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Sealdah is one of the major railway stations serving Kolkata (Calcutta) in India, the others being Howrah Station, Shalimar Station and Kolkata Railway Station. Sealdah is one of the busiest railway stations in India and an important suburban rail terminal.

There are three station terminals at Sealdah: Sealdah North, Sealdah Main and Sealdah South. The North section consists of Sealdah North and Sealdah Main buildings. It has 13 platforms numbering 1 to 4/4A (Sealdah North), and 5 to 9C, 9A & 9B (Sealdah Main). The South section consists of Sealdah South terminal, with 5 platforms (10-14). The north and south sections have separate set of emerging tracks. The north and south section is connected by two links, one is DumdumMajherhat link (popularly circular rail), and other is Bidhannagar-Parkcircus link (extension of circular rail). These two links were constructed to quickly travel between the two sections avoiding Sealdah. For the financial department, There are DRM's,Sr.DFM's and ADFM's to look over.Sealdah North acts as the suburban train terminal for 2 divisions: the main division and the Bongaon division. The main division of Sealdah north operates trains plying between Kolkata and Bandel, Kalyani, Simanta, Gede, Shantipur, Krishnanagar, Dankuni and others. A narrow gauge line earlier used to connect Shantipur and Krishnanagar but now it has been replaced


with broad gauge. This line continues to Nabadwip Ghat. These narrow gauge lines are served by DMU trains (all other lines run EMU trains). There is a plan to extend the suburban train service from Krishnanagar to Palashi, which is currently served by electric loco hauled trains. Dankuni line connects Eastern Railway's Howrah line at Bali and Dankuni. Bandel line connects Eastern Railway's Howrah line at Bandel. The Bongaon division handles trains for Kolkata Airport, Bangaon, Hasnabad and others. Bangaon and Ranaghat are also connected. Sealdah Main is the mail/express terminal for long distance trains to northern, north-western, north-eastern & eastern India, through Dankuni line and Bandel line. Krishnanagar line is also serving long distance intrastate trains. The South section, consisting of Sealdah South terminal, acts as the terminal for local trains plying between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour Budgebudge, Canning, and Namkhana. There is also an EMU carshed at Sealdah (Narkeldanga). Other EMU carsheds are at Barasat & Sonarpur. A diesel shunter loco shed is also situated at adjacent Beliaghata. A rail coach factory is set to come up at Kanchrapara. Before partition in 1947 of India, Gede line and Bangaon line were continued to present day Bangladesh.

Sealdah Railway station was started in 1869.[2][3] Before 1978, there was a tram terminus at Sealdah station. Trams departed from here towards Rajabazar, Howrah Station, High Court, Dalhousie Square, Park Circus and Dharmatala. The first horse tram service of Kolkata was also started from Sealdah to Armenian Ghat, following the currently route 13, 14 & 16 between Lebutala & Dalhousie Square. The Sealdah-Lebutala & Dalhousie Square-Armenian Ghat (later extended to High Court) stretch is now closed. That terminus was demolished in 1978 also with the Sealdah-Lebutala tram track stretched through Boubazar Street for construction of the Sealdah flyover. The flyover is not high enough to pass tramway tracks under it. However, after its construction, tram tracks were relaid on the flyover. Now tram services between Rajabazar-Esplanade, Parkcircus-Burrabazar and other services pass through Sealdah. Currently, a car parking exists in place of the old tram terminus.


Organization of Signal and Telecommunication Department in Indian Railways
a) The Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer- The Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer (CSTE) is the administrative and professional head of the Signal & Telecommunication Department and is directly responsible to the General Manager for its efficient and economical working. b) The Chief Communication Engineer - The Chief Communication Engineer (CCE) assists the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer in the administrative and professional work for all communication matters. c) The Chief Signal Engineer -The Chief Signal Engineer (CSE) assists the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer in the administrative and professional work for all signaling matters. d) The Chief Planning Engineer(Signal & Telecommunication)-The Chief Planning Engineer (S&T) assists the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer in planning and execution of works. e) The Deputy Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer-The Deputy Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer assists the Chief Signal& Telecommunication Engineer, Chief Signal Engineer and Chief Communication Engineer inthe administrative and professional work. f) Senior Scale Officers- Senior Scale Officers designated as Senior Signal& Telecommunication Engineers (SSTE) are employed in the Headquarters Office of each Railway and work directly under the administrative control of the Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer or the Engineer-in-Chief(S&T) or the Deputy Chief Signal & Telecommunication Engineer. g) Assistant Signal & Telecommunication Engineers -They shall be responsible to the Senior Scale Officer/Officers or to the Deputy Chief Signals & Telecommunication Engineer.


The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer(Construction) shall provide necessary direction and control for the efficient and economic execution of all works under his charge. The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer(Construction) is assisted at the Headquarters by a team of Officers who may consist of Deputy Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineers and Senior Signal and Telecommunication Engineers and Assistant Signal and Telecommunication Engineers. The Chief Signal and Telecommunication Engineer(Construction) shall maintain liaison with the Open Line Organization and shall follow the general policies and procedure laid down for the execution of works. In case where a different policy or procedure becomes necessary to be followed, he shall do so after due consultation with the Open Line Organization to adopt an accepted policy or procedure.


Hierarchy in Zonal and Divisional Level of Railways 5 .

and IMC8 interface. 4) Flexicom 5000 even numbered shelves. The MEX-IP contains a multi pin connector and support circuitry for the addition of DBX and CLA cards. f) Intermediate Distribution Frame g) Main Distribution Frame h) Protection arrangement i) Cable (underground and switch board) HARDWARE DESCRIPTION: Control cards : 1) MEX IP: Main Control Processor Card. 2) 4GC: 4GC (Quad Group Controller) for Coral Flexicom 5000. for Coral flexicom 5000. and diagnostic test cards. Changeover panel and stand-by system.slot interchange function. 3) PB. The 4GC card provides driver and time. 6 . Installed in Coral.24: PB (Peripheral Buffer) card . Buffers PCM streams and HDLC highway signals to Peripheral Shelves.Telephone Exchange SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: The various components of the exchange system shall be a) Exchange hardware b) Exchange software c) Man Machine Interaction Terminal PC with Printer d) Test and measuring instruments e) Power supply Arrangement consisting of Batteries. Software Authorization Unit (SAU). systems tones DTMF and MFC generator. for Coral Flexicom 5000 Systems. with programming or maintenance systems interface. supports PCM highway.

for controlling software packages. Provide unique system identification numberfor each installation.Figure showing Cabinet of Coral Flexicom 5000 I Picture showing the Digital Telephone Exchange (FlexiCom 5000 ISBX) installed at Barasat Railway Station Main Cabinet Structure and Card Slot Assignments for a 3 Shelf Cabinet SAU: SAU (Software Authorization Unit) plugged on the MEX-IP card. The SAU must remain installed on the MEX-IP card for continuous system operation. 7 .

+5. 12. +12. +3. DTMF signalling over E&M and Direct Inward Dial trunks and Digital Inward System Access (DISA) over central office trunks. The card is generally used to allow the use of tone dial single -line telephone sets. POWER SUPPLIES: 1) PPS: Peripheral Power Supply for peripheral shelf – 48V DC input.3. Provides a multi-pin connector to attach an optional *CID card in piggyback fashion. lossless. 2) SPCE: Stored Program Control Exchange is the technical name used for telephone exchanges controlled by a computer program stored in the memory of the system. 16/20/25 Hz. 3) RPS : Ringer Power Supply for Coral Flexicomm Systems and Coral LITE 400.SHARED SERVICE CARDS: 1) 8DRCF CARD : 8DRCF resource card provides : i) Internal or external music on hold and Coral Flex-Set background music ii) External voice paging interfaces (Public address) and Relay Contacts. -5. Capable of providing the power of the entire system. 4) 4VSN: The 4VSN card provides four parts used to deliver pre-recorded announcement messages. 20VA output. Single unit or dual units (redundancy) per control shelf. 2) CPS: Control Power Supply for Coral Flexicomm 5000 Common Control shelf. Single unit or dual units per Coral Flexicomm 5000 Peripheral Shelf. The 4VSN is typically used to announce call intercept and ACD overflow conditions. PERIPHERAL SERVICE CARDS: 1) 8-TC: 8 PORT Loop-Start/Ground-Start trunk interface card. Single unit or dual units per Coral flexicomm peripheral shelf itself. -48V DC input. digital Conference Bridge card. +12. -48 VDC outputs. +5. -12 Volts DC input. 3) CNF: Dual 15 parties or 8 3-ways. 8 . 75-105 VAC. 5000 Peripheral shelf – 48V DC input. iii) Auxiliary or Major/Minor Alarm relay contacts iv) UNA (Universal Night Answer) or central Bell relay contacts 2) 8DTR: 8 Circuit DTMF Receiver and Decoder Car The 8DTR card contains eight dual tone multiple frequency (DTMF) receiver circuits. One card required for each mode (2 x 15 Party or 8 x 3-way).

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) ISDN means Integrated Services Digital Network. it also allows multiple streams of these bits to occupy thesame connection providing the user with greater versatility of services. They are all digitized. It can handle many devices and many telephone numbers on the same line. fax. data. A single BRI connection can have different phone numbers assigned to each service. iii) The total data rate across this interface 144Kbps. 9 . and transmitted at high speed. the ITU-T. It is a set of digital transmission protocols defined by the international standards body for telecommunications. fax machines or computers can be linked to a single BRIISDN connection. TYPE OF INFORMATION HANDLED BY ISDN: ISDN handles all types of information – voice. static and moving images. From a digital ISDN telephone you can place a call to an analogue telephone on the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) and vice-versa. or PC connections can take place at thesame time. These protocols are accepted as standards by virtually every telecommunications carrier all over the world. Up to 8 separate telephones. Information travels as bits rather than as waves. For the user. a conventional telephone or an ISDN digital telephone. The essential difference between ISDN and the conventional telephone system is that it is digital not analog. ISDN complements the traditional telephone system so that a single pair of telephone wires is capable of carrying voice and data simultaneously. Any combination of voice. studio-quality sound. This kind of interface is also called as SO interface. a) Basic Rate: i) It is provided through a Basic Rate Interface. It is a fully digital network where all devices and applications present themselves in a digital form. A basic rate ISDN lie can support up to two calls at the same time. In addition. through the same ISDN line. Both networks are interconnected by the network carrier in a way similar to the connection between the mobile phone network and the analogue phone network. ii) There are two channels that you can use. it is completely transparent whether he is calling a GSM telephone.

b. BRI would be for domestic use. Video Conferencing. (iii) Advice of charge (AOC). Fax. There are either 30 channels or 23 channels (North America. Telecommuting. c. Japan) that you can use. (ii) Calling line identification restriction (CLIR). d. (v) Call forwarding service (CF). or smallerremote offices. 1. f. Normally. and e-mail.ii) This kind of access requires the installation of a high speed line to the customer premises.5 Mbps. fax servers or PBX s in medium sized or large offices. High quality audio transmission. ii) This kind of interface is also called an S2 Interface. (vii) Call forwarding no answer (CFNR) (viii) Call forwarding unconditional (CFU). b) Primary Rate: i) It is provided through a Primary Rate Interface. Remote broadcasting. (Iv) Multiple subscriber number (MSN). 1. Data.iv) This bit rate was chosen because the wiring already installed by the telephone companies under the streets can carry base band (digital) transmission at this speed. Primary Rate would typically be used for large remote access servers. SERVICES OFFERED BY ISDN: a.i) The total data rate across this type of interface is 2. (vi) Call forwarding busy (CFB). e. (ix) Terminal portability (TP). Supplementary services: (i) Calling line identification presentation (CLIP).048 MBPS or 1. Simultaneous transmission of voice. 10 .

Mode describes the distribution of light energy across the fiber. like the walls of a tunnel affect how sounds echo inside. Fibers that carry more than one mode at a specific light wavelength are called multimode fibers. Light rays enter the fiber at a range of angles. the variations inrefractive index create boundary conditions that shape how light waves travel through the fiber. These rays are different modes.OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE (OFC) A typical cut out view of Optical fibre cable used in Indian Railways An optical fiber guides light waves in distinct patterns called modes. These fibers are single mode fibers. and rays at different angles can all stably travel down the length of the fiber as long as they hit the corecladding interface at an angle larger than critical angle. This is illustrated in the following picture. In essence. Some fibers have very small diameter core that they can carry only one mode which travels as a straight line at the center of the core. We can take a look at large-core step-index fibers. The precise patterns depend on the wavelength of light transmitted and on the variation in refractive index that shapes the core. 11 .

Gradedindex profiles include power-law index profiles and parabolic index profiles. Other optical fiber has a graded index profile. The following figure shows some common types of index profiles for single mode and multimode fibers.Optical Fiber Index Profile Index profile (see figure 1. in which the core has one uniformly distributed index and the cladding has a lower uniformly distributed index. in which refractive index varies gradually as a function of radial distance from the fiber center.7) is the refractive index distribution across the core and the cladding of a fiber. Some optical fiber has a step index profile. Advantage of OFC communication: 12 .

Limitations of OFC communication: • Difficulty in Jointing ( splicing ) • Highly skilled staff would be required for maintenance • Precision and costly instruments are required • Tapping for emergency and gate communication is difficult.signaling and data 13 .048 Mbps stream. This 6U sub rack is a common mechanical housing with a bussed backplane which accepts all the modules with vertical mounting making a modular equipment concept possible.5”H *19”W*18D. The system can be programmed for its channel assignments locally through a portable laptop computer or remotely from a central Supervisory Terminal System Architecture: The flexiMUX is a compact unit based on the 19 inch mechanical construction measuring 10. • Costly if under.         More information carrying capacity Free from Electromagnetic and Electrostatic interference Low attenuation : 0.utilised • Special interface equipments required for Block working • Accept unipolar codes i.25 db/km at 1550 nm Fibers not effected by power surges and corrosive chemicals.All the voice . LEDs on front panel indicate the status of all the individual modules. Safety and Signal Security No Cross-talk Less prone to theft Easy in System Up gradation High resistance to chemical effects and temperature variations.e return to zero codes only. BASIC HARDWARE INVOLVED: The WEBFIL Flexi MUX is a programmable add/drop multiplex equipment which combines variety of voice and data traffic of public or private network into a 2.The 2Mbps streams are accessed from the rear side either through coaxial connector for 75ohm interface or through wire wrap connectors post for 120ohm balanced connection.

703 G. SUBRACK ARCHITECTURE BLOCK DIAGRAM Technical data 1) Network access 2 MB port 2 nos.711 G. the tributary module and the various access modules 14 .704 G.823 Bit rate 2. external 2.( port A &B) local access voice & data from internal 2MB bus through 64KB time slots port c 2) 2 Mbps E1 interface ITU-T recommendations G.CAS Synchronization internal clock .732 G.048Mbps Number of bits per time slots 8 Number of time slots per frame 32 Number of time slots for VF & data 30 Number of frames/multiframe 16 Signalling time slot 16.The NMS can be accessed through a 9 pin D-shell connector. G. derived clock from receive E1 stream.048MHz clock Network Interface Module The network interface module is used for exchange of information among the network manager. mounted in the backplane or from RJ11 jack mounted in front of the Network interface module.information are accessed from wire wrap connectors mounted at the back.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF FLEXI-MUX SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION MODULE Synchronous Transmission Module (STM).interconnected via the backplane.52 Mbps and is the SDH equivalent of 15 . is to synchronize and convert the electrical energy pulse into respective light energy and vice-versa when necessary and enables us to transfer it through optical fibre. It is the basic rate of transmission of the SDH ITU-T fibre optic network transmission standard. • Perform PCM summing of conference channels along with logical summing of corresponding signaling data. It has a bit rate of 155. • Generate 2Mbps internal TDM bus for channel units. • The function of tributary module is to: • Extract the master clock of the network from the incoming 2Mbps streams. also known as Synchronous Data Transfer Mode. • Cross-connect 64 Kbps digital data along with signaling data. Tributary Module The tributary Module is the heart of the system which interfaces to the 2Mbps stream and realizes the add-drop function of the channel through the digital cross connect. • Report to NIM about the alarm status of the 2Mb stream and the module. The mode is made synchronized to the MCLK.

Since. we can supply the PSU with external voltage through the ports on it in case of a total failure. It gives +5V for the digital ICs. two PSUs are used in OC-3 (Sonet). Power Supply Unit All of the electronics components require power to get working. a 24 x 7 working system is required without a failure. This job is accomplished by the Power Supply Unit (PSU). Block diagram showing Basic Hierarchy of Synchronous Digital Network using OFC and Multiplexing NETWORKING 16 . +10V & -10V for the Opamp & +80V for the Ringers voltage. This power is distributed to the other cards through the backplane motherboard. Also.

Basically the Topology is categorized in following four types of designs. or allow electronic communications. Transmission medium: The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. telephone handset. Popular forms of information include text. it can be computer.Networking is basically consisting of two or more computers. numbers. c. It represents agreement between the communicating devices. video camera and soon. exchange files. Without a protocol. Message: The message is the information (data) to be communicated. that are linked in order to share resources. some examples of transmission media include twisted-pair wires. The computers on a network may be linked through cables. coaxial cable. d. workstation. just as a person speaking French cannot understood by a person who speaks only Japanese. TOPOLOGY The network in which the terminals are interconnected with each other for inter communication within and outside the network is called as Topology. television and so on. Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules that govern the data communication. It can be computer. workstation. or infra-red beams. b. Sender: The sender is a device that sends the data message. Components A data communications system has five components a. satellites. telephone lines. audio and video. pictures. Receiver: The receiver is the device that receives the message. e. radio waves. two devices may be connected but not communicating. telephone handset. fiber optic cable and radio waves. 17 .

1. Hence it is less expensive.1.1.2. If one device wants to senddata to another device . Mesh topology Star Topology Bus Topology. Advantages are •It is robust. •Each device needs only one link. All other links remain active. Star Topology In star topology each device has a dedicated point to point link only to central controller called as HUB as shown. 1. it sends through the HUB. 1.4. •It has privacy or secrecy.1. STAR TOPOLOGY •If a link fails.1. Every device must have (n-1) I/O ports.3. 1. only that link has to be attended. •Fault identification is easy Mesh disadvantages: are larger number of cables & I/O ports are required for each device. All WAN is mesh topology.1. Also the bulk of the wires can be greater than the available space.1.1. •Each link can carry its own data load.1.1. Ring Topology Types of Topologies present in Networking Mesh Topology In mesh topology every device has a dedicated point to point to every other device. 18 . Advantages are •It is easy to install and reconfigure.

from device to device until it reaches its destination. A data is passed along the ring in one direction. •A fault or break in bus cable stops all transmission. •To add or delete a device requires only changing two connections.•It is easy to identify fault. Disadvantages are •Difficult in fault isolation and reconnection. •It is also robust. The advantage is the installation is easy. each has a dedicated point to point connection only with two devices on either side of it. BUS TOPOLOGY Ring Topology In a ring topology. One long cable acts as a backbone to link all devices in a network. •Difficult to add device to an existing system. Each device in a ring incorporates a repeater. Bus Topology A BUS topology is multipoint. The disadvantages are unidirectional traffic and abreak in the ring can disable entire network. RING TOPOLOGY 19 . The advantages are •It is easy to install & configure.

data.means that there is many desktop computers distributed around the network and that there is no central processor machine (mainframe). CPU power... etc. printers. Location: In a building or individual rooms or floors of buildings or connecting nearby buildings together like a campus wide network like a college or university 20 . LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK) Local Area Networks (LANs) are networks that connect computers and resources together in a building or buildings close together. applications.Categories of Networks Networks are categorized in three different categories as : •LAN (Local Area Network) •MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) •WAN (Wide Area Network. fax/modem. They usually have distributed processing .The computers share resources such as hard-drives.

Examples of companies that use MANs are universities. gas stations. countries and continents. department stores and banks. 3) WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK) Wide Area Networks (WAN) are a communication systemlinking LANs between cities. Wide Area Networks (WANs) connect LANs together between cities or across a 21 . across a country or across a continent. Metropolitan Area Network Location: Separate buildings distributed throughout a city. colleges. Location: City to city. grocery chains. we see that telecommunication services provide the connection (storm clouds) between networks. A localtelecommunication service provides the external connection for joining networks across cities. From The Big Picture. Otherwise the same protocols and equipment are used as a MAN.Local Area Network 2) MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) are networks thatconnect LANs together within a city. The main difference between a MAN and a WAN is that the WAN uses Long Distance Carriers rather than Local Exchange carriers.

Wide Area Network OSI (Open System Interconnection) MODEL What is the OSI Model? •The OSI Model is a way of thinking about how networks 'work'. •The OSI Model defines how information should be handled when being transported over a network. •The OSI Model defines how software should interact with the network. and below it. it is not a program or software. PRESENTATION LAYER The presentation layer handles the conversion of data between a System-based or platform independent formats to a format understood by the local machine. it is not a 6. APPLICATION LAYER The OSI model defines the application layer as being the user interface. •The OSI Model specifies how layers should talk to each other. •The OSI Model sort’s network communication functions into layers •The OSI Model does not specify how a layer will work internally--that is a matter left to the programmers. BASIC 7 LAYERS OF OSI MODEL 7. The OSI application layer is responsible for displaying data and images to the user in a human-recognizable format and to interface with the presentation layer below it. •The OSI Model specifies that any layer's processes should be invisible to the layer above it. This 22 . •The OSI Model is a theoretical model--it is not a technology.

4. between hosts. then the detection of errors. •Communication with the Transport layer below. or Web page retrievals from a Web server. windowing and acknowledgments. •Reassemble transport Protocol Data Units into data streams •Reliable protocols operating at this layer will •Detect errors and lost data •Recover lost data •Manage retransmission of data. •Translation of data conforming to cross-platform system into formats understood by the local machine. •Organize and manage one or more connections per application. The presentation layer performs the following functions: •Communication with the application layer above. The session layer performs the following functions: •Communication with the Presentation layer above. or multiple telnet connections from a single terminal client. With TCP/IP this functionality is handled by application software addressing a connection to a remote machine and using a different local port number for each connection. •Segmentation of data streams into transport Protocol Data Units. 23 . The transport layer is concerned with the following primary functions: •Communicate with the Session layer above. The session layer should keep track of multiple file downloads requested by a particular FTP application. The transport layer may use a variety of techniques such as a Cyclic Redundancy Check. •Communicate with the Network layer below. SESSION LAYER The session layer tracks connections. also called sessions. TRANSPORT LAYER If networking software performs reliable data transfer functions. •Communication with the session layer below. If data is lost or damaged it is the transport layer's responsibility to recover from that error. 5.allows for data to be transported between devices and still be understood. and retransmission of data to recover those errors or lost data will occur in software managing this layer.

bit order. •Communication with the data link layer below. Management of big. •Management of connectivity and routing between hosts or networks. 1) PHYSICAL LAYER The physical layer provides for physical connectivity between networked devices. string etc. •Encapsulation of Transport data into Network layer Protocol Data Units. but has four primary functions: •COMMUNICATION with the Network layer above. The 24 . •The network layer is concerned with the following primary functions: •Communication with the Transport layer above. ordered delivery of frames. network topology. Transmission and receipt of data from the physical medium (copper wire.endian / little.3. physical link management. fiber. It should be noted that in most modern network interface adaptors. handle routing and to prepare data for transmission. radio frequencies. andflow control. parity and other functions are handled here. The data link layer performs various functions depending upon the hardware protocol used. the Physical and Datalink functions are performed by the network interface adaptor. •SEGMENTATION of upper layer data grams (also called packets) into frames in sizes that can be handled by the communications hardware.) is managed at this layer. The frame formatting issues such as stop and start bits. 2. DATA LINK LAYER The data link Layer is the second layer of the OSI model.endian issues are also managed at this layer. error notification. The data link layer organizes the pattern of data bits into before transmission. The data link layer is concerned with physical addressing. NETWORK LAYER •It is the network layer's job to figure out the network topology. barbed wire. •BIT ORDERING. •COMMUNICATION with the Physical layer below This layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical link.

Note that for two devices to communicate.physical layer receives data from the data link Layer. Two end stations using different protocols can only communicate through a multi -Protocol Bridge or a router. 802. they must be connected to the same type of physical medium (wiring). serial to serial etc. It also manages the encoding and decoding of data contained within the modulated signal. 25 . and transmits it to the wire. The physical layer controls the electrical and mechanical functions related to the transmission and receipt of a communications signal.3 Ethernet to 802.3 Ethernet. FDDI to FDDI. •Fragmentation of data into frames •Reassembly of frames into data link Protocol Data Units. •Transmission and receipt of data. The physical layer is responsible for two jobs: •Communication with the data link layer above it.


officials and VIPs may address some important functions such as Railway Week. Special functions :Local Minister. Railway Workshops: To give the announcements pertaining to staff in Workshops when required. departures. Passenger amenity: For giving the detailed information about the train arrivals.A System is a type of communication.A. PA system comprises all the devices and networks that exist between a source of sound (or its electrical equivalent) and its point of final reproduction. which can beused to communicate to a limited public over a limited area. In every zone. G. 27 . 2. Conference Hall is available. Breakdown train Emergency Equipment: The P. reception and dispatch of trains.. through paging and talk-back systems. Scouts and Guides rally. it is to be installed to guide the passengers and staff in rescue operations at the site of accident. cultural programmes etc. late running if any.A. administrative meetings for a limited group of officials in conference halls. And also for entertainment music during lunch hours. Conferences: For conducting seminars.M. System in ARTs (Accident Relief Train) must be kept in working condition so that any accident occurs. 6. 5. A quality P. 4. The basic function of an audio system is to deliver audible and recognizable sounds at comparable level to the listener. felicitations.M. a G. In these suitable Conference systems were permanently installed. and location of trains and any other important information related to Railway users. system in Railways: 1. etc. Application of P. 3.. special lectures. System needs to be installed. Marshalling Yards: Communication is being established between Yard Master and Shunting man for the formation.PUBLIC AMENITIES SYSTEM INTRODUCTION P.A. some social work meetings.

generally provided as standalone system. Prerecorded Announcement and Auto Announcement System: It is an IVRS System. on a PSTN / Mobile Network through a centralized data base. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CONNECTION OF VARIOUS AMPLIFIERS WITH MICROPHONES AND LOUDSPEAKERS 28 . which is at present maintained at Divisions / HQ.Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS): Interactive Voice Response System./ CRIS or through NTES servers. the technical system giving the information of Train Running. to give the information to public on PSTN Telephone either for Train Running Information or to work as Announcement System in Platform with suitable interface to PA System. passenger PNR etc.


1. etc. 1.TRAIN INDICATION BOARD General It is a display device which gives the information regarding running of Train Arrival / Departure timing and Platform No. The systemis either operated locally at a particular station or can be fed from Central location. 1. 1. They are mainly provided at Platform and Public utility location. asynchronous serial communication port. 1.1Train Indicator system for trains should comprise of a) Multiple line.2 All Display Boards should be given unique identification code/address and their status is to be reflected and made available on screen of the operating console as a health monitoring system. 1. peripheral interface adopter. flashing & steadymode.5 The Indicator system should be designed in sucha way that operator has to do minimum number of operations for initiating and completing the entire process of a data entry. Multiple row Single/Double face train indicators at the entrance of platforms as per the Need of the stations and number of platforms at concourse / lobby.6 The display boards should contain microprocessor based control unit. b) Single line Double face train indicators at platforms at various locations along with platform length with clear visibility. efficient address decoding and memory mapping technique using resident programfor multiplexed display to driver up to 256 unique addresses. 1.4 The Display Board should be capable to display fixed slogans/ messages at the time of Accidents/derailments in rolling.3 The software should be suitable for operation of Train indicators and should be capable to display approximately 200 Trains departing /arriving from the Railway Station with the capability for further up gradation to 500 Trains.7 Surge and lightening protection arrangement should be provided at 230V AC 30 .

so as to protect the electronic modules from damage. The arrangement may include GD tubes.9 Electrical power supply for all advance indicators of one location will be provided from a centralized place. 1.mains end and output of power supply.8 The system should be designed to suit the 25 KV AC traction areas. However earthing for 230 volt AC power supply should be made separate. Proper earthing arrangement should be provided for grounding the shield of the data cable to prevent the EMI & RFI interference. BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWING PLACEMENT OF PLATFORM DISPLAY AND COACH GUIDANCE SYSTEM 31 . Separate wiring of power cable from a centralized power point to individual display boards should be planned in separate conduits. similarly for all platform indicators electrical power supply will be provided from a centralized place. MOVs and fuses etc. 1.


quality and security. BACKGROUND: Traditionally. The commercial relationships are underpinned with service level agreements which guarantee performance.5G and 3G data roaming has been using GRX. via IP basedNetwork-to-Network Interface. such as IMS. GRX is limited only to GSM operator community and not all GRX's are capable of meeting the demands of real-time services. Even though the GRX environment is not entirely suitable as a common IP network for interconnection and roaming.IP EXCHANGE IP exchange or (IPX) is a telecommunications interconnection model for the exchange of IP based traffic between customers of separate mobile and fixed operators as well as other types of service provider (such as ISP). However. voice traffic interconnection between different operators has utilized the international SS7/TDM networks. further increasing the need for evolution into an IP based interconnection network. In order to minimize the number of conversions between packetswitched voice and circuit-switched voice there is a clear need to deploy an IP based NNI (Network-to-Network Interface) and therefore an IP based interconnection network. However. IPX is developed by GSM Association. IPX is not intended to replace or compete with the Internet but it does offer an alternative option for service providers. ultimately provides for end-user choice. 33 . Since the year 2000 GSM operators have been using GRX (GPRS Roaming Exchange) network for routing the IP based commercial roaming traffic between visited and home operators. however. It may not be evident to end-users whether their service provider utilises the IPX model or not. lately the all-IP paradigm with VoIP is being rapidly introduced by different operators in various forms. the ability for service providers to differentiate services using the flexibility provided by the IPX model. IPX development has been done in various GSM Association projects and working groups since 2004. it offers a good starting point for the development of IPX. It is also evident that a large number of IP based services (such as Presence or IM) simply cannot be interconnected using a SS7/TDM network. The intent of IPX is to provide interoperability of IP-based services between all service provider types within a commercial framework that enables all parties in the value chain to receive a commercial return. Mainly2. GRX is a private IP network (separated from internet) consisting of multiple different GRX carriers that are connected to each other via peering points.

As Alex Sinclair of GSMA put it. Because all participants make this commitment. "The open Internet is a wonderful thing. but when it comes to providing a guaranteed quality of service. Multilateral on the other hand means that the IPX provider to some extent takes care of both handling the contract and connectivity set-up on behalf of the operators. KEY FEATURES:    Open . It is also possible to use multiple different options at the same time (although this will lead to increased complexity). Setting up bilateral interconnection contracts & connections with tens/hundreds of other operators can be a major burden. the financial benefits of providing the service are cascaded through the value to any fixed operator. there is still a long way to go". Naturally operators and other service providers are free to choose which interconnection option to use. mobile operator or other service provider (such as ISP or cable operator) willing to adopt the necessary common IPX technical and commercial principlesand sign in Quality . IPX offers both bilateral and multilateral interconnection. which allows an operator to open multiple connections by making a single contract and single technical connection with the IPX provider. enabling all involved to receive a commercial return for their participation 34 . Both signaling (such as SIP) and media (such as RTP) is transported end-to-end in accordance with IPX specifications. ARCHITECTURE: IPX architecture consists of different IPX Providers connecting together via an IPX peering point for traffic exchange. since Internet natively supports the IP protocol and offers the required global connectivity.NEED FOR A PRIVATE BACKBONE: IP based interconnection could be handled with Internet. But there are issues when using Internet for this particular for QoS ensured by usage of combination of technical features in the network and an enforceable contract model among all the players involved (end-to-end Service Level Agreements) Cascading payments – the cascading responsibility in IPX means each party is responsible for the performance of the next party in the transit chain. Bilateral means the traditional model of two operators bilaterally writing an interconnection contract prior to setting up a connection to each other themselves. Therefore the multilateral option. particularly for time-critical services. makes interconnection deployment easier and faster.

completely separated from the public internet. SIGTRAN etc. A number of international carriers are preparing to roll out IPX services. 35 .) Secure . CITIC 1616. a 3GPP compliant IMS core system with the implementation of a IPX compliant Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) NNI only . SMTP. Telefónica International Wholesale Services. BT. Syniverse. Belgacom International Carrier Services. The User-to-Network Interface (UNI) is out of scope Common technical specifications used end-to-end Interconnection and roaming IPX covers both interconnection and roaming scenarios Competitive environment . Telecom New Zealand International. Reach. such as IPX Voice.IPX requirements address NNI only. SAP Mobile Services.IPX services are provided by a number of competing international IP carriers all connected to each other via dedicated IPX peering points STATUS: Principles of IPX have been successively tested and validated by GSMA. GSMA press release in February 2008 explains that IPX trials have been completed successfully. Telecom Italia Sparkle. GSMA SIP Trials tested IP-based NNI with numerous IMS based services. From 2004 onwards.         Efficient connectivity . These companies will function as IPX Providers towards fixed and mobile operators and other service provider types. GTP.operator connecting to IPX can choose a multilateral interconnection mode where one interconnection contract opens multiple interconnection partners All IP supporting natively IP based protocols (such as SIP. Telenor Global Services.IPX specifications are compliant with the existing specifications and recommendations. Telekom Austria. Deutsche Telekom ICSS.not restricted to a certain geographical area Backwards compatible . IPX Pre-commercial Implementation trials have been ongoing since April 2007 focusing especially on packet switched voice service. TeliaSonera International Carrier. There is no need to upgrade for example. GSMA is open to support further trials on demand. RTP. iBasis. IPX is not addressable nor visible from the internet Global . both logically and physically. Tata Communications.

3. often called the "last mile" (LM). Customer premises: DSL modem terminating the ADSL. Path taken by data to DSLAM: 1. SHDSL or VDSL circuit and providing LAN interface to single computer or LAN segment 2. the MDF is generally in proximity to the cable vault and not far from the telephone switch. often located in the telephone exchanges of the telecommunications operators. Telephone exchange:  Main distribution frame (MDF): a wiring rack that connects outside subscriber lines with internal lines. 36 .Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) A digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM).DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer) IP. The voice signal can be routed to a POTS provider or left unused whilst the data signal is routed to the ISP DSLAM via the HDF (see next entry). It is used to connect public or private lines coming into the building to internal networks. At the telco.  xDSL filters: DSL filters are used in the telephone exchange to split voice from data signals. It connects multiple customer digital subscriber line (DSL) interfaces to a high-speed digital communications channel using multiplexing techniques. often pronounced deeslam) is a network device. Local loop: the telephone company wires from a customer to the telephone exchange or to a serving area interface.

Depending on its device architecture and setup. an IP-DSLAM using PTM-TC [Packet Transfer Mode . via an access network (AN) also called aNetwork Service Provider (NSP) at up to 10 Gbit/s data rates. sometimes in conjunction with a digital loop carrier. The DSLAM port where the subscriber local loop is connected converts analog electrical signals to data traffic (upstream traffic for data upload) and data traffic to analog electrical signals (downstream for data download). and may also serve multiple data and voice customers within a neighbourhood serving area interface. In addition to being a data switch and multiplexer.Transmission Convergence]) protocol(s) stack. and/or Internet Protocolnetwork (i. a DSLAM is also a large collection of modems. The DSLAM acts like a network switch since its functionality is at Layer 2 of the OSI model.  Handover distribution frame (HDF): a distribution frame that connects the last mile provider with the service provider's DSLAM DSLAM: a device for DSL service. a DSLAM aggregates the DSL lines over its Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Therefore it cannot re-route traffic between multiple IP networks. A DSLAM may or may not be located in the telephone exchange. This modem functionality is integrated into the DSLAM itself instead of being done via an external device like a 20th century voice band modem. Customer-premises equipment that interfaces well with the DSLAM to which it is connected may take advantage of enhanced telephone voice and data line signalling features and the bandwidth monitoring and compensation capabilities it supports.e. The aggregated traffic is then directed to a telco's backbone switch.. frame relay. and other businesses operating their own private telephone exchange. Each modem on the aggregation card communicates with a single subscriber's DSL modem. DSLAMs are also used by hotels. The DSLAM traffic is switched to a Broadband Remote Access Server where the end user traffic is then routed across the ISP network to the Internet. Role of the DSLAM: The DSLAM equipment collects the data from its many modem ports and aggregates their voice and data traffic into one complex composite "signal" via multiplexing. 37 . lodges. a DSLAM's integrated DSL modems usually have the ability to probe the line and to adjust themselves to electronically or digitally compensate for forward echoes and other bandwidth-limiting factors in order to move data at the maximum connection rate capability of the subscriber's physical line. residential neighbourhoods. only between ISP devices and end-user connection points. Like traditional voice-band modems.

000 feet (~1.000 feet (4.000 feet (~900 m) 22 Mbit/s at 4. The most common upstream links in these DSLAMs use Gigabit Ethernet or multigigabit fiber optic links. cabling. and each such card can have multiple ports to which the customers lines are connected. DSLAM chassis.) The following is a rough guide to the relation between wire distance (based on 0. thus supporting 'weaker' signals (however the solid-state electronics required to construct such digital interfaces is more costly).000 feet (~2. 38 . but this number can vary with each manufacturer.000 feet (~300 m) 24 Mbit/s at 2. providing capabilities for LAN segments longer than physically similar unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Ethernet connections.000 feet (~5.1 km) 8 Mbit/s at 10.5 km) 800 kbit/s at 17.000 feet (~1.40 mm copper and ADSL2+ technology) and maximum data rate.2 km) 21 Mbit/s at 5. Each DSLAM has multiple aggregation cards. which are connected to the PSTN network via typical unshielded twisted pair telephone lines. hence the longer the wire between DSLAM and subscriber. and upstream links.2 km) Hardware details : Customers connect to the DSLAM through ADSL modems or DSL routers.8 km) 16 Mbit/s at 7. often necessitating a closer DSLAM to bring acceptable bandwidths:           25 Mbit/s at 1. which are supplied with (nominal) 48 volts DC.This compensation capability also takes advantage of the better performance of "balanced line" DSL connections. effectively lowering the overall frequency/data rate. the slower the maximum possible data rate due to the lower frequencies being utilized to limit the total attenuation (or due to the higher number of errors at higher frequencies. Bandwidth versus distance : Balanced pair cable has higher attenuation at higher frequencies. This is due to the nominal line impedance (measured in Ohms but comprising both resistance and inductance) of balanced lines being somewhat lower than that of UTP.5 Mbit/s at 15. since the balanced line type is generally required for its hardware to function correctly. Hence a typical DSLAM setup may contain power converters. Local conditions may vary. Typically a single DSLAM aggregation card has 24 ports. aggregation cards.5 km) 19 Mbit/s at 6.000 feet (~600 m) 23 Mbit/s at 3. The most common DSLAMs are housed in a telco-grade chassis.000 feet (~3 km) 1.000 feet (~1. especially beyond 2 km.

The advantages of IP-DSLAM over a traditional ATM DSLAM are that the merged equipment is less expensive to make and operate and can offer a richer set of features. User traffic is mostly IP based.IP-DSLAM IP-DSLAM stands for Internet Protocol Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer. This division of work was thought to be sensible because DSL itself is based on ATM. These devices then extract the IP traffic and pass it on to an IP router in an IP network. Traditional 20th century DSLAMs used Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology to connect to upstream ATM routers/switches. 39 . and could theoretically carry data other than IP in that ATM stream. In contrast. an IP-DSLAM extracts the IP traffic in the DSLAM itself and passes it on to an IP router.

speed variation depending upon the particular track section) from New Delhito the capital cities of various states in India. 40 . especially state capitals.[2] The first Rajdhani Express left New Delhi station for Howrah station to cover a distance of 1.445 km in 17 hours 20 mins. Rajdhani means "The Capital" in Hindi.RAJDHANI EXPRESS Rajdhani Express is a passenger train service in India connecting New Delhi with other important destinations. Rajdhani Express was introduced in 1969.[1] for providing fast connections (up to 140 km/h or 87 mph.

 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OF RAJDHANI EXPRESS GPS SYSTEM: The Indian Railway is using Real-time Train information system (RTIS) to he public. Lucknow and Indian Institute Of Technology (IIT). which also uses satellite service is overcoming a lot of limitation of the existing Train Running Information System. speed.based train tracking system has been jointly developed by the Research Design and Standards Organization (RSDO). Railways has installed GPS device in all locomotives and station to receive dynamic data on train movement through satellite. This system provides the passengers information such as train location. The newly designed GPS – based train tracking system. which works on GPS technology. time duration and all relevant information required by passengers will be made available automatically once the system 41 . location with respect to the next stop in terms of kilometers etc. The GPS. The pilot project has already been done and is stated by the officials that the system is working successfully in a number of trains already. Name of the incoming train. Kanpur. running position such as whether it is running on time or late and by how much.

MAGNET TELEPHONE: Magneto telephone is used for several purposes in the Rajdhani Train:For communication between the guard and driver of the train.177 stations of Indian Railways have so far been done. Engine is isolated from the coaches. Audio equipment are used for automatic and manual announcements to passengers travelling in the train. Each coach has the wiring supporting this bogy wiring is connected to the other bogy through the coupler. so engine is joined to the bogy for communication purpose through the wiring done externally. Used to inform the pantry car about the need of the customer For the communication between two guard section of the same train Working Principle: There is a dedicated telephone line for the communication the telephone.becomes operational for all trains. When one has to communication through the telephone first one has to rotate the knob of the telephone as there is point connection so a ring goes to the other end automatically. It is integrated with centralized traffic controller station through radio links/GSM for emergency messages. The system will be utilized for tracking freight trains as well “the official said. 42 . “AL our control offices are now computerized. Digital mapping of 8.

Public address system. Fist/Gooseneck microphone. There are 7 one soded telephones present in the both train. Where announcement and songs can be played through amplifier. Passenger to driver interface unit. The communication has one advantages is that if there is a no source of voltage inside the bogey then also communication Is possible due to self running generator. There are 17 coaches and in every coaches 11 speakers. Power amplifier unit featuring automatic gain adjustment according to ambient noise condition.This system generally comprises of: Driver interface unit. The connection is done which is embedded with the bogies. There amplifier are used with self voltage generator telephone and is used in point to point communication. Automatic voice announcement unit. One sided telephoned which is point to point communication between guard and driver. No one from outside can tap or rather listen their communication. One in the driver coach. Two in the engines and other two in the panty car. COMMUNICATION IN RAJDHANI EXPRESS: Communication on Rajdhani expreaa are both same. 43 .

Crew Management system (Data circuit on railway network). Passenger’s reservation system (Data circuit on Railway network). These Block proving axle counters are provided on 78 block section.  Data Loggers: Data loggers are microprocessor based system for logging the Progression of important signaling & interlocking. By providing these system. There are compact and reliable device proving complete arrival of the train. Administrative voice and data circuits. The telecommunication facilities provided on the railways are broadly categorized in the three areas applications.  Intergraded Power System (IPS): SMPS based power supply system are being provided for signaling installations. various voltages required for signaling sub-system can be form IPS alleviating the need for battery banks. Modern Signaling System in Sealdah division:  Signal Section Digital Axle counter: On move towards modern signaling Sealdah division has gone for SSDAC. These are 76 IPS system provided in SEALDAH DIVISION.  Automatic signaling: Automatic signaling is provided in suburban section of Sealdah division to increase line capacity. Coaching information system (Data circuit on railway network). Telecommunication for train operation: Telecommunication system gives controller for efficient train control and monitoring.CONCLUSION Role of Signal And Telecommunication department:        Safely in train operation. Omnibus circuit exist for control operation connected with central control 44 . Freight operation information system (Data circuit on railway network). Unreserved ticketing system (Data circuit on Railway network). TELECOMMUNICATIONS: Providing basic telecommunication facilities for the Railways vast transport system is responsibility of the Signal & Telecom department. In this system signals are provided at every kilometer 77. Data loggers help in diagnosis of signal defects.34 route kilometers are provided with automatic signaling in Seladah division on Sealdah main and Sealdah south section.

MICROWAVE Communication: Division is having 18 GHz digital Microwave system provided at 24 stations in SEALDAH SOUTH. TELEPHONE EXCHANGE: Provides telephone Exchange for railway internal communication requirements. OFC Communication: Optical Fiber communication system is the Backbone of telecommunication SEADAH. The short? Haul STM-1 network is protected by long ?haul STM-1 self healing ring network provided in section of control. Freight operation and Information system (FOIS) Crew Management System (CMS). The OFC & MW communication system meets the entire need of voice and data communication circuits of the Division and Zonal headquarters. The short ?haul STM-1 equipments of 155 mbps capacity is provided at 52 stations along with fibers network. In sealdah division we have 11 electronic Exchange provided at different location. Unreserved Ticketing system (UTS). connected with 1MB link. The fiber network carries VOICE. DATA & MULTIMEDIA services for various applications. DATA Communications: Data communication circuits for Computerize Passengers Reservation System (PRS). 45 .