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)

**Lecture-1 & 2 Introduction to the Subject Dr. Imtiaz Hussain
**

email: imtiaz.hussain@faculty.muet.edu.pk URL :http://imtiazhussainkalwar.weebly.com/

Course Outline

Classical Control

• System Modelling • Transfer Function • Block Diagrams • Signal Flow Graphs • System Analysis • Time Domain Analysis (Test Signals) • Frequency Domain Analysis • Bode Plots • Nyquist Plots • Nichol’s Chart

Modern Control

• State Space Modelling • Eigenvalue Analysis • Observability and Controllability • Solution of State Equations (state Transition Matrix) • State Space to Transfer Function • Transfer Function to State Space • Direct Decomposition of Transfer Function • Cascade Decomposition of Transfer Function • Parallel Decomposition of Transfer Function

Text Books

1. Modern Control Engineering, (5th Edition)

**By: Katsuhiko Ogata.
**

(Prof Emeritus) Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota

2. Control Systems Engineering, (6th Edition) By: Norman S. Nise. (Professor Emeritus) Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at California State Polytechnic University

Modern Control Systems. (12th Edition) By: Richard C. Automatic Control Systems.Reference Books 1. 2. . Dorf and Robert H. Kuo. (9th Edition) By: Golnaraghi and B. C. Bishop.

Prerequisites • For Classical Control Theory – Differential Equations – Laplace Transform – Basic Physics – Ordinary and Semi-logarithimic graph papers • For Modern Control theory above & – Linear Algebra – Matrices .

Practical Sessions • Practicals are divided into two sessions Software Based (Cyber Interactive Lab) Matlab Simulink Control System Toolbox Hardware Based (Instrument & Control Lab) Modular Servo System (MS150 Available in) .

Marks Distribution Theory Total Marks = 100 Practical Total Marks = 50 Sessional Marks = 20 • Attendance = 10 marks • Case Study= 10 marks Final Exam Marks = 80 Sessional Marks = 20 • Attendance = 05 marks • Case Study/Project = 15 marks Final Exam Marks = 30 .

direct or regulate the behaviour of other device(s) or system(s). .What is Control System? • A system Controlling the operation of another system. • A control System is a device. command. or set of devices to manage. • A system that can regulate itself and another system.

Process – The device. plant. or system under control.Definitions System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose. Input Process Output . The input and output relationship represents the cause-and-effect relationship of the process. Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response.

. Normally controlled variable is the output of the control system.Definitions Controlled Variable– It is the quantity or condition that is measured and Controlled. Manipulated Variable– It is the quantity of the condition that is varied by the controller so as to affect the value of controlled variable. Control – Control means measuring the value of controlled variable of the system and applying the manipulated variable to the system to correct or limit the deviation of the measured value from a desired value.

Definitions Manipulated Variable Input or Set point or reference Controller Process Output Or Controlled Variable Disturbances– A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect the value of the system. It is an unwanted input of the system. it is called internal disturbance. While an external disturbance is generated outside the system. • If a disturbance is generated within the system. .

Types of Control System • Natural Control System – Universe – Human Body • Manmade Control System – Vehicles – Aeroplanes .

Types of Control System • Manual Control Systems – Room Temperature regulation Via Electric Fan – Water Level Control • Automatic Control System – Room Temperature regulation Via A.C – Human Body Temperature Control .

Input Controller Output Process Examples:.Types of Control System Open-Loop Control Systems Open-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or control actuator to obtain the desired response. • Output has no effect on the control action. Electric Fan . • In other words output is neither measured nor fed back.Washing Machine. Toaster.

or variation in operating/ environmental conditions. for each reference input there is fixed operating condition. . the accuracy of the system depends on calibration. • Therefore.Types of Control System Open-Loop Control Systems • Since in open loop control systems reference input is not compared with measured output. • The performance of open loop system is severely affected by the presence of disturbances.

Types of Control System Closed-Loop Control Systems Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to compare the actual output to the desired output response. Iron .Refrigerator. Input Output Controller Process Comparator Measurement Examples:.

Types of Control System Multivariable Control System Temp Humidity Pressure Comparator Controller Process Outputs Measurements .

error) as a means of control is called a feedback control system.e.Types of Control System Feedback Control System • A system that maintains a prescribed relationship between the output and some reference input by comparing them and using the difference (i. . Input + - error Controller Process Output Feedback • Feedback can be positive or negative.

velocity or acceleration. Antenna Positioning System Modular Servo System (MS150) .Types of Control System Servo System • A Servo System (or servomechanism) is a feedback control system in which the output is some mechanical position.

u(t) Process y(t) y(t ) 2u(t ) 1 y=-2*u(t)+1 5 0 y(t ) 3u(t ) 5 y=3*u(t)+5 35 30 25 -5 y(t) y(t) -10 -15 -20 0 2 4 u(t) 6 8 10 20 15 10 5 0 2 4 u(t) 6 8 10 .Types of Control System Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System • A Control System in which output varies linearly with the input is called a linear control system.

3 0.Types of Control System Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System • When the input and output has nonlinear relationship the system is said to be nonlinear.04 Creep 0.1 0 0 0. Adhesion Characteristics of Road 0.4 Adhesion Coefficient 0.2 0.02 0.06 0.08 .

4 Adhesion Coefficient • Linear control systems are idealized models fabricated by the analyst purely for the simplicity of analysis and design.08 . • When the magnitude of signals in a control system are limited to range in which system components exhibit linear characteristics the system is essentially linear. Adhesion Characteristics of Road 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.04 Creep 0.Types of Control System Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System • Linear control System Does not exist in practice.02 0. 0.06 0.

Types of Control System Linear Vs Nonlinear Control System • Temperature control of petroleum product in a distillation column. °C Temperature 500°C Valve Position 0% 25% % Open 100% .

y(t ) 2u(t ) 3t . y(t ) 2u(t ) 1 • Time varying control system is a system in which one or more parameters vary with time.Types of Control System Time invariant vs Time variant • When the characteristics of the system do not depend upon time itself then the system is said to time invariant control system.

x x x f1 f2 g 2 dy dz dz 2 .Types of Control System Lumped parameter vs Distributed Parameter • Control system that can be described by ordinary differential equations are lumped-parameter control systems. M d 2x dt 2 dx C kx dt • Whereas the distributed parameter control systems are described by partial differential equations.

Types of Control System Continuous Data Vs Discrete Data System • In continuous data control system all system variables are function of a continuous time t. x(t) t • A discrete time control system involves one or more variables that are known only at discrete time intervals. X[n] n .

x(t) y(t) t t • If not.Types of Control System Deterministic vs Stochastic Control System • A control System is deterministic if the response to input is predictable and repeatable. the control system is a stochastic control system z(t) t .

Types of Control System Adaptive Control System • The dynamic characteristics of most control systems are not constant for several reasons. • An adaptive control system is required when the changes in the system parameters are significant. . • The effect of small changes on the system parameters is attenuated in a feedback control system.

.Types of Control System Learning Control System • A control system that can learn from the environment it is operating is called a learning control system.

Classification of Control Systems Control Systems Natural Man-made Manual Automatic Open-loop Closed-loop Non-linear linear Non-linear linear Time variant Time invariant Time variant Time invariant .

Examples of Control Systems Water-level float regulator .

Examples of Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

Examples of Modern Control Systems .

com/ END OF LECTURES-1 & 2 .To download this lecture visit http://imtiazhussainkalwar.weebly.

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