IEEE Citation Reference

IEEE Publications uses Webster’s College Dictionary, 4th Edition. For guidance on grammar and usage not included in this manual, please consult The Chicago Manual of Style, published by the University of Chicago Press. Citiation standards in this reference are provided for: Books Handbooks Reports Conference Technical Articles O nline S ources Patents, S tandards, Theses, Unpublished Periodicals References

Basic Format: [1] J. K. Author, “Title of chapter in the book,” in Title of His Published Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Abbrev. of Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xxx–xxx. NOTE: Use et al. when three or more names are given. Examples: B. Klaus and P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986. L. Stein, “Random patterns,” in Computers and You, J. S. Brake, Ed. New York: Wiley, 1994, pp. 55-70. R. L. Myer, “Parametric oscillators and nonlinear materials,” in Nonlinear Optics, vol. 4, P. G. Harper and B. S. Wherret, Eds. San Francisco, CA: Academic, 1977, pp. 47-160. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Applied Mathematics Series 55). Washington, DC: NBS, 1964, pp. 32-33. E. F. Moore, “Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines,” in Automata Studies (Ann. of Mathematical Studies, no. 1), C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy, Eds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 129-153. Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Staff of Technology and Science, Aerospace Div.), Integrated Electronic Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970. M. Gorkii, “Optimal design,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol. 12, pp. 111-122, 1961 (Transl.: in L. Pontryagin, Ed., The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes. New York: Interscience, 1962, ch. 2, sec. 3, pp. 127-135). G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, vol. 3, Polymers of Hexadromicon, J. Peters, Ed., 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15-64.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Handbooks Basic Format: [1] Name of Manual/Handbook, x ed., Abbrev. Name of Co., City of Co., Abbrev. State, year, pp. xx-xx. Examples: [1] Transmission Systems for Communications, 3rd ed., Western Electric Co., Winston-Salem, NC, 1985, pp. 44–60. [2] Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola Semiconductor Products Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 1989. [3] RCA Receiving Tube Manual, Radio Corp. of America, Electronic Components and Devices, Harrison, NJ, Tech. Ser. RC-23, 1992.

page 1 of 7 rev. Sept 09 D. Graffox

Author. pp. Lupatkin.” in “Radio Propagation Characteristics of the Washington-Honolulu Path. Aug. K. State. CA. When the word below appears in the conference publication title. Nov. Cogdell. Paper 1st 2nd 3rd 4th/nth. Nov.” Abbrev. Eng. year. 1. Basic Format: [1] J. year. “Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas. City of Co. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Conference Technical Articles The general form for citing technical articles published in conference proceedings is to list the author/s and title of the paper. Tech. Case.” presented at the Unabbrev.. Contract NOBSR-87615. Name of Conf. Abbrev. 1987.” That is. ARCRL-66-234 (II). Annu. Graffox .” Elect. When the word below appears in the conference publication title.” in [Title of Conf. K.. but omit most articles and prepositions like “of the” and “on. Dig.. Reports The general form for citing technical reports is to place the name and location of the company or institution after the author and title and to give the report number and date at the end of the reference... Rec. followed by the name (and location. 1994. “Calibration program for the 16-foot antenna. CA. M. Basic Format: [1] J. “Title of report. operation. Res. Nov. Elect.. L.. Tech. year. and data evaluation of an oblique-incidence ionosphere sounder system. Colloq. Feb. 1995. For an electronic conference article when there are no page numbers: [1] J. Nat. “Oxygen absorption in the earth’s atmosphere. page 2 of 7 rev. New York. Lab. 1996 Robotics and Automation Conf. “Title of paper. Rep.. Annals Annual Colloquium Conference Congress Convention Digest Exposition International National abbreviate to Ann. K. State. Writer ] [three or more authors: J. E. City of Conf. Sept 09 D. Dig. Tech. Proceedings of the 1996 Robotics and Automation Conference becomes Proc. Davis and J. “Installation. NGL-006-69-3. if given) of the conference publication in italics using these standard abbreviations.. vol. 1988. Stanford. K. doi: [DOI number] For an unpublished papr presented at a conference: [1] J. Final Rep. Labs. A.. Angeles. Author. R. Columbia Univ.” in Unabbreviated Name of Conf. R. Texas. Memo.. “Title of Article. Author [two authors: J. Sci. MA.” USAF Cambridge Res. Examples: E. State (if given). [copyright year] © [IEEE or applicable copyright holder of the Conference Record]. Rep. Author and A. xxx. CA.. 85. Abbrev. H. “Title of paper. Rep. Conf.. Congr. Los Angeles. Abbrev. City of Conf. Int. Rep. T. Clark. Author. Univ. Rep.. Proceedings Record Symposium Technical Digest Technical Paper First Second Third Fourth/nth . vol. Diament and W. P. 2. Symp. “V-line surface-wave radiation and scanning. N. Expo. 15. E. abbreviate to Proc. 1988.” Aerospace Corp... Inst.. xxx-xxx.” Stanford Res. Name of Co. Tech. J. Austin.TR-0200 (4230-46)-3.” Dept. K. 1991. Eng. Record as it appears on the copyright page]. Haskell and C. Tech. Conv.]. Cambridge. Write out all the remaining words. K. N. Author et al. Reber et al.. TR-0200 (4230-46)-3. Brusberg and E.

atm.txt WWW Basic Format: [1] J. K. Graffox .) [Online]. Meligna. (year). month day). Oct. (year. Title (edition) [Type of medium]. J. (1993. FTP Basic Format: [1] J. K. Available e-mail: Message: Example: [1] S. Author. The following sources are unique in that they are electronic only sources. Inter-Network Talk [Online].usc.CMU. Networks (2nd ed. Title (edition) [Type of medium]. K. month day). Author. Available FTP: Directory: pub/etext/1994 File: atmosplasma. Periodic table of elements [Online]. June 11). Author. (year. Available FTP: Directory: File: Example: [1] R. Sept 09 D. (1994). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors [Online]. or add the DOI in place of page numbers if the source is not paginated. Author.(URL) Example: [1] J. Available: http://www. Available: http://www. H. May 10). Title (edition) [Type of medium].com E-Mail Basic Format: [1] J. Jones. Vidmar. The DOI for each IEEE conference article is assigned when the article is processed for inclusion in the IEEE Xplore digital library and is included with the reference data of the article in Xplore. Gold. month day). K.O nline S ources The basic guideline for citing online sources is to follow the standard citation for the source given previously and add the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) at the end of the citation. Available Telnet: Directory: File: Example: [1] V. (1991. Title (edition) [Type of medium]. See The DOI System for more information about the benefits of DOI referencing. (year. Available Telnet: Library. 10). Available e-mail: COMSERVE@RPIECS Message: Get NETWORK TALK Telnet Basic Format: [1] Directory: Libraries/Reference Works File: Periodic Table of Elements page 3 of 7 rev. (1995.

thesis.Patents. These de doctoral d’etat.. [2] Letter Symbols for Quantities. Brahms. Williams. Examples: [1] J. Standard number. Paper R-67-85. Month. Univ. Abbrev.” Ph. Electron.S. private communication.” M. Month.e. Graffox .S.S. year. Theses.. 1993. dissertation.D. 1968. Eng. “Title of dissertation.5-1968. [3] N. K. ANSI Standard Y10. 1969. Unpublished These are the two most common types of unpublished references. Harvard Univ. day. Patent x xxx xxx. “Title of patent. Harrison. Basic Format : [1] J.D.” U. Dept. Osaka. Amer. Abbrev. K. “Representation error for real numbers in binary computer arithmetic. O. France.”*** [4] C. Examples: [1] A. private communication.. Grenoble. Author. NOTE: Use “issued date” if several dates are given.S.” unpublished.. K. 1995. Abbrev. California. [2] J. Tech. State.” IEEE Computer Group Repository.. S tandards. Dept. P. *** The state abbreviation is omitted if the name of the university includes the state name. [2] B. Univ. year. Patent 3 624 125. year. page 4 of 7 rev..D.. “Narrow-band analyzer..” Ph. Abbrev. Abbrev. K. 1993. IEEE Standard 308. Berkeley.) Basic Format: [1] J.. Grenoble. Japan. Author. Abbrev. dissertation. California. 16854. Author.” Ph.” unpublished. Becle.D.S. State. City of Univ. [2] N. “Nonlinear resonant circuit devices. Example: [1] J.) and Dissertations (Ph.. thesis. MA. dissertation. Wilkinson. Dept. K. “Title of thesis. Examples: [1] IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems. Univ. “An approach to graphs of linear forms. “Title of paper. i. May 1995. M. Berkeley.” U. Elect. Abbrev. [2] J. Smith. date. Dept. Eng. Cambridge. 1990.Sept 09 D. Abbrev. City of Univ. Osaka Univ.” M.. Rep. year. Kawasaki. “Univ. Theses (M. Univ. July 16. “Parametric study of thermal and chemical nonequilibrium nozzle flow. Radiation Lab. “The effects of homogeneous magnetic fields on developments of tribolium confusum. Unpublished Patents Basic Format: [1] J. Author. Standards Basic Format: [1] Title of Standard. [3] A. Author..

Topics Signal Process. (until 2005) IEEE Signal Process. (until 1978) IEEE Comput. IEEE Transl. “A note on reflector arrays. Rev. Syst. Lett. Mag. no. Magn. IEEE Micro IEEE Microwave IEEE Multimedia IEEE Nanotechnol.. Miller. Solid-State Circuits IEEE Sensors J. 83.” submitted for publication. 1935. IEEE J. IRE (until 1962) IEEE Journals IEEE J. Automat. Syst. IEEE Spectr. Mar. Mag. Mag. IEEE Antennas Propagat. Comput. IEEE J. Akad. (1979–1984) IEEE Commun. IEEE ASSP Mag. (1984–1990) IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. Wigner. Meas. vol. Technol. Hope. IEEE Commun. Sel. “New results in linear filtering and prediction theory. IEEE Aerosp. Graph. Technol. Mag. [2] Ye. IEEE IT Prof. IEEE Intell. 53. IEEE Ind. IEEE Eng. “Effect of gamma rays on plasma. J. Soc.: E. IEEE Network IEEE Pers.. IEEE Power Electron. Eng. vol. to be published. Power IEEE Comput. Areas Commun. Mag. Mag.** [5] C. “Geographic distribution of ionospheric disturbances in the F2 layer. K. Syst. “On a modification of the Rayleigh–Schrodinger perturbation theory. IEEE Proceedings of the IRE abbreviates to: Proc. Today’s Eng. Kim. xxx-xxx. IEEE Technol. IEEE J. D. Kalman. Mag.” Tr. IEEE Robot. IEEE Comput. ** [6] W. Intell. Naturwiss. Sept 09 D. vol. IEEE J. vol.. page 5 of 7 rev.” J. T384R. IEEE Des. Defence Research Board of Canada. IEEE Signal Processing Mag. Appl. 95-108. Quantum Electron. IZMIRAN. the issue number should be deleted and month carried. Biol. IEEE Expert (until 1997) IEEE J. IEEE Instrum. IEEE Comput. 636-640. Lett. Jpn.. K. Mag. pp. Rev. 1961. Appl. 82. Syst. Do not use “to appear in. Mag. IEEE J. pp. ** Always use this style when the paper has not yet been accepted or scheduled for publication. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Wiss. IEEE Photonics Technol. R. Insul. Rafferty. Mag. Eng. Aid. p. Med. IEEE vol. H. Mag. IEEE Eng. 1961 (Transl. [4] E. Lavrova. Lett. Antennas Propag. Microelectromech. Mag. Lett. IEEE Syst. Ocean. x.” IEEE Trans. P. x. Examples: [1] R.Periodicals NOTE: When referencing IEEE Transactions. Title of Periodical. Basic Format: [1] J. Comput. IEEE Veh. Quantum Electron. V. Mag. J. IEEE Computer IEEE Concurrency IEEE Control. Math. 1963). Sci. Commun. pp. Sel. Basic Eng. pp. (1991–present) IEEE Softw. J. IEEE Annals Hist. (1985–present) IEEE Circuits Syst. Author. Anz. Abbrev. Mag. Soc. 31–43. Ungar. IEEE Electron Device Lett. Mag. Directorate of Scientific Information Services. 29. J. Sel. 19. Month. 475. Test Comput. “Name of paper. ser.” Abbreviations for IEEE Periodicals Proceedings of the IEEE abbreviates to: Proc.” Proc. Appl. Graffox IEEE Letters IEEE Magazines . Rep. Lightw. Lett. Apr. Topics. [3] E. Des. Mag. (1979–present) IEEE Commun. IEEE Potentials IEEE Power Eng. IEEE Electr. Electron. “Ground antennas in NASA’s deep space telecommunications. Manag. IEEE Internet Comput.. E. no. May 1994.” (in German). year.” Abbrev.

Hybrids. Analog Digit. Electromagn. Comput. Prof. Ind. (until 2003) IEEE Trans. Magn. IEEE Trans. Supercond. Compon. Signal Process. Fuzzy Syst. IEEE Trans. Data Eng. Syst. Geosci. Aerosp. IEEE Trans. Eng. (1987–1999) IEEE Trans. Intell. Technol. Autom. Circuits Syst. Mach. IEEE Trans. Instrum. Semicond.. Graphics IEEE Trans. Electron. Transp. Fundam. Syst. Veh. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Eng. Technol. IEEE Trans. Technol. Packag. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Edu. Comput. II. IEEE Trans. (1972–1977) IEEE Trans. Man Cybern. IEEE Trans. C (1996–1998) IEEE Trans. Appl. Forens. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Med. Nucl. IEEE Trans. Parts. Parts. IEEE Trans. Electron. Wireless Commun. Packag. Commun. Manuf. Insul. Ind. Speech Audio Process. Manuf. Audio Electroacoust. Technol. Control IEEE Trans. Manuf. (until 2003) IEEE Trans. Video Technol. Sci. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Guid. IEEE Trans. Man Cybern. Biomed. Wireless Compon. Electron Devices IEEE Trans. Airbone Electron. Technol. Packag. Technol. IEEE Trans. Aeronaut. Manuf. Dielectr. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. Geosci. (until 1985) IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Compat. Mil. Instrum. Commun. IEEE Trans. (until 1985) IEEE Trans. Compon. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Image Process. Broadcast. Rev.-Aided Des. Consum. Packag. Pattern Anal. IEEE Trans. IEEE Human–Factors Electron. Circuits Syst. Imag. Power Electron. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Ind. Graffox . Syst. Packag. Circuits Syst. Power Del. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Control IEEE Trans. Packag. Speech. IEEE Trans. Electr. Eng. IEEE Trans. Rel. Netw. IEEE Trans. Commun. Circuits Syst. Power Syst. Antennas Propag. IEEE Trans. Security IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Vis. Inf. Navig. (1974–1992) IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. Signal Process. (until 2004) IEEE Trans. Syst. (1971–1995) IEEE Trans. Biomed. Syst. Technol. Manuf. IEEE Trans. Papers IEEE Trans. Meas. IEEE Trans. Manuf. Technol. IEEE Trans. (VLSI) Syst. (1962–1979) IEEE Trans. (until 1968) IEEE Man–Mach. Reliab. Broadcast.IEEE Transactions abbreviations IEEE Adv. IEEE/ACM Trans. Compon. IEEE Trans. Signal Process.. Aerosp. Inf. Knowl. Microw. I. Electron. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Microw. Electron. Appl. IEEE Trans. Reg. IEEE Trans. Electron. Mechatron. Lett. Circuits Syst. Manuf. IEEE Trans. Wave Lett. Eng. IEEE Trans. Syst. Ferroelectr. Syst. Rehabil. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Informat. Syst. Humans IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Robot. IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. Integr. Compon. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Mater. Circuit Theory (until 1973) IEEE Trans. Packag. Energy Convers. Man Cybern. IEEE Trans. Navig. Comput. Appl. B. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. (until 1970) IEEE Trans. Manag. Compon. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Electron. Technol. Packag. Neural Syst. (until 1974) IEEE Trans. A. Evol. IEEE Trans. (1978—1993) IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Microw. Electron. Briefs IEEE Trans. Eng. Sonics Ultrason. (until 1971) IEEE Trans. Technol. Exp. C. Electron. Parallel Distrib. Theory Appl. Technol. I. Sept 09 D. Multimedia IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. (June 1971– 1977) IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Syst. B (1994–1998) IEEE Trans. Comput. Ultrason. Rehabil. Intell. A (1994–1998) IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. IEEE Trans. Dev. Man Cybern. Cybern. IEEE Trans. Freq. Syst. IEEE Trans. Eng. Acoust. Remote Sens. Neural Netw. Technol. IEEE Trans. Inf. IEEE Trans. (until 2000) IEEE Trans. Mat. page 6 of 7 rev. (1975–1990) IEEE Trans. Softw. Circuits Syst. Control Syst. Power App. Autom. Biomed. Theory Tech. Hybrids. Theory IEEE Trans.

Syst. e. Th. Symp. Applicat. Quart. Tech. Smith [4] and Brown and Jones [5]. Stud. Suppl. Manag. Fig. These refer to a previous reference and should be eliminated from the reference section. Keep the day of the month when referencing a patent. hanging out beyond the body of the reference. Mech. please obtain and include relevant information. Rel. Mag. If the ibid. Sr. use the following forms: [3. Cybern. Intell. References Within a Reference: Check the reference list for ibid. abbreviate to Acoustics Administration Administrative American Analysis Annals Annual Apparatus Applications Applied Association Automatic Broadcasting Business Communications Computer(s) Congress Convention Correspondence Cybernetics Department Development Digest Economic(s) Education Acoust. There must be only one reference with each number. enclosed in square brackets. Corresp. Nat. or other information. pp. Note that when citing IEEE Transactions. The reference numbers are on the line. as mentioned earlier [2]. it can be included at the end of the reference. References in Text: References need not be cited in the text. References may not include all information. If there are many names. Productiv. Prod. inside the punctuation. Wood et al. 1]. Annu. the given name of the author or editor is abbreviated to the initial only and precedes the last name. Math. App. [3. Rec. Admin. In text. Newslett. [3. [3. according to [4] and [6]–[9]. Sec. Bus. Trans. If there is a URL included with the print reference.. [5]. if the month is not available. Develop.. eq. Lemma 2]. Roy. Ergonom. Graffox .5]. Stat. Proc. or op. Ind. Educ. [3. [4]–[7]. Int. Ind. 5-10]. Assoc. as well as the citations in text. Appendix I]. Comput. Anal. Do not combine references. Dig. Style Reference numbers are set flush left and form a column of their own.g. pp. 5-10]. page 7 of 7 rev. Evol. Algorithm 5]. In all references. [3. in square brackets. Work. [3. Select. Appl. Sept 09 D. they may be treated as if they were footnote numbers. Mach. Manage. Nuclear Occupation Philosophical Proceedings Processing Production Productivity Quarterly Record Reliability Report Royal Science Selected Society Sociological Statistics Studies Supplement Symposium Systems Technical Telecommunication Transactions Vehicular Working Nucl. Congr. Process. Electron. and III in names. Geosci. Eng. cit. NOTE: Editing of references may entail careful renumbering of references. 4. Broadcast. [3. Soc. [9]. 1]. Inform. (2)]. When the word below appears in the reference. Rep. J. Electrical Electronic Engineering Ergonomics Evolutionary Foundation Geoscience Graphics Industrial Industry Information Institute Intelligence International Journal Letter(s) Machine Magazine Management Managing Mathematic(s) Mathematical Mechanical National Newsletter Elect.. Dept. Philosph. Use commas around Jr. Ch. repeat the earlier reference number and renumber the reference section accordingly. Math. the number may be kept. Administ. 2. Sci.References NOTE: Use et al. as shown by Brown [4]. they appear on the line. Grammatically. although it is normally deleted. [7] or as nouns: as demonstrated in [3]. gives a new page number. Automat. Ann. Occupat. [3. When they are. Sociol. Graph. Lett. Veh. Econ. Found. Amer. Conv. Telecommun. Commun. when three or more names are given. Inst. use et al.

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