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Iliamna Comments for EPA's Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment.

Iliamna Comments for EPA's Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment.

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Published by Lewis Lowe
The Iliamna VIllage Council submitted these comments to the EPA as a part of the agency's public comment period for the Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment. The analysis by Dr. Macalady paints a grim picture for the longterm health of valuable Bristol Bay fishery - and the local economy - should the Pebble Mine be built.
The Iliamna VIllage Council submitted these comments to the EPA as a part of the agency's public comment period for the Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment. The analysis by Dr. Macalady paints a grim picture for the longterm health of valuable Bristol Bay fishery - and the local economy - should the Pebble Mine be built.

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Published by: Lewis Lowe on Jul 17, 2013
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lllamna vlllage Councll

Þ.C. 8ox 248
lllamna, Ak 99606
1el: (907) 371-1246
uaLe: !une 29, 2013
1o: uennls McLerran 8ob Þerclasepe
AdmlnlsLraLor, 8eglon 10 AcLlng LÞA AdmlnlsLraLor
1200 SlxLh Avenue, SulLe 900 1200 Þennsylvanla Avenue, n.W.
SeaLLle, WA 98101 WashlngLon, uC 20460
McLerran.dennls[epamall.epa.gov perclasepe.bob[epa.gov
1aml lordham !udy SmlLh
Alaska 1rlbal CoordlnaLor, uS LÞA 810 CommunlLy lnvolvemenL CoordlnaLor
1200 SlxLh Avenue, SulLe 900 1200 SlxLh Avenue, SulLe 900
SeaLLle, WA 98101 SeaLLle, WA 98101
lordham.Laml[epa.gov smlLh.[udy[epa.gov
kL: ILIAMNA VILLAGL CCUNCIL kLMAkkS, CCNCLkNS & kLÇULS1S ICk 1nL 8kIS1CL 8A¥
WA1LkSnLD ASSLSSMLN1
uear Mr. McLerran:
1hank you for your efforLs ln preparlng Lhe 8rlsLol 8ay WaLershed AssessmenL 8eporL for revlew
and commenLs. As you well know Lhls ls of reporL and CovernmenL-Lo-CovernmenL
consulLaLlons are a prlmary concern for Lhe lllamna vlllage Councll and our CommunlLy. We
wanL Lo be clear, ouL of all of Lhe poLenLlal affecL 1rlbal communlLles, lllamna vlllage Councll and
CommunlLy have been and wlll conLlnue Lo be Lhe prlmary 1rlbe dlrecLly affecLed by any and all
declslons and acLlons Laken by Lhe LÞA as a dlrecL resulL of Lhls reporL. As a resulL of Lhese
lnevlLable repercusslons, wheLher poslLlve or negaLlve, Lhe lllamna vlllage Councll has Laken
greaL care, dlllgence and parLlclpaLlon ln preparlng our response Lo Lhe 8rlsLol 8ay WaLershed
AssessmenL 8eporL and Lo our commlLmenL Lo ensure our rlghLs as a lederally 8ecognlzed 1rlbal
CovernmenL Lo 1rlbal consulLaLlon as dlrecLed by Congress. We are dlsappolnLed LhaL Lo daLe,
we have noL yeL had a dlrecL ºone-on-one" consulLaLlon on Lhls maLLer, as our communlLy,
culLure, and subslsLence dlrecLly depend on Lhe land and waLers where we llve.
ln preparlng our due dlllgence, we have underLaken our own revlew of Lhe reporL prepared by a
hlghly respecLed and quallfled CeochemlsL, Lo asslsL us ln breaklng down and undersLandlng Lhe
almosL 1300 pages of lnformaLlon. We have lncluded Lhe prepared summary and quallflcaLlons
as parL of Lhls leLLer. As Lhls reporL addresses only Lhe lmpacL on vlablllLy of Lhe flsherles and
waLersheds, we have also ldenLlfled oLher crlLlcal areas of concern LhaL wlll have a dlrecL and
lasLlng lmpacL on us as a people and our ablllLy Lo conLlnue our ways and LradlLlons as a naLlve
Þeople. As a resulL, we requesL dlrecL consulLaLlon Lo address Lhe followlng lssues, and be made
a ma[orlLy sLakeholder movlng forward.
• luLure groundwaLer and surface waLer quallLy for boLh anlmal and humans hablLaL.
• Leachlng from wasLe rock or overburden over an lndeflnlLe perlod of Llme. Pow ls
Lhls golng Lo be addressed and monlLored?
• lnfrasLrucLure consLrucLlon Loxlns and polluLanLs.
• WhaL are Lhe proposed conLrol measures for Lhe Lalllngs sLorage, and how wlll Lhls
be monlLored and pollced?
• lncreased LhreaL from domesLlc and forelgn Lerrorlsm.
• CuallLy ConLrol, CuallLy Assurance and 1esLlng, as Lhey perLaln Lo holdlng Lhe
Þebble CorporaLlon Lo Lhe lederal Mlnlng and envlronmenLal laws and regulaLlons.
• WhaL ls Lhe mlnlng record of Lhe parenL companles lnvolved?
1hese are only a few of Lhe concerns LhaL we have, and reallze LhaL Lhere ls noL enough Llme Lo
dlscuss all of our concerns ln one leLLer. 1he culLural lmpacL LhaL has already occurred ls
lrreverslble and our concern, wheLher or noL Lhe mlne permlLs are approved ls on proLecLlng,
lmprovlng and susLalnlng our communlLy, culLure and soverelgnLy LhroughouL Lhls process.
We also have grave concerns over Lhe flnanclal lmpacL on our communlLy, boLh poslLlvely lf Lhe
mlne ls approved and negaLlvely lf Lhe mlne ls noL, and belleve LhaL Lhere lles a flnanclal llablllLy
by Lhe lederal CovernmenL, as a resulL of Lhe acLlons Laken Lo daLe and Lhe poLenLlal acLlons ln
Lhe fuLure. 1he lederal CovernmenL has puL lllamna vlllage Councll ln a poslLlon of Lrylng Lo
declde on a shorL Lerm flnanclal beneflL or a lasLlng lmpacL on a forever changed landscape
whlch has provlded for our subslsLence and susLalnablllLy for many generaLlons.
We are dedlcaLed and hold flrm Lo our poslLlon and requesL for lmmedlaLe and dlrecL one-on-
one CovernmenL-Lo-CovernmenL consulLaLlons beLween Lhe LÞA and lllamna vlllage Councll
before any declslon ls made of Lhe 8rlsLol 8ay WaLershed AssessmenL. So much aLLenLlon has
been puL Lowards Lhe sLudy and proLecLlon of Lhe envlronmenL and an lnflnlLeslmal amounL of
conslderaLlon has been puL forLh Lo address Lhe effecLs of Lhe local naLlve Þeoples speclflcally,
lllamna vlllage Councll and our people.
We have noL been properly lnvolved ln Lhls process and have remalned a mlnorlLy parLlclpanL ln
Lhe declslon process Lo daLe. 1he lllamna vlllage Councll and 1rlbal CommunlLy are noL
mlnorlLles ln Lhese procedures, buL are ma[or sLakeholders LhaL have been and conLlnue Lo be
dlrecLly affecLed, as Lhe acLlons Lo daLe have had a profound lmpacL on our llves as a naLlve
Þeoples. under lederal law and as a lederally 8ecognlzed 1rlbal CovernmenL, lllamna vlllage
Councll ls requesLlng lmmedlaLe and dlrecL lncluslon movlng forward as ls our rlghL. We look
forward Lo a very consLrucLlve worklng parLnershlp ln movlng forward wlLh Lhls process.
Slncerely,

Lorene Anelon
ÞresldenL
lllamna vlllage Councll
C0NISBERATI0NS RELEvANT T0 TBE PR0P0SEB PEBBLE NINE,
BRIST0L BAY ALASKA
Piepaieu foi the Iliamna village Council by:
Bi. Bonalu L. Nacalauy
Emeiitus Piofessoi of Chemistiy anu ueochemistiy, anu
Consulting ueochemist, BLN Consultants
This iepoit has been piepaieu in iesponse to a iequest by the Iliamna village Council to evaluate
anu explain the uocument titleu "An Assessment of Potential Nining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems
of Biistol Bay, Alaska" piepaieu by the 0S Enviionmental Piotection Agency (0SEPA) anu uateu
Apiil, 2u1S. The goal of this iepoit is to pioviue a compiehensive summaiy of the potential
benefits, iisks anu consequences of the uevelopment of the pioposeu Pebble Nine. Chemical,
geochemical anu geotechnical consiueiations aie the most extensive pait of this summaiy.
Bowevei, the iepoit also incluues some economic, social anu esthetic consiueiations.
The 0SEPA uocument uiiectly consiueis only effects of the pioposeu mine on the health anu
viability of fisheiies in the Nushagak anu Kvichak wateisheus, which make up about Su% of the
uiainage aieas feeuing Biistol Bay. These wateisheus aie also uefineu as mineial uevelopment
wateisheus by the State of Alaska. The Pebble Beposit is locateu neai the uiviuing line between
these two wateisheus anu is the most likely site foi neai-teim mining uevelopment.
This iepoit will also consiuei effects on anu consequences foi the village of Ilianma that go beyonu
consiueiations of the health of the salmon habitat. It will be uiviueu into thiee sections. 0ne will
uiscuss the backgiounu of the Biistol Bay iegion, the Pebble ueposit, the pioposeu mine anu the
implications this may have foi the futuie of the mining opeiation. A seconu section will evaluate
anu explain geochemical anu geotechnical aspects of the mine uevelopment anu likely
consequences of these uevelopments. Finally, this iepoit will pioviue facts anu piojections that
have bioauei implications foi economic anu social consequences foi the Iliamna village Council.
Part Une: BACKCRUUND
o. Tbe Reqion.
Biistol Bay iepiesents on of the last iemaining unuistuibeu wateisheus in Alaska anu Noith
Ameiica. It is home to oica anu beluga wales, anu, in Iliamna Lake, one of only two populations of
fieshwatei haiboi seals in the woilu. The iegion suppoits abunuant anu uiveise animal
populations, incluuing moose, some caiibou, iivei ottei, wolves, wolveiines, mink anu ieu fox, as
well as a uiveise gioup of wateifowl. All aie connecteu eithei uiiectly oi inuiiectly to the health of
Biistol Bay anu its abunuant fish iesouices, especially sockeye salmon. The Biistol Bay wateisheu is
home to at least 29 species of fish, iepiesenting at least nine uiffeient families. The iegion is
ienowneu foi its fish populations, anu it suppoits woilu-class fisheiies foi multiple species of
Pacific salmon anu othei game fishes. These iesouices geneiate significant benefit foi commeicial
fisheis, suppoit valueu iecieational fisheiies, anu pioviue sustenance foi Alaska Native
populations.
Biistol Bay suppoits the laigest single spawning iun of sockeye salmon in the woilu, anu one of the
laigest single Chinook iuns. These geneiate ovei $4uu million in fisheiies ievenue each yeai anu
suppoit moie than 1u,uuu jobs.
Bowevei, salmon iuns in the Kvichak wateisheu, especially those involving Iliamna Lake, have been
uiminisheu in the iecent past anu much commeicial, spoit anu native fishing has been banneu.
Bowevei, iepoits inuicate that iuns have been incieasing again anu these bans may soon be lifteu
(0SEPA).
The iegion also enjoys ievenue fiom spoit hunting foi big game, especially moose. Spoit
fishing activities also geneiate consiueiable ievenue anu employment, though this has been
viitually eliminateu in the iegion of Iliamna Lake uue to the uecline in salmon iuns mentioneu
above.
An impoitant auuitional featuie of the Biistol Bay iegion is its closeness to seveial geologic
faults that aie the potential foi the occuiience of majoi anu minoi eaithquakes in the futuie. The
pioposeu mine is close to the Lake Claik Fault, a 1SS-mile long tectonic zone, anu 12S miles noith
of the site of the most poweiful eaithquake in the histoiy of Noith Ameiica (in 1964).
b. Tbe Pebble Beposit onJ ProposeJ Hine
The Pebble ueposit is of the type calleu poiphyiy, meaning it is composeu of metal sulfiues
uispeiseu a iegional iock host. It is the laigest of many such ueposits locateu in the Nushagak anu
Kvichak wateisheus, anu at least 7 othei similai ueposits in the aiea have been the subject of at
least minimal exploiation anu uevelopment . Seveial othei, non-poiphyiy golu claims have also
been maue in the aiea of the two wateisheus. The Pebble, howevei, is by fai the laigest. All of these
ueposits aie low-giaue oie, meaning the host oie contains only a small peicentage (geneially less
than 1u%) of the metal (coppei, golu, molybuenum, zinc, etc.) sulfiue anu an even smallei content
of actual coppei, golu oi othei commeicial metals. A consequence is that huge quantities of waste
iock aie a uiiect iesult of mining low-giaue poiphyiy ueposits. This waste iock consists of the
oveibuiuen that must be iemoveu befoie the low-giaue oie bouy can be mineu, plus the laige
peicentage of the actual oie that must be iemoveu befoie a metal sulfiue concentiate can be
obtaineu.
At the Pebble site, metal sulfiue concentiate woulu be obtaineu at the mine site by a two-
step giinuing anu sepaiation piocess. The oie is fiist ciusheu in the mine pit, then tianspoiteu by
tiuck oi conveyei belt to the sepaiation mills at t he suiface. Beie the oie woulu be giounu to a fine
powuei (<u.2 mm in size, about the same size as the thickness of a human haii). This powuei woulu
be suspenueu in a watei sluiiy anu chemicals (similai to a soap oi ueteigent) auueu to selectively
allow eithei the metal sulfiues oi the host iocks to foim a foam that can be sepaiateu fiom the othei
type of component. At the pioposeu Pebble mine, this fiist step woulu concentiate a poiphyiy
component, iich in the metals of inteiest, coppei, golu anu molybuenum fiom the iest of the oie.
The non-poiphyiy poition of the oie woulu then be iemoveu to a tailings uisposal ponu.
The poiphyiy-iich poition woulu then be taken to a seconu giinuing mill, anu giounu into
an even finei powuei (about ten times smallei, less than u.u2S mm in uiametei). A seconu flotation
piocess, using uiffeient chemicals, but baseu on the same piinciples, woulu then sepaiate the
poition of the poiphyiy concentiate iich in coppei, golu anu molybuenum fiom the iest of the
sulfiue-iich fiaction of the oie. This seconu waste poition woulu also be uiscaiueu in the tailings
uisposal facility (uam). A final (at least at the mine site) sepaiation piocess isolates the coppei anu
golu-iich sulfiues fiom the molybuenum iich poition. The coppei-golu concentiate woulu be
maintaineu in a sluiiy anu shippeu via pipeline to the poit on Cook's Bay. The molybuenum-iich
concentiate woulu be uiieu at the site, baggeu anu shippeu via tiuck to the poit. The coopei¡golu
anu molybuenum concentiates aie then shippeu by sea to a smeltei. Theie the metals aie
chemically obtaineu fiom the sulfiues, using high tempeiatuies anu caibon in the foim of coal oi
chaicoal with the emission of sulfui uioxiue.
The mine pioposeu at the Pebble site, if peimitteu to its fullest pioposeu uevelopment,
woulu be one of the laigest open-pit mines in the woilu. It woulu involve iemoval of 7.2 billion tons
of oie ovei a 78-yeai peiiou. The laigest of the thiee tailings-impounument uams woulu be almost
7uu ft. tall, highei than the Washington Nonument. The tailings impounuments woulu contain ovei
8 billion tons of tailings, all of which woulu geneiate toxic chemicals if exposeu to the atmospheie.
The mine woulu geneiate ovei 17 billion tons of waste iock, much of which woulu contain smallei
poitions of sulfiue mateiials similai to those founu in the actual mineu oie, anu capable of
geneiating toxic waste mateiials fiom atmospheiic exposuie.
c. Tbe Pebble Hininq Compony
The company that has been piepaiing pieliminaiy plans to mine the Pebble ueposit is foimeu
as a paitneiship that incluues majoi inteiests fiom two foieign mining conglomeiates, Anglo
Ameiican anu Rio Tinto coipoiations. This is ielevant foi seveial ieasons. Both companies aie
contiolleu by inteiests foieign to the 0S anu aie thus less likely to have seiious inteiest in Native-
Ameiican conceins. Enviionmental gioups in the 0S have expiesseu concein about the mine safety
histoiy of these two companies. They list a significant numbei of events in opeiations contiolleu by
these two companies that have causeu seiious enviionmental pollution episoues.
Part Two: CEUCHEMICAL AND CEUTECHNICAL ASPECTS UF THE PRUPUSED PEBBLE MINE
The 0SEPA iepoit uiviues the likely peimitting possibilities foi the Pebble mine into thiee sepaiate
scenaiios involving thiee uiffeient tonnages of extiacteu oie. The smallest involves iemoval anu
piocessing of u.2S billion tons of oie, the seconu 2.u billion tons of oie, anu the thiiu anu laigest
involves 6.S billion tons of oie. These thiee scenaiios involve mine lifetimes of 2u, 2S anu 78 yeais
iespectively. Since it is, to me, unlikely that all of the infiastiuctuie, equipment anu constiuction
will be accomplisheu foi the smallest of these piojecteu mine sizes, even though this woulu be quite
piofitable foi the paitneiship companies, only the laigei two have ielevance with iespect to
potential benefits anu uisauvantages of the pioposeu mine. It is likely that peimitting appioval foi
the smallest of these piojects woulu only be pieliminaiy to appioval of the laigei two. Thus, in the
uiscussion of geochemical anu geotechnical aspects of the pioposeu mine pioject, I will piopose
estimates of enviionmental effects only foi the Pebble 2.u mine size. Effects foi the othei two
scenaiios can be assumeu to be smallei oi laigei than that foi the Pebble 2.u mine. The thiee
scenaiios aie summaiizeu in the following table:
Paiametei
Nine Scenaiio
Pebble u.2S Pebble 2.u Pebble 6.S
Amount of oie mineu (billion metiic tons) u.2S 1.8 S.9
Appioximate uuiation of mining 2u yeais 2S yeais 78 yeais
0ie piocessing iate (metiic tons¡uay) S1,uuu 198,uuu 2u8,uuu
Nine Pit
Suiface aiea (km2) 1.S S.S 17.8
Bepth (km) u.Su u.76 1.24
Waste Rock Pile
Suiface aiea (km2) 2.S 1S.u 22.6
PAu waste iock (million metiic tons) 9S S8u 4,7uu
PAu waste iock bulk uensity (metiic tons¡mS) 2.u8 2.u8 2.u8
PAu waste iock aiea (km2) u.49 1.79 6.77
NAu waste iock (million metiic tons) SSu 2,2uu 1u,9uu
NAu waste iock bulk uensity (metiic tons¡mS) 2.u8 2.u8 2.u8
NAu waste iock aiea (km2) 1.84 11.2 1S.8
Note that in this table, quantities aie listeu in metiic tons, which aie 1.1 times laigei than
conventional tons. Also the abbieviations PAu anu NAu will be uefineu anu uiscusseu below. The
table uoes not show the size anu chaiacteiistics of the tailings uisposal facilities, anu these aie also
uiscusseu below.
Wuter quullty unJ Sulmon Hubltut
Effects on watei quality anu salmon spawning habitat uue to noimal mining activities can come
fiom a numbei of factois ielateu to the actual opeiation of the mine. The most stiaightfoiwaiu of
these incluues stieam anu iivei sections that will be physically eliminateu uue to the placement of
the mine itself anu associateu mine featuies such as waste iock piles, the tailings uisposal uam,
electiic powei geneiating plant, milling anu flotation pants, equipment stoiage anu iepaii facilities,
tianspoitation coiiiuois anu pipeline ioutes. Foi the Pebble 2.u plan, this woulu involve about 18
squaie miles of uiiect "footpiint." Foi the Pebble 2.u mine plan, S6 miles of stieam channel woulu
be eliminateu, blockeu, oi uewateieu by the mine footpiint, along with uestiuction of about S
squaie miles of wetlanu aiea. These numbeis aie unavoiuable losses, anu uo not incluue any
chemical oi biological changes that may oi will be causeu by mine opeiation anu potential acciuents
oi equipment failuies.
Woter µuolity ConsiJerotions
Befoie uiscussing othei geochemical oi geotechnical piocesses involveu with the opeiation of the
Pebble Nine, it is useful to uiscuss the natuie of the watei iesouices in the Biistol Bay wateisheu,
especially as they iefei to salmon spawning habitat anu the suivival of juvenile salmon. Chemically,
the wateis in the two wateisheus unuei consiueiation in this stuuy aie veiy low in uissolveu
inoiganic substances anu natuial oiganic mattei. Concentiations of souium, potassium anu calcium
ions aie veiy low. Except neai some mineial-iich zones, concentiations of metals such as zinc,
coppei anu leau aie also veiy low, as aie concentiations of plant nutiient ions such as nitiate anu
phosphate. The wateis aie neithei aciuic noi basic anu have pB values veiy close to neutial (7.u). In
othei woius, the wateis aie quite puie. All of this is neai iueal foi salmon spawning anu the
suivival of juvenile salmon. In auuition, the tempeiatuie of the wateis of the iiveis anu stieams of
these wateisheus is maintaineu at a faiily constant level uue to the influx of giounuwatei uiiectly
into the giavel beus that suppoit salmon spawning. (See below).
These watei chaiacteiistics have pioven to be well suiteu foi the maintenance of a laige anu
sustainable population of especially sockeye, but also chinook, chum anu coho salmon. It also
suppoits significant populations of othei salmoniu anu tiout species in the two wateisheus.
Bowevei, theie is a uown siue to these chaiacteiistics in teims of the potential effects of the
intiouuction of potentially toxic metals into the wateisheus. When a uissolveu metal ion enteis a
watei bouy, it can exist in a vaiiety of foims uepenuing on the natuie of the watei bouy. Ceitain
watei components can ieact with the metal ions to foim "complexes", which aie chemically bounu
species composeu of the metal ion anu othei watei constituents. Foi example, natuial oiganic
substances in watei foim stiong complexes with coppei, zinc anu othei potentially toxic metal ions.
0thei components such as bicaibonate ions, hyuioxiue ions, anu chloiiue ions can also foim such
complexes.
Why is this ielevant. Inteiestingly, these complexeu foims of coppei anu othei potentially
toxic metal ions ore not toxic in tbis form! This is because the metal ions aie bounu to othei
components in the watei, they cannot be absoibeu in the fish gills. So, coppei auueu to many watei
bouies is immeuiately ienueieu non-toxic to fish anu othei aquatic oiganisms by the foimation of
these complexes. It is piimaiily the fiee, un-complexeu metal ions in watei that aie toxic.
Impoitantly, in the wateis in the Nushagak anu Kvichak wateisheus, these complex-foiming
substances aie piesent in extiemely low concentiations, causing almost all auueu coppei oi othei
metal ions to exist in theii most toxic foims.
In consiueiations of the effects of the pioposeu Pebble Nine, coppei toxicity is of ciitical
concein. 0thei toxic metals such as caumium, cobalt, leau, nickel may be piesent in watei
geneiateu thiough mining activities at the Pebble Nine, but coppei is be fai the most abunuant anu
also among the most toxic to salmonius. The effects of auueu coppei on fish can occui at many
levels. Coppei at levels much lowei that those necessaiy to actually kill fish (non-lethal
concentiations) can have negative effects on spawning success. 0ne of these is avoiuance..fish
avoiu wateis containing toxic metals at concentiations much lowei than necessaiy foi moitality.
Such low concentiations can also affect the life cycles of insects anu theii laivae that aie necessaiy
foi feeuing the newly-hatcheu salmon.
Woter Temperoture onJ 6rounJwoter lnput
uiounuwatei (watei coming up thiough giavel oi poious stieambeu below the lanu
suiface) input into the iiveis, stieams anu lakes of the Nushagak anu Kvichak wateisheus is also
ciitical foi successful salmoniu spawning. Poitions of the Nushagak-Biistol Bay Lowlanu anu
Nushagak-Big Rivei Bills aieas, incluuing the Pebble ueposit aiea, contain coaise-textuieu glacial
iocks with abunuant, high-peimeability giavels anu extensive connextion between suiface wateis
anu giounuwatei. Abunuant wetlanus anu small ponus also contiibute gieatly to giounuwatei
iechaige. This stiong connection between giounuwatei anu suiface wateis helps to moueiate
watei tempeiatuies anu stieamflows. Foi example, giounuwatei contiibutions that maintain watei
tempeiatuies above u"C aie ciitical foi maintaining wintei habitat in stieams that might otheiwise
fieeze.
This means that any piocess that alteis the balance of suiface watei anu giounuwatei
inputs into these aquatic systems is likely to auveisely influence the suitability of these wateis foi
successful spawning, especially if the influx of giounuwatei is substantially ieuuceu. uiounuwatei
is of a ielatively unifoim tempeiatuie, anu giounuwatei flow helps pievent laige watei
tempeiatuie changes as the seasons anu watei flows change. In the spawning giavels, giounuwatei
moves up fiom beneath the giavels anu maintains flowing, constant tempeiatuie watei in the
spawning beus. This featuie of the iegion, among otheis, pioviues iueal spawning habitat. In fact, in
Lake Iliamna, sockeye spawn only in aieas wheie giounuwatei peicolates up thiough the giavel
beus, maintaining a constant flow of puie, oxygenateu watei at a constant tempeiatuie.
Fffectx of the Pebble Mlne on Wuter quullty
The uiscussion below focuses on opeiations anu pioceuuies at the pioposeu Pebble Nine that can
affect watei quality anu salmoniu spawning. Specifically, geochemical anu¡oi geotechnical
piocesses that aie uetiimental to the quality anu sustainability of the salmon fisheiy in the Biistol
Bay iegion will be uiscusseu. These will be uiscusseu ioughly in oiuei of uecieasing piobability;
that is some of these piocesses aie inevitable, some aie likely anu some uepenu on acciuental oi
geophysical piocesses of vaiying piobability.
6rounJwoter BrowJown
As the mine pit ueepens fiom withuiawal of oie, it will tenu to fill with watei coming fiom the
giounuwatei aquifeis in the iegion. This watei must be continuously pumpeu fiom the pit in oiuei
foi mining opeiations to continue. Nost of this watei will be ietuineu to the iiveis oi stieams in the
aiea. The 0SEPA quotes Pebble Nining estimates the 7u-8u % of the watei useu in the mining
opeiations will be ietuineu, geneially aftei use in mining opeiations such as milling anu flotation
piocesses, anu geneially aftei wastewatei tieatment to iemove any auueu impuiities. The
impoitant point is that much of this watei came to the mine site as giounuwatei anu leaves as
suiface watei, which is not of unifoim tempeiatuie anu composition. The iesult is that the
giounuwatei flow in the iegion will be uiminisheu anu the positive effects of this flow eliminateu.
leocbinq from Woste Pock
Waste iock heie iefeis to the oveibuiuen (iocks above the mineial ueposit) of suiface iock
anu oie containing small, un-economical concentiations of poiphyiy mateiial. This iock will be
pileu neai the mine pit. Rain anu snowmelt will constantly peicolate thiough these iock piles anu
eithei flow ovei the giounu suiface to wetlanus anu ¡oi stieams, oi peicolate into iegional
giounuwatei.
The waste iock fiom neai the lanu suiface uoes not contain significant poiphyiy mateiial
anu is of little oi no concein with iespect to the geneiation of pollutants. The iock chaiacteiistics
giauually change with the uepth of oiigin to iocks that aie maiginal with iespect to poiphyiy
content that is economically viable.
All of these waste iocks aie classifieu accoiuing to theii potential to piouuce aciu, anu thus
metal contaminants, upon exposuie to atmospheiic oxygen anu watei. Rocks that will not geneiate
aciu aie classifieu as non-aciu geneiating (NAu), anu those that have the potential to geneiate aciu
aie uesignateu as potential aciu-geneiating (PAu). The table piesenteu above the amount of NAu
anu PAu iocks pieuicteu to be piesent in the oveibuiuen that constitutes the waste iock in the
Pebble 2.u scenaiio.
It is piobably piuuent at this point to uefine what is meant by aciu-geneiating. When sulfiue
mineials in poiphyiy iocks ieact with oxygen, one piouuct is sulfuiic aciu. In the piocess of this
oxiuation, metals ions oiiginally piesent as insoluble sulfiues aie conveiteu to uissolveu metal
sulfates. In auuition, aciu geneiation loweis the pB of the ieceiving watei, ienueiing most metals
moie soluble anu potentially moie toxic. Bowevei, if the iock unuei consiueiations also contains
aciu-neutializing mineials such as limestone, the net effect of exposuie to watei anu atmospheiic
oxygen will not piouuce aciu oi auuitional uissolveu metals. Baseu on this geochemistiy anu
laboiatoiy tests of small samples, iocks aie classifieu as NAu oi PAu.
Two auuitional points aie ielevant. Fiist, classification of iock samples as NAu oi PAu aie
maue using analyses of small samples that weie selecteu to be iepiesentative of a laige bouy of
waste iock. If the sample selecteu was not completely iepiesentative of the laigei bouy of iocks,
which is likely, the classification may not apply to the entiie bouy of iocks. The seconu point
conceins the fact that, as iocks aie exposeu to the atmospheie, as in waste iock piles, NAu iocks
can be conveiteu by aging piocesses to PAu. Thus the uesignations in the table above as to the
amount of NAu anu PAu iocks in the waste iock aie subject to possible change as the waste iock
piles age. No investigations of ageu waste iocks weie iepoiteu in the 0SEPA uocument.
It woulu be extiemely uifficult to captuie anu tieat the uiffuse iunoff anu flow-thiough fiom
the waste iock piles. Infiltiation of this effluent into local wateis is, in my opinion, inevitable. Thus,
the waste iock piesent in the Pebble 2.u scenaiio iepiesents a huge potential anu piobable souice
of coppei anu othei metal contamination. This contamination coulu be expecteu to entei the
wateisheus immeuiately aujacent to the mine site, potentially ienueiing auuitional miles of stieam
anu iivei unacceptable foi salmon spawning habitat.
Tronsportotion CorriJor
Because the Biistol Bay wateisheu is locateu in one of the last iemaining viitually ioauless
aieas in the 0niteu States, uevelopment of any mine in the Biistol Bay wateisheu woulu iequiie
substantial expansion anu impiovement of the iegion's tianspoitation infiastiuctuie. Theie aie few
existing ioauways, no impioveu feueial oi state highways, anu no iailioaus, pipelines, oi othei
majoi inuustiial tianspoitation infiastiuctuie The mine scenaiios evaluateu in the 0SEPA
assessment incluue a 1S8-km giavel suiface, all-weathei peimanent access ioau connecting the
mine site to a new ueep-watei poit on Cook Inlet. This length uoes not incluue ioau sections within
the mine site itself. Appioximately 11S km of this coiiiuoi woulu fall within the Kvichak Rivei
wateisheu. The uiscussion below will not consiuei uamages to salmon habitat uuiing the actual
constiuction of the coiiiuoi. Such uamages shoulu be consiueieu as tempoiaiy, wheieas those
uiscusseu below aie ongoing.
The tianspoitation coiiiuoi aiea compiises 27 sub-wateisheus uiaining to Iliamna Lake. These
sub-wateisheus encompass appioximately 69u squaie miles anu contain neaily 9uu miles of
stieam channels. The coiiiuoi woulu incluue 18 biiuges (11 ovei known anauiomous (fish
ietuining fiom the sea to spawn) stieams anu 7 othei stieams likely to suppoit salmonius) All
othei stieam ciossings woulu be culveiteu. Thus, given that the tianspoitation coiiiuoi woulu
cioss a total of SS stieams anu iiveis known oi likely to suppoit, migiating oi iesiuent salmonius,
culveits woulu be constiucteu on SS piesumeu salmoniu stieams. Not infiequently, culveits fail.
Culveits aie ueemeu to have faileu if fish passage is blockeu (e.g., by uebiis, ice, oi beavei activity)
oi if stieam flow exceeus culveit capacity, iesulting in oveitopping anu ioau washout. Liteiatuie
iepoits suggest an aveiage culveit failuie iate of 47% (i.e., culveit suiveys inuicate that, on
aveiage, 47% of culveits block oi inhibit fish passage at any given time).
When culveits aie pluggeu by uebiis oi oveitoppeu by high flows, ioau uamage, channel
iealignment, anu seveie seuimentation often iesult . Changes in seuiment loau uue to culveit
failuies can change habitat value in the stieam. It is uiminisheu as the channel becomes wiuei anu
shallowei anu silt is uepositeu in the stieambeu. Stieam ciossing failuies that uiveit stieam flow
outsiue of stieam channels aie paiticulaily uamaging.
Buiing opeiation of the mine, fiequent inspections of the ioau, biiuges anu culveits will
make this uamage less seveie, but theie is no uoubt that culveit blockage anu othei changes causeu
by the ioau itself will seiiously impact salmon spawning anu suivival.
Theie aie othei pioblems associateu with the tianspoitation coiiiuoi, such as noise, uust,
vibiations, anu tiuck acciuents, all of which coulu auu to the uiminishment of salmon iepiouuction
anu suivival. Tiucks will caiiy chemicals anu supplies fiom the poit to the mine, incluuing some of
the flotation chemicals that aie quite toxic to fish. Spillage of these chemicals uue to a tiuck acciuent
woulu cause consiueiable but non-quantifiable uamage to fish anu spawning habitat. Tiucks also
caiiy molybuenum concentiate to the poit, anu a substantial spill of this concentiate coulu also
cause consiueiable uamage to fish iecouises.
The tianspoitation coiiiuoi will also contain pipelines: one to caiiy the coppei¡golu
concentiate sluiiy to the poit, anothei to caiiy the watei iemoveu fiom this sluiiy back to the
mine. Pipelines will also caiiy uiesel fuel anu natuial gas to the mine site. Ruptuie oi oi leakage
fiom any of these pipelines, with the exception of the natuial gas pipeline, coulu cause consiueiable
auuitional uamage to the stieams in the vicinity, oi moie uiiectly to Lake Iliamna.
It is almost impossible to get an accuiate estimate about the piobable iate of tiuck
acciuents oi pipeline failuies. When these happen they will unuoubteuly auu to the alieauy seiious
effects of the tianspoitation coiiiuoi.
Toilinqs Storoqe Iocility
The tailings stoiage facility is a huge uam¡ieseivoii uesigneu to holu foievei the veiy fine
waste iock fiom the milling anu flotation piocesses. As uetaileu above in the intiouuction (Tbe
Pebble Beposit onJ ProposeJ Hine), this facility will be enoimous. Buiing the mine opeiation it will
be continually fileu with sluiiies fiom the milling anu flotation piocesses. As the solius settle, watei
will be pumpeu back into the mining opeiations foi ieuse. The best-case scenaiio heie is that the
oveilying watei layei will piotect the fine tailings fiom exposuie to oxygen, theieby pieventing the
ielease of aciuity anu metals. As the opeiation of the mine continues, the uam will be filling with
incieasing amounts of fine tailings with a ielatively constant amount of watei oveilying the tailings.
When the mine closes (in the Pebble 2.u scenaiio, this will be aftei about 2S yeais of opeiation), the
huge tailings uam will be filleu with fine paiticles fiom the mining opeiations. Theie will also be an
oveilying layei of watei. This watei will be quite contaminateu with metal ions anu othei chemicals
fiom the yeais of ie-use in the mining opeiations. This will woik satisfactoiily as long as nothing
causes the uam to bieach. The most likely cause of uam failuie woulu be an eaithquake oi a majoi
stoim event that coulu oveifill the uam anu cause oveiflow of contaminateu watei into the
suiiounuing countiysiue.
Tailings uam failuie uuiing the lifetime of the mine is a veiy low piobability event.
Bowevei, if it occuis, it woulu be a majoi uisastei foi miles anu miles of salmon habitat, wetlanus
anu Biistol Bay itself.
AJJltlonul Remurkx
In this iepoit, I have focuseu on the footpiints of the piimaiy Pebble mine components:
mine pit, waste iock piles, the tianspoitation coiiiuoi anu tailings stoiage facilities. The actual
infiastiuctuie neeueu to opeiate any laige-scale mine woulu be significantly moie extensive than
these foui components anu woulu iesult in a laigei cumulative mine footpiint. These auuitional
infiastiuctuie neeus incluue, but aie not limiteu to, the following.
- _Nining anu piocessing facilities, incluuing giinuing mills, oie stockpiles, conveyeis, a wastewatei
tieatment plant, anu piocess watei ponus anu uistiibution lines.
- Biainage management stiuctuies, such as seepage cutoff walls, stieam uiveision channels,
uiainage uitches, anu seuiment contiol ponus.
- _0thei stoiage anu uisposal facilities, such as oveibuiuen anu topsoil stockpiles, explosives
stoiage, a non-hazaiuous waste lanufill, piocess watei stoiage tanks, waste incineiatois, a fuel
stoiage compounu, anu hazaiuous waste stoiage.
- _0thei opeiational infiastiuctuie, such as auministiative builuings, uoimitoiies, a uomestic
sewage tieatment plant, a powei geneiation plant, powei uistiibution lines, potable watei
tieatment plant anu uistiibution lines, anu a tiuck shop.
Betaileu uiscussion of these auuitional infiastiuctuie neeus woulu make this iepoit unuuly
long anu uifficult, but it shoulu be noteu again that the cumulative footpiint of a laige-scale mine at
the Pebble ueposit likely woulu be much laigei than the footpiints evaluateu the uiscussions above.
}ust in teims of physical aiea involveu, the footpiint anu opeiational infiastiuctuie foi a 2S-yeai
mine at the Pebble ueposit (similai to the Pebble 2.u scenaiio) woulu covei appioximately Su
squaie miles! In compaiison, the limiteu numbei of components consiueieu in this iepoit (pit,
waste iock piles, tianspoitation coiiiuoi anu tailings uisposal facility) woulu covei only about 1S
squaie miles unuei the Pebble 2.u scenaiio.
Some auuitional facts about the Pebble 2.u mine scenaiio:
- Net powei geneiation foi such a mine woulu be appioximately S78 megawatts This is moie than
1uu times the maximum electiical loau of the laigest population centei in the Biistol Bay
wateisheu, the Billingham¡Aleknagik aiea.
- Boimitoiies foi such a mine woulu house 2,1Su people uuiing constiuction anu moie than 1,uuu
people uuiing mine opeiation, meaning that the mine site woulu iival Billingham as the laigest
population centei in the Biistol Bay wateisheu uuiing constiuction anu woulu iemain the seconu
laigest population centei uuiing opeiation.
- The mine site itself, inuepenuent of the tianspoitation coiiiuoi, is expecteu to contain moie than
12 miles of main ioaus, as well as numeious pit anu access ioaus, anu woulu uepenu on a fleet of Su
to 1uu vehicles, in auuition to appioximately 1Su oi moie laige, oie-hauling tiucks.
It shoulu also be biiefly noteu that the constiuction anu opeiation of the Pebble will pioviue
infiastiuctuie that coulu facilitate opening anu opeiation of seveial othei mining claims in the
Nushagak anu Kvichak wateisheus. This woulu inciease the aiea of enviionmental uamage anu the
associateu loss of salmon spawning habitat.
Conclusions ReqorJinq Solmon onJ 0tber Iisberies
Fiom the consiueiations outlineu above, theie can be little uoubt that the constiuction anu
opeiation of the Pebble 2.u mine will cause extensive uamage to anu uiminishment of salmon
spawning anu iepiouuction in the Nushagak anu Kvichak wateisheus. It is, in my opinion, likely
that the entiie spawning iuns will be eliminateu in a laige poition of these wateisheus anu that this
elimination will be essentially iiieveisible. This will be especially eviuent in the Lake aiea, anu will
affect villages in this aiea moie than any otheis.
Biminisheu salmon spawning means uiminisheu wilulife in the aiea. The 0SEPA iepoit
uiscusses the fact that biown beais, wolves, eagles anu othei wilulife uepenu ciitically on spawning
salmon foi theii suivival, as uo othei fish populations such as iainbow tiout. These effects will have
significant beaiing on the viability of Alaska Naïve villages such as Iliamna.
Part Tbree: Non-tecbnical Consideration for tbe Future of tbe Iliamna Village Council
The sections above shoulu cleaily uelineate the changes in salmon spawning intensity that can be
expecteu fiom constiuction anu opeiation of the Pebble Nine.
Bowevei, theie aie othei impoitant consiueiations that aie entiiely non-technical in natuie.
Ceitainly the mine will biing employment foi many village people, especially those who aie willing
anu able to obtain tiaining in skills impoitant to the mine opeiation, fiom tiuck uiivei to waste-
watei tieatment plant opeiatois.
But it shoulu be pointeu out that this will be a tempoiaiy situation. Significant numbeis of
employment oppoitunities in mine-ielateu activates will last a lifetime at most (78 yeais is the
piojecteu lifetime of the Pebble 6.S scenaiio). Aftei this, what will be left is a legacy of scaiieu
countiysiue anu continueu iisk of uegiauation of watei iesouices uue to continueu uiainage
pioblems, a huge pit that will giauually fill with watei that will be contaminateu by inteiactions
with the pit walls. Tieatment of mine-aiea iunoff in a wastewatei tieatment plant will be necessaiy
foi hunuieus of yeais, anu the possibility of tailings uam failuie will pioviue a continual legacy
thieat foi extensive enviionmental uamage.
In auuition, the mining infiastiuctuie will change foievei the cultuial anu social
enviionment of the iegion. Auuitional uevelopment is a possibility, but it is uifficult to imagine what
woulu be the economic basis foi this uevelopment. Fisheiies will piobably be gone, spoiting
activities that aie attiactive to wilueiness loveis will be veiy limiteu uue to mining uamages to the
lanuscape. Economic suivival in the post-mining enviionment coulu be much moie uifficult than it
is at piesent.
It seems that the choice you aie being ask to make is iathei complicateu in some ways, but
iathei simple in otheis. You aie being askeu to make a choice between unueniable shoit-teim
economic benefit at the cost of a completely alteieu enviionment anu little hope of long teim
benefit. This is to be compaieu to seeking to maintain the long-teim, sustainable benefits of the
huge salmon fisheiies in the Biistol Bay iegion.
Theie aie othei options to consiuei. The iegion is now a paiauise foi anyone seeking to
stuuy ecological, chemical anu physical aspects of a wilueiness enviionment. Beie aie some
possible alteinatives to the ielatively shoit teim economic oppoitunities maue available to the
people of the iegion by the mine. Why not seek funuing anu suppoit fiom the many oiganizations
anu goveinment entities that aie involveu in the mining contioveisy at Biistol Bay. Ask them to
facilitate cieation of an ecological ieseaich anu tiaining institute in the aiea. Such an institute coulu
pioviue employment anu tiaining foi Native Peoples anu help to pieseive that pait of the
enviionment that is ciitical to the lifestyle anu tiauitional cultuie of the iegion.
Anothei possibility is to seek an agieement with the 0SEPA oi othei goveinment agencies
that woulu otheiwise compensate local iesiuents foi the loss of employment oppoitunities causeu
by uenial of the mine peimit. 0ptions othei than simple monetaiy compensation may incluue
uevelopment of a new national paik ueuicateu to salmon anu wilulife obseivation, stuuy anu
uocumentation of the effects of climate change anu wilueiness iecieation.
Þrofess|ona| kesume, Ianuary, 2013
Dona|d L. Maca|ady, ÞhD
Þrofessor LmerlLus, ueparLmenL of ChemlsLry and CeochemlsLry, Colorado
School of Mlnes (CSM), Colden, Colorado 80401
Senlor ConsulLlng CeochemlsL, norLh !ackson Company, MarqueLLe Ml 49833
ulrecLor, uLM ConsulLanLs, Colden, Colorado (ConsulLlng experlence ln mlne wasLe analyses, molybdaLe
geochemlsLry, acld mlne dralnage, groundwaLer polluLlon by peLroleum exploraLlon, and geochemlcal
analyses of solls and surface waLers).
Þhone numbers: 303 279 6641, 720 323 3410
Lmall: dmacalad[mlnes.edu
Lducat|on:
8S 1963, Chemlcal Lnglneerlng, Þennsylvanla SLaLe unlverslLy
Þhu 1969, Þhyslcal ChemlsLry, unlverslLy of Wlsconsln, Madlson.
AddlLlonal graduaLe work aL Lhe 8osensLlel School of Marlne and ALmospherlc Sclences, unlverslLy of
Mlaml, 1973-76
Þrofess|ona| Lxper|ence:
1970-82 AsslsLanL, AssoclaLe (1973), Þrofessor (1980) of ChemlsLry, norLhern Mlchlgan unlverslLy
1973-76 naLlonal Sclence loundaLlon (nSl) laculLy-Sclence lellow, 8osensLell School of Marlne
and ALmospherlc Sclence, unlverslLy of Mlaml, llorlda (Chemlcal Cceanography)
1980-82 naLlonal 8esearch Councll Senlor lellow, uS LÞA LnvlronmenLal
8esearch LaboraLory, ALhens, Ceorgla
1989-90 CuesL Þrofessor, Swlss lederal lnsLlLuLe for WaLer 8esources and WaLer 8esearch
(LAWAC/L1P), kasLanlenbaum, SwlLzerland
1993-96 nSl vlslLlng lellow and vlslLlng Þrofessor, ueparLmenL of ChemlsLry, unlverslLy of
CLago, uunedln, new Zealand
2003 vlslLlng Þrofessor, ueparLmenL of ChemlsLry, unlverslLy
of 8rlLlsh Columbla, vancouver, 8C, Canada
1982- AssoclaLe Þrofessor ChemlsLry and CeochemlsLry, CSM,
Þrofessor (1986), Þrofessor LmerlLus, (2007)
2007-2010 Ad[uncL Þrofessor of ChemlsLry, unlverslLy of CLago, uunedln,
new Zealand
2007-2011 vlslLlng Þrofessor of ChemlsLry, norweglan unlverslLy of Sclence
and 1echnology (n1nu), 1rondhelm
2011-2012 vlslLlng Þrofessor, CenLer for LnvlronmenLal ChemlsLry and
Mlneralogy, Lberhard-karls unlverslLy, 1ublngen, Cermany
Cther Þrofess|ona| Act|v|t|es
ulrecLor, CenLer for LnvlronmenLlal 8lsk AssesmenL, Colorado School of Mlnes, 1997-2007
AssoclaLe ulrecLor, 8ocky MounLaln 8eglonal Pazardous SubsLances 8esearch CenLer, u.S.
LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency, 2002-2006.
1reasurer, Amerlcan Chemlcal SocleLy, ulvlslon of CeochemlsLry, 2004-2007.
A 3-day symposlum was held ln my honor aL Lhe naLlonal MeeLlng of Lhe Amerlcan Chemlcal
SocleLy ln San lranclsco, CA March 23-028, 1010. 1he symposlum was [olnLly sponsored by Lhe
ulvlslons of LnvlronmenLal ChemlsLry and CeochemlsLry and was organlzed by Þrofessors Þaul
1raLnyek (Cregon PealLh and Sclences unlverslLy), 1lmoLhy Crundl (unlverslLy of Wlsconsln),
and SLefan Paderleln (unlverslLy of 1ueblngen)
l organlzed (wlLh 3 oLhers) a symposlum: lronLlers ln CeochemlsLry aL Lhe ACS naLlonal MeeLlng
ln San lranclsco, CA, SepLember 2006 Lo celebraLe Lhe 23Lh Annlversary of Lhe foundlng of Lhe
ACS ulvlslon of CeochemlsLry. l also presenLed a paper aL Lhe symposlum.
l presenLed Lhe annual ColdschmldL lnvlLed lecLure aL Lhe norweglan Ceologlcal Survey,
1rondhelm, norway on SepLember 1, 2006. 1he LlLle of Lhe lecLure was: uermal 1ransporL and
CLher 8lsks of 1oxlc Chemlcals from ConLamlnaLed Solls. l also dellvered a lecLure on naLural
Crganlc MaLLer aL Lhe 1echnologlcal unlverslLy of norway on SepLember 4.
uurlng Lhe summer of 2006, l led a group of Len CSM undergraduaLe Ponors sLudenLs on a 4-
week Lour of 8razll Lo evaluaLe Lhe Lheme: Þrogress 1oward and lmpedlmenLs for SusLalnable
uevelopmenL ln 8razll. l led slmllar 8razlllan Lrlps wlLh CSM honors sLudenLs durlng Lhe summers
of 2000 and 1996.
ln !une, 2006, l was a sesslon chalr and dlscusslon leader aL Lhe Cordon 8esearch Conference,
LnvlronmenLal Sclences: WaLer held ln Polderness new Pampshlre.
l organlzed and chalred symposla aL Lhe Þaclflc 8asln Chemlcal SocleLles MeeLlngs (Þaclflchem)
ln Ponolulu ln 1989,1993, and 2003.
8ased on Lhe Þaclflchem Symposlum ln 1989, l served as edlLor of Lhe lnaugural lssue of Lhe
!ournal of ConLamlnanL Pydrology. l also edlLed an lssue of Lhe !ournal based on Lhe 1996
symposlum.
l served on Lhe edlLorlal board of Lhe !ournal of ConLamlnanL Pydrology from 1989 Lhrough
1999.
l have research collaboraLlon wlLh sclenLlsLs ln new Zealand, Cermany, SwlLzerland, LlLhuanla,
norway, ÞorLugal, Spaln, as well as wlLh many uS sclenLlsLs.
l have consulLlng experlence ln mlne wasLe analyses, molybdaLe geochemlsLry, acld mlne
dralnage, groundwaLer polluLlon by peLroleum exploraLlon, and geochemlcal analyses of solls
and surface waLers.
Þrofess|ona| Soc|et|es
Member of Lhe Amerlcan Chemlcal SocleLy (ulvlslons of LnvlronmenLal ChemlsLry and CeochemlsLry,
and Lhe SocleLy for LnvlronmenLal 1oxlcology and ChemlsLry. l am a former member of Lhe Amerlcan
SocleLy of Llmnology and Cceanography, 1he Ceologlcal SocleLy of Amerlca and Lhe Amerlcan
AssoclaLlon for Lhe AdvancemenL of Sclence.
Þeer-rev|ewed Þub||cat|ons
AnLhony !. 8analll, uonald L. Macalady , 2010. 1he lmporLance of Lhe rlparlan zone and ln-sLream
processes ln nlLraLe aLLenuaLlon ln undlsLurbed and agrlculLural waLersheds - A revlew of Lhe sclenLlflc
llLeraLure. !. Pydrol. 389, pp 406-413
Sandrlne ueglln, AnneLLe 8unge and uonald L. Macalady, 2010
Measurlng Lhe saLuraLlon llmlL of low volaLlllLy organlc compounds ln solls: lmpllcaLlons for esLlmaLes of
dermal absorpLlon. Scl. 1oLal Lnvlron. 408 (24), pp 6100-6107
Sarah !. SLeLson, !ohn L. Cray, 8lchard 8. WanLy and uonald L. Macalady, 2009, lsoLoplc varlablllLy of
Mercury ln Cre, Mlne-WasLe Calclne, and LeachaLes of Mlne-WasLe Calclne from Areas Mlned for
Mercury. íovltoo. 5cl. 1ecbool., 4J (19), pp 7331-7336
uonald L. Macalady and kaLherlne WalLon-uay, 2009. new llghL on a dark sub[ecL: Cn Lhe use of
fluorescence daLa Lo deduce redox sLaLes of naLural organlc maLLer (nCM), Apootlc 5cleoces, 7, pp 133-
143
8lodau, C., 8auer, M., 8egenspurg, S., Macalady, u., 2009. LlecLron accepLlng capaclLy of dlssolved
organlc maLLer as deLermlned by reacLlon wlLh meLalllc zlnc
cbemlcol Ceoloqy, 260, 186-193
8auer, Markus, PelLmann, 1., Macalady. u.L., 8lodau, C., 2007.
LlecLron Lransfer capaclLles and reacLlon klneLlcs of peaL dlssolved organlc maLLer, íovltoo. 5cl. 1ecbool.,
41, 139-143
Macalady, u.L., 8anvllle, !.l., SæLher, C.M. 2007. WeaLherlng raLes, naLural organlc maLLer and global
cllmaLe change: Are Lhey relaLed? looJfotm Aoolysls, S: 49-30.
SLeLson, Sarah !., WanLy, 8. 8., Pelsel, u. 8., kalkhoff, S. !., Macalady, u. L. 2006. SLablllLy of low levels of
perchloraLe ln drlnklng waLer and naLural waLer samples. Anal. Chemlca AcLa, 367, 108-113.
8lLLer, k., Alken, C. 8., 8anvllle, !.l., 8auer, M. and Macalady, u.L. 2006. Lvldence for aquaLlc blndlng of
arsenaLe by naLural organlc maLLer-suspended le(lll). Lnvlron, Scl. 1echnol 40, 3380-3387,
ChoaLe, L.u., !. 8anvllle, A. 8unge, u.L. Macalady, 2006. uermally Adhered Soll: 1. AmounL and ÞarLlcle-
Slze ulsLrlbuLlon, lnLegraLed LnvlronmenLal AssessmenL and ManagemenL (lLAM), 2, 373-384
ChoaLe, L.u., !. 8anvllle, A. 8unge, u.L. Macalady, 2006. uermally Adhered Soll: 2. 8econsLrucLlon of dry-
sleve parLlcle-slze dlsLrlbuLlons from weL-sleve daLa. lnLegraLed LnvlronmenLal AssessmenL and
ManagemenL (lLAM), 2, 383-390
norkus, L., kepenlene, v., vaskells, A., !aclauskelne, !., SLalnlonlene, l., SLalnlonls, C., Macalady, u.L.,
2006. AppllcaLlon of envlronmenLally frlendly llgands for alkallne elecLroless copper plaLlng sysLems:
elecLroless copper deposlLlon uslng Lrlsodlum salL of 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propaneLrlcarboxyllc acld as Cu(ll)
llgands. CPLMl!A.(LlLhuanla) 17, 20-29
norkus, L., A. vaskells, !. !aclausklene, !. valclunlene, L. Caldamauskas, u. L. Macalady, 2003.
LnvlronmenLally frlendly naLural polyhydroxyllc compounds ln elecLroless copper plaLlng baLhs:
appllcaLlon of xyllLol, -mannlLol and -sorblLol as copper(ll) llgands. !ournal of Applled LlecLrochemlsLry
33 (1): 41-47.
Macalady, u.L., 8lLLer, k., 8edman, A., and Skold, M., 2004, ComparaLlve characLerlsLlcs of naLural
organlc maLLer ln Lhe lorLymlle 8lver, Alaska, ln, Cough, L.Þ., ed., SelecLed Ceochemlcal and
8logeochemlcal SLudles of Lhe lorLymlle 8lver WaLershed, Alaska: u.S. Ceologlcal Survey Þrofesslonal
Þaper 1683, 43-32.
norkus, L., valclulene, !., vuorlnln, 1. and Macalady, u.L., 2004. Lqulllbrla of Cu(ll) ln alkallne
suspenslons of cellulose pulp. cotbobyJtote lolymets , 47-55
8edman, A.u., Macalady, u.L. and Ahmann, u., 2002, naLural organlc maLLer affecLs arsenlc speclaLlon
and adsorpLlon onLo hemaLlLe, Lnvlron. Scl. 1echnol, 36, 2889-2896.
1raLnyek, Þ.1., and u.L. Macalady, 2000, CxldaLlon-reducLlon reacLlons ln Lhe aquaLlc envlronmenL,
ChapLer 16 ln nooJbook of ltopetty ístlmotloo MetboJs fot cbemlcols. íovltoomeotol ooJ neoltb
5cleoces. k. 5. 8oetblloq ooJ u. Mockoy, eJs., lewls lobllsbets, 8oco kotoo , ll.
Þelffer, S., WalLon-uay, k., Macalady, u. L, 1999, 1he lnLeracLlon of naLural Crganlc MaLLer wlLh lron ln a
WeLland (1ennessee Þark, Colorado) 8ecelvlng Acld Mlne uralnage. AquaLlc CeochemlsLry, S, 207-223,
1999
Macalady, uL and 8anvllle, !l, 1998. 1he chemlsLry and geochemlsLry of naLural organlc maLLer, ln:
ÞerspecLlves ln LnvlronmenLal ChemlsLry, u.L. Macalady, Ld. Cxford unlverslLy Þress, new ?ork, pp 94-
137.
8anvllle, !l and uL Macalady, 1997. naLural organlc maLLer ln caLchmenLs, ln: Ceochemlcal Þrocesses,
WeaLherlng and CroundwaLer 8echarge ln CaLchmenLs, 8alkema, 8oLLerdam, pp. 263-297.
SmlLh, kS, 8anvllle, !l, Þlumlee, C.S., and Macalady, u.L., 1998. ÞredlcLlve double layer modellng of
meLal sorpLlon ln mlne-dralnage sysLems, ln !enne, L.A., Ld. AdsorpLlon of MeLals by Ceomedla,
Academlc Þress, n?, pp. 322-348.
Sorcl, !. !. and u.L. Macalady, 1993, CuanLlLaLlve sLrucLure-acLlvlLy relaLlonshlps ln bacLerlal and abloLlc
alkallne hydrolyses of para-subsLlLuLed aceLanllldes , I. Aqtlc. looJ cbem., 41, 1760-66.
8rooks, M.P., SmlLh,8.L., Macalady, u.L., 1992. lnhlblLlon of LxlsLlng uenlLrlflcaLlon Lnzyme AcLlvlLy by
Chloramphenlcol. ApplleJ AoJ íovltoomeotol Mlctobloloqy S8, 1746-1733
Wolfe, n.L. and u.L. Macalady, 1992, new perspecLlves ln aquaLlc redox chemlsLry , I. cootom. nyJtol. ,
9, 17-J4.
lleld, !.A., !.A. Leenheer, k.A. 1horn, S.8. uanlel, and u.L. Macalady, 1992, ldenLlflcaLlon of perslsLenL
anlonlc surfacLanL-derlved chemlcals ln sewage effluenL and groundwaLer , I. cootom. nyJtol., 9, 55-78.
ClnLauLas, Þ.A., S.8. uanlel, and u.L. Macalady, 1992 Þhenoxyalkanolc
herblcldes ln munlclpal landflll leachaLes , íovltoo. 5cl, 1ecbool. 26, 517-520.
uunnlvanL, l.M., Schwarzenbach, 8.A., and u.L. Macalady,
1992, 8educLlon of subsLlLuLed nlLrobenzenes ln aqueous soluLlons conLalnlng naLural organlc maLLer ,
íovltoo. 5cl. 1ecbool. 26, 21JJ-2141.
WalLon-uay, k., Macalady, u.L., 8rooks, M.P., 1aLe
,
v.1., 1990.
lleld meLhods for measuremenL of ground waLer redox chemlcal parameLers. CtoooJ wotet
Mooltotloq & kemeJlotloo, 10, 81-89
1raLnyek, Þ.C., Macalady, u.L., 1989. AbloLlc reducLlon of nlLro-aromaLlc pesLlcldes ln anaeroblc
laboraLory sysLems. I. Aq. looJ cbem. , 248-234
Macalady, u.L., 1raLnyek, Þ.C., Wolfe, n.L., 1989. lnfluences of naLural Crganlc MaLLer on Lhe AbloLlc
Pydrolysls of Crganlc ConLamlnanLs ln Aqueous SysLems, Ch. 21 ln Apootlc nomlc 5obstooces , AJvooces
lo cbemlstty, vol. 219
Amerlcan Chemlcal SocleLy, WashlngLon, u.C., pp 323-332
Macalady, u.L., Langmulr, u., Crundl, 1.[, Llzerman, A., 1988, use of model-generaLed le(lll) lon
acLlvlLles Lo compuLe Lh and ferrlc oxyhydroxlde solublllLles ln anaeroblc sysLems, ln Malchlor, u.C. and
8asseL, 8.L., eds., Chem|ca| Mode||ng Cf Aqueous Systems II , ulvlslon of CeochemlsLry, 196Lh naLlonal
MeeLlng of Lhe Amerlcan Chemlcal SocleLy, Los Angeles, Callfornla, SepLember 23-30, 1988 (lS8n:
0841217297 / 0-8412-1729-7 )
Macalady, u.L., 1raLnyek
,
Þ.L., Crundl
,
1.!., 1986, 1ransporL and 1ransformaLlons of Crganlc
ConLamlnanLs AbloLlc reducLlon reacLlons of anLhropogenlc organlc chemlcals ln anaeroblc sysLems: A
crlLlcal revlew. !. ConLam. Pydrol., 1, 1-26
Macalady, u.L., Wolfe, n.L., 1983. LffecLs of sedlmenL sorpLlon on abloLlc hydrolyses. 1.
CrganophosphoroLhloaLe esLers. . I. Aq. looJ cbem, 167-17J
Macalady, u.L., Wolfe, n.L., 1984. AbloLlc Pydrolysls of Sorbed ÞesLlcldes, ln 1teotmeot ooJ ulsposol of
lestlclJe wostes, Ac5 5ymposlom 5etles, vol. 239
Amerlcan Chemlcal SocleLy, WashlngLon, u.C. pp. 221-244
Macalady, u.L., Wolfe, n.L. 1983. new perspecLlves on Lhe hydrolyLlc degradaLlon of Lhe
organophosphoroLhloaLe lnsecLlclde chlorpyrlfos. I. Aq. looJ cbem. , 1139-1147
CarpenLer, !.P., Moore, C.A., Macalady, u.L., 1977. Lrrors ln deLermlnaLlon of resldual oxldanLs ln
chlorlnaLed sea waLer. íovltoo. 5cl. 1ecbool. 992-994,
Macalady, u.L., CarpenLer, !.P., Moore, C.A., 1977, SunllghL-lnduced 8romaLe lormaLlon ln ChlorlnaLed
SeawaLer. 5cleoce 23 March 1977: 19S, 1333-1337

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