlylives. We expect this to impact our culturalregion level analysis.1986. The reliabilities for Singelis' (1994) independence-interdependencescales were satisfactory in each country sample and the respondents were classified into two individual difference groups following the same procedureas in the preliminarystudy. and self-reported ethnicity. The resultingsample size was 197 respondentsfrom the individualistregion including Australia (n = 42) and the United States (n = 155). Malaysia. that really interestsme. 1990. Havlena& Holbrook.The first was done to maintaincomparability preliminarystudy.13 on Wed. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . independent-interdependent self-concept was measuredusing Singelis' (1994) scales.excluding Hawaii) and collectivist (Singapore. Russell deleted dominancein his laterworkarguingthatit requiresa cognitive interpretation and is not applicableto purelyaffective responses. and ethnicity groups.

04) but not significantfor Asians. Among Asians a more independentsense of self does not contributeto more impulsive buying behaviorbut it does positively impactimpulse buyingamongCaucasians. INDEP + b4AGE (1) x CULTURE) + b7 PLEAS+ + b8 + b5 b6AROUS (TRAITIMP (INDEP x CULTURE) + b9(AGE x CULTURE)+ bo (PLEAS x CULTURE)+ b. capture moderatingeffect of cultureon impulsive buying behavior. p = .indicating the moderatingeffect of Caucasian ethnicity on impulsive buying behavior can be found in Table 4 underthe column heading "Differencebetween Caucasiansand Asians.51.andage on impulsebuyingwas also assessedthrough regression analysis." We predicteda positive parameter for the TRAITIMPx CULTUREterm. As expected fromthe preliminary study. Second. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thatis. and arousal (AROUS) on impulsive buying behavior (IMPBEHAVIOR): IMPBEHAVIOR= a + b. Respondents' level of independence.To capturethis.001) and Asians (b2 =0. t = 3.0 = Asian) was treatedas a moderator the effects of traitbuying impulsiveness(TRAITIMP).11. For the more individualist groups. pleasure (PLEAS). these results increased in significance and the cultural region comparison reached significance at the p < .61. expected the regionallevel variable. p = . After controlling for the variances. The independence-interdependence cultural variableallows us to check for an additionalself-concept effect within ethnicity group. but we also expected some within culture variation.36.001) indicatingthatthe Caucasian-Asian culture variabledoes moderatethe influence of trait buying impulsiveness.The coefficients for the interaction terms.17. while the coefficient for traitbuyingimpulsiveness (TRAITIMP)is positive and significant for both Caucasians (b2 + b7 = 1. b7-bll.54.was calculatedby averagingthe scores from the independencescale items and dividing that score by a sum of the averageof respondents'scores on the independencescale items and interdependence scale items. Values closer to I indicate high independencewhile scores closer to zero indicate low independence.Ethnicitygrouping(CULTURE.Asians regulate their impulsive buying behavior regardless of their individuallevel of independentself-concept. p = . a moderated regressionanalysiswas conductedto assess the influence of all the relevantindependentvariables on consumers'reported impulsivebuyingbehavior.ANDIMPULSIVE CULTURE BUYING BEHAVIOR 171 TABLE 3 andSelf-Concept of Respondents' Cross-Tabulation Country by Ethnicity Ethnicity Caucasian (%) Australia United States Hawaii Singapore Malaysia HongKong Collectivist Individualist 78 92 11 Asian(%) 22 8 89 100 100 98 99 6 Size Sample 55 137 57 71 51 56 165 171 Self-Concept (%) Interdependent (%) Independent 44 62 29 32 26 47 34 60 56 38 71 68 74 53 66 71 Size Sample 36 104 45 38 31 34 96 124 2 1 94 tural region level. Table 4 summarizesthe empirical results. t = 2.Inotherwords. The independence (INDEP) parameteris positive and significant for Caucasians(b3 + bs = 8. CULTURE + b2TRAITIMP+ b. the buying impulsiveness trait was more strongly associated with how often a consumer bought something on impulse than it was for the corresponding collectivist groups.13 on Wed.88. This finding is consistentwithpreviousresearchthathas foundthatwhile individualsin Asian culturesmaintainbothan independent and an interdependent sense of self (Markus& Kitayama.The influence of affective feelings of pleasureand arousal. most likely due to the larger percentage of internationalstudents in our samples from Australiaand the United States (although directional supportfor our hypothesis was found).99. (AROUS x CULTURE)+ error.The resultssupport ourhypothesiswiththis estimatebeing positive and significant(b7= 0. independence (INDEP). t = 8. t parameter = 3.68. of with I = Caucasian.a continuousvariable.10 level (see Table 2).63.in eitherculturea personwho has moretraitbuyingimpulsivenesshas made morespontaneous purchasesin the previousmonth.ethnicously to the ity. supporting our hypothesis. This content downloaded from 111. age (AGE).001) the influence of trait buying impul- siveness on impulsive buying behavior is strongerfor the Caucasiansample. p = . we includedrespondents'level of independentself-concept in the regression model.1991). The following multivariateregression equationwas used to test the moderatingeffect of cultureon impulsive buying behavior.As previwe stated.

1978. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . SD = 4. Although directionally consistent.17** -.13 on Wed.61 .81 . puttingaside theirown preferencesin orderto act appropriately(Triandis. t = .49 -.35 Asian .Althoughthereis no sigbetweenCaunificantdifferencein traitbuyingimpulsiveness casiansandAsiansthereis a differencein theirimpulsivebuying behavior. independence-an individual ing impulsiveness.10. One possibility is thattraitbuying impulinfluenceof affective feelsiveness capturesthe contributing on arousal and of buyingbehaviorfor impulsive ings pleasure Caucasians.05.09** .95 -1.For Caucasians.03). While the arousal coefficient (AROUS) is nonsignificantfor the Caucasiansample. Asianand"0"forCaucasian(see the "Caucasian" column)anda secondreversingthecoding.99.42 -.06 -3. The affective feelings associatedwith impul5The differencein traitimpulsivenessfor Caucasians(see Table 1 where M = 4.03 -1. In addition. Wood.using"1"forCaucasian =414.25 t-Value 3.57) andAsians (M = 4.56.52. t = -2. Comparedto Caucasians. To get the t-statisticsfor the two cultures.51) than Asians (M = 3.the theirself-concept.the first using a dummyvariablecoding of "1"for and"0"forAsian(see the "Asian" column). SD = 1.Value 3.07 -. mean24 yearsin both samples).15. Discussion evidencethatculTheresultsof the mainstudyprovidefurther ture affects the relationshipbetween trait buying impulsiveness and impulsivebuying behaviorat the culturalgrouping and individual difference levels. affective feelings played a greaterrole in the impulsivebuyingbehaviorof Asians comparedto Caucasians.49 2. SD = 2. **p < .25 t-Value 8.1995).02 -.69 t.47 Note.Foroursampleof Asians.63*** 3.24 -1..89)..the moreimpulsivebuymoreindependent ing behaviorthey are likely to engage in. 1998). ence occursdespitesimilarlevels of trait buyingimpulsiveness amongourdifferentculturalgroups.68. with declines occurring afterthe mid-30s (Bellengeret al.01 or smaller. p = .46 -1.88*** 4. Furthermore.29 .36 2.52** -1.12 .98 .35. heightenedarousalpromoted impulsive buying. t = 2.This is discussed furtherin the next section.Ninety percentof the Caucasiansample was under30 years old.89 . N *p < .78.As predicted.30).This is consistentwithprevious research. This content downloaded from 111.getting olderreducesimpulsive buyingamongourAsian samplebutdoes not have a significant effect on our Caucasiansample.68. SD = 1. self in certainsituthey areable to suppresstheirindependent ations.91 Variable TraitImpulsiveness Independence Age Pleasure Arousal Intercept Adj R2 Caucasian 1. is not significant at 5% with 331 degrees of freedom.09.11 -.althoughit did contribute to impulsivebuying among Caucasians. A separateregressioninvestigating the influence of age on traitbuying impulsivenessindicatedthattraitbuying impulsivenessdecreaseswith age amongAsians butnot Caucasians.12.23.51*** 8.5 In addition. it is positive andsignificantfor Asian sample(b6= .which found an increasein impulse buying among United Statesconsumersin their20s. This findingreveals at boththeeththe powerfulandconsistentinfluenceof culture this differnicity level and the individuallevel.91 .while Caucasians' behavioris not.Caucasiansengage in significantly more impulse buying (M = 4.54 . suggesting thatimpulse buying decreases with age among college-aged Asian students.at the college-age level (range 18-45 years. Unexpectedly.35 -.two equivalentversionsof equation(1) were estimated. 1998). ***p < .172 ANDLEE KACEN 4 TABLE Unstandardized Coefficients Behavior: Moderated forImpulsive Regression Buying Analysis Regression Difference Between Caucasians and Asians . This is consistent bothwith ourhypothesisfor the Asian sampleandwithprevious researchon Caucasians(Bellenger et al.the age coefficient is negative and significant for the Asian sample (b4 = -. has ap < . 1978. since t = 3. the age coefficient for Caucasiansis nonsignificant. Ourresultsconfirmthatthe moderationof behavior occurs earlierfor Asians comparedto Caucasians.It should be noted that the reliabilities for the pleasureand arousalscales were not high for either Caucasians or Asians. suggesting thatAsians' impulsive buying behavioris responsiveto feelings of excitementor arousal.Wood. level measureof culturalinfluence-was not shownto impact Asians' impulsivebuyingbehavior. p = . The moderatinginfluence of age was expected to negatively affect collectivists' impulsive buying behavior at a youngerage thanindividualists.41 -.15 . dueto traitbuyAsiansengagein less impulsebuyingbehavior In addition.001 for 271 observations.75 .78 -2.the interactionterms between pleasure and culture and arousal and culturewere not significant.29.02).35 -. of affective feelings to impulsivebuying The contribution behavior was surprising. No significant effect of pleasurewas producedfor either group.

Clearly.. which emphasize interdependence. and self-identity(Dittmaret al. One suchfactor. As Rook (1987) correctlystated. In addition. The results of the factor analyses indicate that there may in fact be morethanone dimensionto the buying impulsiveness trait. Due considerationof these differences is warranted. perceived consequences. This finding supports and extends previous research that found thatcollectivists are able to maintaininconsistentattitude-behavior relationships(Kashimaet al. is the social acceptabilityof impulse purchasing. Furtherresearch needs to be conductedinto whatfactorsarereliableindicatorsof impulse buyersin culturesoutside of the United States. regions or areas of the world. risk avoidance.An interestingarea for future research would be to investigate the interactionbetween cultureandthe appropriateness of engaging in impulse in different situations.Ourresearchsuggests thatthese profiles may in fact be different in other cultures. theremust be otherdriving factorsdifferentiallyaffecting the amount of impulse purchasingthat occurs. norms (Rook & Fisher. additional researchis called for to help clarify these issues..there is a weakercorrelationbetween self-reported trait buying impulsiveness and the frequency of impulsive buying behaviorfor collectivists comparedto individualists.One limitation of this studywas thatthe appropriateness of impulsebuywas not the countries includedare ing investigated.1993).We found that the Weun et al.but local marketconditions.although all consideredto be "shoppingcultures. at least as it has been characterizedby Westernresearch.13 on Wed. GENERAL DISCUSSION Attempts to understandconsumer impulse buying behavior based solely on a Western point-of-view is incomplete.1995).Rook & Gardner. 1995) on consumerimpulsebuying behavior. Our findings demonstratethat culturedoes have an influence on impulse buying behavior.and the influence of others. However.in this case.1998) thatprofiles of highly impulsive shoppers be identified. 1987. 1998). reducingtheirimpulsive buying behavior. Asian collectivist consumersengage in less impulsive buying than Caucasianindividualistconsumers.despite the highly developed shoppingculturein East Asia. although even this scale had to be modified to achieve equivalence across cultures. As shown in this article.Futureresearch of a qualitative nature is needed to uncover the antecedents and consequences of buying impulsiveness across cultures. Overall. The marketing factorsthatencourageimpulsepurchasing also need renewedattention. Although previous researchershave explored the influence of mood and emotions (Donovan et al.it is also likely thatthe appropriateness of the behaviorwould influencethe desireandthusthe extentof control.buying impulsesarepresumedto be largely universalin nature.including hedonism. 1995. thatis conthey suppressthis traitimpulseandactin a manner sistentwith culturalnorms." Many other aspects of culture are also likely to interact with impulsiveness. (1998) scale produced betterresultsthanthe Rook andFisher(1995) scale. buying Althoughthe ability to control the trait-behavior relationshipappearsto differ by culture.CULTUREAND IMPULSIVEBUYING BEHAVIOR 173 sive buying behaviormay be difficult to assess retroactively through a survey instrument.andhedonisticpleasureencouragesimpulsive buying behavior.It is also possible that these scales do not accuratelymeasurethe affective states Asians experience while making impulse purchases. medium-. individual needs anddesires. Furtherresearch needs to be conducted to This content downloaded from 111. The findings of the articles in the recent special issue of the Journal of Consumer Psychology confirmed that culturaldifferences are a significantfactorandneed to be takeninto accountin ourtheories of consumer behavior.Rook & Fisher. Our researchuncovers anotherarea where scales developed in the United States are not valid for use in othercountries.The global electronic is makingit increasinglyimportant to study the marketplace processes that may differentially affect people from other countries. highlighting the difficulty of cross-culturalresearch. so that promotions can be targetedat these individuals. Access to the WorldWide Web may well be an important factor. or independent-interdependentself-concept. The Western-individualist emphasison the self. If the correlations among these variables are weaker in certain countries or regions.The Internetmost certainlyhas changedthe access to impulsepurchasingopportunitiesforthose frommoreremoteareas. systems of exchange and variousculturalforces will impact how consumersoperateon impulse. In the United States.identifiedby RookandFisher(1995). 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..such as variety seeking.and group needs and desires would seem to discourageimpulsebuyingbehavioras it is practicedand describedin the West.cultural factorsdo moderateconsumerimpulsive buying behavior. 1994.1993). and risk aversion. 1995).99. at best.it is assumedthatimpulsepurchasing is correlatedwith personalitytraits.none have looked at culturalinfluencessuch as collectivist and individualisttendencies.emotionally chargedbehavior. emotional control and moderation. Weun et al. 1992) andto put theirown feelings aside in orderto act in an appropriate manner (Triandis.68. Rook & Gardner. which has been characterizedas a highly individualistic.Workin this vein can identify high-. 1995.and which ones exert the strongest influence withindifferentculturalcontexts. sensation seeking. trait impulsiveness (Rook & Fisher. It has been suggested(Beatty& Ferrell. Althoughcollectivists possess the buying impulsiveness traitin equal measurewith individualists.It would be useful to investigate in detail how various marketingfactors supportimpulsive purchasing.. One future study wouldbe to investigatethe interaction of situationalvariables withindifferentculturalsettings and among consumerswith differentlevels of the impulsivenesstrait.and low-impulse consumers. Eastern-collectivistnotions of the self.Previous research using consumerimpulsivity as a lifestyle traithas identified thatpeople varyin theirimpulsebuyingsusceptibility(Rook.

Yet. lending confidence to our findings..Multivariate self-report Gudykunst. & Rossiter.Paul.the editor and the reviewersfor their helpful comments. & Pihl.. Scott. Recomparisonsof ratingscales amongEast sponsestyle andcross-cultural Asians and North American Students. Managerialand Decision Economics.Journalof EconomicPsychology. 394-404.Russell. and retail outcomes. Beattie..Sybil B. Ho.g. Hilgard. Susanne. need to be awareof cultural and practitioners Researchers researchfinddifferenceswhen applyingUnited States-based Statesconnon-United ings to marketingstrategiestargeting from sumers.One concernis that the cultural differences in impulsive buying behavior that we found were due to cultural biases in response style. & Ferrell.PaulR. Robertson. 1995) so it is respondentswere possible that our Caucasian-individualist more likely to use the extreme values of the rating scales. functionandfragmentation Elliott. Cognitive socialization in confucian heritagecultures. due to the unique nature of impulse buying researchers often rely on single-item self-reports to measure this behavior (e. & Stevenson. 6(3). (1997).. Addictiveconsumption: in postmodernmity.18. This research has the traditionallimitations associated with self-report survey research. This content downloaded from 111. In Patricia M. Our use of two different items in two different investigations of impulsive buying behavior produced the same hypothesized results providing more confidence that measurementerrordid not produceerroneousor misleadingresults. (1995) found that even when response-style biases due to cultureare accountedfor.59.. Robert0. & Patton.. Impulsiveversus realisticthinking:An examination of the distinction between primaryand secondary processes in thought. Pearson. Educationand Researchat the University of Hawaii and the University of Hawaii RFDC. Chen. Journalof Advertising Research.Jim H. However. 477-488. Nancy (1990). 357-379. Marketing.venturesomeness Personalityand IndividualDifferences. 408-427.John R. andempathyin adults. RobertJ. & Ridgway. Eysenck. & Eysenck. Rook & Fisher.JohnR.. (1982)... of emotion. Gerbing. Young. & Nesdale. thereareessentialunderlying gage in impulsepurchasing societin Westernindividualist betweenconsumers differences collectivistcultures.the sub-scaledid notproducedifferentresults from the same analysis using the originalscale. F. Havlena. 31-33. An enviDonovan.Journal of ConsumerResearch.Lee.William B. Andrew. (1985). Lincoln:Universityof NebraskaPress. We thankSharonShavitt. Modeling its precursors. Cole (Ed. (1995). Abe. 19. (1994).13 on Wed. Bloch. R. 34-57. & Hirschman. StephenDonald (1990). (2000). Culturaland situationalcontingencies and the theory of reasoned action:Applicationto fast food restaurant consumption.). of A qualiClive. Chen et al.thereis some evidencethat problematic these sub-scales are highly correlatedwith the originalscale (r < .March27. 11(2). 1995). F. Eysenck. (1994). and Rich Lutz for their comments on earlierdrafts.G. Psychology. Beatty.no difference was found between the self-reportedbuying impulsiveness traitlevels in each culture. (1998). StephanA. Marcoolyn.).Richard. & Nancarrow. 169-191. Abratt.22. Psychological Science.NJ: LawrenceErlbaumAssociates. 13. (1993). & Holbrook. The varieties of consumption experience: Comparingtwo typologies of emotion in consumerbehavior. & Friese.. Helmers.While this may be in bothof ourstudies. Store atmosphereand purchasingbehavior. Donovan. 70(3).ElizabethC. Bellenger.68. 16.6(5). (1962). (1994). 111-121. Albany:State Universityof New York Press. 613-619. Dan H.. Universalandculturaldifferencesin facial expression on motivation(pp. Massimo. 283-294. Rossiter. ronmentalpsychology approach. (1978). Easting.Nebraskasymposium 207-283). It's all in the mind. Assessment of measuresof impulsivityin healthymale volunteers. 66. 927-935.InJ. Impulsivepurchasing: Bayley.. Towarda acrossthe behavioral and of impulsivity: Components conceptualization BehavioralResearch.. 491-511..Psychological Reports. Geoff. G. Ekman. (1995). 17. 99-114. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We gratefullyacknowledgethe financialsupportof the Center for International Business.Helga. Dittmar. tative explorationof the phenomenon. Storeatmosphere: Journal of Retailing.MorrisB. Dawson. Cocking (Eds. Beatty & Ferrell. Shuzo. Unplannedbuying and in-storestimuliin supermarkets. HaroldW. domains. Elizabeth. 15-18. In addition. Wong. Impulsebuyingvariesby product. & Bergami. Communicationin Japan and the UnitedStates. Sybil B. 170-175.QualitativeMarketResearch. Bagozzi. Lee. Peter H. RichardP. ies andthosein Eastern Althoughthe pubon impulsivebuyingbehaviorhas been helpful lishedresearch in individualistic theimpulsebuyingphenomenon in unraveling societies. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . REFERENCES Abrahams. Inc.Jim Hess. Ahadi.KarinF. David Y. Journalof ConsumerPolicy. & Goodey. (1998).. Although we surveyed individuals highly to ensocieties whereample opportunities consumer-oriented exist. Consumer 9(2). (1986). Cross-cultural roots of minority child development (pp. Membersof EasternAsian cultureshave been shown to use the midpointin ratingscales more thanmembersof Western Caucasiancultures (Chen. 159-179. (1987). Shin-ying. Sharon E. M. emotional states. William J.ErnestR. & Stevenson. Gender identity and materialsymbols: Objectsand decision considerationsin impulse purchases. they do not significantly change the outcome of between-group comparisons. (1995). Jane. & Allsopp. Nancy. Simon N.Psychological Bulletin. 285-313).58. in capturing all The use of sub-scalescould be problematic of the aspects of the impulsiveness trait. 1247-1255. Shoppingmotives.99. 1998.RobertJ.Journal 97-106. HansJ.David W.DannyN. Age normsfor impulsiveness.(1972). J.Personalityand IndividualDifferences.Ben. Journal of Retailing. Impulsivenessand venturesomeness: Their position in a dimensional system of personalitydescription.9). (1978). Furthermore.. this articleclearlyhighlightsthe impactthatculture behavior andsuggestswe needto hason thiscomplexconsumer in orof culture andconsumers takeintoaccountthe interaction der to betterunderstand impulsivebuyingbehavior. (Ed. 1(2). Using a single-item measure of impulse purchasingmay be problematicdue to error in the measurementof this construct.174 KACEN AND LEE provide evidence of the nomonological validity of the trait impulsiveness subscales.Journal of Retailing..Gilian.43. Hillsdale. 74(2). and MarkPattonfor his kind assistance with datacollection.). Greenfield & Rodney R. Chuansheng.. Impulse buying: Journal of Retailing.

Sfiligoj. StephenJ. 171-184. (1992). 925-937. National PetroleumNews Smith.andapplications(p.(1995). (1995). Weinberg. & Pollio. Lightner.George F. Powell.Journalof ConsumerResearch. 28.MorrisB.RobertW. (1978). Individualismand collectivism.(1974).. 1-28). 5(2). The interactionof age with impulsivenessandventuresomeness in the prediction of adolescentsexualbehavior. (1992). (1992). 111-124. 87-113. O'Guinn. 12. American Demographics. Normativeinfluences on im22. Triandis. 580-591. Logue. Rook. Albert. Cultureandthe self: Implications for cognition. 189-204. 600-625.Eileen..RobertJ. Marcia. age. Anapproachto environmental psychology.(1961). Yoon (Eds. 305-313. StephenJ.. Culture and social behavior. William J.DC: Hemisphere. Time-inconsistent preferences and consumerself control. Yamaguchi.James. Triandis.construals. Cambridge. William B. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Meryl.JasminT. (1996. Russell.Shinobu. Evidenceof convergentvalidityon the dimensions of affect. DeMoss. & Dean. and Schwartz. Impulsiveconsumerbuying as a resultof emotions.In Margaret hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral disorders (pp. McConatha.(1991). Are thereuniversalaspectsin the structure contentsof humanvalues?Journal of Social Issues. Theory. and collectivism: Kagitcibasi. HarryC. C. Confirmatory factoranalyW. Journal of ConsumerResearch. 17. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. UT: Association for Consumer Research. George R.In U. W. & Tellegen. Helping the little guy to merchandise. Geert. Underhill. 98. & Levenson. The measurement pendentself. 224-253. (1995). (1995). 16.David.& Gottwald. Journal of Personalityand Social Psychology.Yoshihisa. JeanneL. & Bradbur.Journal of Personality and Social quality attributed Psychology.. Sang-Chin...(1980). (1989).HarryC. Kenichiro. Russell. Psychometrictheory.Personalityand IndividualDifferences. A descriptionof the affective to environments.). Proceedingsof the 15th Paul D. & Loewenstein. Lee. Bond (Ed. Journal of Cross-CulturalPsycouples duringinterpersonal chology. Psychology and Aging. 20. ChesneyandRay H.Cigdem.Paco. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. Sudman. & Shavitt. The measurement A. (1993).RonaldJ.& Yoon. (2001). 62. Thousand Lawton. Journal of ConsumerResearch. (1998). Assessing the role of emotions as mediators of consumer responses to advertising. (1994). Kim. Gelfand. Keep candy in the aisles. Joseph S.Felicity.CA: Sage. M.(1996). Boulder. 14.).Human Communication Research. Triandis..Jennifer. King. 20. 38.JamesA. Quantitativeempirical generalizationsand progress toward knowledge: Pushing the meta-analysisenvelope.Journal of Abnormaland Social Psychology. Consumingimpulses. 313-349. Hong Kong.. 354-389. Holbrook. 19-45. A projecfor retive studyof motivationsand meaningsof self-gifts: Implications tail management. Kleban. (1996. HowardR. TheodoreM.). Tanaka. Nunnally. Norman M.David.13 on Wed. Multivariate Behavioral Research. and motivation. February). & Byme.. Whywe buy: The science of'shopping. (1994). Singelis. (1992). Thomas C. (1991). 9. Harry C. 69(5). Journalof ConsumerPsychology. Culturesand organizations:Softwareof the mind.Radhika. JamesA. Choi. Individualism Oaks. Journal of Consumer Research.. JamesA. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ronald J. pp.(1987).Doris. Masaki. 59-62). 6. (1985).CraigJ. Tsai. J. Stephanie L. Puri.. DennisW.68.New York: Simon & Schuster. Culturalinfluenceson emotional responding:Chinese Americanand EuropeanAmericandating conflict. Mogelonsky. 2-21). pulsivebuyingbehavior. Preferencefor delayedreinforcement sponsibility. Michael. & Deaner. JulieAnne. Washington. 9(2). The Psychological Record. (1997). 36. 219-235. 340-368. Psychological Bulletin.Peter. 346-361.Psychological Review. Ethos. of independent andinterdeSingelis. 122-144. Hofstede. Uichol. New York:McGraw-Hill. Dennis W. In Magill's Surveyof Social Science: Psychology (p.(p.. (1995). emotion.Journal of Retailing. 311-322. 20(5).Michele J. Culturalvariationsin emotionalexpression. & Volpe. Asking questions: A practical guide to questionnairedesign. Lehmann. CO: Westview. The Thompson.99. Durairaj. Kim.Adolfo.). (1982). 23-27).Journalof ConsumerResearch. (1991).19. Supplement. 147-157. & Kashima. Markus. Kashima. Auke. (2000). 117-120. Matchingand maximizingin a self-controlparadigmusing human subjects.gender.21(3). (1985). 16.Jenny. & Brown. Dennis W. Chavarro. Logue.(2000). Choi. A. (1990). Triandis. TheodoreM. A.Sulasmith H. 28. & Yik. Choi. 481-488. 1-7. Don. Dimensions of affective experience in three age groups. Kagitcibasi. Introduction. 14.Jum C.Sharon. London:McGraw-Hill. lived meaning of free choice: An existential-phenomenologicaldemarried scriptionof everydayconsumerexperiences of contemporary women.Hazel Rose.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.Angerand struct. David Glen. 9(2). (1985). in globalconsumerpsychology. (1994). (1990).Adolfo. M. 50(4). 32. (1982). C..self.Geraldine. 42. pp. andsocial reMischel.. & Gardner. The buying impulse. Seymour. Siegal. Emotionamong the Chinese.ShalomH.Journalof Consumer Psychology. Barbara Marsh. (1987). 175 Potter. 59-66.Periscope..Wolfgang. and gender as variables in the expression of emotions. Eric. Culture. Self-controland impulsiveness in preschool children. 7(2). Pasadena. AdaptingTriandis'smodel of subjectivecultureand social behaviorrelations to consumerbehavior. June 30). (1978).CULTUREAND IMPULSIVEBUYING BEHAVIOR Hoch. Emiko S. The handbookof chinese psychology (pp.(1993). New York: McGraw-Hill.. (1988). Locander. 166-188).MortonH. Mick.. & Hoch. Boldero. 189-199.MA: MIT Press. Rawlings. Kim. & Rajeev. and collectivist communication:Linking culture to individualbehavior.Susumu. China:Oxford UniversityPress. S2. Towarda consensualstructure mood.M.& Russell. Rook.S. & G.. ConverseSymposium.98. 10. Walter. Compulsive buying: A phenomenological exploration. & Yuki. & Pratt. The joy of candy. 492-507. 21(3). Rosenman(Eds.Jasmin T. In Michael H.and self: A perspective from individualism-collectivismresearch. (1996). (1994). of Watson.Research in Consumer Behavior (Vol. This content downloaded from 111. Journal of Business Research. & Faber. 181-208. Culture. Russell.& Wiseman. Rajagopal. & Chavarro. In Morris Holbrookand ElizabethHirschman(Eds. Chicago: AmericanMarketingAssociation. Provo. Dennis W. of anger as a multidimensional conSiegel. Inthe mood: Impulsebuying's affective antecedents. 31. W. CA: Salem.method. & Kitayama. (1994). Yoshihisa. Journalof Consumer Psychology. Donald R. Batra. Culture. The culturalconstructionof emotion in rural chinese social life. 43-57. H. Hess (Eds. Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 17.68.). Rook. British Journal of Social Psychology. 404-420. Measuringand modifying consumerimpulsiveness: A cost-benefitaccessibility framework. Rook. Learningand Motivation.Journal of ConsumerResearch. (1993). Sang-Chin. 1-16). Kashima. Do people believe behavioursareconsistentwith attitudes? Towardsa culturalpsychology of attribution processes. 887-892). & Faber. Issues andnew directions Maheswaran. (1999).CT: JAI Press.Herbert sis of multitrait-multimethod self-concept data: Between group and within-group invariance constraints. In Abbie Griffin& JamesD. Mehrabian. Greenwich.. Michelle. 117-126. McConatha. Gene. & Fisher. Uichol. SulamithA. 1152-1168.

one factoremergedfor the individualistregion accountingfor 53% of the variance. df= 12.. MichaelA. indicatingmetricequivalence. Michael. (1998). & Beatty. = 1. (1998) trait-buying impul- This content downloaded from 111.47).TheX2for each region supported a one-factorsolution(Caucasian.. df= 2.176 KACEN ANDLEE Weun. Whenthese items were submittedto the maximum-likelihood factoranalyconfirmatory multi-group sis the four factorloadingsand fourerrorvariancesproduced = 23. After successive a set of four eliminationof the items with low communalities were left..68. The arousalscale also produceda one-factorsolution(Caucasian.p = .98. Thedevelopment and validationof the impulse buying tendencyscale. p = .50. p = . p = . siveness itemsweresubmitted to the same analysis.27.46. Wood.g. p = .80). X2 for less in each group (35% in it accounted variance though the Caucasiansample and 25% in the Asian sample).AaronC. Socio-economic status. 295-320. indicatingmetricequivalence. p = . In addition. Next. The four factor loadings and four errorvarianceswere found to be invariant acrossthe groups(X2= 15.some of the communalitieswere as low as 0.For for the subscalecorrelations the mainstudy.df= 2. Wong.6 greater greater than0.60. invariantmodel was comparedwith other less constrained models to assess metric equivalence across groups.X2= 4.respectively.Jones. Personaltasteandfamilyface: Luxuryconsumptionin confucian and western societies. p = .X2= 2. X2= 1. Psychology and Marketing. 1123-1133.08). The pleasure scale accounted for 47% of the variance in the Caucasian sample and 45% in the Asian sample. 423-441.32.413.90. p = .99. Nancy Y. p = . indicating metricequivalence. APPENDIX B Analysis of Pleasure and Arousal Scales The four pleasure items and the four arousal items were submittedto maximum likelihood exploratoryfactor analyses for each culturalregion (see Table 1 for the items and summarystatistics). df= 2. Whenthe data were submittedto the maximum-likelihood multi-group factoranalysisthe four factorloadingsand four confirmatory error variances werefoundto be invariant acrossthegroups(X2 = 15. When these items were submitted to the maximum-likelihood factoranalysisthe fourfactorloadconfirmatory multi-group ings and four error variances were found to be invariant across the groups (X2= 14. and impulse buying.the X2for the exploratoryfactor analysis supporteda one-factorsolution in bothregions(individualist. 19.df= 12. APPENDIX A Analysis of Trait Buying Impulsiveness Scales Inthepreliminary study. %2 = 5.20.21).p = .65. (1998). df= 2.82 andcollectivist. alX2= 1. RMSEA= .26). These items items loaded potentially equivalent and held communalities of on the factor than 0. X2= . Asian. The x2 factormodel andthreeother differencebetweenthe invariant models (allowing factor loadings and errorvariancesto differ) producedan insignificantdifference in each case.In addition.04.15(5). p . df= 2. Psychological Reports.Please see Table 1 for the indistatisticsandTable2 vidualsub-scaleitemsandtheirsummary with the full nine-itemscale. SharonE. (1998). Asian.82. than1 andthepercentof variance Using theeigenvaluegreater accountedfor as initial indicators. RMSEA= . & Ahuvia. but a slightly higherchi-square(%2 an adequatefit using otherindices thatare less influencedby the samplesize (e.02). df= 12. delay of gratification.53.all nineRookandFisher's(1995) trait items were submitted to a maximumlikelihood impulsiveness exploratoryfactor analysis for each of the culturalregions.17. Asian. Accepted by Dawn Iacobucci. Journal of Economic Psychology.13 on Wed.In addition.06). df= 2. As an addedprecaution.64.03).but two factorsemergedfor the collectivistregionaccountingfor 26% and 18%of the variance.75. df= 12. 17 Jul 2013 03:27:04 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .all five Weun et al.07).df= 2.4 in each culturalregion.Seungoog.p = .the X2for each region supporteda one-factor = solution (Caucasian.50.X2= . df= 2. the dataweresubmitted to a maximum-likelihoodmulti-groupconfirmatoryfactor assess the equality analysisusingLISREL8 to simultaneously of factor structuresacross the two regions.28.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->