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File used in my ELT research class
File used in my ELT research class

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Parlindungan Pardede on Jul 18, 2013
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ELT Action Research

Reflection on the Defeat
• • • • Analyzing Data Asking friends Reading Literature Accessing google

I was defeated?


Causes: • Underestimate • Not Serious

2nd Race

• • • • Analyzing Data Asking friends Reading Literature Accessing google

I was defeated?


Causes: • Didn’t use all competitive advantages • Track was not suitable

3rd Race

How to Win?

Observe Race Data

Reflect (Evaluate) Previous Race


Action! (Do the plan)

Plan Improvement

• Action Research is a combination of the terms “action” and “research.” Action research puts ideas into practice for the purpose of selfimprovement and increasing knowledge about curriculum, teaching, and learning. The ultimate result is improvement in what happens in the classroom and school (Kemmis & McTaggert, 1982). • Action research is a systematic procedure done by teachers (or other individuals in an educational setting) to gather information about, and subsequently improve, the ways their particular educational setting operates, their teaching, and their student learning (Mills, 2011 ). • Action research is a systematic approach to investigation that enables people to find effective solutions to problems they confront in their everyday lives. It does not look for generalization but focuses on specific situations and localized solutions

Reasons Why Action Research is a Research

An AR addresses questions of interest to other practitioners; An AR generates data; An AR contains analysis and interpretation.

What Differentiated Action Research from other Researches
– – – – it is carried out by the practitioner (classroom teachers); it can be collaborative or individual; it is situational (identification and solution of problems in a specific context); it can be aimed at changing things (improving the current state of affairs). (Nunan, “Research Methods in Language Learning” (1992:17))

• AR involves action in that it seeks to bring about change, specifically in local educational contexts. • AR is a research because it entails the collection and analysis of data. • AR is participatory and collaborative as it provides for collaborative investigation by teams of colleagues, practitioners and researchers. • AR is contextual, small-scale and localized—it identifies and investigates problems within a specific situation.

Action Research Process

Action Research Process

Action Research Procedures
• Stage 1: Researchers identify, evaluate, and formulate a problem that is viewed as critical to their everyday teaching. This problem need not be restricted to a particular class but could involve a system change such as curriculum innovations in a school system. • Stage 2: Researchers consult with other interested parties—teachers, other researchers, and administrators—in order to focus the problem more clearly and perhaps suggest the cause of the problem. This stage is crucial because it involves the clarification of the objectives and assumptions of the study. • Stage 3: Researchers review research literature to find out what can be learned from comparable studies.

Action Research Procedures (cont.)
• Stage 4: Based on their reading, researchers may modify or redefine the initial statement of the problem, which may take the form of a set of objectives or a testable hypothesis. They also explicitly state the assumptions underlying the project. • Stage 5: Researchers specify the research design including the participants, choice of materials, and procedures. • Stage 6: Researchers clarify how the project will be evaluated with an understanding that this evaluation will be continuous. • Stage 7: Researchers implement the project undertaking the data collection process. • Stage 8: Researchers analyze the data, draw inferences, and evaluate the project.

Classroom Action Research Stages
8. Analyzing Data & Reporting
1. Problem identification evaluation, formulation 2. consultation with interested colleagues

7. Project implementation

3. Literature Review

6. Determining Success Criteria
5. Specifying research
design (participants, materials, and procedures)

4. Determining objectives or a testable hypothesis

Data Collecting Methods
Systematic Observation Interview Questionnaire Learner-diary Documents Teacher-diary Written Test Oral Practice/Role-playing (With Observation Guide) Non-systematic


Data Triangulation in AR
RESEARCHERS TRIANGGULATION • Assigning some researchers to collect similar data so that the obtained data is “saturated” or constants TIME TRIANGGULATION • Similar data are collected in different times along the research period. SPACE TRIANGGULATION • Collecting similar data from some different places.

THEORETICAL TRIANGGULATION Comparing the obtained data to some different but interrelated theories (holistic approach)

As a process research which is naturalistic and transformative (aims to make changes) the situation of an AR continuously changes. To keep its reliability, the researcher needs to: 1) Attach original data (e.g. interview transcript and field notes 2) menggunakan lebih dari satu sumber data untuk mendapatkan data yang sama 3) berkolaborasi dengan sejawat atau orang lain yang terkait.

Research Sample:

The Use of a Blog as a Tool to Improve Writing in the Second Language Classroom • Background: ESOL students finds writing the most difficult and feel writing is not important to master. • Feasible and interesting solution: writing using IT, especially a blog which offers a collaborative environment whereby students can read and comment on each other’s work. • Hypothesis: Blogging can effectively improve ESOL students’ writing skills. • Research questions: (1) How effective does blogging develop ESOL students’ writing skills; and (2) How do the students respond to the use of blogging to develop their writing skills?

Research Sample:

The Use of a Blog as a Tool to Improve Writing in the Second Language Classroom • Design: 25 ESOL students were taught writing a blended learning approach, i.e. practice writing using blog alongside traditional teaching methods in classes. Materials were based on the assigned curriculum. • Success Criteria: The class achieved the mean score of 85 at the end of the action research • Implementation: Every student was asked to write a five paragraph essay in every meeting and published it to the class blog. They then commented other students essay in class out class time.

Research Sample:

The Use of a Blog as a Tool to Improve Writing in the Second Language Classroom • Results: The mean score of mid term test (1st cycle) was 72, and of the final test (2nd cycle) was 86. Based on the survey, at the end of the 1st cycle it was revealed 60% of the students was motivated to write better because they realized their works were visible to all people. In the same period, 65% felt they learnt a lot by commenting other students’ works. But , at the end of the 2nd cycle 90% of them was motivated to write better, and 88% learnt a lot by commenting other students’ works.

AR Proposal Outline
I. Introduction A.Background B. Problem Statement C. Research Objectives D. Research Significances II. Review of Related Theories A. Literature Review B. Conceptual Framework C. Hypothesis (optional)

AR Proposal Outline (cont.)
III. Research Methodology A. Research Method: Action Research B. Research Setting and Subjects Features C. Research Variables D. Action Plan (e.g. Lesson Plan) E. Data Types and Sources F. Data Collection technique G. Data Analysis technique H. Data Triangulation I. Research Procedure J. Bibliography

McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching second language classrooms. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers Burns. A. (2010). Doing action research in English language teaching: A guide for practitioners. New York: Routledge: Creswell, J. W. 2008. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. New Jersey: Pearson Denscombe, M. (2010). The good research guide for small-scale social research projects. New York: McGraw-Hill Ross, Kenneth N. (ed.). (2005). Educational research: Some basic concepts and terminology. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning/ UNESCO.

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