The Design and Implementation of a Three Phase Power Converter in the Power Electronics and Drives Subject

Omar M F Muhialdin, Ahmad Nahas and Takyin Chan School of Electrical Engineering Victoria University PO Box 14428 MC, Melbourne VIC 8001, Australia o.muhialdin@gmail.com, ahmadnahas@gmail.com, taky.chan@vu.edu.au ABSTRACT
This paper describes the design and implementation of a Three Phase Power Converter (AC/DC/AC) as a fourth year group project for the Power Electronics and Drives B subject at Victoria University. The system implemented converts a three phase input voltage of 400 Vrms at a power rating of 500 W to DC by using a three phase diode bridge rectifier, and a Capacitive filter which assists in stabilising the output DC voltage produced. After that, the system provides the gate drive signal to a three phase pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter driving an induction motor. The pulse width modulation signal is generated by MATLAB using the Data Acquisition. The three phase MOSFET inverter uses the DC voltage supplied from the 3 phase bridge and the gate drive signals to produce a balanced three phase sinusoidal output which drives the induction motor. This project/paper can be useful for future power system students as more properties and specifications can be added to the designed product in order to investigate further issues and applications of Three Phase Power Converters. An AC voltage input that is fed to a three phase diode bridge rectifier to produce DC output voltages which across a C filter will feed the three phase PWM inverter. The PWM inverter is controlled by a three phase sinusoidal PWM signal generated by a control circuit. The PWM inverter will then convert the DC voltage at the input to AC output voltage. The AC output voltage can be controlled in both magnitude and frequency (V/F Open Loop Control). This control of voltage and frequency is required as it permits the user control the speed of an induction motor at different rates. The project utilised many electronic components such as; Diodes, MOSFETs, Capacitors, Optoisolators and Gate Drivers, to construct the full circuit. So, in order to achieve this, a full understanding of the characteristics and theory of each section had to be achieved, which assisted in completing the design and implementation of the product according to the required specifications.

2. PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS
The following specifications and objectives were set for the project: 2.1 Power Circuit Specifications: • Input three-phase line voltage of 400 V to the three phase diode rectifier bridge at a power rating of 500 W. • Output three phase voltage source PWM inverter, power rating 500 W. 2.2 Control Circuit Specifications: • Carrier based pulse width modulation strategy. • Control input: Digital TTL commands at 1-10 kHz (carrier frequency). • Motor speed control from 10% to 100% of motor rated speed. • Power supply to the control circuit: 12V and 5V supplies. • Speed control: V/f control of induction motor, open loop.

1. INRTODUCTION
Over the past decade the field of power electronics has passed through rapid development due to the advancement of many modern technologies such as; DSP Cards, Data Acquisition Cards and Microprocessors. The aforementioned technologies made power electronics projects and applications easier to implement and more accessible. In this project we were to implement a Three Phase Power Converter (AC/DC/AC) to control the speed of an induction motor using Data Acquisition Cards. The complete system will consist of two sections; a Power Circuit and a Control Circuit. The power circuit consists of the three phase bridge rectifier, C Filter and Three Phase PWM Inverter. On the other hand, the control circuit consists of the Computer (Data Acquisition Card/PWM Program), Opto-Couplers and Gate Drivers.

For example. This implied that the range of frequency used to control the motor varies between 5 Hz – 50 Hz. Diodes and Capacitors).85. As can be seen from Figure 2. 12 V) Gate Drivers Power Supplies Opto-Couplers Power Circuit Control Circuit Motor Circuit Three Phase PWM Generator (DSP/Data Acquisition) Figure 1: Complete System Block Diagram • Switching signal implementation: Matlab to generate the real time code. and as a result.4 Project Objectives: • Gain understanding of the Power Converters (AC/DC/AC) concept. • Designing the circuit’s PCB. • Testing of the full circuit. The sub system block was fed into a Digital Output block which represents the data acquisition interface of the computer. It was then required to find a relationship that relates these frequencies to the modulation index (ma). SOFTWARE (PWM GENERATION) One of the main sections if this project was to construct a three phase PWM program which generates the appropriate pulses or signals that control the switching operations (On/Off) of the inverter circuit (MOSFET’s). the maximum modulation index which occurs at maximum frequency of 50 Hz (100% motor speed) is at ma = 0. • Implementation of the power and control circuits on PCB. This outputs the three phase signal generated from the program to the Hardware PCB.0167. • Input/Output terminals to be mounted on the enclosure (4mm sockets). 2. • Calculating and simulating different sections of the circuit. then the saturation block would limit the input frequency to the upper or lower ranges of the frequency. a sub system block was created for it. • Learning and programming the PWM methodology using MATLAB (Simulink/Data Acquisition). 3. it controls the speed of the motor. • Gain understanding of the three phase PWM methodology. and DSP or Data acquisition card. 2. As can be seen from Figure 2.3 PCB specifications: • PCB dimensions: Max size of 200mm * 150 mm. which in turn limits the input frequencies to the specified range of 5 – 50 Hz. as the program was specified to automatically change the modulation index value according the any given frequency. • Researching appropriate components for the control circuit (Gate drivers. • Researching appropriate high voltage components for each section of the circuit (MOSFET.Three Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier C Filter Three Phase PWM Inverter (MOSFET) Induction Motor Three Phase Power Supply DC Supply (5 V. if the input frequency is below 5 Hz or larger than 50 Hz. Opto-Couplers and fast recovery diodes). the relationship between the two parameters as follows. . After finishing the complier with the real time code.100% (V/F open loop control). a variable frequency block is fed into a saturation block. while the minimum modulation index which occurs at the minimum frequency (10% motor speed) occurs at approximately ma = 0. This program was very beneficial for students as it introduced new techniques of signal generation using Real Time Window Target and Data Acquisition Cards. which in turn controls the output and operation of the power circuitry. The basic idea of the program is to compute three different sinusoids with the same triangular wave to produce the three phase PWM. It was required to design the program in such a way that the generated PWM signals are able to produce an output which enables the power circuitry to control the motor within a speed of 10% .

in order to filter out the ripple voltages produced on the DC output.1. simulations and component selection process of each section was very essential.1 Power Circuitry: 4.2 Filter Design (Capacitive Filter): The filter situated after the rectifier circuit is connected across the 566 V DC and earth. taking a saftey factor of at least one the diodes where chosen to handle a minimum breakdown voltage of 1000V and a continuous direct current up to 3A.1 Three Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier: The rectifier circuit consists of six diodes where.0. in order to design the appropriate PCB. theoretically. Another criterion required for the selection of the filter capacitor was its ability to withstand high voltages of at least 600V Dc. Where f: is the frequency between ripples = 300 Hz R: is the output resistance C: is the Filter capacitance The capacitor was calculated to be 260μF that is sufficient to filter out the 1 % ripple voltages. it can handle a minimum voltage of 566 Volts DC and a minimum direct current of a minimum 0.9A. Therefore.016 Gain1 Freq Constant2 Saturation Scope 12:34 t 2*pi 0 pi/180 sin >= oolea Select1A double 1 Pulses [0 -2*pi/3 2*pi/3] Triangle Figure 2: Three Phase PWM Simulink Program Pulses Digital Output Digital Output Discrete PWM Generator Standard Dev ices Generic I8255 [90C0h] Scope Figure 3: PWM Output Signal at 50 Hz Figure 4: PWM Subsystem 4. . However.1. 4. as the design was dealing with high voltages and currents. the calculations. 4. HARDWARE The hardware section of this project was very challenging.

the following equation is used: Where: Therefore: Figure 5: Bootstrap Supply Schematic In addition.1 MOSFET Drivers: The overall circuit contains three MOSFET driver circuits operating the six MOSFETs of the three inverter circuit. the duty cycle and on-time are limited by the requirement to refresh the charge in the bootstrap capacitor as long on-times and large duty cycles require a charge pump circuit. To obtain the desired switching time.3 Three Phase Power Inverter (MOSFETs): The three phase inverter has an input of 566Volts DC and consists of six MOSFETs. each MOSFET will be exposed to a maximum voltage of 566Volts and current of 1Amps. 4. the bootstrap supply is generated by the diode and capacitor combination. Similar to the diodes in the rectifier section.2.2. which in turn supplies voltage to VBS. However.1. The main application of the gate drivers is that it converts the PWM signals produced from the Data Acquisition Card (5 V logic level signals) to a level where the MOSFETs can operate with. In addition.1Amps. 4. 4.2. the gate resistance can be sized using the following equations: . the MOSFETs were chosen to handle a minimum breakdown voltage of 1000Volts DC and a maximum current of 3. The bootstrap circuit is used to generate a voltage (VBS) between VB and VS (Refer to Figure 5). capacitor and gate resistors.2: Bootstrap Capacitor: The following equation details the minimum charge which needs to be suppled by the bootstrap capacitor: Where: Qbs = Gate charge of high side fet ICBs(Leak) = Bootstrap capacitor leakage current Qls = 5 nC (500/600 V IC’s) f = frequency of operation = 2 to 3 kHz To calculate the minimum bootstrap capacitance value. the bootstrap capacitor between VB and VS starts to charge through the bootstrap diode from the DC power supply. Each gate driver circuit operates a single phase of the three phase power inverter legs. 4.2: Bootstrap Circuit: Each gate driver circuit contains a bootstrap circuit as it consists of a diode.2.4.2. which are explained as the following: 4. However. .2 Control Circuitry: 4.4: Gate resistors: The switching speed of the output MOSFET can be controlled by using properly sized resistors controlling the turn-on and turn-off gate currents.3: Bootstrap Resistor: A resistor is placed in series with bootstrap diode to limit the current when the bootstrap capacitor is initially charged.2. There are many considerations which need to be investigated and taken into account when choosing the appropriate components for the bootstrap circuit. 4.2.1: Bootstrap Diode: The diode should be able to block the full power rail voltage of a maximum of 566Volts DC. it needs to be a fast recovery device (trr > 100 ns) in order to minimise the amount of charge fed back from the bootstrap capacitor in the Vcc supply (10 to 15 V DC). This circuit has the advantage of being simple and cost effective. The bootstrap circuit operation begins when VS becomes 0V. and similarly the high temperature reverse leakage current is important if the bootstrap capacitor has to store charge for long periods of time. it has some disadvantages.2. for safety purposes.

the tracks had to set and positioned in a certain way to minimise the interferences between the high tension and digital controller circuits. TESTING After completing the hardware and software sections. it was required to test the final product. and at a frequency range of 5 to 50 Hz. The circuit perfectly managed to reduce the ripple voltage to a very low percentage of 1 % under all loads.3 High Tension Isolation Circuit: In order to isolate the high tension circuit from the digital control PWM signals. The selected isolation is an optically coupled isolator phototransistor output. Moreover.4 PCB Design: One of the major components of the project is the PCB design. the overall circuit schematic diagram contains three 230V AC inputs.1 Insulation Test: This test is done by applying 500 V DC to the circuit to test the DC and 3 phase input sides of the circuit. the ripple voltages were reduced to a very low level of 1 %. 5. an isolation circuit was implemented at the digital inputs of the PWM signals.2 DC to AC Test: By applying 12 V DC to the DC side of the circuit. The testing procedure involved four different sections as follows: Figure 6: RGon Sizing The worst case of sizing is when the MOSFET is turned off (turn-off resistor RGoff). . Furthermore. the device may self turn on causing large oscillations and relevant cross conduction. Figure 7: RGoff Sizing (when low side is off and high side is on) The following equation relates the MOSFET gate threshold voltage to the collector: 4.And. 5. there are three phase output were connected to the three phase induction motor. RGon = Gate-on Resistor RDRp = Driver equivalent on-resistance 4. 5. three PWM inputs. The PWM program managed to provide the open loop voltage to frequency control.3 The overall circuit: Joining all the above sections together will form the overall circuit of the three phase induction motor controller. Where. Since the circuit is operating a maximum DC voltage of 600Volts and currents up to 1Amp. 4.4 Functionality Test: After successfully passing the aforementioned tests it was finally time to test the full circuit together. it was required to observe the behaviour of the PWM signal generated and the output of the inverter circuit under low voltage with no load.2. and inputting the three phase PWM signals to the circuit. As shown in figure 4 below. Moreover. 5. 5. The circuit successfully managed to control the speed of the induction motor at speed ratings that vary between 10 – 100 %. If the voltage drop at the gate exceeds the threshold voltage of the MOSFET. it was required to observe the effect of the ripple of voltage in the DC output voltage.3 AC to DC Test: Injecting 400 V AC at the input of the circuit to test the DC output with different load conditions. a digital ground and a 10 to 15V DC input and its return path.

com. applications and design”. “Lecture Notes for the Subject Power Systems 3. Qin Jiang for the opportunity on working on such a beneficial project. REFERENCES [1] N Mohan. and managed successfully to drive and control the speed of the induction motor at the required ratings. Jiang. Reference: DT04-4 revA.Fuse D1 1N5408 Phase A PhaseB PhaseC D3 1N5408 D5 1N5408 C filter 1 470uF RA1 100 Q1 IRFBG30 RB1 100 Q3 IRFBG30 RC1 100 Q5 IRFBG30 Phase A PhaseB C filter 2 470uF D2 1N5408 D4 1N5408 D6 1N5408 RA2 100 Q2 IRFBG30 RB2 100 Q4 IRFBG30 RC2 100 Q6 IRFBG30 PhaseC R Gnd DG1 Diode HO VB VS NC DG2 7 8 6 5 PWM1 R1 100 OptoCoupler1 R4 100 12V C11 10uF 2 1 3 4 Gate1 IN VCC COM LO IR2111 PWM Gnd C12 Cap 220pF PWM2 R2 100 OptoCoupler2 R5 100 12V C21 10uF 2 1 3 4 Gate2 Diode IN VCC COM LO IR2111 DG3 HO VB VS NC 7 8 6 5 C22 Cap 220pF PWM3 R3 100 OptoCoupelr3 R6 100 VCC C31 10uF 2 1 3 4 Gate3 Diode IN VCC COM LO IR2111 HO VB VS NC 7 8 6 5 C32 Cap 220pF Figure 8: Overall Circuit 6.M. [5] 7. Robbins. School of Electrical Engineering. A. “Bootstrap Component Selection for Control IC’s”. and continuous support for the duration of this project. 2002. Nahas.F Muhialdin. the project assisted students in learning new tools and design methodologies. Undeland and W. Finally.M. Media Enhanced third edition. School of Electrical Engineering.irf. “Three Phase Power Converter Project (AC/DC/AC) Report”. “Power Electronics: converter.irf. CONCLUSION The project was a very useful introduction for students at Victoria University to the world of power electronics applications. Reference: DT98-2a. Taky Chan.P.com. The project involved many aspects which needed scrupulous attention to detail. J. [2] [3] . Adams. Victoria University. Grasso. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank the subject supervisor Dr. “Using monolithic high voltage gate drivers”. advice. Massaud. And special thanks to Mr. www. A. [4] Q. O. T. Merello.2”. A. www. A. Victoria University. The circuit design managed to perform perfectly under all testing procedures. Rugginenti and M. the lab supervisor for his guidance.

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