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AC voltage controllers (ac line voltage controllers) are employed to vary the RMS value of the alternating voltage applied to a load circuit by introducing Thyristors between the load and a constant voltage ac source. The RMS value of alternating voltage applied to a load circuit is controlled by controlling the triggering angle of the Thyristors in the ac voltage controller circuits. In brief, an ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor power converter which is used to convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac input supply to obtain a variable voltage ac output. The RMS value of the ac output voltage and the ac power flow to the load is controlled by varying (adjusting) the trigger angle ‘α’

V0(RMS) AC Input V oltage fs Vs fs AC V oltage Controller V ariable AC R MS O/P V oltage fS

There are two different types of thyristor control used in practice to control the ac power flow • • On-Off control Phase control

These are the two ac output voltage control techniques. In On-Off control technique Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit to the ac supply (source) for a few cycles of the input ac supply and then to disconnect it for few input cycles. The Thyristors thus act as a high speed contactor (or high speed ac switch). PHASE CONTROL In phase control the Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit to the input ac supply, for a part of every input cycle. That is the ac supply voltage is chopped using Thyristors during a part of each input cycle. The thyristor switch is turned on for a part of every half cycle, so that input supply voltage appears across the load and then turned off during the remaining part of input half cycle to disconnect the ac supply from the load. By controlling the phase angle or the trigger angle ‘α’ (delay angle), the output RMS voltage across the load can be controlled. The trigger delay angle ‘α’ is defined as the phase angle (the value of ωt) at which the thyristor turns on and the load current begins to flow. Thyristor ac voltage controllers use ac line commutation or ac phase commutation. Thyristors in ac voltage controllers are line commutated (phase commutated) since the input supply is ac. When the input ac voltage reverses and becomes negative during the negative half cycle the current flowing through the conducting thyristor decreases and

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there is no need of extra commutation circuitry or components and the circuits for ac voltage controllers are very simple. • Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (bi-directional controller). In brief different types of ac voltage controllers are • Single phase half wave ac voltage controller (uni-directional controller). The 2 . • Three phase full wave ac voltage controller (bi-directional controller). Due to ac line commutation or natural commutation. • Three phase half wave ac voltage controller (uni-directional controller). especially for the phase controlled ac voltage controllers with RL load. • Single Phase AC Controllers. derivations of expressions for performance parameters are not simple. • Speed control of induction motors (single phase and poly phase ac induction motor control). Phase control Thyristors which are relatively inexpensive.falls to zero. • Three Phase AC Controllers. Triacs are more commonly used. • Industrial heating & Domestic heating. APPLICATIONS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS • Lighting / Illumination control in ac power circuits. PRINCIPLE OF ON-OFF CONTROL TECHNIQUE (INTEGRAL CYCLE CONTROL) The basic principle of on-off control technique is explained with reference to a single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit shown below. TYPE OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS The ac voltage controllers are classified into two types based on the type of input ac supply applied to the circuit. the analysis. • Induction heating. Due to the nature of the output waveforms. Each type of controller may be sub divided into • Uni-directional or half wave ac controller. Three phase ac controllers operate with 3 phase ac supply of 400V RMS at 50Hz supply frequency. • Bi-directional or full wave ac controller. Thus the ON thyristor naturally turns off. Single phase ac controllers operate with single phase ac supply voltage of 230V RMS at 50Hz in our country. For applications upto 400Hz. • Transformer tap changing (on load transformer tap changing). converter grade Thyristors which are slower than fast switching inverter grade Thyristors are normally used. when the device current falls to zero. The thyristor switches T1 and T2 are turned on by applying appropriate gate trigger pulses to connect the input ac supply to the load for ‘n’ number of input cycles during the time interval tON . if Triacs are available to meet the voltage and current ratings of a particular application. But however most of the practical loads are of the RL type and hence RL load should be considered in the analysis and design of ac voltage controller circuits. • AC magnet controls.

thyristor switches T1 and T2 are turned off by blocking the gate trigger pulses for ‘m’ number of input cycles during the time interval tOFF . R = RL = Load Resistance Fig.: Waveforms Example Referring to the waveforms of ON-OFF control technique in the above diagram. n = Two input cycles. 3 . The ac controller ON time tON usually consists of an integral number of input cycles. Thyristors are turned ON during tON for two input cycles.: Single phase full wave AC voltage controller circuit Vs n m wt Vo io wt ig1 Gate pulse of T1 wt ig2 Gate pulse of T2 wt Fig.

Due to zero voltage and zero current switching of Thyristors. 4 . 1 = input cycle time (time period) and f f = input supply frequency. during the ON time tON . The load current flows in the positive direction. vs = Vm sin ω t = 2VS sin ω t V VS = RMS value of input ac supply = m = RMS phase supply voltage. by applying gating signal to the gate of T2 . tON = controller on time = n × T . during tON . by triggering the thyristors alternately. tOFF = controller off time = m × T .m = One input cycle. then tON = n × T . The load current flows in the reverse direction. Thus we obtain a bi-directional load current flow (alternating load current flow) in a ac voltage controller circuit. The thyristor T1 is turned on at the beginning of each positive half cycle by applying the gate trigger pulses to T1 as shown. which is the upward direction when T2 conducts. the harmonics generated by switching actions are reduced. which is the downward direction as shown in the circuit diagram when T1 conducts. This type of control is used in applications which have high mechanical inertia and high thermal time constant (Industrial heating and speed control of ac motors).: Power Factor Thyristors are turned ON precisely at the zero voltage crossings of the input supply. For a sine wave input supply voltage. 2 If the input ac supply is connected to load for ‘n’ number of input cycles and disconnected for ‘m’ number of input cycles. Where T = tOFF = m × T TO = Output time period = ( tON + tOFF ) = ( nT + mT ) . Thyristors are turned OFF during tOFF for one input cycle Fig. The thyristor T2 is turned on at the beginning of each negative half cycle.

.We can show that. 4T .3T . Thus we note that sin 2ω tON = 0 VO( RMS ) = Vm 2 ω tON Vm = 2 ω TO 2 tON TO 5 . TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE RMS VALUE OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE.d (ω t ) Substituting for Sin 2θ = 1 − Cos 2θ 2 ω tON VO( RMS ) = Vm 2 ωTO ∫ 0 ⎡1 − Cos 2ω t ⎤ d (ω t ) ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎣ ⎦ VO( RMS ) = Vm 2 2ωTO ω tON ⎡ω tON ⎤ ω − d t ⎢ ∫ ( ) ∫ Cos 2ω t. Hence tON = T .. FOR ON-OFF CONTROL METHOD... Output RMS voltage VO( RMS ) = Vi ( RMS ) tON t = VS ON TO TO Where Vi( RMS ) is the RMS input supply voltage = VS .. 6π . 4π .. 2T .. Output RMS voltage VO( RMS ) = 1 ON 2 2 V Sin ω t..8π .10π .5T .. & ω tON = 2π .. Where T is the input supply time period (T = input cycle time period).d (ω t ) ωTO ω t∫=0 m ωt VO( RMS ) Vm 2 = ωTO ω tON ∫ 0 Sin 2ω t.d (ω t ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎦ VO( RMS ) = Vm 2 ⎡ ⎢(ω t ) 2ωTO ⎣ ω tON − 0 Sin 2ω t 2 ω tON 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ VO( RMS ) = Now Vm 2 ⎡ sin 2ω tON − sin 0 ⎤ (ω tON − 0 ) − ⎢ ⎥ 2ωTO ⎣ 2 ⎦ tON = An integral number of input cycles..

• Output AC (Load) Power 2 PO = I O ( RMS ) × RL 6 . (m + n) RMS Load Current I O( RMS ) = VO( RMS ) Z = VO( RMS ) RL .VO( RMS ) = Vi( RMS ) tON t = VS ON TO TO Where Vi( RMS ) = Vm = VS = RMS value of input supply voltage.d (ω t ) ⎥ =⎢ ∫ ⎣ 2π ( n + m ) 0 ⎦ 1 2 VO( RMS ) = Vm 2 n =V k = VS k ( m + n ) i( RMS ) VO( RMS ) = Vi( RMS ) k = VS k Where VS = Vi ( RMS ) = RMS value of input supply voltage. 2 tON tON nT n = = = = k = duty cycle (d). • Duty Cycle t tON nT k = ON = = TO ( tON + tOFF ) ( m + n ) T Where. for a resistive load Z = RL . TO tON + tOFF nT + mT ( n + m ) VO( RMS ) = VS n =V k m ( + n) S PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS • RMS Output (Load) Voltage VO( RMS ) 2π ⎡ ⎤ n Vm 2 sin 2 ω t. k = • n = duty cycle (d).

d (ω t ) 2π ( m + n ) ∫ 0 nI m sin ω t. The input supply current is same as the load current I in = I O = I L Hence.• Input Power Factor PF = PO P output load power = = O VA input supply volt amperes VS I S 2 IO ( RMS ) × RL PF = Vi( RMS ) × I in( RMS ) .d (ω t ) 2π ( m + n ) ∫ 0 ⎡ nI m ⎢ − cos ω t 2π ( m + n ) ⎣ π π IT ( Avg ) = IT ( Avg ) = ⎤ ⎥ 0⎦ IT ( Avg ) = nI m [ − cos π + cos 0] 2π ( m + n ) 7 . I in( RMS ) = I O( RMS ) . I S = I in( RMS ) = RMS input supply current. PF = 2 IO ( RMS ) × RL Vi( RMS ) × I in( RMS ) n m+n = VO( RMS ) Vi( RMS ) = Vi( RMS ) k Vi( RMS ) = k PF = k = • The Average Current of Thyristor IT ( Avg ) Waveform of Thyristor Current iT Im n m 0 π IT ( Avg ) = 2π π 3π ωt n I m sin ω t. RMS supply current = RMS load current.

I = m π (m + n) π tON n = ( tON + tOFF ) ( n + m ) k = duty cycle = IT ( Avg ) = Imn k .IT ( Avg ) = nI m ⎡ − ( −1) + 1⎤ ⎦ 2π ( m + n ) ⎣ n [2Im ] 2π ( m + n ) IT ( Avg ) = IT ( Avg ) = Imn k .I = m. RL • RMS Current of Thyristor IT ( RMS ) IT ( RMS ) π ⎡ ⎤ n 2 =⎢ Im sin 2 ω t.d (ω t ) ⎥ ∫ ⎣ 2π ( n + m ) 0 ⎦ 1 1 2 IT ( RMS ) π 2 ⎡ ⎤ nI m =⎢ sin 2 ω t. π (m + n) π Where I m = Vm = maximum or peak thyristor current.d (ω t ) ⎬⎥ ⎢ 4π ( n + m ) ⎩ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎭⎦ ⎣ 1 1 2 IT ( RMS ) 2 ⎡ ⎧ nI m =⎢ ⎨(ω t ) ⎢ ⎣ 4π ( n + m ) ⎩ π 0 ⎛ sin 2ω t ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ π ⎫⎤ ⎬⎥ 0 ⎭⎥ ⎦ 2 IT ( RMS ) 2 ⎡ nI m ⎧ ⎛ sin 2π − sin 0 ⎞ ⎫⎤ =⎢ ⎨(π − 0 ) − ⎜ ⎟ ⎬⎥ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎭⎦ ⎣ 4π ( n + m ) ⎩ 1 2 8 .d (ω t ) ⎥ ∫ ⎣ 2π ( n + m ) 0 ⎦ 2 IT ( RMS ) π 2 ⎡ (1 − cos 2ω t ) d ω t ⎤ nI m =⎢ ( )⎥ ∫ 2 ⎣ 2π ( n + m ) 0 ⎦ 1 2 IT ( RMS ) π 2 ⎡ ⎧π ⎫⎤ nI m =⎢ ⎨ ∫ d (ω t ) − ∫ cos 2ω t.

A single phase full wave ac voltage controller working on ON-OFF control technique has supply voltage of 230V.F. The controller is ON for 30 cycles and off for 40 cycles. SELAMAT BELAJAR 9 . • RMS output voltage. RMS 50Hz. • Input P. Calculate • ON & OFF time intervals. load = 50Ω. • Average and RMS thyristor currents.IT ( RMS ) 2 ⎡ ⎤ nI m =⎢ {π − 0 − 0}⎥ ⎣ 4π ( n + m ) ⎦ 1 2 IT ( RMS ) 2 ⎡ nI m π ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4π ( n + m ) ⎦ 1 2 2 ⎡ nI m ⎤ =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 4 (n + m) ⎦ 1 2 IT ( RMS ) = Im 2 I n = m k (m + n) 2 IT ( RMS ) = Im k 2 PROBLEM 1.

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