The Garuda Purana
This is a translation of an abridged version of the Garuda Purana. The Garuda Purana is one of the Vishnu Puranas. It is in the form of a dialog between Vishnu and Garuda, the King of Birds. The second section of this Purana (given here) deals with issues connected with death, particularly funeral rites and the metaphysics of reincarnation. Portions of the Garuda Purana are used by some Hindus as funeral liturgy. Indeed, some consider it unlucky to read this text except during funerals. Of interest are the intermediate states between birth and rebirth, which roughly correspond to the western concepts of Hell and Heaven. Since this was written during the medieval era, it is possible that the writer of this text had contact with Christianity. Earlier Hindu texts do not elaborate about 'hell' and 'heaven,' at least not to this extent, and the subject is completely absent in the oldest texts. Here, the torments of Hell are described in terms that would not be out of place in a Baptist revival tent (or Dante, for that matter). In addition, the four-square city of Yama, the God of Death, is reminiscent of the heavenly city in Revelation. However, these are way stations between incarnations (or, as termed in the Tibetan Book of the Dead, Bardos), not a permanent destination. The Garuda Purana starts with the details of the afterlife. Following this is an account of funeral procedures, including rituals, the astrological timing of the post-death observances, and ritual gifts. Balancing the extended vision of Hell in the earlier part of the document is a shorter account of the City of Yama. After that is an enumeration of correspondences between the macrocosmos and the human body. The final part of this text is an appeal to self-knowledge as the key to liberation, going beyond austerities and study of the texts. "The fool, not knowing that the truth is seated in himself, is bewildered by the Shastras,--a foolish goatherd, with the young goat under his arm, peers into the well."
WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
ERNEST WOOD & S.V. SUBRAHMANYAM
AND AN INTRODUCTION FROM SRIS CHANDRA VASU
Allahabad: Pâṇiṇi Office  E-book as PDF by Ganesh Rama Kumar
NOTICE OF ATTRIBUTION. Scanned at sacred-texts.com, June 2006. Proofed and formatted by John Bruno Hare. This text is in the public domain in the United States because it was published prior to January 1st, 1923. These files may be used for any non-commercial purpose, provided this notice of attribution is left intact in all copies.
No. Chapter Name PAGE 1. The Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1 2. The Way of Yama 10 3. The Torments of Yama 21 4. The Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell 30 5. The Signs of Sins 38 6. The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful 46 7. Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One 52 8. The Gifts for the Dying 61 9. The Rites for the Dying 76 10. The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire 83 11. The Ten-Days' Ceremonies 97 12. The Eleventh-Day Rite 103 13. The Ceremony for all the Ancestors 114 14. The City of the King of Justice 130 15 The Coming to Birth of People who have done Good 141 16. The Law for Liberation 154
This Garuḍa Purâṇa Sârodhhâra (Extracted essence of the Garuḍa Purâṇa) was compiled or written by one Navanidhirâma, son of Śrî Hari Nârâyaṇa, who lived in the city of Jhunjhuṇû, which was ruled by a King Śrî Sûkhalâlajî. It was done for the helping of those who cannot understand the difficult earlier works; but itself is not easy to understand, and required much labour, the author informs us. It is entirely originally written, he says, and comprises the results of very deep study of the sacred books, and is the extracted essence of them on the subjects with which it deals. It is used all over India at funeral ceremonies, but some are afraid to read it on other occasions, thinking it inauspicious. CHAPTERS I to VII deal with Hells. CHAPTERS VII to XIII deal with Ceremonies for the dead. CHAPTER XIV deals with Heaven. CHAPTERS XV & XVI deal with Yoga and liberation. The neo-theosophists, among the great good they have done to the world, have revived the idea that Hell is a living reality, and not a superstitious fiction, created by a designing priestcraft, to keep Humanity on its good behavior. Among the educated, with the vanishing of the belief in an after-life, has vanished also the belief in Hell. But owing to the labors of the Psychical Research Society and similar other bodies, there are few educated persons now, who deny the existence of the afterlife, as they used to do some thirty years back. But though the belief in after-life has revived, yet the cognate belief in Heaven and Hell is still very vague. Our Hindu Puranas, however, among the great mass of rubbish that they contain, have always been very clear on this question of Heaven and Hell. Serious writers of law books also like Yâjñavalkya and Viṣṇu have described asseriously the existences of various Hells, as they have done the various joys of Heaven. No doubt, the subject of Hell is not a very savoury one, and nervous persons have always fought shy of studying this unpleasant department of existence. But, pleasant or unpleasant, the science does not take into account the human feelings. No one is forced to study the subject, unless he feels strong enough to do so, as no one is bound to study Medicine, unless he is prepared to face the scenes of the dissecting room. The question then is, do these hells really exist? If so, where? This is a question of fact, and must be decided like all questions of fact, on the evidence of reliable witnesses who have, from personal experience, described this region. To a Hindu there is needed no greater testimony than that of Yogi Yâjñavalkya who, in the Prâyaśchitta Adhyâya of his law book, mentions 21 hells. The author of Viṣṇu Smṛiti also has followed in his footsteps. Hell, then, according to Hindu seers, is a particular locality walled off from the surrounding regions of space by the messengers of Yama, the ruler of Hell. Within this particular space so specially guarded, no joy can enter. It is a region of pain--sharp. intense and severe. Sinners clothed in their painful bodies (jâtana deha)--replica of their
This is the permanent gain which the soul has acquired. the soul is re-born with keener conscience and under circumstances where it can. though made of subtler matter.
. * But if the soul so favourably placed. or is it in the astral plane only? As Heaven is both physical and astral. But the permanent educative effect remains in that part of the sold--called the conscience. The readers of the Hindu Sacred literature will no doubt remember the beautiful episode of Nachiketas going to Hell. Thus the fact of concrete existence of hell cannot be doubted. As a prison house is a prison only to the criminal. its locality is in the astral region of the physical South Pole. verse 22. suffer the punishments deserved by their sins.physical bodies. It is Reformatory and Educative. Mârkaṇdeya and others are said to be still living in their physical bodies. and leaves its senses unrestrained. But there is one distinguishing mark between the Hindu idea of Hell and that of votaries of Semitic creeds. What are these prison houses in every well-governed community but physical hells? What is this outcasting by the society. by passing through the bitterness of the valley of Yama--the merciful ruler of Hell. so there are physical hells also. make better use of its faculties. Lohachâraka). but making one feel the torture of hell. 140-141. so Hell is a place of punishment and pain only to the sinners and not to those who go there on similar missions. Viṣṇu Smṛiti. there is again a fall for that soul. where the great ṛiṣis like Vyâsa. and as the Svarga is on the physical plane also. Where is then this Hell situated? According to Hindu belief. Says Yâjñavalkya in verse 218 of the Third Adhyâya that the lords of mercy place such souls in very favourable circumstances afterwards. but not to the visitor. is the result of the finer development of conscience. Aśvathâman. in modern times we have the evidence of a hard-headed man of science like Swedenborg. in fact Gautama in his law book definitely calls this stage hell. † Is there any physical Hell also. which certain souls feel at the sight of temptation to sin. Leaving the testimony of Hindu seers aside. as the Heaven is situate in the astral region of the physical North Pole. The hell punishment is not remembered by the soul when it is re-born. though not known as Hells. (See Sacred Books of the East. of a refined artist and poet like Dante. The punishment in Hell is not eternal. The twenty-two hells are described in the Viṣṇu Smṛiti. if it so chooses. miscalled the secret of death. and which it will never lose through ages to come. omits to do good action or commits evil deeds again. no more than it remembers the joys of heaven. as is mentioned in the next verse. in another form of hell. pp. and learning from its Ruler the secret of cosmic evolution. and the great sage Râmkṛiṣna Paramahaṃsa. who goes there on his mission of mercy and charity. and some say that Gautama did not believe. The natural fear. After being thus purified by Hell-fire. in the furnace of hell-fire.
For minor sins. verse 219. And here is a rich field which the Brâhmiṇ priestcraft of India. but a gift to a Brâhmiṇ. every mortal sinner must pass through the period of purificatory process of hell. 265. which has gained ascendency now. but a kicking cow. Like the dispensations of the Popes of Rome. preying on the gullibility of its votaries. where they enjoy pleasures. One who has performed such penance has exhausted the evil effects of his sins and for him there is no penance. which is far from the truth.--there is no penance. by the rule of the present Iron age. for modern Hinduism has done everything in its power to throw in 'the background that rational idea. is that for the intentional mortal sins--kâma kṛitamahâpâtaka. the penance for drinking spirituous liquors is death by drinking boiling liquors or butter. has exploited to its extreme extent. penances can be compounded by the payment of amounts ranging from a cowrie shell to thousands of rupees to Brâhmiṇs. if a sinner asks the paṇḍit for the appropriate penance of his sin. and become accomplished in arts and sciences. the infliction of bodily pains is of secondary importance. the rule is different. But no Paṇḍit is allowed. Similarly. as the saying goes that no one feeds a docile donkey. they are born in high families. the only operative penance is to embrace a red-hot iron image and die in that way. Several kinds of death penances are described in our law books." iii:† Mandalik's Hindu Law. Repentance for sin is the highest prâyaśchitta.
iii:* "Afterwards freed from all sins. our ancient authors held different opinions. The result therefore. however meritorious it be in its nature.Is there any means by which a man may save himself from the pains of hell? On this point. however bad he may be. and also a pilgrimage. is that according to the law. It is not that the gifts to a deserving man washes away sins. with its concomitant result in the shape of so much fee (dakṣiṇâ) to be paid to the Brâhmiṇ. a very salutary rule is laid down by the paṇḍits that no death penance should ever be described. p. and in this age. The later view. there is a penance. For every sin. The practice of Prâyaśchittas or penances is based upon a more rational basis. Thus in certain cases of incest. Penances have become a farce in Modern India. which can save the man from future troubles. The after-life consequences can be warded off by appropriate penances. One class of thinkers held the view that sin could not be expiated by any act of man. This presupposes that a kicking Brâhmiṇ has milk to give. but one must suffer the full consequences of his sins. to describe these death penances to any sinner. except the death penance. for the sake of her milk. and possessed of wealth.
O Shining One.--excels. 3-5. having offered oblations to the sacrificial fire respectfully asked this of the revered Sûta sitting there:-The sages said: The happiness-giving path of the Shining Ones has been described by you. As it was declared to Vainateya 3 by the Blessed Viṣṇu.. happiness-giving. 2. of many forms. 8-9. 6. the son of Vinatâ. just so will I relate it. Now I wish to hear about the fearsome Way of Yama. in the morning.GARUDA PURANA
HOMAGE TO THE BLESSED GANEṢA
An Account of the Miseries of the Sinful in this World and the Other 1. when the Blessed Hari. the Teacher. inquired:-Garuḍa said: The Path of Devotion. 1 Also of the miseries of the World of Change. The name of the Lord is easily pronounced. was sitting at ease in Vaikuṇṭḥa.--whose firm root is Law. and also. We now wish to hear about the fear-inspiring Way of Yama. O Lord. very difficult to tread. along which is the travelling. Fie. 3 having bowed reverently. and in what way they obtain the miseries of the Way of Yama. and whose fruit is liberation. whose flowers are sacrifices. 7. Tell me. Please tell us correctly about the afflictions of this world and the other. Those sages once. of those who turn away from devotion to Thee. In Naimiṣa. has been told the highest goal of the devotees. 2 and the means of destroying its pains. has been described to me by you. 1 the sages. when asked. misery-giving to the sinful. 11. The tree Madhusûdana. I am willing to describe the way of Yama. and the tongue is under control. then. to what condition the sinful come. whose trunk is the Vedas. performed sacrifices for thousands of years to attain the Heaven-world. to remove your difficulties. whose abundant branches are the Purâṇas. to the virtuously inclined. fie upon the wretched men who nevertheless go to hell! 12. the field of the sleepless Ones.
. it is revealed. Once. Saunaka and others. 10. Suta said: Listen then.
meet with torments. diseased. Having experienced the good or the bad actions. revelling in the enjoyments of the desire-nature. eating little. 25. a divine vision arises. 14-16. Then. and pain like the stinging of hundred scorpions is experienced. enveloped in the net of delusion. 18. lacking the divine attributes. 21-24. with mind busy with the support of his family. Powerful death. O Lord of Birds. with senses unconquered. in accordance with his former earning.--fall into a foul hell. In this condition. Lying encircled by his sorrowing relatives. intoxicated with the pride of wealth. having the ungodly qualities. O Târkṣya. 17. unbending. 27. Self-satisfied. having passed through death. terrible even to hear about. being caught in the noose of death.-and he does not attempt to say anything. exhausted by coughing and difficult breathing. though being spoken to he does not answer. the messengers of Yama come near and life departs. nearing death. with the death rattle in his throat. 26. Those men who are intent upon wisdom go to the highest goal.
. by which those who are sinful go in hell. averse from the true scriptures and the company of the good. O Târkṣya. some disease arises. yet anxiously hoping to live. He remains. 28. those who delight in sin. destitute of compassion and righteousness. at the destruction of the decayed senses and the numbing of the intelligence. like a house-dog. When the breath is leaving its place. with tubes obstructed by phlegm. attached to the wicked.--then. the sinfully-inclined go miserably to the torments of Yama. With eyes turned up through loss of vitality. In this last moment. approaches him stricken with bodily and mental pain. with his body deformed through old age.13. then how they. 19. and I will describe the Way of Yama. in the house. like a serpent.--all the worlds appear as one. moving little. with failing digestion. swooning with intense pain he dies amidst his weeping relatives. as the result of his 1 actions. Not yet tired of life. eating what is ungraciously placed before him. Bewildered by many thoughts. the moment of dying seems an age. being cared for by his dependents. 20. unexpectedly. Listen how the misery of this world accrues to the sinful. The Blessed Lord said: Listen.
shelterless and waterless. like the king's officers a convict. Then hearing these words. almost powerless. with nails like weapons. the man.--in this way. 42. you wicked man. with ugly faces.' he is beaten by the servants of Yama. swiftly comes back through the air. oh. 34-35. with hair erect. with grinding teeth. Hungry and thirsty. he weeps. and the weeping of his relatives. and recount over and over again the awful terrors of the hells. Now he emits foam. two terrifying messengers of Yama are come.29. the sinful Denier does not obtain gratification. naked. without delay. forest-fires and hot winds. after a time. 30-40.' 36. We will lead you now. O Târkṣya. bound by his past tendencies. While thus leading him the messengers menace him. bearing nooses and rods. remembering his misdeeds. his mouth becomes filled with saliva. The vital breaths of the sinful depart by the lower gateway. As black as crows. Then. Having returned. afflicted. Nevertheless. desiring the body but held back with a noose by the followers of Yama. they forcibly lead him a long way. with the messengers. tortured by hunger and thirst.
. 32.' is dragged from the body by the servants of Yama. along a road of burning sand. bitten by clogs upon the way. painfully he walks. to Kumbhîpâka and the other hells. crying out 'oh.-'Hurry up. With failing heart and shuddering at their threats. 41. The man is brought there in a short time and the messengers show him the terrible torments of hell. 37-38. You shall go to the abode of Yama. roasting in the sun. He obtains the rice-balls given by his offspring. Having seen the fearful Yama. 33. crying loudly 'Oh. The man of the size of a thumb. 30-31. and bound the noose about his neck. Here and there falling exhausted and insensible. seeing whom his heart palpitates and he releases excrements. looking the while at his own body. struck upon the back with whips. very miserably led through the darkness to the abode of Yama. and rising again. Having put round him a body of torment. 43. oh. by command of Yama. and the gifts made during the time of his illness. of fierce aspect.
the man. 12 Nânâkrandapura. 3 Sauripura. Karma not experienced does not die away even in thousands of millions of ages. 51-53. 10 Bahwâpada. do not uplift. in an uninhabited forest. Having passed successively. By the rice-ball of the first day the head is-formed. O Best of Birds. very hungry and pained with thirst. and the handsful of water. 9 Vichitrabhavana. On the thirteenth day the departed. The extent of the way of Yama measures eighty-six thousand Yojanas. The Śrâddha. Every day these are divided into four portions. 55. O Bird. 6 Shailâgama. 7 Krauncha. still they are tortured with hunger.44. Two hundred and forty-seven Yojanas each day the departed travels. 4 Nâgendrabhavana. by this experiences good and evil on the way. by the third the heart forms: By the fourth the back forms. 11 Duḥkhada. 45. 58-59. wander about in great misery. Two portions give nourishment to the five elements of the body. 40. a new one is formed by these offerings. walks alone along the road like a captured monkey. Although they eat the rice-ball offering. for the sinful. 56. with fully formed body. Dwelling in the body formed by the rice-balls. going by day and night. 54. 57. 13
. and by the fifth the navel. Those who are in the departed condition. on both the eleventh and twelfth days the departed eats. acquires strength. For nine days and nights the departed obtains rice-balls. deprived of the rice-ball offering. and on the tenth day the being. he lives upon the fourth. 1 without Vaitaraṇî. the being who has not experienced the torment certainly does not obtain the human form. bound by the servants of Yama. O Twice-born. 48. the size of a hand (cubit). O Bird. 46. 5 Gândharva. through these sixteen cities on the way. The old body being cremated. by the seventh the thigh forms. 47. the sinful man goes to the place of the King of Righteousness 2:-Saumya. by the sixth the hips and secret parts. Hence. Likewise next the knees and feet by two. 50. the neck and shoulders by the second. 8 Krûrapura. 1 the gifts. until the end of the age. 1 for ten days the son should offer rice-balls. the third goes to the messengers of Yama. on the tenth day hunger and thirst.
3:1 The ambiguity of the pronouns in this work is unavoidable. 8:5 Residence of the Lord of Serpents. 2:2 Saṁsâra: The three worlds in which men circle through births and deaths. the abode of righteousness 60. 8:1 A Yojana is between 8 and 9 miles. oh.
.Sutaptabhawana. 6:1 Ceremony for the dead. 8:9 Town of cruelty. The superphysical beings." having left his own house. 15 Payovarshana. They may be interpreted only with the aid of common-sense. 8:2 Another form of Yama. all birds are twice-born.
1:1 I. 8:7 Inaccessible mountain. the sinful. goes on the way to the city of Yama. 2:1 Yama is the Lord of death. 17 Bahubhîti 18:--before the city of Yama.e. 8:11 Many calamities. 8:10 A wonderful place. 8:8 Name of a mountain. 7:1 Members of the three higher castes take a "second birth" when invested with the sacred thread. 8:4 Town of Saturn.. 8:3 Calm place. in and from the egg. 16 Shîtâdhya. who do not sleep. Held by the nooses of Yama. 8:6 Place of Singers. 14 Raudra. crying out "Oh. Vinatâ was the mother of Garuḍa. 2:3 A name of Garuḍa.
8:18 Many horrors. 8:15 Savage. 8:16 Rains 8:17 Very cold. 8:14 Very hot place. 8:13 Town of varied cries.
3. Twelve suns blaze. and dogs. In one place he falls into a hidden well. in which a man may take rest. in one place torn by thorns. hawks. copper. way the sinful go there. bees. which when seen inspires misery. The sinful in one place is bitten by ferocious lions. Garuḍa said: What is the path of misery in the world of Yama like? Tell me. In some places are showers of charcoal. 1. 4. bestowing great misery. which is recorded as two thousand yojanas in length and breadth. There the sinful soul goes along pierced by cold winds. showers of blood. In the midst of the way flows the terribly horrible Vaitaraṇî River. and on this road there is none of the foods by which he may support life. No water is to be seen anywhere that he.
. and having forest-fires. in another from a lofty mountain. in another stung by scorpions. in another rocks difficult to climb over. 11. showers of weapons. of which even an account arouses fear. as though at the end of a pralaya. In one place are deep chasms. in another he treads on razor-edges and on spear-points. and with excrement. showers of stones and thunderbolts. vultures. in another a mound of embers. in another in hot slime. may drink. owls. 2. showers of boiling water. In one place there is pitch darkness. 14. Although you are my devotee. 7-8. extremely thirsty. in another in mud abounding in leeches. in others lakes filled with pus and blood. tigers. made of smelted. in another burnt by fire.Infested with crows. mosquitoes. in what. 9. In one place he stumbles in the awful black darkness and falls into water. There is no shade of trees there.
An Account of The Way of Yama. in others bills to climb and valleys to descend. in another stung by very venomous serpents.CHAPTER II. The Blessed Lord said: I will tell you about the Way of Yama. O Bird. 15-17.--by whose leaves he is pierced and torn. In one place there is a very terrible forest of sword-like leaves. 10. And showers of caustic mud. 5. In one place is a plain of hot sand. 12-13. when you have heard it you will become agitated. in another a great cloud of smoke. 6. O Keśava.
27. and with black snakes. overspread with flames and smoke. That river. obstructed with hairy moss. a flow of pus and blood. Thus along the Way of Yama. feet and back bound with chains. Some go on the way neck. with heaps of bones on the banks.
. this river. and crowded with hundreds of dreadful birds. go the sinful. and also by nooses through the ears. filled with huge crocodiles. the sinful are led on. Very dreadful. of many kinds of pain. fallen into the flood. impassible for the sinful. like butter in the frying-pan: Covered all over with dreadful throngs of insects with piercing stings. O Brother.Extending a hundred yojanas. Hungry and thirsty the sinful drink the blood. arms. Very sinful people. 29.--of those who have fallen into the midst of this. with crocodiles. O Father!'--again and again wailing. and with other flesh-eating water-animals. infested with huge vultures and crows with adamantine beaks. fear-inspiring. some of them being dragged by hooks. giving extreme misery. with powerful roaring. It is difficult to cross and gives great misery. Unfordable. 18-20. vomiting blood from the mouth. there is no rescuer whatever. Filled with porpoises. are pecked by crows. When it sees the sinful approaching. with leeches. crying and weeping and laden with misery. after the moment rising again. O Son. 22-23. By hundreds of thousands of whirlpools the sinful descend to the lower region.--at the very sight of it the sinful swoon away. And being beaten with hammers by the awful messengers of Yama. seethes. with mud of flesh and blood. 30-32. 26. and its opposite cannot be seen. this river was created only that the sinful should fall into it. 25. bearing many loads of iron. They stay for a moment in the lower region. carrying much foam. which then they eat again. flowing with blood. cry. Bound by the noose. fishes and turtles. impassible. others. O Târkshya. Covered with many scorpions. it is said. by the nooses of death being dragged along. difficult to see into. and pierced from behind with points of weapons. 21. 24. O Bird. 28. Others are drawn along by a noose through the end of the nose.
incessantly crying out. make reparation for whatever you have done! 36. 'I made no daily gifts and did not give food daily to the cow. make reparation for whatever you have done!' 39. For seventeen days he goes on alone with the speed of the wind.' 42. I did not excavate tanks in waterless places. no offerings to the fire. did not listen to the Purâṇas. And the stupid. did not worship the deities. and a fig-tree delightful to see. oh. 'Not knowing my duty I did not serve my husband. full of very great misery. becoming exhausted.--O Dweller in the Body. calling on son and grandson. Owing to my bad deeds in former lives I got a woman's body. ' Alas. 'I did not follow the good advice of my husband. On the eighteenth day. make reparation for whatever you have done! 40. 43. crying 'Whence did I attain this human state?' he goes on. did not value the precepts of the Vedas and the Śâstras.--O Dweller in the Body. 'I did not duly honour the assemblies of Brâhmiṇs. never performed any benevolent acts. the departed reaches the City of Saumya. thus going on the way. performed no penances.--also.' repents:-'By great meritorious effort birth as a human being is gained. did not pay due respect to my worthy elders.--O Dweller in the Body.
.-O Dweller in the Body. Thus having lamented many times. The River Puṣhpabhadrâ is there. I did not do my duty. Having become widowed I performed no austerities.--O Dweller in the Body. did not visit the holy river 1. 44. Haying obtained that. make reparation for whatever you leave done! 38. nor after his death enter the fire. 'Oh. Large numbers of the departed are in that excellent and beautiful city. make reparation for whatever you have done! 37. did not perform service at a place of pilgrimage as prescribed. never preserved fidelity to my husband. which is a source of great misery. either for the benefit of men or for the sake of animals and binds. did not even a little for the support of cows and brahmins. O Târkṣya. remembering the past incarnation. make reparation for whatever you have done! 41. 'I did not emaciate myself by monthly fasts by the course of the moon. go on towards the mansion of Yama. whatever have I done! 35. 'I made no gifts. nor worship the wise. 33-34.--O Dweller in the Body. nor by detailed observances.Bewailing their own karmas these beings. did not wait upon good men.
Go on for a long time! 48. You do not strive for provisions. of this way. 59. as spoken of in the Purâṇas?' 50. Having enjoyed there the rice-balls. Upon the coming of the third month. then the departed belonging there and the servants say this: Where is your wealth now? Where are your children and wife now? Where are your friends and relatives now? You only suffer the result of your own karma. his family and dependents all. 49. In the fifth month the departed goes thence to the city of Krauncha. O Traveller in the Higher World! Yet you must inevitably go on that way. 51. 'Have you not heard.41. and then passes on from that city. 57-58. Here he eats the monthly rice-balls given by his sons and grandsons through either love or compassion. and having seen the fearful forests there he cries in misery. having arrived at the city of the Gandharvas. given at the end of three fortnights. falling down and getting up again and running. where there is neither buying nor selling. 53. 46-47. and thence goes on into Sauripura. son and others. And in the fourth month reaches Śailâgama city. Thus spoken to by the messengers and being beaten with the hammers. There stones rain down copiously upon the departed. water and cloths given by his relatives.
. Being dragged unmercifully he weeps again and again. At the end of two months the afflicted leaves that city. along with the servants of Yama. When he bewails his wealth. he is forcibly dragged by the nooses. and there having eaten the rice-balls offered in the third month he moves on. which is familiar even to children? Have you not heard of it from the twice-born. In that city he takes rest. There is there a king named Jangama. Thence the departed speedily goes to Nagendrabhavana. Having seen him he is overcome with fear and decides to give up efforts. Having eaten the rice-balls of the fourth month he becomes somewhat happy. There he remembers the enjoyment of wife. 55-56. you fool. and is miserable. 54. being again dragged with the nooses he is led onwards by the servants. 52. who has the appearance of Death. In that city he eats a mixture of water and food. 'You know that provisions are the strength of a traveller. O Mortal.
' he exclaims. the departed. Then having come before him some fishermen say: 'We have arrived. in the tenth month. and this is called Vaitaraṇî because it is crossed over by that. He goes to Chitrabhavana. At the end of five and a half months the ceremony before the six-monthly is performed. Having left that city.
.' 66-67. with difficulty. 'If you have made the gift of a cow. 'It is said by the sages. Having then eaten the rice-balls of the sixth month. 69. carry him across like a fish upon a hook. the departed eats the rice balls given by hand in the fifth month. 61. He remains. The sinful soul who has made no gifts verily sinks in that. goes to Krûrapura. 64-65. having eaten it. Having seen many people crying in agony in various ways. otherwise not. he cries in great misery. Having stayed. to Sutaptabhavana. bringing a boat for you--who desire to cross the great Vaitaraṇî River-if your merits are sufficient. and being himself faint of heart. O Ruler of Birds. When he sees his huge form he runs away in fear. then the boat will come to you. he passes on. floating in the air. goes. 'Oh heavens. At the approach of the seventh month he goes to the city of Bahwâpada. 70. 62-63. threatened by the servants of Yama. 71. Having passed beyond that city. very greatly afflicted with the desire to eat. Remaining in the city of Krauncha. 75. for a time and having left that city. He goes on the way lamenting. 68. At the end of the ninth month he goes to the city of Nânâkranda. 74. 73. seeing which he cries loudly. Seeing him it seethes. the messengers. trembling and very miserable. he arrives at the city of Duhkhada. over which kingdom rules a king named Vichitra. who see the truth.' Having heard their words. Travelling in the air he suffers great misery. who is the younger brother of Yama.60. and then. There he enjoys what is given by his sons in the seventh month. threatened by the servants of Yama. 72. Having eaten the rice-balls which are given in the eighth month he moves on. that Vitarana is a gift. Having fixed a skewer through his lips. satisfied with the rice-balls and jars then given.
coming nearer to the abode of Yama. afflicted with hunger. There he enjoys what is offered in the eleventh month by his sons and others. 77. in misery. Those who do not offer gifts for the dweller in the upper body. O Kâśyapa. 84. he is not happy At the completion of the eleventh month he goes to the city of Raudra. 86. obtains the Śrâddha before the annual one. he looks about in the ten directions. At the end of the year he goes to the city of Śîtâḍhya. 85. getting a body of torment. to work out its karma. Into the city of the King of Justice there are four gateways. sets out through the air with the servants of Yama. 80. and half after the eleventh month he reaches Payovarṣaṇa. 82. There the servants ask: 'What sort of merit have you?' Having eaten the annual riceballs he plucks up courage again. thus go. thirst and exhaustion. he. giving misery to the departed. having reached the city of Bahubhîti. What else do you wish to hear?
14:1 The Ganges. 'Does there remain any relative who will remove my misery?' 81. 70. where cold a hundred times greater than that of the Himâlaya afflicts him. O Bird. 78. Though he there obtains the rice-ball gifts and water.
. 83. has been told. Hungry and pierced with cold. There clouds team. The spirit the size of a thumb. and them.76. painfully bound in tight bonds. of which the way of the southern gate has been declared to you. At the end of the year. How they go on this most dreadful path. he casts off the body the measure of a hand.
O Kâśyapa. 2. they become benevolent. 9. granting heaven and liberation. although he is allknowing. Their wives have a similar nature. having gone to Chitragupta. 7. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. Then Chitragupta tells it to the King of Justice. speech and body. and the karma born of mind. those who walk about in the city of Yama. Chitragupta. O Târkshya. All go to the door-keeper and report it to him. 3. he asks Chitragupta about their sins. who have authority over mortals and immortals. 1 reports the good and evil deeds. Garuḍa said: What are the torments like that the sinful suffers. enquires of the Śravaṇas 1. 6. and see a long way off. The men who are Deniers. Thus do these truth-speaking Śravaṇas relate the actions of man. as is proper. Sravanîs. and in the nether regions. 11. hear and understand at a distance. 4-5. They know accurately all that is done by women. and always delight in great sin. on earth.
. 1. O Descendant of Vinatâ. O Keśava. beyond the city of Bahubhîti. and are called. well-known to the King of Justice. 13. distinctively. 8.
An Account of the Torments of Yama. Even at the description of hell you will tremble. The sinful man cries when he hears the mingled wails of 'Oh. having passed along the way of Yama into the abode of Yama? Tell me this.' and having heard his cry.CHAPTER III. The doorkeeper Dharmadhwaja. always stands there. Such is the power of these. These followers of the King of Justice know accurately all the virtues and vices of mankind. these are all. He. Four and forty yojanas. lies the great city of the King of Justice. Nevertheless. charity and truthful speech. 14. To the man who pleases them by austerity. by men. I will tell it to you from the beginning to the end. 12. Oh. openly and secretly. These report to Chitragupta everything that is said and done. 10. The Śravaṇas are the sons of Brâhmaṇ who wander in heaven.
the strong and the weak. 'O. evil-doers. 16. the heart. who are crying. It is no use turning your faces away. 19-21. become dispensers of misery. Having seen him. Roaring like a cloud at the time of pralaya. Extending three yojanas. 24. 'It is known that Yama deals equally with the fool and the learned. roaring. the sun and others see fully the sins and merits of the embodied being. Chitragupta speaks to all those sinners. like a mountain of lampblack.15. 22. those truth-speakers. overcome with fear. day and night. the wretch. by command of Yama. Then Yama.' 30. seated on a buffalo. injudicious. 29. with eyes like wells. Oh. with red eyes and a long nose. 23. and those sins are the cause of unavoidable misery.' The sinful soul who made no gifts trembles and cries again. 28. The sun and moon. Hearing these words of Chitragupta. attended by Death. Yama. Chitragupta. and bewailing their karmas.
. you sinners. 25. summons them and shows them his own very terrible form. earth and water. Very sinful people behold the terrifying form of Yama--huge of body. fire. why ever did you commit that misery-giving sin which is born of lust. anger and association with the sinful. rod in hand. 'O. possessing thirty-two arms. polluted with egoism. the two twilights. resembling Yama. having assured himself concerning the sins of the sinful. Even Chitragupta is fearful. the sinful then grieve over their karmas. with mouth gaping with formidable fangs. why ever did you commit sin? 26. cries 'Oh. 17 The King of Justice. 18. terrible with weapons gleaming like lightning. you foolish people. and thereby are now destined for torment. sky. Fever and others. Knowing the wicked actions of the sinful. wind. 27 'Hitherto you have committed sins with great delight. Near to him are all the messengers. 'The sinful actions done by you are very many. Then. relating them before the King of Justice. and remain silent and motionless. the beggar and the wealthy. and Justice--know the actions of man. Śravaṇas.
The King of Justice. you sinners. 36. sinful people. 41. nor make the water-offering to the forefathers. those most. Then. Many sinful ones are hung on that silk-cotton tree. why ever did you commit such wicked deeds? You did not even make the easy water and food offerings at all. you sinner. as we are ordered.' 33. nor repeat their mantra. swooning away. helpless. executors of the sentences of Yama. The messengers. You never visited any places of pilgrimage. There is one big tree there. exhausted by hunger and thirst. to the very dreadful terrifying hells. 32. implore the messengers. nor worshipped the deities. having bound them with one noose.31. with metal rods. Then the cruel messengers. We only punish miscreants. 'You did not give even halt a mouthful of food to the dog or the crows. They.
. you evildoers. 'Forgiveness of faults is done by the Lord Hari 1 Îśwara. glowing like a blazing fire. by the messengers. cry. It covers five yojanas and is one yojana in height. with spears. burning there. nor honour your guests. Again and again they are forcibly struck. 44. Prachaṇḍa. seeing them quiet. You did not meditate well upon Yama and Chitragupta. forgive my faults'--with suppliant hands. 37. Though living as a householder you did not even express compassion. 43. 45. having beaten them. 31. Thus beaten they become still. along with which torment cannot exist. and beaten by the messengers of Yama. lead them towards the hells. Suffer the fruits of your own sin! Because you are devoid of righteousness you deserve to be beaten. with hammers. 35. and on account of the beating they fall down like glowing charcoal. they beat them. the servants address them thus: 'O. 42. say. Having bound them on the tree by chains. 39-40. 34. 'Oh. Chaṇḍaka 1 and others. has fitting punishment ordered for the sinful. with maces and with big pestles. 'Go along. with iron clubs. seeing them standing motionless like thieves. for whom there is no rescuer. 'You did not do any acts of service.' 46. Thus having spoken the messengers heat them mercilessly. head downwards.
Tâmisra. and smelted like a lump of ore. 56. like firewood. Some of the sinful are cut with saws. 48. are squeezed like sugar-cane. 11 Mahâniraya. their bodies half-buried in a pit. In falling their limbs are cut by the sharp leaves. 5
Saṅghâta. 10 Sampratâpana. 12 Kâka. 15 Mahâpathin. Some are thrown into wells. the midst of which are twenty-one most dreadful of the dreadful. 1 Lohaśaṇku. 14 Sanjîvana. give up my wealth. In the world of Yama I see my wealth being enjoyed by you. 54. 60. and they cry. are pierced in the head with arrows. 6 Pûtimṛittika. 16
. 51. 7 Maharauravaśâlmalî. the sinful.47. and others into heated oil. 61-64. Tâmisra and others.--in which there is great misery indescribable in words. 52. Hells full of great misery are there. 49.' 57. and. Thus quarrelling. are chopped into pieces with axes. enwrapped with torches. and some with hands and feet bound are placed head downwards. 13 Ûlu. 2 Kâlasûtraka. by order of Yama. are given pieces of flesh torn off with pincers by the messengers. 9 Saviṣa. There are eighty-four lakhs of hells. 4 Kuḍmala. and others thrown flat on the ground. they are taken hold of by the messengers. are eaten away by them. fallen down and bitten by dogs. Thus disputing. in front of huge maddened elephants. Some are thrown in the way. and thrown into the dreadful hells. and like a cake thrown into the frying-pan they are turned about.--near to the tree. By the hard beaks of huge flesh-eating crows and vultures they are pecked in the head. fixed in the middle of a machine. 8 Lohitoda. being bound with various nooses some are beaten with hammers. some are hurled from heights. in the hell-region. eyes and faces. 55. Others clamour: 'Give up. O Bird. Then the mouths of those who are crying are filled with dust by the messengers. others plunged into pits full of worms. 58. 53. Some are surrounded closely with blazing charcoal. Others. Some are plunged into heated butter. 50. Some. which you owe me. 3 Raurava. 59.
the support of his family. 65. which are produced by secret association.
21:1 Name of the being who records the doings of men. he comes here again. 28:3 Very terrible silk-cotton tree. 71. The sinful fools. who was fond of supporting his family by unrighteous means alone. provisioned with the opposite of happiness. Andhatâmisra. 66. Listeners. The man experiences in a foul hell what is ordained by his fate. 21--in all twenty-one. 17 Andhatâmisra. 19 Sampratâpana. 28:2 Iron spears. Men and women suffer the torments of Tâmisra. Who have fallen into these. he goes alone to hell. 28:1 Darkness. Having cast off his body. He who takes away (sins). 70: The individual. 22:1 Lit. the various fruits of sin. 68. experience there. which is the place of uttermost darkness. 28:5 Blossoming. 26:1 Lit.Avîchi. the various torments of hell. Raurava and other hells. having given up both. purified. obtains appropriate fruit. 20 and Tapana. like an invalid who has been robbed of his wealth. goes to Andhatâmisra. 28:4 Terrible. and inhabited by multitudes of servants. 24:1 Both names mean fierce or violent. All formed of various afflictions and diseases of different classes. 69. and being departed.
. Thus he who was holding a family or gratifying his belly. 18 Kumbhîpâka. which was nourished at the expense of other creatures. 67. devoid of righteousness. Having experienced in due order the torments below. until the end of the age.
28:8 Accumulation. 28:16 The great path. 28:15 Living together. 28:12 The great exit. 28:7 Stinking clay. 28:21 Hot. 28:17 Waveless.28:6 The thread of death. 28:19 Based like a pot.
. 28:13 Crows. 28:9 Iron weights. 28:10 Poisonous. 28:11 Burning. 28:20 Burning. 28:14 Owls. 28:18 Besetting darkness.
I will tell you who the sinners are who go by it. Those who seize upon the fault and depreciate the merit. 3. slayers of owe. murderers of women. The righteous go into the city of the King of Justice by three gateways.
. Slayers of Brâhmiṇs. and many others. teachers and Shining Ones. and are always evil-minded. who are foolish. Those who despise places of pilgrimage. who try to make the happy wretched. good actions. The Vaitaraṇî River is only on this very miserable way. Garuḍa said: For what sins do they go on that great Way? Why do they fall into the Vaitaraṇî? Why do they go to hell? Tell me this. Those who steal the wealth of the teacher. 1. devoid of righteousness. the Vedas. the property of the temple or of the twice-born. who are foolish. those who misappropriate deposits. The Blessed Lord said: 'Those who always delight in wrong deeds. who speak evil words. good men. who turn away from the company of the good. and those who commit secret sins. the Mîmâṁsâ. weeping day and night. and those who steal the possessions of children. infanticides. who turn away from good deeds. destroyers of the embryo. and those who kill with poisonous foods.-These. those who disparage the Purâṇas. from misery to misery. those who betray confidence. go from hell to hell. who are self-satisfied. 13. 2. drinkers of intoxicants. certainly go on the Way of Yama. those who take away the possessions of women. 5-12. 4. Those who do not repay their debts. O Keśava. who thinks themselves learned.
An Account of the Kinds of Sins which lead to Hell. who are unbending. who are attached to the wicked. who are jealous of those who have merit. the Nyâya and the Vedânta. from fear to fear. they go towards the Vaitaraṇî. Beaten by the messengers of Yama. Those who do not listen to good counsel nor even to the word of the Śâstras. very sinful. I will tell you what sinners fall into it. Those who are elated at seeing the miserable.CHAPTER IV. but the sinful go into it only by the road of the southern gate.
who destroy the chastity of widows. Who give false witness. and having come. who removes fieldboundaries. Who obstructs sacrifices. O King of Birds. the messengers hurl them into that river again.
. Those who dishonour their mothers. The Brâhmiṇ who sells liquors. possessed of thousands of merits. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. who wears the sacred thread or consorts with Brâhmiṇ women. and who gain a livelihood by thieving. and modest. who earn by cheating. who neglect vows and pilgrimages. Those who wickedly abandon their wives.'--of these two the stay is continued. Those who ascribe evil to the good. who prevents the telling of stories. Having come all along the path the sinful reach the abode of Yama. Who has put aside his Brâhmaṇic duties. 23. fathers. who does not study the Śâstras. and consorts with a lowcaste woman. Who did not make gifts of black cows. fond of treading forbidden paths. 15. who is lustful towards virgins. who perform false duties. Who covets the King's wife. and many other fools. says. faithful. go to the tree standing on its bank.--these men sink in it. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. which is the foremost among hells. anal abandoning prescribed ditties. 'There is nothing for you. who ploughs up pastures.-These. they then hurl those sinners into the Vaitaraṇî. who eats flesh and drinks liquor. 18-24. who is of unbridled nature.14. who repents of his gifts: who takes away another's livelihood. The Śûdra who studies the letter of the Vedas. and who slanders virtuous women. nor perform the ceremonies for those who are in the upper body. not for the prescribed sacrifices of the Vedas. by command of Yama. Who cut down and destroy big trees. who hinders others making gifts. 17. fall into the Vaitaraṇî. who drinks the milk of the tawny cow. who kills animals for his own gratification. Who takes away what he gave. 28-30. and treat them disrespectfully. 26. of good qualities. of noble birth. having called them. and who. 27. having suffered great misery in it. 16. gardens and forests. who abducts others' wives. Who does not fulfil promises made to Brâhmiṇs. teachers and preceptors and the reverend.
Those who eat. those who break the laws of morality. Those men who. Those who. I will tell you about the sinful who fall into them. women who sell their hair. Those who throw their bodily refuse into fire. and having neglected the offerings to the forefathers and the Shining Ones.--these certainly go to hell.--these certainly go to hell. Deniers. Vaiśyas who are dealers in skins. 32.--these certainly go to hell. tanks. 35. or people's houses. Those who obstruct roads with posts.--they certainly go to hell. these certainly go to hell.-all these certainly go to hell. Śivâ. Gaṇeśa. those fools who worship him certainly go to hell. in a garden. these who sell poisons. he is certainly degraded from the Brâhmiṇ rank: That wretched twice-born is not worthy of salutation at any time. 44. those attached to senseobjects. having neglected their wives. 36. Hari.--these certainly go to hell. in a road. in water. 40.---these certainly go to hell. 34. children. the wise. blinded by passion. with mounds. self-indulgent.--these certainly go to hell. on the four days of lunar change. 37-38. do not worship Śiva.--these certainly go to hell.
. Those who. goes to a low condition. Those who are fond of quarrels. Those who destroy wells. 39. with women who have no other refuge. 41. 33.--these certainly go to hell. into water. Sûrya. through malignity. servants and teachers. hypocrites. shrines. or in a cowpen. ponds. on Śrâddha occasions. Those who fall down. the avaricious. 42. with timber. Those who are makers of swords. do not give up causing dissension among Brâhmaṇs and cow-fights but delight in them. 31. consort with women in the monthly courses.--such and others at the silk-cotton tree experience much beating. The Brâhmaṇi who places a harlot on his bed. and those who are sellers of them. the messengers cast into hells. 43. with stones or with thorns. in the day time. through being beaten. the ungrateful.The woman who despises her husband and thinks about another. and of bows and arrows. commit transgression at the time of conception. begetting offspring of a Śudra woman. and the good teachers.
When his limbs are cut by its leaves. that there are many torments for the sinful. 51. 1 or bands of pilgrims. 50. it is declared. Then they say: 'Drink this liquid and eat this food. 46.' As soon as he drinks it he falls down. Being tortured thus. Why should I explain them fully. ha! Sleep comfortably in this cool shade!' 55. 56. By order of Yama they return to the earth and become unmoving and other creatures:
.45. The very sinful man who sets fire to a house. O Târkṣya. who hate the good. and afterwards.--these certainly go to hell. 47. 48. 58. Powerless and breathless he is unable even to speak. 53. When. and those who destroy hopes. and who are cruel to them.--these certainly go to hell. then the messengers give him boiling oil to drink. a village or a wood. When his limbs are burnt with fire. is captured by the messengers of Yama and baked in pits of fire. then they say.--these certainly go to hell. He who interferes with marriage. he wails piteously.--these certainly go to hell. 49. Those who betray their friends.--these certainly go to hell. who punish the guiltless. when they are spoken of in all the Śâstras? 59. burning inside. dwells in a dreadful hell from which there is no return. he begs for water to drink. men and women by thousands are baked in dreadful hells until the coming of the deluge. those who cut short friendship. he begs for a shady place. processions of the Shining Ones. 57. 'Ah. afflicted with thirst. even though food is cooked. Those who are suspicious of all creatures. sharp as swords. cast them away again. and then is led by the messengers into the forest of sword-like leaves. Those who do not compassionate the helpless.--these certainly go to hell. with senses uncontrolled. Those who do not feed the Brâhmaṇ guests. Thus. Those who assume observances. Getting up again somehow. 60-62. Those who do not respect the teacher who imparts the knowledge of the Supreme Self. 52. and the tellers of the Purâṇas. 54. those who deceive all creatures. Having eaten there their undecaying fruits they are born again. who have come full of hope to the house.
rocks and grasses. born blind. infested with grievous maladies.--it is said that there are eighty-four hundred thousands of fates of birth-fates.
. become very miserable. these are spoken of as unmoving. bushes. having come back from hell they are born in the human kingdom amongst low outcastes. All these evolve thence into the human condition.-Insects. animals and fish. and bearing the marks of sin. by the stains of sin. and even there. creepers. 63. enveloped in great delusion. 64.Trees. Thus they become men and women oozing with leprosy. plants.
36:1 The images are carried round the streets on occasions. birds.
7. who steals grain becomes a locust. a eunuch. 12.--these hear from me. by what sins particular signs are produced. The eater of flesh becomes very red. becomes an epileptic. perfumes.CHAPTER V
An Account of the Signs of Sins. on account of greed. 5. 9. flesh. a musk-rat. 4. The slayer of a woman and the destroyer of embryos becomes a savage full of diseases. becomes big-bellied. who steals a book-is born blind. who sells flesh becomes unlucky. the drinker of intoxicants. insults his teacher. becomes swollen-necked. Who steals food becomes a rat. and who listens to them becomes deaf. Who steals jewels is born in a low caste. who interferes with marriage becomes lipless. He who eats sweet foods.
. the Brâhmaṇ who. O Keśava. 8. and the signs produced by particular sins. who breaks the meal-row 1 becomes oneeyed. 6. Who steals vegetables and leaves becomes a peacock. The Blessed Lord said: The sins on account of which the sinful returning from hell come to particular births.--all three born as outcastes. and to what sorts of birth such sins lead? 2. Garuḍa said: Tell me. A poisoner becomes insane. 10. eats what should not be eaten. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ becomes consumptive. one with discoloured teeth. who steals any metal becomes poverty-stricken. the murderer of a virgin becomes leprous. Who bears false witness becomes dumb. The man who. who eats fled of other beings becomes diseased. a scorpion. 13. who steals gold gets diseased nails. who gives impure food at a Śrâddha ceremony is born a spotted leper. who speaks lies becomes a stammerer. through pride. and who steals poison. and salt. an incendiary becomes bald. diseased-skinned. honey. who commits illicit intercourse. Who strikes a cow or a Brâhmaṇ with his foot is born lame and deformed. who despises the Vedas and the Śâstras certainly becomes jaundiced. 1. 11. a vulture. a gad-fly. 3. without giving to others. the killer of a cow becomes humpbacked and imbecile. who steals water becomes a Châtaka-bird 2. an ant. who goes with his teacher's wife.
Those twice-born who do not make offering to the World-deities. and she who scolds her husband becomes a louse. who robs caravans on the road. The twice-born who does not impart learning to the deserving becomes a bull. the pupil who does not serve his teacher becomes an animal. 21. a house-lizard. abandoning her own husband. Who steals betel. runs after another man. 17. 22. and by too many sacrifices he becomes an ass. becomes a leech. Who destroys hopes and who destroys affection. is destroyed when an embryo in the womb.--an ass or a cow. Who. certainly becomes a goat in a butcher's house. who through dislike abandons his wife. The lustful man who goes with a female ascetic becomes a desert fiend. 26. who steal shoes. Who does not give to a twice-born according to his promise becomes a jackal. who cheats in selling. becomes a ruddy goose for a long time.
. The Brâhmiṇ who officiates for one unfit to perform sacrifice becomes a village hog. He who cuts off his lineage. 15. having become a hyena and a porcupine. by eating without grace. The Brâhmiṇ who does not recite the Gâyatrî 1.14. fruits and flowers becomes a forest-monkey. 28. who speaks ill of caste and order is born a pigeon in a wood. an owl. who consorts with an immature girl becomes a huge snake in a wood. and who eat all foods without consideration. 27. who does not meditate at twilight. 25. grass and cotton are born from sheeps' wombs. father and teacher. 29. or a kind of female serpent. become tigers in a desolate forest. 2 23. Who deceives a friend becomes a mountain-vulture. The woman who abuses her mother-in-law and father-in-law. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend in a waterless wilderness. 24. who is inwardly wicked while outwardly pious. 18. who is not hospitable to the goody becomes a howling Fire-face. Who hates mother. 16. 19. a crow. becomes a flying-fox. Who threatens and spits at his teacher. Who lives by violence. who quarrels with sister and brother. by embracing a woman of his own family. is born from the womb of a bear. even for a thousand births. 20. whose feature is unrestrained becomes an elephant in a desolate forest. becomes a crane. and causes constant quarrels. or browbeats a Brâhmaṇ. Who dies by drinking poison becomes a black serpent on a mountain. and who is fond of hunting.
instead of making a gift to one who is well-read in the Vedas and Śâstras and has resorted to him. But it is no neglect if the Brâhmiṇ is without Veda-knowledge. The devalaka is born from the womb of a hen. an insect and a bird. 44. who robs a Brâhmiṇ. powdered stone. it would be like offering to ashes instead of to the blazing fire near by. afflict the family even for seven generations. Who steals another's wife. and poison. 34. are born here upon the exhaustion of their karma. and by neglecting Brâhmiṇs. who goes with the king's wife becomes corrupt. 38-40. Those who are very sinful. and having experienced the results in the successive hells.
. who misappropriates deposits. who consorts with a Śûdra woman becomes bull. a donkey. 37. who is passionate becomes a lustful horse. 32-33. a dog and a jackal. gives it to some other. Who goes with his teacher's wife. Who commits unnatural vice becomes a village pig.30. Having neglected. The Brâhmiṇ's possessions acquired by deception. families become broken up. 31. The murderer of a Brâhmaṇ goes into the womb of an ass. but where is the person in the three worlds who can digest a Brâhmiṇ's wealth! Chariots and troops supported by the wealth of a Brâhmiṇ crumble away in battle like artificial river-banks of sand. 35. is born as a Brâhmiṇ-fiend.--and by forcible robbery even as long as the moon and stars exist: A man may digest even iron filings. he is born blind and in poverty. By appropriating temple property. He is called a neglector who. The wretch among twice-born who worships the deities for the sake of wealth is called a devalaka and is unfit to offer oblations to ale deities and forefathers. 41-43. bushes and plants. a camel and a she-buffalo. a drinker of intoxicants enters the wombs of a wolf. becoming not a giver but a beggar. The stealer of gold attains the condition of a worm. Who feeds upon the eleventh-day offerings to the dead is born a dog. by taking a Brâhmiṇ's possessions. Who covets his teacher's wife. goes to the condition of grass. enjoyed even in friendship. O Târkṣya. 36. becomes a chameleon. and with his friend's wife. having passed through dreadful hells produced by their great sins.
The sinner who takes back by force what has been given by himself. 46. are seen to be the karma of the embodied. when the good and evil are balanced. These and other signs and births. 54. He who does not mike gifts becomes poverty--stricken and through poverty he commits sin. Having given the means of subsistence and a piece of land. they suffer from carrying burdens and other miseries. Who takes away a plot of land. 55. held fast by the noose of karma. so mortals revolve by my magic. 57. 50. Who gives the means of support to Brâhmiṇs obtains fruit equal to that of a lakh of cows. having experienced the tortures mf hell. 47. Man and woman having come together. As the wheel of time turns. Having experienced as a bird the misery of cold. thus turns the wheel in the four kingdoms of beings. and is again born in poverty and again becomes sinful. Karma which has been made. which was given by himself for another. 48. is born for sixty thousand years as a worm in excrement.
. he should then protect it firmly. Thus the makers of bad karma.45. by the force of sin he goes to hell. 52. 51. rain and heat. he afterwards reaches the human state. obtaining for thousands of lives the bodies of animals. at another in hell. They revolve at one time of earth. 49. O Lord of Birds. Then. a dog and a monkey. whether good or evil. in these stated forms. are born with the residues of their sins. he again dies. he becomes an embryo in due course. is born as a lame dog. must inevitably be suffered. made by themselves in this world. goes into hell until the coming of the deluge. 56. Birth and death are the lot of all embodied beings. Who does not protect. but robs. who robs Brâhmiṇs of their means of sup port becomes an ape. 53. Having suffered the miseries from conception onwards to death. Karma not suffered does not fade away even in tens of millions of ages.
40:1 A sacred mantra repeated every day by the twice-born caste. Whoever gives different food to one than to another is said to break the row also. 40:2 A class of evil spirits.Footnotes
39:1 This refers to the custom among Brâhmiṇs of sitting in a row at meals.
. and rising together. 39:2 A bird fabled to live only on rain-drops.
sobs for a long time. by the third occurs the formation of nails. by divine power. salt. which is the receptacle of a man's seed. bones. the Karma generated in hundreds of previous births.--and remembering. 6. Thus enveloped by the womb and bound outside by the sinews. obtaining not the least happiness. sour and acid.
. 5. by the fifth night round. amid fœces and urine. 1 and after that an egg of flesh. according to karma. With its head placed in its belly and its back and neck curved. 1. The mother of one returning from hell is regarded on the first day as an outcaste woman. and the creature at the time of birth lies in the disgusting hollow of the loins. skin. how he who returns from hells is formed in the womb of the mother. it moves to the left of the womb. The creature. O Keśava.CHAPTER VI. 9. 11. 13. hair. caused by the mother's eating many things--pungent. by the sixth. Viṣṇu said: I will tell you how the mortal is born when the male and female elements are bound together by the union of man and woman. 2. By the first month the head. on the second as the murderer of a Brâhmiṇ. by the tenth day like the fruit of the jujube tree. enveloped by the chorion. the divine eye. 10. Garuḍa said:--Tell me. hot. in obtaining a body. in the three days on which Indra incurs the sin of Brâmicide. it is unable to move its limbs. it feels pain all over its body. bitter. 4. In one night it becomes a lump. and what miseries he suffers in the embryonic condition. by the second the arms and other parts of the body are formed. 12. as they are very tender. enters the womb of a woman. By the fourth the seven bodily fluids. In the middle of the menstruation period. 3. All its limbs bitten constantly by hungry worms. The bodily substances are formed of the foods and liquids of the mother. by the fifth hunger and thirst arise. 7-8.
The Miseries of Birth of the Sinful. the body of the sinful begins to form. it swoons away repeatedly through excessive pain. and on the third as a washerwoman.--like a parrot in a cage. linga and other cavities. There he remembers.
The creature says. resorting to Thy feet I will keep myself aloof from the worlds of change. with hands put together. 16-23. 15. I am burnt by the fire of the belly. The Blessed Lord said: He who has thus considered. deprived of knowledge.14. I wish never to come out of the womb. 27. "But no. or upon hearing the Purâṇas were permanent--who would not be liberated from bondage! 28. adores in plaintive tones Him who placed him in the womb. the destroyer of evil. "Fallen into a well of fœces and urine. he comes out with anxiety and painfully breathless and with memory destroyed. suddenly is cast out head downwards into birth. while praying. imploring and trembling. If the state of mind which arises in the womb. as regards body and son and wife. When he comes out of the womb. "If I am released from this womb I will lay myself at Thy feet. misled by my egoism I am transmigrating. like a uterine worm.
. and anxious to escape from it. and is compassionate to the afflicted. Let not this transmigration occur to me again. endowed with insight. bound in seven bonds. bending down his head. Having this insight he. bearing the fatigue. He is become changed in condition. during illness. "I seek refuge in Viṣṇu. "Because remaining even here in great misery. "I am bewildered by Thy magic. after experiencing his karma. "I did good and evil actions for the sake of my dependents. will I seek refuge. Having fallen on the ground he moves like a worm in excrement. Cast out forcibly. 26. and has been ten months in the womb. by the winds of delivery. the husband of Śrî. who has given me this experience. O Lord. on the cremation ground." 24. When shall I get out? "In Him alone. and as s result I am tormented. and cries loudly. From the beginning of the seventh month. then verily the man is bewildered by the magic of Viṣṇu. while they who enjoy the fruits escape. though he gains consciousness. and I will take the means by which I may obtain liberation. 25. where misery results from my sinful actions. he who is in the womb trembles and moves about because of the parturition winds. the supporter of the universe. who is compassionate to those who come for shelter.
infatuated he falls into great darkness. to his own ruin and is destroyed by those stronger than himself. 36. when he is touched by that magic. 39. his senses captivated by her blandishments. deprived of the sacrifices for the dead. the bee and the fish: these five are led to destruction by one of the senses. 32. 43. 42. Then he begins evil brooding. mingling in the company of the wicked. O Târkṣya. and becomes lustful. He experiences the miseries of infancy and childhood arising from dependence. and on account of ignorance becomes angry and sorry. he is unable to speak. Thus I have related to you. Thus held fast in the ever-circling noose of karma.29. 40: After hundreds of lives one obtains human birth on earth. Lain upon a bed unclean and befouled by perspiration. how the sinful. the bird. just as insects bite little worms. Mosquitoes. In this wise having experienced the miseries of infancy and of childhood. how then shall the infatuated one not be destroyed. go in hell. bugs and other flies bite him. as one elephant by another. through foolishness lets slip the nectar from his hand. he goes to a miserable hell. 34. 37. He longs for the unobtainable. The deer. Seeing a seductive woman. to sit. What else do you wish to hear?
. 35. having arrived at old age. he hates the scriptures and good men. Then. 41. 31. and his pride and anger increase with the growth of his body. like a moth into a flame. he is unable to scratch his limbs. 38. skinless and weeping and deprived of understanding. he is troubled with great diseases. he reaches youth and acquires evil tendencies. spends in vain the human birth which was difficult to obtain. and. unable to ward off what is thrust upon him against his desire. The lover makes quarrels with rivals. when he enjoys the five kinds of objects by five senses. and even more difficult to obtain is that as a twice-born: and who then only provides for and pampers the senses. Then. death having come. Who is more sinful than the fool who. rise or move. He is nourished by people who do not understand his wishes. 30. are never released. gnats. the elephant. powerless. as before. attached to sense-objects. bewildered by my magic. 33. the sinful.
46:1 That is.
but the illegitimate drags down. O Bird. 10. and I will tell you all. as already said. Knowing this.
. 'By the son he conquers the worlds. 13. They alone. or worshipped the Blessed Śiva with devotion. Listen attentively. their reason clouded by sin. Garuḍa said: Tell me by what means men who have committed sins unknowingly or knowingly escape from the torments of the servants of Yama. 9. having seen the face of a son. 8. O Lord. then some means should be taken for obtaining a son. and the means by which people attain a happy condition. the exact meaning of the Purâṇas. one is released from the debt to the forefathers. one should avoid a woman of lower caste. 11. 2. 3-4. O Best of Birds. 7. but never so.CHAPTER VII. again questioned Keśava for the benefit of men. that of those who have sons and who are righteous. Sons having father and mother of the same caste are legitimate. If by any past action of his the birth of a son has been prevented. 14. by making Śrâddha-gifts are the means of their fathers' attaining heaven. carries the whole family over. their self dimmed by attachment to senseobjects-For their uplifting tell me. 5. The son saves his father from the hell called Put. 12. the intelligent should beget a son. trembling like a leaf of the holy fig-tree. By the touch of his grandson a mortal is released from the three-fold debt. 1. is the fate of the sinful and those without sons. Sûta said: Having heard this. For those men who are immersed in the ocean of transmigration. of weak intelligence. therefore he was named "putra" by the Self-existent himself. Having listened to the Harivanśa. Accordingly. if righteous.
Babhruvâhana's Sacrament for the Departed One. O Lord of Birds. O Mâdhava. you have done well in asking for the benefit of men. With the help of sons. Garuḍa. The son of a Brâhma marriage uplifts. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya.' is the ancient saying. or performed the Śatachaṇḍî. Even a single son. Hard indeed. grandsons. The Vedas also proclaim the great importance of the son. and great-grandsons he goes from the worlds and obtains heaven. 6.
29-31. skilled. with hair erect. fainting with the heat and with fatigue. Concerning this I will give you. A sacrificer. compassionate. with his army. ran out of sight into the interior of the forest. Need I say one attains heaven by means of the Śrâddha performed by a son. Now listen. The king. The Departed One. full of various kinds of trees. 28. 23. Then. The king approached and sat at its root. rendered fragrant by the-pollen of the lotus. who was very powerful. and firm in righteousness. pursued the deer and came into another forest. Lord of Gifts. severely wounded by his very hard arrow. Seeing him deformed and dreadful Babhruvâhana wondered. that powerful king. there reigned over the delightful city of Mahodaya a king named Babhruvâhana.
. endowed with good character and of good conduct. coming to a lake bathed in it with his horse. 25-27. and punishing the guilty. Târkṣya. Babhruvâhana came out of the water refreshed. hungry and with parched throat. 24. He entered a thick forest. and with senses discomposed by hunger and thirst. an example of the efficacy of gifts for the higher body. giving cool shade with its large spreading boughs. Once. Formerly. a lover of Brâhmaṇs. valuing the good.15. dirty. having drunk of that cool water. prosperous. 17-19. And saw a delightful fig-tree. in the Treta age. following the blood-stains on the grass. Righteously protecting his subjects as though they were his own sons. 16. when a Departed One went to heaven even when it was offered by another. In the midst of the forest the king saw a deer in the distance. 20-21. 22. also seeing the king who had come to that dreadful forest. carrying the arrow with him. And standing like a big standard over the whole forest. sounding with many birds. from ancient history. That leader of men. and resounding with the cries of various birds. The deer. went hunting. Crowded with various species of animals. Now he beheld a Departed One. of terrible appearance. always delighting in Kṣattriya duties. humpbacked and fleshless.
by what bad deeds did you reach this state of the Departed. O Târkṣya. and abounding in precious stones of various kinds. having many districts. "Beautiful with palaces and mansions. please know. O warrior. O Lord of Kings. The Departed one said: "I will tell you everything from the beginning. dear. O great king. "By caste I am a Vaishya. so that my departed condition may be destroyed. 42-45. by doing the ceremonies for my higher body. the condition as Departed becomes firmly fixed." 32-33. if you desire my welfare. no companion. came near to him. I cannot endure this departed condition. O Lord of Earth. and highly unhappy?" "Tell me in detail the cause of your condition. I dwelt. and likewise the forefathers by food. who will perform for me the ceremonies for the-higher body. possessed of all prosperity. O Best of Kings. "In that manner please act. and I will give you a most precious jewel. and by what gifts will your condition as Departed pass away?" 34-38. It is said that in this world the king is the kinsman of all castes. help me over. 39-41. Then. "I have no offspring. even if hundreds of annual Śrâddhas are performed for him. this king of the Departed spoke thus to the king: "I have escaped the condition of the Departed and reached the highest condition. There. and in which many religious acts are performed.
. no relative and no friend like you. The king said: "O Black-complexioned and Gaping-mouthed. "Uplift me then. by name Sudeva. dreadful to see. by being in touch with you. the blind and the wretched. Who are you. are not performed. through my evil fate has proved fruitless. always engaged in worship of the Shining Ones. O King. "All this. By fire-offering I pleased the Shining Ones. and my higher state arise. Suffering from the misery of hunger and thirst. "Therefore. "There is a town named Vaidaśa. How my good deeds proved fruitless I will relate to you. O Great-Armed one. "I gladdened the twice-born by offering various gifts. I gave food of various kinds to the poor. You will surely have compassion upon me when you have heard the cause of my condition as Departed. "If the sixteen monthly Śrâddhas. O Reverend Sir.And becoming filled with curiosity.--I am highly blessed.
curds and milk. but I am not able to grasp them at all. 51-56. "Dress it with a pair of yellow cloths. "Then he must give thirteen sets of pots to Brâhmiṇs. having gone round them. "Next.
. Please take notice and l will describe that good gift by which the departed condition cannot exist. and in accordance with what: rites must it be given? Tell me." 57." 58-63. "Listening to holy scriptures. 5 Worship these in turn with sandal-paste and flowers. to the north Gadâdhara. you should worship thus. in front of Nârâyaṇa. and pleasant fruits. Vaidic mantras."In this forest there is sweet and cool water. and make one image of Nârâyaṇa from them. according to the rite. as prescribed in the scriptures. with Vaidic mantras. having bathed. association with the good. and perform all the ceremonies and the release of a bull. and compassion to all beings. you have done well in asking this. make offerings in the fire to these deities. In all the worlds it is difficult to obtain this dissipator of evil conditions. "The gift which is named 'the pot for the departed. according to the rite. Make offerings to the universal deities with clarified butter. "How is the pot for the departed to be prepared. Bring two pieces of gold. "So I will tell you about the worship of Viṣṇu. "If the great Nârâyaṇa rite is performed for me. The departed said: "Oh Great King. are the destroyers of the departed condition. The king said. 4 "In the middle Pitâmaha 5 and also Maheśwara. the ceremony for the upper body. honestly gained. and having made the gift of a bed. by giving up anger and greed. consecrate a pot of water for the sake of the departed. "He must commence. O King. worship of Viṣṇu. I have heard. bathe it in many waters.--these. 46-48. to the west Vâmanadeva 3. calm and controlled in mind.' is a destroyer of all evil. "Then. the destroyer of the departed condition. 49-50. along with all the ceremonies for the higher body.--and placing it. on account of my sympathy for all. about the pot which gives release to the departed. austerities. "Place Śrîdhara 1 to the east of it. put on it various ornaments. although afflicted with hunger and thirst. gifts. Madhusûdana 2 to the south. O King. "Then surely my condition as departed will unfailingly pass away. the sacrificer should perform.
58:5 A name for Śiva. released by these sacred gifts. having given the great jewel to the king. the king returned to his city. for the release of the departed.
. slayer of the demon Madhu. never go to the departed condition. horses and chariots. The Blessed Lord spoke on: His army. with incenses. O King."Having prepared a pot of refined gold. attained heaven. full of milk and clarified butter. and became invisible. have acted sinfully. 59:1 Śiva. Îśa 1 and Keśava 2. He duly performed. while he was thus conversing with the departed. give it to a twice-born. Having come out of the forest. 58:2 Another form of Viṣṇu. 66-68.
58:1 Viṣṇu. should be made with faith. flowers and sandal-paste. performed even by a stranger. and all the guardians of the quarters. filled it with clarified butter and worshipped before it with devotion. a form of. On the arrival of the army the departed one. the rites and ceremonies for the dweller in the upper body. eternal giver of happiness. O Bird." 64-65. He who hears. and the departed. O King. 58:4 The club-bearing Viṣṇu. followed him up. What good are a hundred other gifts from you?"Brahmâ in the middle. the departed attain a happy state. consecrated it to Brahmâ. "This gift. and he who causes others to hear this holy history. 58:3 The divine dwarf Viṣṇu. again implored him. bowed to him. in the east and other directions. 59:2 Viṣṇu. one should give away the golden pot. and Śaṅkara. the guardians of the universe. in order-"These having duly worshipped. By the Śrâddha. O Kâśyapa. likewise Viṣṇu. with elephants. and arrived there remembering all that was said by the departed one. though they may. in the neck of it.--what wonder then that when the son performs it the father should reach it! 60. which is superior to all other gifts in removing great sins.
An Account of the Gifts for the Dying. 1. Garuḍa said: Tell me, O Lord, all the rites for those in the other worlds who have done good, and also how these rites should be performed by the sons. 2. The Blessed Lord said: O Târkṣya, you have done well in questioning me for the benefit of mankind. I will tell you all about the rites proper for the righteous. 3-4. The good person, finding his body, in its old age, afflicted with diseases, and the planetary conditions unfavourable, and not hearing the sounds of life, And knowing his death to be near, should he fearless and alert, and should make reparation for any sins committed knowingly or in ignorance. 5-8. When it is near the time to die he must perform his ablutions, and worship Viṣṇu in the form of Śâlagrâma. He must worship with fragrant substances, with flowers, with red saffron, with leaves of the holy basil, with incense, with lamps, with offerings of food and many sweetmeats, and other things. He should give presents to Brâhmiṇs, should feed them with the offerings, and should recite the eight and the twelve syllabled mantras. He should call to mind, and listen to, the names of Viṣṇu and Śiva. The name of Hari, coming with the range of hearing, takes away the sins of men. 9. Relatives, coming near the diseased, should not mourn. My holy name should be remembered and meditated upon repeatedly. 10-11. The Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-lion, the Dwarf, Paraśurâma, Râma, Kṛiṣṇa, Buddha, and also Kalkî 1: These ten names should always be meditated upon by the wise. Those who recite them near the diseased are called relatives. 12-16. Of him who gives voice to the auspicious name "Kṛiṣṇa" tens of millions of great sins are quickly reduced to ashes. Even the dying Ajâmila reached heaven by pronouncing the name Hari, which had been given to his son. 2 How much more then is its effect when it is pronounced with faith! Hari, meditated upon even by one who has evil thoughts, takes away sins: fire burns, even though accidentally touched. The sinful man is not able to sin while the power of the name Hari is uprooting the sins, O Twice-born.
Yama said to his servants: "Bring the man who denies, but O messengers, do not bring the man who meditates on the name Hari." 17-20. One should worship the Achyuta, Keśava, Nârâyaṇa, Kṛiṣṇa, Dâmodara, Vâsudeva, Hari, Śrîdhara, Mâdhavam, Gopîkâvallabham, Râmachandra, the Lord of Jânakî. 1 "O servants, do not go near those sinless people who take refuge in the lotus-eyed Vâsudeva and Viṣṇu, who is the supporter of the earth, and carries in his hand the conch and discus. "Bring those sinners who always turn away from time nectar of the lotus-feet of Viṣṇu,-which are served by the race of Paramahaṅsas, who know the true essence of things, and are without possessions,--and those whose desires are bound up in the household, which is the path to hell." "Bring them whose tongues do not pronounce the qualities and name of the Lord, whose minds do not meditate upon His lotus feet, whose heads never bow to Kṛiṣṇa, who do not offer worship to Viṣṇu." 21-23. Know, then, O Lord of Birds, the hymning of Viṣṇu, which bestows welfare on the universe, to be the best expiation for even great sins. The performance of penances does not purify the wicked man, who has turned his face away from Nârâyaṇa; just as even rivers cannot purify a liquor-pot. By the name of Kṛiṣṇa one is riddened of sins, and never sees, even in dream, Yama nor his servants. 24-25. The man, having a body of flesh, bones and blood,--who, towards the end gives cows to the twice-born, uttering "Nandanandanam," never falls into the Vaitaraṇî. Hence one should remember the name of Mahâ Viṣṇu, which effaces multitudes of sins, and should read or listen to the Gîtâ and the Hymn of the Thousand Names. 26-27. The fast of the eleventh day, the Gîtâ, the water of the Ganges, the leaves of the holy basil, the foot-water and names of Viṣṇu--all these are givers of freedom at the time of death. Then he must dedicate food, with clarified butter and gold, to a learned twice-born and. also give cows with calves. 28-31. Whatever a man gives in his last days, little or much, if it is approved by his Son, is exempt from decay, O Târkṣya. In these last days a good son should make all the gifts. It is for the sake of this that the wise pray for a righteous son in this world,
The sons, seeing their father lying upon the ground with eyes half-closed, should not covet his earned wealth. 1 A good son will make such gifts as will prolong his father's life, and free him from misery when he goes into the next world. 32-34. In disease and calamity two gifts rank above all others. They are indispensable-the eight-fold gift of sesamum and other things. Sesamum, iron, gold, cotton stuff, salt, the seven grains, a plot of ground, a cow,--every one of these is said to purify. The eight great gifts are the effacers of great sins, and should be given in the last days. Hear now their good effects: 35-36. There are three kinds of holy sesamums generated from my sweat. Asuras, Dânavas and Daityas 2 are gratified by the gift of these sesamums. White, black and brown are the three kinds of sesamums. The gift of these removes the sins gathered in speech, thought and action. 37-40. A gift of iron-ore should be made with the hands touching the ground,--then he does not go within the domain of Yama, nor tread his path. Yama holds in his hands, for the punishing of the sinful, an axe, a threshing-pestle, a rod, a sword and a dagger. This gift is considered propitiatory to these weapons of Yama. Therefore should be made the gift of iron, which is the bringer of happiness in the world of Yama. Because of this gift of iron, happiness is bestowed by these great messengers of Yama:-Uraṇa, Śyâmasûtra, Śuṇdâmarka, Udumbara, Śeṣa and Bala. 41-44. Hear this great secret, O Târkshya, about this most supreme gift, by which are pleased the dwellers in Bhû, Bhûvar and Swar worlds. 1 Brahmâ and others, sages, shining ones, and those who are in the assembly of the King of Justice are gratified by the gift of gold, and become granters of boons. Therefore a gift of gold should be made for the uplifting of the departed. He does not go to the world of Yama, O child, but reaches heaven. He dwells for a long time in the world of truth and is then reborn here as a king, handsome, righteous, eloquent, prosperous, and of unexcelled strength. 45. By the gift of cotton-stuff one is freed from fear of the messengers. By the gift of salt one is freed from the fear of Yama.
with the calf and other necessary things.--one is absolved of all these sins. in youth. With special rites. should the gift of a cow for Vaitaraṇî be made. salt. 53-55. All other gifts. in old age and in previous births. Towards the end. He who. in the twilight. The king who. without even a village hut. 49-52. not by holy pilgrimages. wheat. a cow should be given.46-48. The cows verily carry the man beyond three kinds of hells. The giver is released by her at the end from the accumulated sins. to a proper person. I say.
. The sins committed in boyhood. Rices. 1 panic seeds. kidney beans. shall dwell in hell as long as Śeṣa 2 supports the earth. through pride. the gift. mâṣa. another for the gaining of liberation. another to absolve himself of debts. By gifts of inn. dwarf-peas: these are called the seven grains. does not give land to the twice-born. The sins committed in the night. O Kâśyapa. The fruit produced by the gift of land increases daily. though for others. speech and thought. in the morning. in the forenoon and the afternoon. It has been observed by the sages that the gift of a plot of land of the size of a cow's hide. absolves one from Brahmicide. He who gives to the twice-born land filled with grains goes to the abode of Indra and is worshipped by divinities and demons. sesamum and gold. does not make gifts of land. milkgiving. are producers of little fruit. O Bird. barley. of a cow is equal to a gift of land. Chitragupta and the others who dwell in the city of Yama are propitiated. not by any gifts but by the gift of land is a great sin committed in kingship expiated. cotton-stuff. 56-57. in accordance with the rites. Not by vows.--of action. Therefore shall a king especially make gifts of land. having become a king. in manhood. to a well-conducted and austere Brâhmiṇ. 58-61. And by gifts of the seven grains the standard-bearer of the King of Justice and others who stand at the gates are propitiated. Having given even once a tawny cow. learned in the Vedas. is reborn for many times as a beggar. He should give a cow to overcome death.
which is a means for crossing the Vaitaraṇî River. And the gift of one hundred thousand cows after death 1. A gift made to a deserving person. 1 Present the cloths. and place the covered bronze vessel upon some cotton-stuff. and milk it into a bronze vessel. fastening it with silk threads. Mantras and fire. tip its horns with gold. properly worship with fragrances. and coloured rice 2. I will tell you about the gilt of a cow. increases a hundred thousand fold. silver its feet. recite this mantra:--
. with ornaments to a Brâhmiṇ. do not themselves partake of these evil qualities. Take hold of the tail of the cow. place a foot in the boat. the gift of a thousand when dying and bereft of mental faculties. and never to many. The gift of one cow while one is in full vigour of mind. who has bathed at the sacred waters. and an iron rod. And it troubles the recipient's people for a hundred generations. A gift made to a deserving person multiplies a hundred-thousand-fold. the removers of cold and poison. Put there a golden image of Yama. the gift of a hundred cows while suffering from diseases. Make a raft of sugarcanes. and in it place the raft: Having placed the things which are born from the body of the sun in it.62-63. 65-68. Cover it with a pair of black cloths. fill it with water. make a hole. One cow should be given to one only. A gift should not be made to an undeserving person by the wise who desire their own welfare. are equal. and. The cow given to an undeserving person leads the giver to hell. 64. hang a bell round its neck. One who has studied the scriptures and made fire-offerings to the shining ones and who does not eat food cooked by others is not polluted by receiving even the earth filled with precious stones. If he either sells it or shares it his family will he troubled to the seventh generation. flowers. place clarified butter in the bronze vessel and put all upon the cow. 70-76. dedicate the cow there in accordance with the scriptures. One should decorate a black or reddish cow. It brings unending fruit to the giver and does not harm the recipient. 69. of which I have spoken to you already. having honoured a Brâhmiṇ.
on the day of the new moon. Queen of the shining ones! "May cows be in front of me. and lies on the very dreadful way of Yama. look upon me. and may I dwell in the midst of cows. 89. Whether the body is well or ill one should carry out the Vaitaraṇî observance. death is always near. its the form of a cow remove my sins. does not appear in the Great Way after the gift of a cow. at Vyatîpâta. Vaitaraṇî. "O Best of the Twice-born. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî. Salutations to thee. gives the Vaitaraṇî cow. Thou art verily the saviour of those who are immersed in the ocean of existence. the very form of Viṣṇu. who is the mainstay of the shining ones. "O Cow. and in the dwelling-places of Brâhmiṇs. I have presented this gift to you. desiring to cross that river.
. 85-86.--thence flows unending benefit. 87-88. may cows be behind me. "O Lord of the Universe. to a learned Brâhmiṇ. possessions are not eternal.77-82. made miserable by the waves of sorrow and remorse. God upon earth. That river. goes by a righteous path into the assembly of the King of Justice. 2 on Yuga days 3 and at other sacred times. which is a hundred yojanas in extent. may cows be in my heart 1. O Bird. At all the sacred bathing-places. uplift me. With hands together having invoiced." 83-84. Salutations to Vaitaraṇî! "I have presented this to you. at the crossing over 1. Bodies are transitory. He who. That verily is called the sacred time. 2 Therefore it is necessary to give a cow at all sacred times. 90. he should give them to the Brâhmiṇ.--the supreme gift of a cow should be made. Yama in the form of a cow. 91-92. in which faith is produced. like the Ganges. compassionate to those who seek refuge in Thee.--one should accumulate righteousness. being desirous of crossing that river. "May she who is the Goddess of Prosperity for all creatures. and when a proper person is present. So one who desires his own welfare should make unending gifts. and having walked round all these things. The wise man. at the eclipses of the sun and moon. At the equinoctial and solstitial points. should make a gift of a cow. for the sake of my passing through the gateway of Yama on the great path. with these rites. with these mantras. according to his wealth.
100. Therefore one should make gifts himself.The gift of even a little wealth. wife and the others. reaches the supreme goal. If not to the living. body. and who can give afterwards? 101-102. So long as a man is alive he has a father and other relatives. He is born by the attraction of karma. Like creatures in a water-tank. The man who neglects righteousness. Knowing all this. and like the motion or sticks in a river is one's contact with mother. sons. much less will anyone give to the dead. Life is transient. father. son. Whose are the sons. Wealth. The fruitfulness of birth as a human being depends upon the pursuit of righteousness alone. presented with one's own hand:--this is unending. 105-106. He who. so long should one make gifts to a Brâhmiṇ. goes happily on the Great Way. one should give with one's own hand. The relatives turn away with averted faces leaving the dead body on the ground. Therefore righteousness should be sought. He who has gifts as provision. their affection soon fades away. brother. Otherwise--without provision--the man suffers pain on the path. Nobody has a relation in this changing ocean of sorrow. be it good or bad. kinsman. 95-96. When his body has been destroyed by fire his karma remains and wherever he is the man experiences it. like a lump of wood or earth. but righteousness goes with him. or the wealth? In the world of change nobody belongs to anybody.--all these are transitory. while still alive. and the relatives from the cremation-ground. 93-94. birth as a human being is obtained. All the gifts made by human beings in this world clear the way for them on the path of the world of Yama. having gained it. The good and evil karma he has made goes with him. and the grandsons? Whose is the wife. and goes again upon its exhaustion. As long as one is in possession of wealth.
. wife and fancily. goes and comes in misery. By the power of great merit. and the time is effectual. but when they have known him to be dead. kinsmen. The wealth disappears from the house. but when the wealth becomes another's one can have nothing to say. He should constantly remember that the true kinsman of the self is the Self. 103-104. follows righteousness. 97-99. 107-100.
O Bird. brothers. grandsons and great-grandsons are ennobled. not by large piles of wealth. Therefore. leave faith. who is still to come. a fruit or water--from him. a flower. I accept that. a gift should be made. 115. kinsmen and friends who do not make gifts on behalf of a dying man are without doubt slayers of Brâhmaṇ. Righteousness verily is the cause of freedom. though in poverty. a thousand-fold. What is given through the father has a hundred-fold merit. descents or incarnations of Viṣṇu. 116-118. by one knowing this. He should cause his ailing father to make gifts on earth. who. All those sinful-misers. Sons. a leaf. by all means. 110-111. The wise.
62:1 The ten avatâras. which appeared in archaic and ancient times. and happened to call him as he was dying. himself. ten-thousand fold. because of greed. for the sake of righteousness. except Kalkî. Hence should wealth be given. do not make gifts at the time of illness come to grief when dead. by that. From him who offers to Me. Righteousness is supported by faith. through the brother. 65:2 Classes of non-human beings. through the sister. by righteousness desire is conquered. 63:1 Names of Vishnu. who named his son Nârâyaṇa. and no fear caused by the messengers of Yama at the time of death. incalculable. Wealth is born of righteousness. A righteous son is honoured even by the shining ones. but not that earned by the father.On account of gifts made in a former birth much wealth is obtained in this. through the mother. 65:1 They may expect ancestral property. and as prescribed. 112. presented with devotion. grandsons. Whether it be small or great does not count with me. his sets.
. Therefore should righteousness be pursued. 62:2 Ajâmila was a man of very evil life. For him who makes gifts there are no troubles and no torments of hell. with devotion. and go to heaven. 113-114. If the wealth made by the father is given to the deserving by the sons--then. the self-subdued.
that the cow is merely a symbol. silk. 70:2 Akṣata. are closely connected with sacrifice and therefore with the sun. 67:1 A kind of spotted grain. and used to honour persons by sprinkling over them. etc. 71:1 Note here. 68:1 That is. given by another for one. gold." 72:1 The passing of the sun from one constellation to another. 71:2 Note the subjective character of the "river. whole rice coloured with turmeric and saffron. and the minutes declination are the same. 70:1 Probably the afore-mentioned cow. 72:2 When the sun and moon are on opposite sides of either solstice. 67:2 The eternal serpent. 72:3 Every month there is a day called Yuga--the last or last but one. astral and lower mental worlds.66:1 Physical.
Because the sesamum is produced from My sweat it is holy. which removes the pain of being. Tell now. The house in which the holy basil tree is enshrined is like a holy bathing place. of the rites for the dying. 1 Next.
.CHAPTER IX. though he have hundreds of sins. 14-15. and then have the Śâlagrâma stone placed on the cleaned platform. holy basil. 2. The man who dies with a leaf of it in his mouth. Yama is not able to see him who gives up his life while having a holy basil shoot. then. 1. O Târkṣya. the embodied leaves his ordinary body. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. 6-9 Where is the shade of the holy basil tree. and I will explain the rites for one leaving the body. hence by the mere touch of them men attain heaven. O Târkṣhya. he should strew darbha-grass. Liberation is certain for the being who dies near the Śâlagrâma stone. mantras. upon a seat of sesamum and darbhagrass. near to a holy basil tree one should make a ring with cowdung. Garuḍa said: You have spoken fully about the gifts for the diseased. are produced from my hairs.--the servants of Yama do not come to it. my riches. by the effects of karma. in the middle of the kuśa is Janârdana. Brâhmiṇs and cows do not lose their purity by being used again and again. and by what rites men after death reach a good condition. there is always liberation for the dying. which removes all ills and sins. hence Asuras. O Lord. difficult to obtain by gifts. Dânavas and Daityas run away from sesamum. 3-5. Brahma is seated at the root of the kuśa-grass. fire. 1 at the tip of the kuśa is Śaṅkaradeva 2--three shining ones are seated in the kuśa grass. The darbha grasses. darbha-grasses and holy basil are three holy things. goes to the city of Viṣṇu. unfailingly.
An Account of the Rites for the Dying. When. Hence kuśa. and they prevent an ailing man from going to a miserable condition. Sesamums. having scattered sesamum seeds. 10-13. though he have no son.
drinking or calling upon the Ganges. Demons. and is not born again on earth. and he who drinks the water of the Ganges.Darbha-grass becomes unclean with rice-balls. The ground must he pure everywhere. "O Ganges. Hence without this ring one should not perform oblations to the fire. the feeding of Brâhmiṇs. so. 1 Brahmâ. By bathing in other rivers men are purified.
. He who drinks the water of the Ganges. and gives fruit of merit equal to bathings and gifts at all the sacred waters. goes when dead to the city of Viṣṇu. Next. heated by the rays of the sun 1 is freed from all births and goes to the abode of Hari. is his sin reduced to ashes. Just as. Ganges" while life is flickering in the throat. He who drinks even a drop of the water of the water of the Śâlagrâma stone 3 is absolved from all sins. spooks. O Târkṣya. He who calls. and Sacrificial Fire stand upon the ring. One should lay the dying man on the ground cleaned with cow-dung and spread over with darbha-grasses. Viṣṇu.--therefore should one make a ring. He who performs a thousand times the Chândrâyaṇa fast which purifies his body. Rudra 2 all the shining ones. whose water helps one over the ocean of transmigration.--so also by merely touching. placing him on the cleaned ground. cows and holy basil. and give him the Water of the Feet of Vishnu in the form of the Śâlagrâma. and the followers of Yama enter an impure place. one should put gold and jewels upon his lips. and a cot above the ground. 4 23-30. which is the effacer of great sins. with no stain to be seen. and fire. It sanctifies meritless men by hundreds and thousands. on a cremationground. the worship of the Holy Ones. not support him in the air. Brâhmiṇs. Śrâddha. mantras. Therefore should one drink of the Ganges. Then one should give him the water of the Ganges. 21-22. a bundle of cotton is destroyed by falling into the fire. when basely used. by his drinking the water of the Ganges. 16-20. are both equal. nor place the dying man upon the ground. elementals. If there is a stain it should be cleaned away by further plastering. goblins. by eating the offerings for the departed. and goes to the residence Vaikuṇṭḥa.
And the man who. 44-45. Then he should listen. eternally free. birthless and deathless. the life-breath departs from the inert body. Endowed with good tendencies. Earth is dissipated to earth. The individual. who perish in a moment. which are joined. And. goes to the highest goal. be proud of the body. environed by the sheath of karma. or half or quarter of a verse of the Bhâgavata never returns hither from the world of Brahmâ. to the Bhâgavata." goes at death to the city of Viṣṇu. Then. ether to ether: and the Self that is in the bodies is happy. O Bird. the life breaths easily pass out through the higher opening. O Bird. fire is dissipated in fire. and drink its water.-worm. When the rising and descending life-breaths. witness of the world. salute. contemplates with faith the Ganges. surrounded with sense-objects of sound and the rest. 34-35. He who in his last moments repeats a verse. and is not born again on earth. when his life is leaving. becomes detestable and unfit to touch. he should make a fast. clinging to desire and love. "I have relinquished. keep in mind the Ganges. all-pervading. the hymning of Viṣṇu and Śiva--these bring liberation at death to Brâhmiṇs. with its three conditions. enters a new body created by his own karma. of him who is righteous and has thus performed the rites. Therefore he should contemplate. as does a householder whose house has been burnt. 40-41. likewise water to water. 31-33. How can men. foul smells soon arise in it. and it is disliked by everybody. 36-39. At the time when the breath is leaving the body. similarly. The repeating of the Vedas and the Upaniṣads. left by the vital breath. however little. 1 which is a giver of liberation. When the Lord of Breath departs. nostrils and ears are the seven gateways through which go those of good deeds. 2 He who says. also air in air. possessing all the senses. The mouth.
. become separate. then. Dissatisfied with worldly things the twice-born should take up relinquishment. Yogins go through an opening in the head. the body falls like a tree unsupported and stricken by time. becoming subtle. eyes. dung and ashes? 42-43. Kṣattriyas and Vaiṣyas. 3 while life is still flickering in his throat. The motionless body.
48. knowing the true righteousness. 80:1 The Bhâgvata Purâṇa. 80:3 That is. by virtue of gifts attains heaven. in a resplendent body. arrive. 77:2 Śiva.
. giving up attachment to worldly life and its objects. to die they remove him from the couch to the ground. And they. wise. bringing a chariot wreathed with countless bells. carry him. truly says. 78:3 Water is poured over the stone. 79:1 Here is a mystical suggestion. 78:4 The heaven of Viṣṇu. who has performed the rites.46-47: Then the messengers of the Shining Ones. 78:1 When the people of the house are aware that one is about. always beloved by the righteous. with shining garments and garlands. away in their own chariot. and is honoured by the Holy Ones. possessed of gold and diamond ornaments. 77:1 Viṣṇu.
76:1 Cowdung is extensively used in India as a purifier and antiseptic. resplendent with flashing plumes. and thus consecrated to Viṣṇu. That great man. 78:2 Siva. 80:2 Sannyâsa.
2. Then the son. There is no need for numerous gifts. he should make a halt. 3. bringing river water. abandoning sorrow. he should offer them. having bathed with his relatives he must put on clean cloths. he should make an offering for him. 11-13. the helper through the ocean of changefulness.
The Collecting of the Bones from the Fire. Then. by this the evil ones amongst the tens of millions of elementals can do no harm. O Lord. in order to remove all sins. By this the earth and its presiding deity become pleased. after cleaning and sprinkling. 14. 1 4-6. Then. Having covered it with new cloths he. He who carries his dead father on shoulder or back or hip pays off the debt of constant parental kindnesses. except the nails and the hair of the armpits. then along with the other relatives the son should bear it on his shoulder. half-way. the rites for burning the bodies of the good. Then the daughter-in-law 1 and others should go round it and worship it. 10. should pronounce the family name. he should bathe the corpse and next adorn it with sandalpaste. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. and dedicate rice-balls and presents. garlands. should have the shave. The son who bears his father on his shoulder to the burning-ground obtains the fruit of the horse-sacrifice at every step. Then. the son who does so obtains fruit like that of the Agniṣṭoma.
. Garuḍa said: Tell me.--how can he be called a son. Having bathed the corpse. 7-9. 1. or the clay of the Ganges. The son who does not have the shave when the mother or father has died. O Târkṣya. in the name of the so-called dead. by doing which sons and grandsons are released from the hereditary debt. but one should perform the funeral ceremonies for his parents. Therefore he must have the shave by all means. with his sacred thread on the right shoulder.CHAPTER X. Ḥe should wake offering at the threshold in the name of him who is become a traveller. I will tell you all about the ceremonies for the upper body. along with all his relatives. At the place of death. and describe also the greatness of the wife who is faithful.
and having placed the fire as prescribed. Who dies in the Pañchaka does not attain a good condition. Oblations should be made in order that goblins. Having placed the departed on the funeral pyre.'-"Oh. If burning takes place. Then it should be taken to the burning-ground. in case burning takes place in the middle of Rikṣa. Burning should not be done then. if there is not Pañchaka. shall not cause disturbance of that body which is to be sacrificed. the holy bath wood. 1 he should make an oblation as prescribed. and with the wood of palâsha and aśwattha. 20-33. Womb of the World. Thou. From the time he is released on the funeral pyre the condition as departed begins. either in this name. 1 25-27. O Târkṣya. and laid down with its head to the north. The son. 28. Some place should be cleaned there. lead Thou him to heaven!" 20-22. Harm befalls the house in which death takes place in the Rikṣa mansion. he should make there a funeral pyre with sandal wood. for the burning of the body. I will explain to you the rites for the warding off of all ills. in the hand of the dead. and some trouble arises for the sons and family. And having worshipped with flowers and coloured rice the Shining One known as the eater of flesh. Beginning from the middle of Dhaniṣṭhâ. evil occurs. in the five Pañchaka mansions ending with Revatî 2 is not a suitable time for burning. An offering should be made on the funeral pyre. Nourisher of Creatures. 23.15.on the funeral pyre. This one belonging to the changing world is dead. Thus the dead gets the benefit of the offering of five rice-balls. as follows: Having swept the ground and washed it with cow-dung. or in that of Departed. and others in the various directions. should give them to the fire. beginning with 'loman. and consecrated with the four Rikṣa mantras. Those who know the ways of the departed call him a seeker. another death occurs. otherwise the abovementioned come to disturb. 24. make of darbha grass. Then one should place near the corpse images.
. Having thus prayed to the fire. having taken out some earth and erected an altar and sprinkled it with water. Supporter of Beings. he should offer in the name of the departed two rice ball. and having brought the oblation with the grasses. having dedicated five rice-balls to the departed. if it is done. demons and fiends. 16-19.
For warding off ills he should give a vessel full of sesamum. in that of ascetics with a cocoanut. and a bronze vessel filled with clarified butter. up to the twelfth day. Holding the unbaked earthen pot. blaze forth!" Thus having made an oblation of clarified butter. 56-50. Here is milk and here water. Thou hast been forsaken by relatives. Having cleaned the place of death with cow-dung. O Fire. at the cross-roads or on the burning-ground. at sunset. filled with milk and water. then the sons. his skull should be split open. he should weep loudly. in the name of the family.Purified gold should be used. gold.--no harm befalls him. so that he may attain the world of the forefathers. he should repeat this mantra: "Thou hast been burned with the fires of the burning-ground. he should offer. milk and water in an earthen pot. Then the burning along with the images should be done. and offer water mixed with sesamum. Who. 63. 34-66. the women in front and the men behind. silver. For three days. He is an offering to the heaven-world. in order. He should eat the leaves of the nimba-tree and recount the virtues of the dead. that he may become happy 60-61. on the day of the offering of the rice-balls. O Târkṣya. Having bathed again at home. Whether half or wholly burnt. with the mantra "Pretâjayata. bathe and drink!"
. having split open the brahmarandra 1 should make an oblation of clarified butter with this mantra: "Thou art born from him. turned to the south. They should walk home. with mantras and sesamum offerings. after having thus performed the pacificatory ceremonies. and the departed goes to the supreme condition. 2 may he be born again from you. bound with-three sticks. does the burning. should perform the pacificatory rites for him. and sacrifice performed with Rikṣa mantras. 62. When the burning is finished the women should bathe. diamonds. he should give food to a cow and eat-from a leaf-plate-but not any food already in the house. in the case of householders with a piece of wood. and the son. His son." and with leaf-vessels. he should keep a lamp burning there.
with great austerities. his sin is at once destroyed. Having gone to the burning-ground. containing water. an oblation of cooked rice with curds and clarified butter. for the departed. Having worshipped.--for so many thousands of years he remains in the heaven-world. Having placed them on palasha leaves. O Lord of Birds. 1 The son should make the grain oblation to the denizens of the burning-ground. Then he should make. As long as a man's bones float on the water of the Ganges. and walk round three times. carry it to a tank of water. and cleansed it with cow-dung. touched with it his heart and head and walked round it saluting it. Having put them into a leaf-box. When the wind which has touched the waves of the Ganges touches the dead. and by those who do not. O Bird. Having prepared a triangular plot of ground. perform Śrâddha as prescribed. He should take fifteen steps in the northerly direction and. water and sweetmeats. the divine Ganges. Bhagîratha 1 brought her down from the world of Brahmâ. He whose bones sink in the water of the Ganges within ten days. should offer three rice-balls. as prescribed. and worship them well. which destroys the pain of burning. If there is nothing to prevent. never returns from the world of Brahma. having put them into an earthen pot. taking the vessel from the hole. by those who maintain household fires. having put on a woollen garment. for the uplifting of his forefathers. Having collected the ashes from the pyre. On the fourth day the collection 1 should be made. and wearing the sacred ring. and begin to pick up the heap of bones. and. and." Then having sprinkled milk over the place of the funeral pyre. Then he should offer over it a rice-ball.
. repeating the mantra beginning with "Yamâyatva. taking a three-legged stool he should place on it a jar with mouth uncovered. 79-84. he should sprinkle water. in the three directions. on the second or the third day he should do as follows: 68-78. Then he should several times sprinkle the bones with water and milk. he should drop it into the middle of the Ganges. with sandal-paste and saffron.67. he. having bathed and become pure. the jar of bones. he should sprinkle them with milk and water. place in it. digging a hole there. facing south.
went to the place called hell. and then collect its ashes and drop them into the water of the Ganges. 91. killed by a lion in a great forest. along with children. and she alone be burned. 92-93. or from dangerous thieves. or in a wood. If an infant dies.
. one should give milk. fed. There was a certain hunter. there are no rites. When his bones were dropped into the Ganges by a crow he ascended the divine chariot and went to the abode of the Shining Ones. milk-porridge and eatables. If the embryo perishes. If a woman dies in the fulness of pregnancy. Those men who die after committing sins attain the heaven-world by their bones falling into the Ganges. 87. one should burn it alone. 94-98. and food should be given to children. a destroyer of all sorts of creatures who. her womb should be cut open. one should offer ten rice-balls. Older than that it should be burned and its bones strewn on the Ganges. if in another place. After the bones are collected he should perform the ten-days' ceremonies. A gift of a waterpot should be made. it should be buried in the ground. but without the rites of releasing a bull and of the great gift.In the three worlds is celebrated the purifying fame of the Ganges. one should have young children fed. on the day this is heard of-Having made an effigy of darbha grass. then. up to twenty-seven months old. On the eleventh and twelfth days one should perform the ceremonies for a youth. Now. If a youth who has taken the vow dies. one should have Brâhmiṇs. and the child drawn out and placed on the ground. 88-90. along with milk-food and lumps of sugar. And from the same day the ten-days' ceremonies should be performed and that date should be noted. If a youth dies. If a child dies on the bank of the Ganges. then one should offer a jar. 85-86. if a child dies. for the performance of the annual Śrâddha. it should simply be thrown into the Ganges. When one who has passed five years dies. and if his body is not found. Hence the good son should himself drop the bones in the Ganges. if anybody meets his death in an uninhabited place. as explained above. who led to heaven the sons of Sagara 2 who had been reduced to ashes. whether vowed or not.
With all ascetics there is no burning. hence they do not expect rice-balls to be given. and Śrâddha at Gayâ. 102-107. there is not joint rite for the youth. but one should perform the annual Śrâddha at the sacred waters. requires but scanty rites.If the father is living. with women and Śûdras. 86:2 The fifth Nakṣatra. 2 O Târkṣya. Kutîchaka. 84:1 His son's wife--the wife of the son performing the rite. and the ten-days' ceremonies should not be performed for them by their sons. it is declared that they should be buried in the ground. The Haṅsa. they should be thrown into them. 85:1 The fire-deva. is declared to take the place of vows. they must be buried in the ground. A man. He who is little attached to action. Bahûdaka. by realisation of their own true nature. 100. because of carrying the three-fold staff they never go into the condition of the departed. who is little bound by sense-objects. Paramahaṅsa. and when dead.
. no water rites. 86:1 A certain astrological position. with devotion to the forefathers. and he who is young in age of body. If the Ganges. Therefore rice-balls and water should not be offered to them. Marriage. or other. the great gift and the gift of a cow should be made.
83:1 A certain sacrifice. with all the castes. 99. Those who know are always free. and the gifts of land. but on the twelfth day one should perform the ceremony for him alone. these are Sannyâsins. becomes Nârâyaṇa 1. by the mere holding of the staff. is not available. 5 days in each month. In boyhood and in youth the cot. the bull and other sacrifices should be performed. Previous to the taking of vows. 101. Where great rivers exist. rites are done according to age.
91:1 Of the bones. 93:2 There is a legend to the effect that the 80. and that they. put on the third finger of right hand.
. 90:2 The funeral pyre is lighted from the sacred household fire. the ancestors of Bhrigu. 93:1 A great king who is said to have brought down the Ganges from heaven to earth.000 sons of Sagara were reduced to ashes by Viṣṇu. 96:1 Viṣṇu. were released and purified by him in the Ganges.89:89-48
89:89-53 90:1 An opening at the top of the head. 96:2 These names are given to advanced stages of human development. 92:1 A finger-ring of kusha grass.
having done which. and they should not weep when sorrow is useless. 9-11. a good son is released from the hereditary debt. the body is only a dream. what then of other persons’? As a traveller. 3-8.
An Account of the Ten-Days' Ceremonies. either human or divine. Having considered this. Death is certain for those who are born. O Keśava. and birth is certain for the dead. Because the departed has inevitably to drink the bitter tears let fall by his relatives. O Târkṣya. the son should perform the rites. There is no way out. 1. should offer rice-balls to the father. so is the coming together of beings. should perform them. The good things eaten in the morning are destroyed by evening. Garuḍa said: Tell me. taking calm courage. and given up sorrow arising from ignorance. resorting to some shady place. what good results follow from the performance of the ten-days' rite. Nobody should form an excessive attachment to anybody. If there were a way of averting the inevitable. the man who is dead may never be seen. and if no wife the brother. 2 The Blessed Lord said: Listen. or a Brâhmiṇ's pupil or a proper kinsman should perform them. then Nala. The son. how can there be permanence in a body which is sustained by these foods? 12-17. for the man who has no son. This is inevitable and therefore a wise man should not grieve over it. rests awhile and then departs again. and who should perform it if there is no son. Râma and Yudiṣhṭhira would not have experienced miseries. and I will tell you about the ten-days' ceremony.CHAPTER XI. O Bird. If there is no son the wife.
. The ten-days' ceremonies. refraining from tears. the being who has come under the sway of death must be born again here. which removes misery. Although there be sorrowing day and night for thousands of years. should be performed by the sons or grandsons of his younger or his elder brother.
-Only by one these ceremonies. he should make an altar 1 there. 22-24. A man or a woman who performs the rites for a friend. cleansed with cow-dung. obtains such fruit as is acquired by performing the Śrâddha at Gayâ.--the son should make the offering. Therefore should the eldest son perform with devotion the ten-days’ ceremony. and the other sixteen Śrâddhas. as a seat for the rice-ball. only one has a son. 2 and pure. all of them have a son. The son obtains such fruit from the performance of the rite for the father and mother. and having worshipped it with water for the feet and other things. should bow to it.
. Having gone to a well or a tank. But the annual Śrâddha should be performed severally if the wealth has been divided. 18. at a sacred bathing-place. Even if the eldest son dies. they are all considered. Being purified. even if the wealth has been divided. perform it. mouth-perfumes and presents. over leaves. sleeping on the ground. a lamp. the riceball offerings. O Bird. The ten-days' ceremony for the father should be performed by the son. He should dedicate Usîra-root. and having placed upon it a ball prepared in the family-name of the departed. between nine and twelve noon. If there is nobody else. but only one of them has a son. eatables. he should bathe without reciting mantras." Then having spread kuśa grass in front of it. only one shall perform the ten-days' ceremony. sandal paste. He should place on it. The son who performs the rites for one year. on account of that son. beginning with the ten-days' ceremony. as is obtained by going round the shrines seven times. by this sacrament for the helpless departed. the flowers of the Bhṛiṅgarâja. the family priest may do them. through excessive affection. to have a son. saying the "Atasî. The rites must not be neglected. or in a temple. of brothers of the same father. Made of cooked rice or of barley meal. 19-21. devoted to Brâhmaṇ. If a man has several wives. the father should not. seated facing southward at the root of a tree. obtains the fruit of tens of millions of sacrifices.Manu declared that if. incense. a twice-born 2 made of darbha and kuśa grasses. Although there be many sons. 1 eating one meal. 25-30. For all who have no sons a friend may offer the rice-balls. on account of that son. in a garden.
with hands together. O Lord of Birds. 100:1 A square flat mound a few inches high. and radiate like the parched grain. Food. Having bathed in the open. be Thou the giver of release to the departed. he should. During the ten days he should feed a twice-born with seasoned foods. one should pronounce the name of the departed woman or man. the Eternal. discus and mace. they should proceed to the place of the dead. On the tenth day a ball of flesh should be given. he may eat. taking with them panic grass and parched grain. so should the nine rice-balls be given. if given in the name of the departed." Every day at the conclusion of the Śrâddha he should prayerfully repeat this incantation.
99:1 One each day. In the same way that on the first day a rice-ball is given as prescribed. 100:2 A rough image. milk and water. wealth or other things. On the ninth day all the authorised kinsmen at the proper time should besmear themselves with oil. water. Lotus-eyed. And say: "May his family increase like the panic grass.
. pray for the release of the departed. 40." and then leave in the house the mixed-panic grass and grain. from the first day onwards. as also should the other relatives. cloths. clad in yellow robes. and given food to the cow. and handfuls of castor-oil in a pot: "May all this. and having the women go in front. in accordance with the sapiṇḍa rite. O Bearer of the conch. Indestructible. symbolical of the deceased twice-born person. 33. 41-42.Crow-food. since flesh is forbidden in the Kali Yuga at the ceremony for the forefathers. wishing the dead to reach heaven. confer eternity upon the dead. On the tenth day he should shave. 99:2 Celibate. Having meditated upon Hari. "O Beginningless and Endless Deva." 31-33. persist. 34-36. 37-38. 39. as beautiful as the atasî flower. The son who performs the ceremony must again have a complete shave. gone home. Having bathed. that has been given by me to the departed in his earthly name. There is no reason for fear for those who bow to Govinda. Therefore. or a ball of mâṣa.
well-read in Vedas and Śâstras. clad in white robes. with mantras. O Ruler of the universe. should make the wateroffering. 6-10. to the creator 2." 12-15. O Bird. explain the ceremony of the dedication of the bull. clad in black robes. the seven grains which he liked. his conveyances. To the north there should be a pot of honey and clarified butter for Rudra. and upon it one should place Viṣṇu. To the east there should be a pot of milk and water for Brahma.
.--these. To the south there should be a pot of rain-water for Yama.CHAPTER XII. 3 perform the offering to the fire and then the eleventh-day Śrâddha. The Blessed Lord said: In the early morning on the eleventh day one should go to a water-reservoir. with the sacred thread over the right shoulder 1. a silver one of Brahmâ. without mantras. facing southward. having made a circle in the middle. 4. and. and there one should place Rudra. and performing the Sandhyâ and other ceremonies 1.
An Account of the Eleventh-day Rite. clad in red robes. 3. 11-13. offer a rice-ball to the departed. and bowing their heads. He should invite Brâhmiṇs.--a brass vessel filled with clarified butter. And he should next make a gift of a cow for the helping along of his forefathers: "this cow is given by me. as prescribed. May it please Thee. and placed therein kuśa-grass. with Vaidic mantras. to Śiva and to Justice. which he has used. and an iron one of Yama. Even a preceptor should become purified by bathing. and perform diligently all the funeral ceremonies. One should make a golden image of Viṣṇu. pray for the release of the departed. to Viṣṇu. with hands folded together. 1. 2. a copper one of Rudra. his ornaments. clad in yellow robes. and upon it one should place Yama. One should perform the tenth-day Śrâddha in the family name. The son. 5. and on the eleventh day. To the west there should be a pot filled with Ganges water for Viṣṇu. Garuḍa said: O Lord of the Holy Ones. and there one should place Brahmâ. His clothes. He should make water-offering. one should do the eleventh-day ceremony. tell me about the eleventh-day rite also. O Mâdhava.
red horns. for the sake of the departed. On the eleventh day the rite of the dedication of a bull should be performed as prescribed. He should not use a cow which is crippled.
. O Brâhmiṇ." With these words it should be given to a Brâhmiṇ preceptor who has a family. That which is dark over all its body. neck and hoofs. but one having well-marked characteristics. legs and tail are white. and having worshiped it. 21-30. and brown hoofs and horns is called dark-coloured. black is suitable for a Śûdra. the departed goes to the highest condition. and the other things. white belly and black back is suitable for a Brâhmiṇ. 17-. the eight great gifts: if one does not offer these in his last days. and which is the colour of lac dye is called dark. sweetmeats. By this gift of the bed. with white face and tail. Having washed the feet of a Brâhmiṇ he should honour him with cloths and other things. 20. give the bed as prescribed. and by the rite of the dedication of a bull. and is the uplifter of the ancestors. they should be brought to his bedside and he should have them given. is called a reddish bull. Then the son should place upon the bed a golden image. ill or too young. is called very dark--of which five varieties are known. and red in its eyes. with tail and feet white. so going round him he should salute him and present it. That which is dove-coloured and has a tilaka-mark 1 on its forehead is called deep-brown. That which has a red colour. 16. "This bed is given by me to you. and increases the satisfaction of the forefathers. That which has red eyes. a reddish colour. flour-cakes and milk. The bull whose face. and Śrâddhas of the ninth and other days. for the sake of the dead. with the image of the departed. and is entirely beautiful in all its limbs. That which has one colour over all its limbs and tail and hoofs is called dark-brown. yellow colour for a Vaiśya.Sesamum and the rest.19. One with all limbs red-brown. and give him cooked food. A glossy and red complexion is suitable for a Kṣattriya.
And should bathe the bull and young cow with the water from the pot of Rudra. according to the Śâstras. "I shall always be the grantor of boons to you. "By whose dedication. 44-45. in the bright fortnight. goes easily to the highest condition. Even the forefathers who have gone to heaven desire the dedication of a bull: "which son in our lineage will perform the dedication of a bull." 36. with hands folded together. 38-42. should recite this mantra:-"Thou art Justice in the form of a bull. the son.--so runs an ancient saying. and then tether them to a post. for the release of the forefathers. all of us will go to the highest condition? Among all sacrifices. he should release the bull and the young cow. with this mantra. having worshipped them with fragrances and garlands. Having brought together a young bull and cow. 37. On account of your being released.
. He alone should be considered a son who performs the dedication of a bull and the Gayâ Śrâddha---who does not do so verily is like unto excrement. Thou wert formerly created by Brahma. He should [mark] the right side with the trident of Śiva and the. when the sun is going north. and worship a bull. at the equinoctial and solstitial points. Therefore. at a sacred bathing place. The man who has no son. In the month of Kârtika 1 and in other auspicious months. one should perform the bull-sacrifice. In the two eclipses. Therefore this should be done. He should do everything with diligence according to the prescribed rite. help over this ocean of existence!" Having thus bowed to it. or the dark on the twelfth and following days. 31-35. Having cast the positions of the planets and worshipped them with their respective mantras. the bull-sacrifice is the certain giver of release to us.This should by all means be dedicated. Any one whose ancestors are tormented in Raurava and other hells helps them all out for twenty-one generations by the dedication of a bull. It exists in the world on this account. he should bind them together with a marriage string in accordance with marriage rites. walk round them. doing it himself. or marry a virgin Gaurî or dedicate a dark bull. and should not be used for domestic purposes. Its fruit comes even during life. and. of whom one perchance may go to Gayâ. Having released the bull. and will give release to the departed. left side with a discus. one should perform the dedication of a bull. the ailing man should make the fire-offering." 43. One should desire for many sons.
one should present the third to the retinue of Yama. 51-53. the drinker of intoxicants. That at the place of death. in manhood and in old age are destroyed. If a woman. the middle. He who does this. and at the collection of the bones. in childhood. O Bird. And having placed a Śâlagrâma one should do the Vaiṣṇava Śrâddha. half-way on the road. O Târkṣya. falls into a dreadful hell. the slayer of a Brâhmiṇ. and in a pure place. the ungrateful. nor by manifold gifts. the purification of the body should be done. predeceases both. sixteen:-30-64. That condition which is obtained by the performance of the release of a bull. The betrayer of friends. One should offer the first rice-ball to Viṣṇu. At the hour when the sun enters an auspicious constellation. the stealer of gold are all absolved by the dedication of a bull. in youth. all the rites should be done. by the dedication of a bull. and the ten piṇḍas given in the ten days:-These first sixteen are called impure. having a husband and a son. 57-59.--one should present a milk-giving cow. 50. there is no merit in all the three worlds equal to that from the dedication of a bull. suffers the torments of Yama until the end of the age. at the funeral pyre. Therefore should one perform the bull sacrifice with all diligence.46-49. By recitation. the dedication of a bull should not be performed. As in the former case. And next I will tell you about the second. The sins which are committed in infancy. he who goes with his teacher's wife.
. such as the fire-offering and the rest. O bird! until the coming of the deluge. in the hand of the corpse. is not reached by oblations to the fire and other sacrifices. Having thus carried out the dedication of a bull. He who burdens a bull on the shoulder or on the back. whether having a son or not. one should perform the sixteen Śrâddhas. at the threshold. 54. I will tell you what should be done prior to sapiṇḍîkaraṇa ceremony. likewise by gifts. by the performance of the dedication of a bull obtains the fruit of all his desires. 55-56. by fire-offerings. without doubt. and then perform the Śrâddha for himself and give gifts to the twice-born. the second to the blessed Śiva.--these six. The man who cruelly strikes a bull with his fists or with sticks. a Brâhmiṇ who knows the rites and has the auspicious signs should be invited.
and also before the year. The eighth one should give to Rudra. then me should worship a serpent on the fifth day of each fortnight. If the performance of the three sixteens of Śrâddhas is not carried out. "the Faithful. one should perform the sacrament and other rites as prescribed. and the annual and the fortnightly is called by me. and worship with white sweet-smelling flowers and sandalpaste. The three sixteens should be performed so that the departed may join the assembly of the forefathers. If he is killed through recklesness or wilfully.-This is the last sixteen. the thirteenth to Viṣṇu. 70-72. 1 and the sixth to the bearer of oblations to the forefather. The sixteenth rice-ball. 2 eatables and milk. One should offer a serpent incenses and lights. The twelfth one should give to Brahmâ. She who does the funeral ceremonies on the death of her husband. owing to carelessness. the third fortnight. Therefore the three sixteens should be performed by the son. O Târkṣya. Having had food cooked. one should give to Puruṣa: These are called the middle sixteen by men who know the truth. much strew rice and sesamum. if deprived of Śrâddhas the ghost remains as preta always. 65-67. 73-78. and should dedicate 1 uncooked rice-flour. 68-69. the fourteenth to Śiva. the fifteenth to Yama. before the six months. One should give rice-balls in each one of the twelve months. is killed by fire. or by water. then he certainly does not join them. on the fortnight. He for whom this series is performed becomes a member of the assembly of the forefathers. for any one who. One should form a picture of a hooded serpent upon the ground with ricepowder. The forty-eight Śrâddhas destroy the condition of the ghost-life. and the eleventh reverently to Viṣṇu. the seventh one should present to Death. 1 the ninth to Puruṣa.The fourth to king Soma. either by himself or another. as prescribed. Also.
. O bird. the fifth to the bearer of oblations to the Shining Ones. or if the wife does them for the husband there is uninterrupted prosperity. 2 the tenth to the departed. I have declared to you. or by a serpent." This faithful wife lives for the good of her husband: the life is fruitful of her who worships her dead lord.
112:1 The food is placed near the image. Allahabad. 113:1 This ceremony is performed on the twelfth day. and a cow. Sris Chandra Vasu.
. 1 and when free from pollution he should have made a gift of a bed and other gifts. 79. 80. usually with sugar and cocoanut. to a twiceborn. 104:2 Brahmâ. as it were in anticipation of the annual event. he mast change it.
103:1 For an account of these ceremonies. Panini Office. according to his means. one should give every day a jar with food and water until the end of the year. Having done this on the eleventh day he should then offer the rice-balls for all the ancestors. 104:3 Dharma or Yama. and passes of the hands are made as though a influence it towards the image. 111:1 Śiva. 112:2 Made into a ball. 104:1 It is usually worn ever the left shoulder under the right arm." And should further perform for them the rite Nârâyaṇa-bali. with hands together "may the King of Serpents be pleased. It is the ceremony for all the ancestors together. for this ceremony.One should offer a serpent made of gold. 106:1 Orthodox Hindus place a mark on the forehead to show caste and other things. Thus. 108:1 Including the latter part of October and the first part of November. or rice-balls with water regularly. 110:1 That is Fire. 111:2 The primeval man. having done all the rites. by which they are absolved of all sins and obtain residence in heaven. Then one should. see the Daily Practice of the Hindus by Mr. Viṣṇu.
in six nights. If after a year. and the gotrajâs 3 are purified merely by bathing. Those who are related within the fourth degree to the deceased are purified in ten nights. he is polluted for three nights. 1 are not uplifted by the various gifts made by the sons. it is said. purification is immediate. The Sapiṇḍa relatives 1 are purified from the death pollution in ten days. the seventh. about the method of [performing] the Sapiṇḍa rite. 12. If a boy who has not yet cut his teeth dies. the ninth.
An Account of the Ceremony for all the Ancestors. without the Sapiṇḍa rite the impurity does not depart. one night. a Vaiśya in fifteen days. the Sâkulya relatives 2 in three nights. 6-9. A Brâhmiṇ becomes pure in ten days. and the gift of accessories. If a person dies in a foreign land and one hears of his death. four days. O Lord. the removal of pollution.CHAPTER XIII. the tenth. three nights. he becomes pure even by bathing. Those whose piṇḍas have not been mixed together with the ancestors called Śiva and the rest. at the end of the pollution period. If after the lapse of ten days. I will tell you about the ending of pollution to be observed by all. a Kṣattriya in twelve days. a Śûdra in a month. a quarter of a day. merely till bathing.
. O Târkṣya. If a second pollution comes daring that from the first death. 1. 2. 10-11. three days. should be performed by the son. a single day. ten nights. 3-5. Garuḍa said: Tell pre. by which the condition of preta is left behind and the soul enters the class of the pitṛis. 13. those in the fifth degree. before the investiture with the thread. they are never purified.--so long lasts the pollution of death and birth [according to the distance of degrees from the deceased]. and afterwards. and I will explain to you the entire Sapiṇḍa rite. then the purification from the first pollution includes that from the second. The eighth. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. then the impurity lasts for the remaining portion of ten days on which he hears the news. If the son is always impure. before tonsure. the sixth. Therefore the Sapiṇḍa.
28-30. and touching others should not he done during the death pollution. according to the caste. 20-22. suffers evil. 17-18. lying on a bed. hiding his pollution. can be eaten. Up to betrothal a single day. Whoever. suffers no evil. the occasional and the specially desired ceremonies--of him the regular and other ceremonies already done are lost. following the scriptural ordinances. Sandhyâ prayers. religious study. reception of guests. For one observing vows. fire-offering. During the Kali Age--it is authoritatively declared in the Śâstras--ten days' purification for all the castes. 23. during pollution. feeding of Brâhmiṇs and the observance of vows should not be done during the death pollution. 24-26. offering to the forefathers. Whoever. the sixth month or at the end of the year. one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for the father. After this the women are polluted.--are both subjected to suffering. purification of the Sapiṇḍa relatives is immediate. O Târkṣya. purification is immediate. and before the pollution by birth or death. engaged in mantras or in fire-offerings. and from that to old age three nights are authoritative. 27. Blessing the worship of the Shining Ones. an ascetic or a king there is verily no pollution. so Manu declared. that for the four castes the Sapiṇḍa should be on the twelfth day. Food prepared before marriage festivals and sacrifices. If the embryo dies. salutation. for the purifying from pollution. who then goes to the world of the forefathers to join the multitudes of forefathers. gives food to a twice-born. but the giver even though it be to a mendicant that he gives. Therefore. in all the castes alike. If the embryo dies before sixth month. reciting. after births and deaths. if after marriage. or a twice-born intent upon Brâhmaṇ. it should be understood. the third fortnight. accepts it.14-16. in as many days the embryo lived months. accepts through ignorance.
. only the husband's family. He who during pollution performs the daily. and the Brâhmiṇ who knowing it. The truth-knowing sages hare declared that the Sapiṇḍa ceremony should be on the twelfth day. If a girl dies between birth and tonsure. If after the betrothal ceremony three days for both families. purity is regained. But I say. 19. giving.
Hence. mouth-scents. if she has no son. agreeable fools. and having cleaned with cow-dung the place of death. 44. three rice balls should be offered to the great grandfather and his predecessors. having given rice-balls to other departed ones. wife. or should mix the rice-ball with both mine and great Lakṣmî's. If the mother dies before the grandmother-Then he should perform the mother's Śrâddha in the same way as the fathers. good cloths and presents. whether he be without fire or with fire. the son should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. 31-33. in the forms of Vasu. O Târkṣya. having bathed. then investiture with the sacred thread. the fulfilment of vows. and because of the shortened life of men. leaves of the holy basil. If a Brâhmiṇ house-holder dies. the mother's with the grandmother's and the father's with the grandfather's. The father's rice-ball. 36-30. 34. Until the Sapiṇḍa has been performed the mendicant should not accept alms. and the impermanence of the body. He should worship with sandal-paste. 35. that the Sapiṇḍa ought to be done. 41-43. the fruit which accrues from performing all sacrifices: that fruit is obtained by doing the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. incenses. Then he should worship the world-deities with foot-water. Rudra and Arka. as laid down in the scriptures.The twelfth day is preferable because of the endless variety of conditions in the Kali Age. 1 and âchamana. 2 Next. The fruit which accrues from visiting all the sacred bathing-places. he should mix them severally with the three rice-balls given to the grand father and the others. It is my decision. lamps. 40. therefore one should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony on the twelfth day. He should offer three rice-balls in order to his grandfather and others. marriage and other ceremonies should not be done.
. and the fourth rice-ball to the dead. The daily and the occasional ceremonies should be discontinued. By the omission of rites sinfulness arises. divided into three parts should be mixed with their rice-balls. he should do the Sapiṇḍa for her along with the mother-in-law and others. Having divided the rice-ball for the departed into three parts with a thin bar of gold. and guestofferings should not be accepted. oblations. If the father dies while the grandfather still lives. he should sip water. The husband should perform the Sapiṇḍa ceremony for his.
gold. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony having been thus performed. having put grasses between them. As much as a mouthful is called "alms. He should utter "Let there be Swadhâ. and he should give them presents. the sages. then. the cloths worn during the rite should be cast off. Therefore a bed should be given. and white cloths having been donned. The preceptor should then. 50-57. first the offering of a rice-ball and other things for the father. strong. 55. 54. because the wife being already half the body of her husband requires no Sapiṇḍa ceremony with regard to her husband. a chariot and a plot of ground given to a preceptor. and having bound a thread upon the hand. Then he should worship with mantras--after saying "Hail to thee"--the planets. with saffron. extol the gift of a bed. 47. who are respectively thus purified. silver. water. All the Devâs. the gift of a bed should he made. he should make the offering of water to the forefathers. a good cow. He should have maintenance for a year. O Kâśyapa! husband and wife ascend the same funeral pyre." 1 By this the forefathers. an elephant. should present the coloured rice also consecrated with mantras. a horse. the Shining Ones and the Dânavas are pleased.45. with mantras." and four abundances is called "hantakâra. ornamented with gold leaves. coloured rice and eatables. canopied with silken cloth. and after that. Afterwards he should always have a guest fed until he says "hanta. painted in beautiful colours. during life or else after death. and twelve pots with water and food. 49-51. During the Sapiṇḍa he should worship the feet of a twice-born with sandal-paste and coloured rice. If. his father and grandfather"--that. "The Sapiṇḍa rite for women should be done with that for the husband. Made of the choicest wood. a weapon. clarified butter. for his continued satisfaction.
. O Târkṣya. sprinkle water. Then he should have Brâhmiṇs fed with various pleasant sweetened foods. the rite for the mother. 2 and Vinîyakam 3. Devi. After the feeding of the twice-born. 1 headed by Indra. and make to him a gift. having bathed again. Having done the Sapiṇḍa." four mouthfuls is "abundance. food. 58. is not my opinion. and a rod should be touched severally by the castes." 52-53. 46. Only one son should perform the rites. he should perform it with that of the mother-in-law and father-inlaw. O Târkṣya. delightful. scales." along with Vaidic mantras. 59-64.
having walked round and bowed. in front of Lakṣmî and Nârâyaṇa. and holding flowers in his palms. 69-71. He should worship Hari and Lakṣmî with saffron and flower-garlands. He should give it to him who observes vows. receive these. on full moon day the dedication of a bull. he should have the red dye. a vessel. together with Lakṣmî. with his wife adorned with fragrances and flowers. Thus he should place the handsful of flowers before the Brâhmiṇ and the image of Hari. Well-bound with bright bands." 72-74. and tells about Brâhmiṇ. Facing north. an oxtail fan. On it he should have placed a golden Hari. in the case of women. with all the ornaments. and adore the Guardians of the World. O Kṛiṣṇa.
. furnished with all the necessaries. your bed is the ocean full of milk. and say. clothes. How seldom does any one so give!" He should rock the twice-born and Lakṣmî and Hari. If a living man makes with his own hand the gift of a bed. there should be performed. and a canopy of five colours. the Planetary Spirits and Vinâyaka. Wearing a turban and an upper cloth and jacket. is a teacher. give them leave. while he is still living. broad and pleasant: such a bed as this being made. and then. should be seated by him on the comfortable bed. in their proper places. "O Brâhmiṇ. 65-66. a row of silver lamps. seated on the bed. 75. according to the rite. a mirror. together with a coverlet made fragrant with the scent of flowers. saffron. 67-68. and then the bed-gift with its accompaniments. An umbrella. may this likewise be not empty in my future births. it should be placed on the ground covered with cloth.Having beautiful pillows stuffed with swans' down. 76. standing in front of the Brâhmiṇ: "Just as. having placed them on the bed. so that he may sleep happily on the bed. a seat. Then a Brâhmiṇ. and all the other necessary things. If he is rich he should give a very beautiful house. And all the other accompaniments of the bed he should place round it. he should pronounce this mantra. a water-pot. weapons and clothes. And. with ear and finger ornaments and golden necklaces. ornaments.
very terrible. through the gift of a water pot he. the son should have Padadâna given. is windless and without water. he will arrive without doubt through the potency of the gift of a bed. for the dead. and the son giving it. and at the abode of Yama. And on the path in the world of Yama. until the coming of the deluge. waited upon by numbers of celestial damsels. a copper vessel. but the gift of an umbrella makes pleasant shade above his head. rejoices here and hereafter. and on all the days of the changes of the moon: even superior to these is the merit arising from the gift of a bed. and sacred threads. uncooked rice. foods. 81. The miseries of cold and heat and wind are dreadful there. certainly enjoys the fruit which is obtained by thousands of gifts of wells. gives a water-vessel made of copper. Listen to my words. he may obtain the fruit of his desires. Having. The messengers of Yama. 82-86. 78. clothes. shoes.77. them to thirteen Brâhmiṇs on the twelfth day. 87-93. fierce and brown-black. full of great thorns. by which the man is scorched. and never to several. There is there intense heat. valuables. according to his means. Having this made the gift of a bed. a set of five vessels--are called the seven kinds of padas. The father. This pada becomes complete with a staff. but by the power of the gift of clothes he goes happily along the way. This bed should be given to one only. a seat. O Bird. do not trouble on the road him who made the gift of a signet ring. and this padadâna gives happiness to those who have gone on the way of Yama. The merit from all the sacred bathing places. and I will tell you the method of it. Who. By this padadâna the righteous go to a good condition. when thirsty. An umbrella. Having given a bed to a deserving person. seated in the best of chariots. Divided or sold it drags down the giver. a water-pot. 79-80. a signet ring. It is enveloped in great heat. drinks water. those who gave shoes go riding horses. He will reside there free from trouble.
. At the celestial house of Indra. obtained these thirteen padas he should give.
the latter. 94-95. The Sapiṇḍa ceremony. Thus. a water-pot with rice-balls should be given every month. If one dies on the ninth day. as prescribed. and of dying on lunar days. in addition. 1 When there are two months in one month. Thus are understood by the wise the two months which are in the irregular month. his day is the fourteenth. on the day of the Sapiṇḍa ceremony. If there is an additional month in the middle of a year. In these cases one should perform the fortnightly Śrâddha on the twentieth day. after the Sapinda and before the annual ceremony.
. 97-99. in the irregular month. for the second half. If one dies at the full moon his rites fall on the fourth day. but. should be done when there is no sankrânta. rice-balls are not used. he should have many Brâhmiṇs fed. 106. the two fortnights and the thirty days are the same [both must be performed. at the end of the first year one should perform the annual Śrâddha. then in the thirteenth month the annual ceremony for the departed occurs. Having thus given. The ceremony for one only should not be done. Thus the annual Śrâddha should be done in both months. leisurely going on the path he comfortably enjoys his provisions. similarly the monthly and the first annual Śrâddhas. rice-balls are proper. After a year one should always offer three rice-balls at the Śrâddha. the month being double. and in that. 100-105. O bird. If one dies on the fourth day his rites fall on the ninth.Through properly giving to a twice-born a seat and a vessel. When there is no sankrânta.] For the first half day take the former [the dark]. by it one becomes the destroyer of his forefathers. the annual and the fortnightly ceremonies. the Śrâddha is not performed. Now I shall tell you the rules concerning the monthly. When in one month [Kṣayamâsa] two saṅkrântis occur. of those two. as a means of unfading satisfaction. for the sake of the departed it may be done again. 107-110. 911. 1 O Bird. the twice-born should be fed. when there is sankrânta. Then. also chaṇḍalâs and other outcasts. There is no re-doing of what is done excepting the rites for the departed. this gift.
The forefathers are freed from the ocean of existence by the Śrâddha at Gayâ and. for by devotion to the forefathers he becomes happy either in this or the other world. Any man who is poor. O Lord of Birds. Therefore a man should make every effort in devotion to the forefathers. will offer us rice-balls. who. and all these sons of the twice-born attained liberation through devotion to the forefathers. and in proper order offer rice-balls round them. they go to the supreme state.The Śrâddha at a sacred bathing-place. concerning the deceased. all the ceremonies. his life is fruitful. 122. the garden of Ikṣvâku. treading the good path. a rice-ball of the size of even a śamî leaf helps over seven clans and one hundred and one fatuities. delighting the family. having gone to Gayâ. If the son performs the Śrâddha at Gayâ. Thus I have told you. is happy and becomes liberated. He who offers.
. O Târkṣya. having gone to Gayâ. O Lord of birds. The seven hunters in the country of Daśârṇas. 120. giving merit to and satisfying the desires of the son. on the field of the Kurus. 111-113. with devotion?" 116-119. the Gajachchhâyam. but hears this account. The son who thus performs the rites for the other world. He who. the son of Manu:-"Are there none in your family. on the head of Gayâ. by favour of the Viṣṇu. 111-115. having experienced a series of births. the Śrâddha at Gaya. obtains the fruit of gifts. nor on yuga days. O Târkshya. for the fathers--these he should not do during the year. He should worship the feet of Viṣṇu with the shoots of the holy basil. although they killed a cow. the Chakravaka birds in Śaradvîpa: and the swans in the Mânasa lake Were born as Brâhmiṇs learned in the Vedas. like the son of Kauśika. absolved from sins. and giving liberation to the forefathers. with devotion to the forefathers. the deer on the mountain of Kâlinjira. the forefathers hear a song sung by the Holy Ones in Kalâpa. O Târkshya. The seven sons of Bharadwâja. 121. were liberated by the favour of the forefathers. even he. nor at eclipses. it should be done after a year. performs the Śrâddha and gives satisfaction to the forefathers.
Garuḍa went into raptures. 115:2 Cousins up to the fourteenth.--listen to the fruit for him:-The father gives good sons. and there they remain.
. Go on the way of righteousness to the mansion of the King of Justice.--all males and unmarried females. with water. and also hears the Garuḍa Purâṇa. 121:1 A high class of superhuman beings. gratified by the Śrâddha. 120:2 The consort of Śiva. but this may. Rudra and Âditya. He who performs. in the assembly of Righteousness. Sûta said: Having heard the result of the after-death gifts and their mighty greatness. according to the rite. 127. 125:1 If other ceremonies have been badly done they may not be re-performed. thus declared by the Blessed Viṣṇu. the grandfather. highly respected.--all males and unmarried females. 120:3 Gaṇeśa. on the male line. granting the son's desires.
120:1 A benediction which the recipient makes when he has had enough. the Śrâddha offerings described by me.123-126. darbha grass.--all males and unmarried females. Rudra is Śiva. and flowers. The great-great-grandfather gives foods in abundance: all these. 115:1 Cousins up to the seventh. wealth of cows and his great-grandfather becomes the giver of riches. on the male line. 118:1 Consisting of rice. on the male line.
114:1 The grandfather. his father and grandfather are considered as corresponding to Vasu. 118:2 See "Daily Practice of the Hindus" for an account of âchamana. 115:3 Cousins up to the forty-second.
while the second half is regular. then his annual Śrâddha must be done in the dark half on the same day on which he died. If a man dies in the adigmâsa. January or February which is thus dropped. but there are to be only twelve of the monthly ones in a year. The month preceding month which is dropped has its two fortnights taken as belonging to the regular and the dropped month respectively. It is November. The sankrânta is a solar month. a main has died and his month is dropped the preceding month is taken for the annual Śrâddha. not 13. on the other hand. but the regular mouth is dropped. if his death occurred during the first half of the day. hence an additional irregular month occurs once in 27 months.--thus there are only 12 months in that year. and on the same day in the bright half if he died during the second half of the day. If a man dies in the second fortnight in this case the annual ceremony belongs to the month which was dropped.126:1 "The ceremonies are performed according to the lunar months.
. The difference of solar and lunar months is about 11 days in the year. but the intercalary is always associated with one of the other eight. In this case the intercalary is added and (?) treated as such. December. the passing of the sun through one zodiacal constellation. In this long month. or irregular portion. although it is a year of intercalary month. The kṣaya-mâsa is a name for a month which occurs every 149th year. Astrological calculations are done with solar months. in which there is no sankrânti. lf. is the first half. Hence there is an intercalary month of 30 days every three years. the malamasa.
to the north-west. Abounding in chariots. impregnable by Holy Ones or Demons. 1-2. resplendent. 3-5. To the west are those of the Snare of Death. Beautiful with gardens and parks.CHAPTER XIV. Chitragupta. Dyspepsia. 6-9. which extends to the number of twenty-five yojanas. and smallpox likewise.
. or by whom good or evil deeds have been done And by order of Chitragupta he experiences all of them there. to the south-east.
An Account of the City of the King of Justice. decorated by skilful painters and constructed by divine architects. habited in every part by celestial damsels and choristers. with hundreds of streets decorated with flags and banners. In that city is the very lovely dwelling of Chitragupta. and Biliousness also. which is accessible to Nârada and others find is reached by the very meritorious. To the east of the abode of Chitragupta is the great house of Fever. 10-15. To the south are those of Rheumatism and skin diseases. and sounding with the songs of various birds. To the north there is consumption and Jaundice likewise. O Târkṣya. up to ten [yojanas] heights. Surrounded with shining ramparts of iron. surrounded by high ramparts and measuring a thousand yojanas. Between the south and south-west is the city of the son of Vivaswata. seated on his most wonderful throne in that assembly. considers the lives of men individually. O Treasure-house of Compassion. Headache. I will tell you about that shining city of Justice. with four gateways. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. It is declared to be four-angled. and with whom does Justice reside? The righteous go by righteous ways to the mansion of Justice. all built of diamonds. resounding with songs and music. tell me about those righteous ones and the ways. Garuḍa said: what is the extent of the world of Yama? What is it like? By whom was it made? What is the assembly like. He is never mistaken in distinguishing between good and evil deeds. Syncope.
. and purified by good actions go there. That assembly. Chitragupta records the good and evil of men. 24-28. decorated with emeralds. renouncing. It is shining with jewels. And with windows of strings of pearls. whether they be human or divine. with hundreds of golden doors.To the south-west. has no bondage. and in every way satisfying. beautiful with trees. is enchanting. 1 With no extreme heat and no extreme cold. accomplished. plants and creepers without thorns. Filled with various wonders. 29-30. decorated with flags and banners. the eatables are tasteful and plentiful. rich with the sounds of bells and drums. and is full of palaces and mansions. full of light. truth-speaking. is the very resplendent mansion of the king of justice. Pleasing to the mind with cupolas of the splendour of the autumnal sky. With these and other embellishments decorated always--it was created by the architect of the Universe by the power of his own Yoga. is Dysentery. The water. In that there is a divine assembly place which is a thousand yojanas in extent. tranquil. and was created by the Architect of the Universe by doing tapas 2 for a long time. and no trouble of hunger and thirst. with beautiful crystal stairways and walls beautified with diamonds. and splendid like lightning. are of good vows. is a fulfiller of desires. All there have bodies of light. are sweet. most ravishing to the mind with no sorrows and no old age there. It is supported by thousands of pillars. It is certainly two hundred yojanas in extent. both hot and cold. 16-23. ornamented with gold. and remain there ornamented with their own meritorious actions. splendid like the sun. flame and the sun. to the north-west cold and heat--with these and other diseases it is surrounded. Those who have done great tapas. and enjoyable in every way. Twenty yojanas before the abode of Chitragupta. and trees always bear the fruit desired. and measures fifty yojanas in height. and embellished with golden fringes. the sounds and other things there are pleasant. O Târkṣya. All there are in a condition of happiness. In the middle of the city. and are adorned with shining garments.
There the Lord of Justice. and also Sahasrârjuna. 34-40. Yayâti.--all these wait upon the King of Justice. and others having forms. 2 The kings of the Solar Race. Śibi. and also Bhṛigu. 46-47. splendid as a blue cloud. Pulaha. Jâmadagnya. Śântaṇu. by kâla 1 still more powerful. ready to do his bidding. and no jealousy. ten yojanas in extent. There is there no favouritism. Nimi. impossible to enumerate. Aṅgiras. Surrounded by various servants equal to him in prowess. with the sages: Atri. the recorder of fate. and many others in the assembly of the King of Progenitors. no untruthfulness. Dakṣa. Manu. Agastya. O Bird. Nahuṣa. also of the Lunar Race.--these knowers of righteousness wait upon the King of Justice in the assembly. He is waited up by Mṛityu 1 with a noose in his hand. Bhagîratha.-These royal sages. meritorious. Nârada.31-33.
. 1 serve the King of Justice by order of Parameṣṭhin. serve him with songs. Righteousness alone prevails in the assembly of the King of Justice. the Dharmaśâstras. made splendid with a large crown. Sagara. Anaraṇya. Vaśiṣṭha. 41-45. Multitudes of celestial choristers and numerous groups of celestial damsels. the Best of the Good. bearing awful nooses and rods. ornamented with ear-rings. and by Chitragupta. music and dances. and Pṛithu.-These. Ambarîṣa. Muchakunda. his head dignified with the regal umbrella. the powerful Barhiṣads formed and formless. bedecked with all kinds of jewels-Sits. having performed many horse sacrifices. and fanned by celestial damsels bearing in their hands fans of hair. either by their names or their deeds. round about. Aryamâs and others. well-read in the Vedas. 2 the Somapâs and the Uṣmapâs. Mândhâtâ. Those who expound with accurate commentaries. Puru. are in the assembly of Righteousness. Kraturatha. Bharata. on a throne pure and incomparable. Pâṇdu. Who are the Agniṣvâttha. Pulastya. Dilîpa. Pitṛis. hosts of progenitors. Nala. famous. prosperous. Adorned with all ornaments. Duṣmanta.
eastern and others. do not behold it. And those who delight in truth and righteousness. and is paved with yellow sandal-wood. and multitudes of celestial damsels. all are devoted to righteousness. The second. The sinners. those devoted to father and mother. On this way go those who are learned in the Vedas. of cows. O Târkṣya. those who impart learning. the northern way. Those who make gifts of land. those who speak consolation to the mentally distressed. is the assembly of the great-souled King of Justice. 50. they go to the Assembly of Righteousness. and beautiful with Brâhmany ducks. the stainless royal sages. It is full of swans and water-fowl. and certainly those who give a hermitage. of houses. and of purified intelligence. who go by the southern path. magicians and great serpents. 59-61. and paved with jewels. Those who shelter ascetics 1 in their houses during the rains.
.All those assembled are knowers of the scriptures. those taking pleasure in the service of their Teacher. covered with the shade of Pârijâta trees. those who give rest-houses in the summer. those free from anger and greed. And worshippers of the deities. 2 and those who bathe at the sacred waters at the changes of the moon. choristers. enter by the eastern gate. and others of good deeds. and make them gifts. Hear about them:-51-55.--are travellers on the path-These. those who tell and listen to the Purâṇas. also those who honour guests. There are four ways leading into the city of the King of Justice: The way for the sinful has already been described to you. is filled with hundreds of great chariots and with palanquins. Skilful in goodness. abounding in all enjoyments. bounded by trees and pleasure-gardens. and the devotees of Śiva. and there is there a delightful tank full of the essence of nectar. Such. and in that assembly they continually wait upon Vaivasvata 3 48-49. Busy with numerous chariots. are those of good deeds. Those who go into the mansion of righteousness by the three gateways. By their merits they go into it. those who are worshippers of Dûrgâ 1 and Bhanu. and who give fuel in winter. having the essence of nectar. By that go the holy Brâhmiṇ-sages. splendidly lined with swans. There is an eastern way.
rising and coming forward. forest dwellers. Yama. Observers of the vow of celibacy. Those who turn away from injury to others. those who perform the Sandhyâ at the proper times. by the will of the Shining Ones. entering by the northern gate.Those who die in the pursuit of righteousness. seeing them come. Those who abstain from the company of the wicked. he speaks and acts in a hind and friendly way to those who delight in meritorious deeds. always filled with the essence of nectar. assuming his four arms. reach the Assembly of Righteousness. The third.-these. accompanied by numbers of celestial damsels. and from calumny. the austere. repeatedly bids them welcome. Those who have attained knowledge and dispassion. those who maintain household fires. Those who die for the sake of Brâhmiṇs. those who are accidentally drowned in the sacred waters. discus. devoted to the society of the good. ascend the best of chariots. and splendid with ponds. those intent upon renunciation. those who look equally upon gold. go to the Assembly of Righteousness.-these. those who perform the rites of Brahmâ. those who contemplate the good scriptures.
. those who perform Śrâddha for the forefathers. is beautified with jewelled mansions. those who die in Benares. and those who die of vow of starvation. 74-76. They drink nectar. those entirely devoted to Viṣṇu. at the sacred waters and on holy ground. and entering by the western gate. those faithful to their wives. those who die in the protection of cattle. from the wealth of others. and those who delight in making great gifts. the western way. in the service of the master. devotees of the feet of Śrî. stone and earth. 65-73. and go to the mansion of righteousness. Those who always honour the deserving. the good. Is filled with maddened elephants sprung of the family of Airâvata 1 and with jewels of horses sprung from Uchchaiḥśravâ. mace and sword. those who repeat the Vedas. holding his conch. those who keep vows to Śiva and Viṣṇu. those who die in the practice of Yoga. those who repeat the Gâyatrî-mantra. 2 By this way go the self-reliant. Those who are rid of the three-fold debt. those who always take pleasure in the five sacrifices. those intent upon the welfare of all beings. Then.
"O. and enjoyed superhuman pleasures. amid perishable wealth and other things.He offers them the throne. attaining the human state. "He who. Who is more foolish than he? "He who. Go along the highest path. stores up unchanging righteousness. and bows to them. he alone is a wise man. difficult to reach. with every effort. 135:1 Scriptures teaching the duties of life." 82-85. accompanied by multitudes of chariots. 134:2 A class of progenitors. expert in all the scriptures. 77-81. they obtain. departing from my dominion. 133:2 Meditation with an effort to produce physical effects.
. and being honoured by the immortals and extolled by the leaders of the sages. "O’ You Assembled! Salute with deepest reverence the knower. will go to the world of Brahmâ. Best of the Wise. He. "Therefore should righteousness be accumulated. and then honours them with sandal-paste and other things. The man who hears this with devotion goes to the assembly of the King of Justice. Go you to the holy place which abounds in all enjoyments. 134:1 Forms of Death. 135:2 Brâhmaṇ. All this about the abode of Yama has been told you upon your asking. who avoid the pains of hell. They. you have by your merits attained divinity. the state of happiness. Wealthy and wise. he goes to a dreadful hell. as a result of their merits. and having saluted him and the assembly. holy human birth. Then again they go to the highest condition by their own good conduct. then those in that assembly of righteousness rise up with great respect Having spent there 1 some ages. washes their feet. in the impermanent body. having heard the words of Justice.
133:1 Taking any form desired. 86. never acts wisely.
137:2 The Sun. 140:1 That is in Heaven world.
. 138:2 The divine horse. 138:1 The divine elephant. the son of Visvasvat. 137:1 The consort of Śiva. 136:1 Those who have renounced the world.135:3 Yama.
and likewise meditation upon the nature of Chit and Ânanda in the Brahmarandhra.CHAPTER XV.
. Here the sons gradually enter during the eighth day.
An Account of the Coming to Birth of People who have done Good. on even nights he enters. daughters on odd. lest sin should arise in the body. 13. 1 On the fourteenth night the seed remains there certainly. And how he of good deeds is born in the house of the pure and prosperous. Now tell me how he is produced in the womb of the mother. That night is never obtained by vulgar people. Having bathed. Pungent. I wish to hear what. like a husbandman. I will tell you the real nature of that body which possesses the attributes of the universal Egg. Sixteen nights are declared to be common for women. The husband. The Blessed. Their face should not be seen during that time. 7-10. O Treasurehouse of Compassion! 3-4. even by knowing which one becomes all-knowing. Garuḍa said: The righteous man having enjoyed heaven. I will tell you that supreme secret. acid. astringent and hot things should be entirely avoided. Keeping away from. day women should eat sweet foods. the man of good deeds thinks. Lord said: You have asked well. Then is produced the righteous son. her during the first seven days. 1-2. 11-12. Sons are born on even nights. Tell me. After menstruation the women should be avoided for four days. a woman becomes pure on the fourth day. 14-18. and washed her clothes.--the object of concentration of Yogins. During the seven days the embryo continues impure. From the seventh day she becomes fit to perform the rites of worship to the forefathers and the Shining Ones. Hear how the Yogins perform the meditation upon the six chakras 1 within it. in this body. having sown the seed of great potentiality in the field which is productive of grain. I will tell you also about the rites and observances of the parents. reaps a good harvest. is born in a stainless family. On the firth. 5-6. O Târkṣya. a store of auspicious qualities.
When desire.--these are declared the five attributes of air. becoming skilful in all the sciences. 2 20-23. water. In his youth he is divinely handsome. Skin. For the understanding of the dissociation of Brâhmaṇ from that with which he is associated. bones.
. austerities. and clean clothes. marrow. According to the thoughts in his mind at the time of union will be the nature of the one who enters the womb." 25-30. and with righteous thoughts in his mind. which are of the genus "Not-self. wealthy and benevolent. The good son who enters the womb is the giver of the highest bliss. having chewed betel. by association with the wise. arising as the result of great merit. should unite with his good wife.The man. and in the interior of the womb the formation of ovum takes place. I will tell you the attributes of earth and the others. and pilgrimages to sacred waters.--these are the five attributes of earth. by the union of sperm and germ [cells] 19. endowed with learning and modesty.--are said to be the five attributes of water. sloth. At the time of his birth Brâhmiṇs receive much wealth. declared to you by me. thirst. Then he constantly strives to discriminate between the self and the not-self. thought and sperm become united. This body is made up of the five elements. urine. Then the man obtains semen. sleep and sexual desire--are called the five attributes of fire by Yogins everywhere. Earth. stretching and moving. formerly done. Now hear those of fire:-Hunger. O Târkṣya. such as the Punsavana. and blood. nerves. The meritorious soul obtains birth in a high family. the fifth. running. hair and flesh. jumping. fire. sperm. He grows up in his parents' house. 24. By adhyâropa 1 and apavâda 2 he meditates upon Brâhmaṇ. Saliva. 1 put on flowers and sandal-paste. The intelligence joined with the seed remains always in the sperm. For him there are numerous rites. O Lord of birds. Bending. air and ether--these are called the stable elements.
vacuity. thought. Ears. the cause of hunger is to be known as Kṛikala.
. Having entered near the anus it separates the solid and liquid portions. Mitra. Vahni. eyes. 6 Yaśasvinî. nails. opening and shutting the eyes is known as Kûrma. delusion and mental instability--the five attributes of ether. affecting people. and distributed all over the body. The Prâna standing under the fire. 11 36-39. 3 thirdly. hair--are called unclean places. Dik. 33. Mind. Samâna. nostrils. Vâta. 40-43. trunk. 7 Alambuṣa. Arka. is ejected from the body. Dhanañjaya. and carries all over the body the nourishment which is obtained by eating mouthfuls of food. individualisation. 45. The Vyâna air makes the essence go all over. 4 Gajajihva. 34-35. having derived their power from the self. Ears. Apâna. feet. may be understood by you with effort. skin. the two Aśvins. Udâna. 10 the tenth as well--are situated in the interior of the body. placing the water over the fire. Food. in the region of the throat. is split into two by that air. The air called Vyâna carries the essential part in all the Nâḍîs. 8 and Kuhû. 1 Pingalâ. and are the ten principal Naḍîs. Iḍâ. and Vyâna also. Devadatta. inflames it slowly. The organs of speech. Devadatta and Dhanañjaya 12:-In the heart. and the waste. Indra. teeth. Samâna. and the solid over the water. perform their own functions. reason. head. separates the substance from the waste. 2 Suṣumnâ. are declared to be the duties of the organs of sense and action. tongue and nose are the sense organs. Udâna. 44. Vyâna: Vomiting is called Nâga. hands. Apâna. Kṛikala. just as does the rising of the sun.--Nâga. as soon as eaten. 31. the organs of generation and of excretion are the organs of action. eyes. Kûrma.Speech. tongue. does not leave even the corpse. 5 Pûṣâ. Yawning. The fire. Prâṇa. and also Gândhârî. in the anus. Prâṇa. Prachetas. Upeudra. all-pervading. Thus the airs. navel. 9 and Saṅkhinî. inflamed by the air. anus. forced through the twelve gateways. in the navel. analysis--these four are called the Internal Means. and have the flavour of past karma. 32. generative organs.
number tens of million. marrow is twelve palâs.46. ovum one kuḍava. mountains. There are said to be thirty-two teeth usually. Kailâśa is in the right triangle. The body which possesses these attributes is Vyâvahârika. the "great blood" is three palas. in the left triangle. Janaloka. it is said. at the throat it should be known as Maharloka. One is Vyâvahârika. at the forehead. 47-52. and twenty nails. above it the Bhuvarloka. 60-61. Ramaṇa in the lines on the left. Himâchala. The waste materials are not measurable. Vitala. O Bird.--the seven great mountains. at the secret part Rasâtala. Now hear. these are declared to be the seven worlds: Bhûloka. Satyaloka in the Brahmarandhra--these are the fourteen worlds. suns and planets are in the Pâramârthika 3 body. I will tell you about these. Fat is ten palâs. At the hips. the two-fold nature of the body of man. oceans. On the Vyâvahârika there are thirty-five millions of hairs of the body. as they are constantly changing. The nâḍîs. Svarloka. at the middle of the navel. in the heart. 55. and the second Pâramârthika. 54.
. By pondering upon them one becomes the enjoyer of the nature of Vairâja. 4 56-59. in the region of the mouth. seven hundred thousands of hairs of the head. at the knees know it as Sutala. and bones in the body are said to be three hundred and sixty. Meru is situated in the triangle 1. the flesh is said to be one thousand palâs 1 and blood one hundred palâs. Mandara is in the inverted triangle. continents. O son of Vinatâ. above the feet. 2 53. skin is seven palâs. All the worlds. In the Pâramârthika body. bile is fifty palâs. which are the objects of meditation of Yogins. there are six chakras in which are said to be located the attributes of the egg of Brahmâ. Tapolaka. at the thighs Mahâtala. phlegm is half of that. Seed is known to be two kuḍavas. Niṣada is in the upper lines Gandhamâdana in the lines on the right. Below the feet is called Atala. at the loins Pâtâla. Talâtala. both dense and subtle.
62-65. Jambu is in the place of the bones; Sâka is situated in the marrow; the Kuśa continent is situated in the flesh; the Krauncha continent in the nerves; The Śâlmalî continent is in the skin; Gomeda, in the mass of hair; Puṣkara, in the place of the nails;--and next the oceans: In the urine the Kṣâra ocean; the Kṣîra ocean in the milk; the Sura ocean is situated in the phlegm; in the marrow, the Ghṛita ocean; The Rasa ocean in the juices; the Dadhi ocean is known to be in the ova; the Swâdu ocean in the region of the soft palate; you should know son of Vinatâ. 66-68. The sun is situated in the Nâda chakra; the moon is in the Bindu chakra; Mars is situated, it should be known, in the eyes; Mercury is in the heart, it is declared; Jupiter is in the Viṣṇu-sthâna, it should be known; Venus is situated in the seed; Saturn is in the navel; Râhu, in the face, it is declared; Ketu is situated in the lungs;--in the body is the circle of the planets. In all these forms one should meditate on his own body. 69-71. Always at dawn, sitting steadily cross-legged, one should meditate upon the six chakras, in the order of the Ajapâ. 1 The Gâyatrî called Ajapâ is the giver of liberation to the sages; by merely thinking upon it one is released from all sin. Listen, O Târkṣya, and I will explain the best method of Ajapâ, by doing which the individual always gives up his separateness. 72-73. Mûlâdhâra, Swâdhishthâna, Maṇipûraka, Anâhatam, Viśuddhi and also Âjñâ,--are spoken of as the six chakras. One should meditate in order upon the chakras, at the root of the generative organ; in the region of the pelvis; in the navel; in the heart; in the throat; between the eyebrows; at the top of the head. 74-75. The mûlâdhâra is four-petalled and resplendent, with letters from va to sa; the Svâdhiṣṭhâna resembles the sun, is six-petalled, and has the letters from ba to la; the Maṇipûraka is red in colour and has ten petals, from da to pha; the Anâhata is twelvepetalled, from ka to tḥa, and is golden-coloured; The viśuddhi lotus is sixteen-petalled, with the vowels, and has the light of the moon; the Mâtra 1 lotus is two-petalled, has the letters ha and kṣa, and is red in colour; the one at the top of the head is the most resplendent, this lotus has a thousand petals, and is the seat of truth and bliss, ever auspicious, light-possessing and eternal.
76. One should meditate, in order, in the chakras, on Gaṇeṣa, on Vidhi, 2 on Viṣhṇu, on Śiva, on Jîva, on Guru, and on Parambrahmaṇ, all-pervading. 17-80. It is said by the wise that the subtle movements of the breath in one day and night number twenty-one thousand six hundred. It goes out with the sound of "ha," and enters again with the sound of "sa." The individual is, indeed, always repeating the mantra. "Haṁsa, haṁsa,"-Six hundred for Gaṇeśa; six thousand for Vedhas 1; six thousand for Hari 2; six thousand for Hara. 3 A thousand for the Jîvâtman; a thousand for Guru; a thousand or the Chidâtman;--thus one should understand the respective numbers of the repetitions. 81-82. Aruṇa and other sages, who know the succession of Teachers, meditate upon the deities presiding over the chakras, who are rays of Brahmaṇ. The sages, Śuka and ethers, teach it to their pupils; therefore a wise man, after meditating upon the path of the Great Ones, should always meditate thus. 83. Having worshipped mentally in all the chakras, with unwavering mind, he should repeat the Ajapâ-gâyatrî according to the instructions of the Teacher. 84-88. He should meditate in the Ranḍhra, with the thousand-petalled lotus inverted, upon the Blessed Teacher within the Haṁsa, whose lotus-hand frees from fear. He should regard his body as being washed in the flow of nectar from His feet. Having worshipped in the five-fold way he should prostrate, singing His praise. Then he should meditate on the Kuṇḍalinî, as moving upwards and downwards, as making a tour of the six chakras, placed in three-and-a-half coils. Then he should meditate on the place called Suṣumnâ, which goes out of the Randhra; thereby he goes to the highest state of Viṣṇu. Then he should always meditate, between four o'clock and sunrise, on my form, selfillumined, eternal and ever-blissful. 89. He should bring his mind to a state of steadiness, not by efforts alone, but under the instruction of a teacher, without whom he falls. 90. Having done the inward-sacrifice he should perform the outward-sacrifice. Having done the purificatory ablution, and the Sandhyâ, he should worship Hari and Hara. 91-94. For those who are attached to the body facing-inward 1 does not come about. For then devotion is easier, and that gives liberation.
Tapas, and Yoga, and others, are also ways to liberation, but for those who are attached to the world of change the path by devotion to me is far superior. This is the conclusion of the all-knowing Brahma and others, after having conned the Vedas and the Śâstras for three periods. Sacrifices and other righteous duties purify the mind. The devotion to me has a form of fruit from which the obtainer never falls away. 95. The good man who follows this, O Târkṣya, by the union due to devotion to me, goes to eternal liberation.
141:1 Certain centres in the etheric and higher bodies, which revolves like wheels when set in motion by meditation; hence the name chakra. 142:1 Sixteen are favourable, but the fourteenth of them is best, if some other cause doer not render it inauspicious. 143:1 To augment the virile power. 143:2 A rite performed when living conception is observed. 144:1 False ascription, and ... 144:2 refutation, two sorts of arguments. 145:1 The left hand nâḍî. 145:2 The right hand one. 145:3 The central one. 145:4 This goes to the left eye. 145:5 This goes to the right eye. 145:6 This goes to the right ear. 145:7 This goes to the left ear. 145:8 This goes to the mouth. 145:9 This goes to the liṅgam.
149:1 The saying of "Haṁsa. the Âjñâ. 151:1 Brahmâ. because they are thinking of outer things." 148:1 The triangle in the triangle.145:10 This gees to the mûla. 145:11 An inner nerve. 145:12 Various forms of the vital breath. 150:2 Brahmâ. 152:1 Their meditation is unsuccessful.) 147:2 Individual and common physical body.
. 147:4 Viraj means "to shine. Meru is the sacred mountain or pakk. 147:3 Universal and spiritual body. 151:3 Śiva." 150:1 That is. 147:1 Pala is a little more than an ounce (6/5 oz. 151:2 Viṣṇu. channel for the vital breath.
They have also. with beginningless ignorance. O Lord of Liberation. men. the righteous. O Târkṣya. and I will explain to you what you have asked. one becomes a man by good deeds. Śiva.
An Account of the Law for Liberation. the liṅga. beyond the Beyond. all-knowing. There is a Shining One. 14-16.CHAPTER XVI. Self-illumined. tell me by what means they may obtain release. placed in various kinds of bodies. 1-4. like sparks of a fire. The endless multitudes of individuals. O Ruler of the Shining Ones. a higher and more subtle body. all-doing. goats. in all deep miseries.--in this terrible world of change. stainless and secondless. who is partless. O Lord. lasting until liberation. in the eighty-four hundred thousands of bodies before attaining human birth. O Lord. The Blessed Lord said: Listen. in the worlds of change. can obtain no knowledge of the truth. are born and die-of them no end is known. and also the liberated. the thirtythree deities. and fortune born of karma. I now wish to hear about the means for eternal liberation. without attributes. O Bird. Through millions of myriads of thousands of births some time a being obtains human birth. no one is ever known to be happy. Lord of all. 8-10 These. separated and encased in bodies by beginningless karma. in the unsubstantial. who has the nature of Supreme Brâhmaṇ. Always miserable in this world. The unmoving things. animals. and if he becomes a knower 1 he attains liberation. length of life. Having worn and cast aside the four sorts of bodies thousands of times. beginningless and endless. about the transmigrating of the individual. even by the hearing of which a man is released from the world of change. giving happiness and misery. birds. 11-13. through the accumulation of merit.--with nationality of body. through ignorance. Being and Knowing and Bliss.
. 5-7. worms. Are fettered by forms of good and evil. In every life obtained. The embodied. according to their order. O Ocean of compassion. Garuḍa said: I have heard from you. That which is considered the individual is from a part of Him. compassionate to those who seek refuge.
between happiness and misery. therefore should he guard his body as wealth and perform meritorious deeds. what will he do? 24-25. Living. nobody obtains the object of human life. Old age comes on like a tigress.--then he is soon released.
. afflicted with disease and having gone to a country where there is no medicine. Without a body. The wise always adopt means for the preservation of the body. having obtained this highest birth and superior senses. So long as misery does not come. so long as the senses are not decayed. He who does not take precautions against the diseases of hell while here. Though seeing those just born.--who in this world is more sinful than he? The man who. The time of death is not known by those who are variously embodied in the world of change. 26-32. disease and old age. which is the means to everything. so long as calamity does not befall. If he does not guard himself against harm who else will? Therefore should he look after his own benefit. Therefore should he strive for the best. the afflicted. good and evil actions again-the body never again. so long should he strive for the best. wealth again. 17-19. and half of it is sleep and idleness. Riches are like unto a dream. having obtained a human body. 1 20-21. even those afflicted with diseases such as leprosy do not wish to give it up. a field again. So long as the body lasts. He should always guard his body. knowledge for the sake of Yoga-meditation. life goes like water from a broken pot.--where is there a discerning one who is at ease? Even a hundred years of life is very little. life is fickle as lightning. diseases attack like foes. and even that little is unfruitful owing to the miseries of childhood. youth is like a flower. and the miserable. so long should truth be pursued. having drunk the liquor of delusion. duty for the sake of knowledge. in view of welfare. does not know his own benefit. difficult to get. the dead. A village again. does not help himself over.He who. Alas! a man. a house again. those whom calamity has befallen. and a step to liberation. 22-23. It should be guarded for the sake of duty.--the stupid man digs his well when the corner of his house is already afire. he should make every effort to protect it. does not understand what benefits the soul is a slayer of Brâhmaṇ. people are never afraid.
it must be done to-day. though reading. whose.
. 45-48. bitten by the serpent of sense-objects. death. he does not understand. my relatives. How shall the individual who has taken a body. just as an unbaked pot placed in water disappears imperceptibly. he falters."-death does not consider whether it leas been done or not done. this is to be done. when he should be awake he sleeps. those in the embryo condition. in the morning or in the afternoon. Death preys upon the man afflicted with the needles of thirst. goes to the abode of Yama.--life cannot be made permanent. "It must be done to-morrow. which is like foam on water and is attached to passing objects.--though grasped by the crocodiles of death. who has an army of dreadful diseases--wilt thou not see the saviour? 43-44. the water of the ocean is dried away--what shall be said of the body? 39-41. though hearing. This universe is immersed in the boundless ocean of death." "This has been done. bewildered by the divine magic. Thou shalt encounter the enemy. mother. Air may be enclosed. is unnoticed. Earth is burnt away by time.--such is this world of creatures. Though seeing. the impermanent permanent. where he should fear he confides.He does not do what ought to be done. The wolf of death forcibly slays the lamb of a mortal. ether may be split. the old. He who does not know what is good for him thinks the harmful beneficial. He who is in it is afflicted with misery. This individual. this other is done or not done. Alas! what man is not stricken. even Meru is reduced to powder. Time. disease and old age. son and others? The world of change is verily the root of misery. he does not know. waves may be bound. though wearing away with every moment. my wealth. and the evil good. young men. my wife. coming is shown by age. 36-38. 42. Death attacks children. he does not understand." Him who is thus prating death overpowers.--otherwise never. father. leaving his own body. and baked in the fire of desire and repulsion. be free from fear? 33-35. He who abandons it becomes happy. who prates of "my offspring. What is the good of association with wife.
fasts and other restraints. who constantly pursue evil courses. All those beings who are attached to their bodies. Just as the fish. wealth. attached to the practice of vows. It is not possible to give up everything. does not see the iron hook. when the sun is in the meridian by hunger and thirst. and by elaborate rituals. therefore should friendship with the great be cultivated. are destined for hell. in the night by passion and sleep. wife and other things. Attachment to the good. and eating are common to all creatures. so the embodied. Some are intent upon ceremonies. So long as the being makes attachments pleasant to the mind. The men who are attached to the ceremonial alone are satisfied with mere names. as a remedy for attachment. A man bound in fetters of iron or wood may be released. 52-55. and do not understand the highest righteousness. bewildered by My magic. are born and die deluded by ignorance. covetous of flesh. and purity of the eyes--the man who has not these is blind. but from the fetters of son and wife can never be freed.
.This world of change. and the refuge of all sins. 61-62. which is the source of all misery. Those men who do not understand what is good and what is not good for them. which steal away the senses of the body. and by the emaciation of the body. All those deluded men who turn away from the duties of their respective castes and orders. O Bird. deluded by the repetitions of mantras. discrimination. perish fruitlessly. desire to obtain the invisible by single meals. 49-51. covetous of pleasure. Who possesses knowledge is called a man. with self enveloped in ignorance the imposters go about. should be abandoned at once. who is devoid of it is called a beast. Sleep. Foolish men are tormented at break of day by nature's calls. alas! 56-57. does not see the torments of Yama. oblations and other things. the seat of all calamities. The fools. 59-60. People are destroyed every day by the desire for great wealth. Alas! Fie upon the foods of the senses. sexual pleasure. so long shall the dagger of sorrow pierce his heart. Therefore should attachment be shunned always. and are intent on the filling of the belly. How shall he not tread evil ways? 58.
The fools. dwell in the waters of Ganges. they explain in different ways but the best purport of the Śâstras is otherwise. He who knows the Vedas. and always live in forests. which feed upon grass. caught in the six waves they remain sophists. does the dog which always live among earth and ashes become liberated? The jackals. Are these free from attachment? If men are to be liberated by earth.--do these become ascetics? The crocodiles. and even delude people. Therefore this class of practices is a thing which makes pleasure for people. fishes and others. leaves and water. 64. miserable with anxiety. The hypocrites. wander about like knowers. in forests and among houses.--of that imitator all this is as the speech of a crow."--thus bewildered by anxiety they read the scriptures day and night. rats.--are these observers of vows? 70. He who is attached to the pleasures of the worlds of change. and wearing quantities of matted hair. They are tossed hither and thither in the dreadful ocean of Vedas and Śâstras. the brutes do not understand the chief good. which from birth to death. Men trouble themselves variously. deer and others. but does not know the chief good. the Śâstras and the Purâṇas. remain with senses bewildered. saying "I am a knower of Brâhmaṇ. 71-73. decorated with garlands of poetry constructed of forms of speech. 1 O Bird. 71-76. 76-77.--direct knowledge of the Truth is the cause of liberation. 65-69. and using antelope skins. Fallen into the great well of the six philosophies. putting on appearances. bound in the snare of animalism. but the highest truth is otherwise. Donkeys walk about among people. "This is known.Of those who have no discrimination. O Lord of Birds. turning away from the highest truth. this must be known.--do these become Yogins? Pigeons at times eat stones. quite naked and unashamed." and is devoid of both rites and Brâhmaṇ should be shunned like a low outcaste. and Châtaka birds do not drink water from the earth.
. what liberation can there be by bodily tortures alone? What great serpent is killed by beating the anthill alone? 1 63. ashes and dust.
The study is of Śabda Brâhmaṇ. is beyond efforts of action. the nostril knows the smell. not otherwise. 91.--like the spoon the flavour of the food. nor are actions. The fool. not realising them themselves. 78-82. to a man devoid of wisdom. but they do not understand the highest truth. for those who have understanding. and there are tens of millions of obstacles. being engrossed in egotism. and having known the Truth. 83-84. The non-dual. hence. Para Brahmaṇ is reached by discrimination. Haring practised the Vedas and the Śâstras. The stages of life are not the cause of liberation. and argue with one another. life is brief. 85-86. therefore the essence should be understood. to the knower of the Truth. 87-88. nor are the philosophies. Knowledge is said to be of two kinds: study and discrimination. the wise man should abandon all the scriptures.They talk of the highest experiences. is like a mirror to the blind. Some prefer the Non-dual 2. is bewildered by the Śâstras. Verbal knowledge cannot destroy the illusions of the world of change. The head bears flowers. Emancipation is by knowledge alone.--a foolish goatherd. just as one rich in grains abandons the straw. They read the Vedas and the Śâstras. all learning is masquerade. Reading. There is no liberation by the study of the Vedas. 89-90. beyond the Dual and Non-dual. Śâstras are only a potter to the knowledge of the truth.--darkness never disappears by talking of a lamp. The Śâstras are numerous. Among thousands of woods the Sañjîvana 1 is best. O Târkṣya. The word from the Teacher gives liberation. but find impossible the understanding of the truth. nor by the reading of the Śâstras.--like the swan taking the milk in the water.
. Some have ceased preaching. other prefer the Dual 3 but they do not understand the One Reality. O son of Vinatâ. not by the study of tens of millions of texts. If one lives for a thousand celestial years he cannot reach the end of the Śâstras.---knowledge only is the cause. this must be known. not knowing that the truth is seated in himself. verily declared auspicious."--he wishes to hear everything. peers into the well. so is there not use for the scriptures. 92. Just as there is no use for food to one who is satisfied with nectar. "'This is known. with the young goat under his arm. They repeat the Vedas and the Śâstras. and to be obtained by the word of the Teacher.
with understanding. Two phrases make for bondage and liberation: "Mine" and "Not-mine. which is called the Nirvâṇa of Brâhmaṇ. 95-97. always. so long as there is no love for the Teacher.
. Therefore. He should practise mentally upon the supreme three-fold pure Word of Brahmâ. Therefore from the mouth of the Blessed Teacher the Truth of the self should be known. so long as there is imagination of plans. by which he obtains liberation. with the sword of unattachment. and should fix his mind. so long as there is no meditation upon the Śâstras. 102. the man. the desires connected with the body. with breath controlled. He should. oblations. worship and reading of the prescribed texts of the Vedas and Śâstras. rid of fear. and under all circumstances he attached to Truth. 100. upon the pure. His last days approaching. sitting alone on a pure seat prepared as prescribed. drawn away by karmas. performing ablutions in the water of the holy bathing places. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? 98-99." The being saying "Mine" is bound. so long as there is the sense of "mineness. so long should he do austerities. So long as one does not reach Truth. pilgrimage to sacred waters. Listen! I will tell you now about the final actions of the knower of the Truth. so long as the senses are fickle. should resort to the shade of the tree of Liberation. and fruits are heaven and liberation. not forgetting the Brahma Bîja." so long as there is excited striving. By knowledge the being is easily released from the awful bondage of the worlds of change. That is the karma that does not bind. vows. so long how can there be realisation of Truth? So long as there is pride of body. if one desires liberation for himself. recitations. restrain his mind. One who is tormented by the three miseries and the rest. he should every effort. So long as actions are performed. 103-107. saying "Not-mine" is released. other karma is worrying. should cut off. Courageously wandering from home. other knowledge is skilful chiselling. 101. so long as the impressions of the world of change remain. that the knowledge that gives release.93-94. O Târkṣya. So long as there is not stability of mind. whose flowers are righteousness and knowledge. 1 With reason for charioteer he should withdraw the senses from the sense-objects by the mind.
5 Kañchi. 7 Dwârâvatî. who gives the condition of happiness for the sacrifice of worship. dwells at a sacred bathing-place.--he verily attains liberation. I will tell you about the wise.--hearing it with knowledge and dispassion one attains liberation. My desires have been completely fulfilled."1 am Brâhmaṇ. 8--these seven cities should be known as the givers of liberation. Free from pride and delusion. full-visioned. utters the one-syllabled Brâhmaṇ.--he verily attains liberation. 109-110. O Lord. in the waters of Truth. they go. and who gives liberation for supreme devotion to Him. He who. "Oṁ. when leaving the body. He who. goes to the Highest Goal. with desires overcome. devoid of knowledge and unattachment. 2 Mathurâ."--having realised this and placed the self in the self he should meditate.
. with tranquil self. with hands folded together:-"O Lord. 108. he verily attains liberation. The hypocrites. expecting to die. He who bathes in the water of the Mânasa. What else do you wish to hear? 118-120.--protect us. repeatedly prostrating himself. birds and others transmigrate. 115. 4 Kaśî. This eternal way of liberal in al has been described to you. always dwelling in the Higher Self. Ayodhyâ. leaning his home. He who. undeluded. released from the contracts known as pleasure and pain. the remembrance of whom removes evil. righteous men go to heaven. Thus in sixteen chapters I have related to you the extracted essence of all the scriptures. thinking of no other. O King. I am Brâhmaṇ. sinners go to an evil condition. O. Garuḍa became silent and lost in meditation." remembering me. O God of Gods. 116. O Târkṣya. the Supreme Abode. worships me. having heard these words of nectar I have been helped over the ocean of existence. Protector! "I stand freed from doubts." Having said this. these words from the mouth of the Lord. said this. in the lake of knowledge. who go to that goal. 121. 1 which removes the impurities of attraction and repulsion. Knowers of Truth attain liberation. the Highest Goal. Garuḍa. on that eternal path. 6 Avantikâ. 111-114. firm in non-attachment. 117. with the evils of attachment conquered. do not go there. or dies in a place of liberation. 3 Gayâ. May Hari. Sûta said: Having thus heard.
Separateness of the individual and universal self. 165:1 The plant brought by Hanumat to restore Lakṣman when killed by Indrajit. 162:1 Nyâya. 168:1 A holy lake in the Himâlayas. 167:1 Bîja is a seed. Sâṅkhya. 168:7 Ujjain. 168:6 Conjeeveram. 161:1 There is supposed to be a serpent living in the ground beneath the ant-hill. 165:2 Adwaita philosophy. Vedânta. 168:3 Muttra. Eternal inseparateness and non-duality. One who knows the Self.
. Vaiśeṣika. a mantra governing a work such as an Upaniṣad Oṁ. 168:2 Perhaps Oudh. 165:3 Dwaita. also a mystical place. 168:4 Gayâ. 168:5 Benares.Footnotes
155:1 That is. Yoga. 168:8 Dwârakâ. Mîmânsâ. 156:1 Meaning that one may re-obtain these things after losing them--but not the body.