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Autocad 3d Training Manual

Autocad 3d Training Manual

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Sections

  • Chapter 1 Controlling Views
  • Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation
  • Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model
  • Chapter 4 Z Coordinates
  • Chapter 5 User Coordinate System
  • Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands
  • Chapter 7 Dynamic View - Perspective
  • Chapter 8 3D Model Objects
  • Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces
  • Chapter 10 3D Surfaces
  • Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces
  • Chapter 12 Solids
  • Chapter 13 3D Edits
  • Chapter 14 Solid Composites
  • Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects
  • Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process
  • Chapter 17 Rendering
  • Chapter 18 Materials
  • Chapter 19 Lights
  • Chapter 20 Scenes
  • Chapter 21 Backgrounds
  • Chapter 22 Landscaping
  • Chapter 23 Misc. Render Commands

Copyright © 2004

AutoCAD 3D Training Manual
®

Written by Kristen S. Kurland

® AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

Chapter 1 Controlling Views

2

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

3

Viewports Viewports 1.1

Viewports

Screen divided into three tiled viewports

-Vports Command
1. Type -VPORTS at the command prompt. Command: -vports Enter an option [Save/Restore/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/3/4] <3>: enter Enter a configuration option [Horizontal/Vertical/Above/ Below/Left/Right] <Right>: enter Regenerating model. 2. 3. Click Type once in each vport to make it active. a ZOOM option in each viewport. NOTE: AutoCAD plots only the current vport.

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

5

OK.2 1. Choose Click Click View. New Viewports the dropdown option for Setup and click 3D. 2.Kristen Kurland 7 . 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Viewports 3D Viewports 1. Viewports. New Viewports tab of the Viewports dialog Viewports 6 Copyright © 2004 .

3 1. Named Views Orthographic & Isometric Views tab of the View dialog.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 5. 2.Preset Views Preset Views 1.Kristen Kurland 9 . 3. Choose Click Click View. Click Click the Set Current button the OK button 8 Copyright © 2004 . One of the following view options: Top Bottom Front Back Left Right Southwest Isometric Southeast Isometric Northeast Isometric Northwest Isometric Preset Views 4.

614. Click a point on the compass to define the viewing angle.-0. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 11 .Vpoint Command Vpoint Command (Tripod) 1.-0. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0. Vpoint or 2.614.614. 1.4 Displays a compass and tripod for defining a view rotation. Choose View.500>: R (enter) Enter angle in XY plane from X axis <225>: 225 (enter) Enter angle from XY plane <30>: 15 (enter) Regenerating drawing. 3D Views.5 Enters a rotation angle at the viewpoint prompt.500>: (enter) 3. Vpoint or 2. Choose View. 1. The compass represents a two dimensional globe. Tripod Point in the center of the compass is the north pole Vpoint Command Middle ring of the compass is the equator Entire outer ring is the south pole Vpoint Command (Rotate) 1. Resultant viewport with new 3D view 10 Copyright © 2004 . Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .614.0.0. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. 3D Views.

3D Views. Set a viewing angle by typing the From X axis and XY Plane angle. Command: ddvpoint 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Resultant viewport with new 3D view Angle from the X Axis Angle in the XY Plane 12 Copyright © 2004 .Vpoint Command Vpoint Command DDVpoint Command 1. Type DDVPOINT at the command prompt. or 4.Kristen Kurland 13 . Choose View. Pick a viewing angle in the 2 graphics Left graphic = From X Axis Right graphic = In XY Plane 5. Click OK. Viewpoint Preset or 2.6 1.

1 Other Preset Viewpoints 1. Left.995>: -1. 3D Views.8 1.981. Vpoint Presets Resultant viewport with entered coordinates -1. Choose View. Right. 1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.2.-1. Vpoint or 2.Vpoint Presets Vpoint Command (Vector Option) 1. Back SW Isometric SE Isometric NW Isometric NE Isometric 14 Copyright © 2004 .690.-1.7 Enters coordinates at the viewpoint prompt. and one of the following viewpoint options: Top. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Bottom. Front. 3D Views.1 Regenerating drawing.Kristen Kurland 15 .-1.

Plan View
Plan View 1.9
1. Choose View, 3D Views, Plan View the one of the following: Current UCS, World UCS, Named UCS or 2. Type PLAN at the command prompt. Command: plan Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] <Current>: Regenerating model.

Plan View

Current ucs Ucs

Goes to the plan view of the current UCS. At the command line type in a name of a previously named Coordinate System. Goes to the plan view of the World Coordinate System.

World

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

17

Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation

18

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

19

Thickness
Thickness Command 2.1
Sets the current 3D solid thickness.

Thickness

1.

Type

THICKNESS at the command prompt. Command: thickness Enter new value for THICKNESS <0.0000>: 2.00

20

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

21

Kristen Kurland 23 .2 Changing the current properties of an object changes its thickness.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. Thickness 1. Type DDMODIFY or DDCHPROP at the command prompt. or Changes the current thickness of an object 2. Choose Modify. Command: ddmodify or ddchprop or 3.Thickness Changing the Current Thickness 2.. Choose from the Standard Toolbar 22 Copyright © 2004 . Properties.

3 Stores the current elevation relative to the current UCS for the current space. Elevation and Elev Shortcut 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type ELEVATION at the command prompt.0000>: 2.Elevation and Elev Shortcur Elevation Command 2.Kristen Kurland 25 . Command: elevation Enter new value for ELEVATION <0.00 24 Copyright © 2004 .

0000>: Specify new default thickness: <3.4 1.Kristen Kurland 27 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Shortcut to Elevation & Thickness Commands 2. Command: elev Specify new default elevation: <2. Type ELEV at the command prompt.0000>: 26 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model 28 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 29 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Objects After Hidden Line Removal 30 Copyright © 2004 . OR 2. Command: hide Regenerating Model. Objects Before Hidden Line Removal Hide 1.Kristen Kurland 31 . Choose View.1 Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines suppressed. Type HIDE at the command prompt.Hide Hide Command 3. Hide.

OR 2.Shade Shade Command 3. Shade. Command: shade Regenerating Drawing. The following are various shade options: Flat Shaded Gourand Shaded (edges on) 3D Wireframe Gourand Shaded (Smoother) 32 Copyright © 2004 . Type SHADE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 33 .2 Gourand Shaded (edges on) Shade Displays a flat-shaded image of the drawing in the current viewport while performing a hidden line removal.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Flat Shaded (edges on) 1.

edges in object color Faces in object color. 1. Command: shadedif Enter new value for SHADEDIF <70>:20 34 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 35 3.2 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .4 Sets the ratio of diffuse reflective light to ambient light (in percentage of diffuse reflective light).3 Shaded Object Shade Controls shading of edges in rendering. edges in background color Shadif Variable 3. edges not highlighted Faces shaded.Shade Shadedge Variable 3. 1. Type SHADEDGE at the command prompt. Command: shadedge Enter new value for SHADEDGE <3>: (enter) 0 1 2 3 Faces shaded. edges drawn in background color Faces not filled. Type SHADEDIF at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Hidden Lines in Plots 1. meshes.5 If your drawing contains 3D faces. extruded objects. sur faces.Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal and Shade for Plots 3.Kristen Kurland 37 . Hides Lines for Plots 36 Copyright © 2004 . you can direct AutoCAD to remove hidden lines or shade from specific viewports when you plot the paper space view. or solids. Command: plot 2. Type PLOT at the command prompt. Choose the check box beside the option to remove hidden lines.

he effect of this command until you plot the drawing.Kristen Kurland 39 . Type MVIEW at the command prompt. Command: mview Specify corner of viewport or [ON/OFF/Fit/Shadeplot/Lock/Object/Polygonal/Restore/2/ 3/4] <Fit>: s Shade plot? [As displayed/Wireframe/Hidden/Rendered] <As displayed>: h Select objects: pick mview in paperspace.Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal in Mviews (Paper Space) 3. Select objects: enter NOTE: You do not see t.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Hidden Lines in Plots Mview with Hidden Line Removal 38 Copyright © 2004 .6 1.

Kristen Kurland 41 .Chapter 4 Z Coordinates 40 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: 3DPOLY Specify start point of polyline: 1.Z) is similar to entering 2D coordinates (X. Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.1. In addition to specifying X and Y values.0 42 Copyright © 2004 .1 3D Polyline Drawn with 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates (X.0 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 1.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 2.Y).0 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 1.2.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 2. 3D Polyline 1.3D Coordinates Entering 3D Coordinates 4.Y.2.1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .1.Kristen Kurland 43 . you specify a Z value.

Moving in the Z Direction Moving in the Z Direction 4.Kristen Kurland 45 . 1.2 Original Circle Draw at Elevation Zero Moving in the Z Direction Move Command To move an object in the Z direction.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0.0 Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: 0.1 Circle Moved -2 Units in the Z Direction 44 Copyright © 2004 . Command: move Select objects: (pick object) 1 found Select objects: hit enter Specify base point or displacement: 0. Type MOVE at the command prompt.0. use the move command.

Command: point Point: . 3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 1. Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt. you can use point filters.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .xy of end P1 of (need Z): 2 46 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 47 . use DDPTYPE and choose a visible point style. Before issuing the point filter command.3 To place a point 1 inch above the back left corner of the rectangle.3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 4.

Chapter 5 User Coordinate System 48 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 49 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Affects the display of the UCSICON in all viewports.1 The UCS icon represents the orientation of the UCS axes and the location of the current UCS origin. On/Off. Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin] <ON>: UCS icon turned OFF ON OFF All Noorigin ORigin Displays the UCS icon.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0.Kristen Kurland 51 . or 2. It also represents the current viewing direction relative to the UCS XY plane.0 origin of the current UCS. Turns off the display of the UCSICON.Ucsicon UCS icon turned ON Ucsicon UCSICON 5. 50 Copyright © 2004 . Shows the UCS at the 0. Display. Mspace UCSICON Pspace UCSICON 1. Type UCSICON at the command prompt. UCS Icon. Choose View. Always displays the UCS at the lower left corner.

Allows you to define a new origin. Restores the World Coordinate System. 3 Point. Restores a saved UCS. parallel to your screen). and Z axes unchanged. Removes a saved UCS definition.2 Manages user coordinate systems. Z Origin Defines a new UCS by shifting the origin of the current UCS. Choose One of the following UCS options: New Defines a new coordinate system by one of six methods: Origin. Specifies a UCS by its origin and a point on the positive X and Y axes. leaving the direction of the X.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Y. Type UCS at the command prompt. UCS Toolbar OrthoGraphic ZAxis 3 Point Object UCSII Toolbar Face View X/Y/Z 52 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 53 . Z Axis. These UCS settings are typically used when viewing & editing 3D models [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right] Restores the previously saved UCS.e. Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpen dicular to your viewing direction (i. Lists the defined UCSs in the current drawing. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: 2. and viewing. Face.UCS Dialog Box & World UCS UCS Overview 5. Names and saves a UCS. View X. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Redefines a UCS by shifting the origin or changing the Z-depth of the current UCS. 1. polygon mesh. Object. The user coordinate system provides an alternate movable coordinate system for coordinate entry. Rotates the ucs around a specified axis Previous Restore Save Delete World ? Move . Aligns the UCS to the selected face of a solid object. or viewport entity). Lets you define a new coordinate s ystem by pointing at an entity (except a 3D polyline. Y. leaving the orientation of its XY plane un changed. planes of operation. Specifies one of the six orthographic UCSs provided with AutoCAD. Most AutoCAD geometric editing commands are dependent on the location and orientation of the UCS.

0. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World> (press enter) World Returns the UCS back to the original World UCS. most coordinates are entered relative to the UCS rather than the WCS. It is the only UCS guaranteed to be the same in all AutoCAD drawings. In practice. NOTE: This is the UCS you should use when creating Wblocks and inserting Wblocks.0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the UCS.UCS Dialog Box & World UCS World UCS 5. Entering @*2. Entering @2. Type UCS at the command prompt.0.Kristen Kurland 55 . 54 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the WCS.3 1. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Tip: To enter coordinates relative to the WCS • Precede coordinate values with an asterisk (*).

0>: 3 Specify new origin point <0. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.73.53. Type UCS at the command prompt.0.7.00>: Setting the UCS with the 3 Point Method UCS UCS modified 56 Copyright © 2004 .73.00>: Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <2.0>: pick origin Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <3.0.8.UCS 3 Point UCS 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .53.Kristen Kurland 57 .4 1.0.0.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . UCS parallel to the View Instead of the Object 58 Copyright © 2004 .6 1. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.Kristen Kurland 59 .5 1. Command: plan UCS View 5. Type PLAN at the command prompt.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>:V View Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (i. parallel to your screen).0.Plan View of Current UCS Plan View and UCS 5.e.

Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0. The new UCS has the same extrusion direction (positive Z axis) as that of the selected object. Type UCS at the command prompt.7 1.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>:OB Object Defines a new coordinate system based on a selected 3D object.Kristen Kurland 61 .UCS Object 5.0. 60 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>: 62 Copyright © 2004 .0.8 1. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.Kristen Kurland 63 .AutoCAD Help Topics for New UCS Other New UCS Options 5. Type UCS at the command prompt.

Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: s Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: 1.Kristen Kurland 65 . Type UCS at the command prompt.UCS Saving the UCS 5.9 Restoring the UCS 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Re store/Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: r Enter name of UCS to restore or [?]: 1 64 Copyright © 2004 .10 UCS 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type UCS at the command prompt.

Command: dducs 66 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 67 .UCS Dialog Box 5. Type DDUCS at the command prompt.11 UCS Dialog Box (DDUCS) 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands 68 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 69 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

3D Orbit.Rotates around the “Y” axis through the center. Inside one of the small circles to the left/right . Inside the Arcball .1 Controls Interactive 3D Viewing D Orbit Command.3D Orbit Command.Kristen Kurland 71 .Allows movement in any direction Inside one of the small circles to the top/bottom . Command: 3dorbit OR 2. Choose View.Moves View about an axis that extends through the center (acts like twist) 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Pan & Zoom Outside the Arcball . 70 Copyright © 2004 .Rotates around the “X” axis through the center. 3. The 3D Orbit Arcball appears. Pan & Zoom Introduction to 3D Orbit Command 6. Type 3DORBIT at the command prompt. Click on one of the 3D Orbit arcball locations.

2.3D Orbit Command.Kristen Kurland 73 . PAN or ZOOM from the pop-up menu.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . D Orbit Command. Pan & Zoom 72 Copyright © 2004 .2 1. Click Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Pan & Zoom Pan and Zoom in 3D Orbit 6.

Perspective Displays objects in perspective so that all parallel lines converge at one point. 3. one of the shade options.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 1. Objects appear to recede into the distance. 74 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Choose Parallel Displays objects so that two parallel lines in a drawing never con verge at a single point. 2. 2.4 with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. The shapes are some what distorted when the object is very close.Kristen Kurland 75 . Shading & Visual Aids Shading 6.Projections. 3. Shading. Projection. Parallel or Perspective. The shapes in your drawing always remain the same and do not appear distorted when they are closer. This view correlates more closely to what your eye sees. 1. Click Projections. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. and parts of the objects appear larger and closer to you. Shading & Visual Aids Projection Mode 6.

1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Changes the target of the view. Swivel Camera. More. a location in the view to change the camera.Kristen Kurland 77 .Adjusting Camera Camer Swivel and Distancea 6. 2. Adjusting Camera 76 Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. 3. 4.5 Simulates the effect of turning the camera.

UCS Icon 78 Copyright © 2004 . Shading & Visual Aids 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 79 . 3. Visual Aids. one of the visual aids options. 2.6 3D Grid Option Projections. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Compass Option TIP: Use GRIDUNIT to change the spacing of the grid units. Shading & Visual Aids Visual Aids 6.Projections.

3. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Clipping Planes Clipping Planes 6.7 1. More. Clipping Plane Options Clipping Planes NOTE: If you have clipping planes ON when you exit the 3D Orbit command. one of the clipping planes options. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 81 . Adjusting Clipping Planes in the Clipping Plane Window 80 Copyright © 2004 . they will remain ON.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .8 1. More. 4. 2. Click Choose Choose Click with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. and drag to start the continuous 3D Motion. This movement controls the direction and speed of the orbit. 3. Continuous Orbit Continuous Motion (Rt Click to change options) 82 Copyright © 2004 . Continuous Orbit.Kristen Kurland 83 .Continuous Orbit Continuous Orbit 6.

Kristen Kurland 85 .Perspective 84 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 7 Dynamic View .

Dynamic View and Perspective DView Camera Option 7. Note: You can also twist and pick a camera location.0000>: 30 Specify camera location. or [Toggle (angle in)] <90. 3D Orbit or 2. Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.1 1.00000>: 45 Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: Regenerating model. or [Toggle (angle from)] <90.Kristen Kurland 87 . or enter angle from XY plane. Dynamic View and Perspective Setting a Camera Location 86 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or enter angle in XY plane from X axis. Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK>: pick objects Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: ca Specify camera location.

Dynamic View and Perspective DView Target Option 7. Setting a Target Location Dynamic View and Perspective 88 Copyright © 2004 . or [Toggle (angle in)] <35. 3D Orbit or 2.2644>: pick a target loca tion Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: enter Regenerating model. Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK> pick objects: Select objects: enter Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: TA Specify camera location. or enter angle from XY plane.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 89 .2 1. Note: You can also type a target location. Choose View.

1. 3D Dynamic View. Once a perspective view is set. Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . zooming is not allowed.3 Setting Camera Target with POints Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. or 2.Setting Camera Target with POints Setting Camera Target with Points 7.Kristen Kurland 91 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/ TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: PO 90 Copyright © 2004 .

Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Once a perspective view is set.7321>: pick Resultant Perspective View Turning Perspective Off 7. 3D Dynamic View.Dynamic View and Perspective Setting Perspective Distance 7. zooming is not allowed.4 Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. Zoom to a Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective 1. or 2. or 2.5 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: OFF 92 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: D New camera/target distance <1. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 3D Dynamic View.Kristen Kurland 93 .

666mm>: pick Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Zoomed and Panned Panning in Dview 7. 3D Dynamic View.Dynamic View and Perspective Zooming in Dview 7.6 1. Choose View. 3D Dynamic View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>:PA Displacement base point: pick Second point: pick 94 Copyright © 2004 .7 1.Kristen Kurland 95 . Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. or 2. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: Z Adjust lens length <9.

Choose View.00>: pick 96 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 97 .Dynamic View and Perspective Clipping Objects 7. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: CL Back/Front/<Off>: F Eye/<Distance from target> <4.4721>: pick Twisting Objects 7. Choose View. 3D Dynamic View.9 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. or 2.8 Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Clipped Objects 1. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: TW New view twist <0. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 3D Dynamic View.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 99 . 3D Dynamic View.10 1. Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Dynamic View and Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective Hidden Line Removal 7. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: H 98 Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 8 3D Model Objects 100 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 101 .

Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be independently drawn and positioned.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 102 Copyright © 2004 . With AutoCAD you can create wireframe models by positioning 2D (planar) objects anywhere in 3D space. AutoCAD also provides some 3D wireframe objects. and curves that describe the edges of the object. There are no surfaces in a wireframe model. lines.Kristen Kurland 103 . such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS linetype) and splines. this type of modeling can be the most time-consuming.Wire Frames Wire Frames Wireframes 8. it consists only of points.1 A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object.

AutoCAD calls faceted surfaces. Because the faces of the mesh are planar. Choose Draw. Surfaces.Kristen Kurland 105 . To differentiate these two types of surfaces. the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces.2 Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D object. but also its surfaces. With Mechanical Desktop. you can create true curved surfaces. 104 Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces 1. meshes.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh.Surfaces Surfaces 8.

106 Copyright © 2004 . With the AutoCAD solid modeler. You can then combine these shapes to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their intersecting (overlapping) volume.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. cylinders. 1.3 Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use. cones. You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D object along a path or revolving it about an axis. you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes. it is recommended that you not mix modeling methods. Solids NOTE: Because each modeling type uses a different method for constructing 3D models and editing methods vary in their effect on the different model types.Solids Solids 8. wedges. and tori (donuts).Kristen Kurland 107 . Solids. spheres.

Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces 108 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 109 .

Type SOLID at the command prompt. Solids.. the Other Predefined tab. Hatch.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3. NOTE: 2D Solids and Hatches cannot be rendered or shaded. or 2.2D Solid and Hatch 2D Solid 9. 2D Solid. 110 Copyright © 2004 . Solid.1 2D Solid and Hatch 1. Choose Draw. Command: solid First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: enter 2D Hatch 9. 2..Kristen Kurland 111 .2 1. Choose Choose Choose Draw.

Kristen Kurland 113 . allowing accurate modeling of objects with holes. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt.or four-sided surface anywhere in 3D space. Command: 3dface First point: pick Second point: pick Third point: pick Fourth point: pick Third point: enter 112 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.3D Faces 3D Face 9. you control which edges of a 3D face are visible.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces. 3D Face.3 3DFACE creates a three. or 2. You can specify different Z coordinates for each corner point of a 3D face. which creates a threeor four-sided surface that is parallel to the current UCS and can be extruded. Entering i or invisible before the first point of an edge makes the edge invisible. 3D Faces With 3DFACE. 1. 3DFACE differs from SOLID.

Edges Edge 9. Type EDGE at the command prompt. Surfaces.4 1. Edge. Command: edge Display/<Select edge>: pick a 3D edge Edges 114 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Kristen Kurland 115 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: 3dface First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: i P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: i P5 Fourth point: P6 Third point: P7 Fourth point: P8 Third point: enter NOTE: You must enter an “i” for invisible before the face is chosen. 3D Face. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. Solids.Kristen Kurland 117 . Invisible Faces 116 Copyright © 2004 .5 1.Invisible Faces 3D Invisible Edge 9. Choose Draw. or 2.

vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 3.7 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 2 Face 2. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 4 Face 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 4 Face 3. vertex 5: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 3. Command: pface Specify location for vertex 1-8: P1 -P8 Face 1. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 4. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: Pface 118 Copyright © 2004 . vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 5 Face 3. Type PFACE at the command prompt. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 2. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 2 Face 1. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 1. vertex 5: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 2. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 1 Face 1.Pface Pface 9. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 3 Face 2.Kristen Kurland 119 . vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 7 Face 1.

Chapter 10 3D Surfaces

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3DBox
3DBox 10.1
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the box from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_BOX at the command prompt. Command: ai_box Initializing... 3D Objects loaded. Corner of box: pick Specify length of box: 4 Specify width of box or [Cube]: 2 Specify height of box: 2 Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Refer ence]: 0

3DBox

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Pyramid Pyramid 10.2
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the pyramid from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_PYRAMID at the command prompt. Command: ai_pyramid Specify first corner point for base of pyramid: pick Specify second corner point for base of pyramid: <Ortho on> 4 Specify third corner point for base of pyramid: 4 Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]: 4 Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]: .xy of pick (need Z): 4

Pyramid

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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or 3. Surfaces. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the wedge from the dialog menu.3 1. 3D Surfaces.. Command: ai_wedge Specify corner point of wedge: pick Specify length of wedge: 4 Specify width of wedge: 2 Specify height of wedge: 1 Specify rotation angle of wedge about the Z axis: 0 Wedge 126 Copyright © 2004 . Type AI_WEDGE at the command prompt..Kristen Kurland 127 . Choose Pick Draw.Wedge Wedge 10.

Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2.4 1.. the dome from the dialog menu. or 3.Kristen Kurland 129 . Command: ai_dome Specify center point of dome: pick Specify radius of dome or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dome <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dome <8>: 10 Dome 128 Copyright © 2004 . Type AI_DOME at the command prompt. Surfaces. 3D Surfaces..Dome Dome 10.

5 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 131 . 2. Type AI_SPHERE at the command prompt. the sphere from the dialog menu. 3D Surfaces.Sphere Sphere 10. or 3. Choose Pick Draw.. Command: ai_sphere Specify center point of sphere: pick Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Sphere 130 Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces..

Cone Cone 10. Type AI_CONE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3D Surfaces. 2.Kristen Kurland 133 . or 3. Choose Pick Draw. Command: ai_cone Specify center point for base of cone: pick Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: 5 Specify height of cone: 3 Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: enter Cone 132 Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces..6 1.. the cone from the dialog menu.

Kristen Kurland 135 . Surfaces. 2. 3D Surfaces. Command: ai_torus Specify center point of torus: pick Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 1 Enter number of segments around tube circumference <16>: enter Enter number of segments around torus circumference <16>: enter Torus 134 Copyright © 2004 . Type AI_TORUS at the command prompt. the torus from the dialog menu.7 1. Choose Pick Draw...Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 3.Torus Torus 10.

Surfaces. Choose Pick Draw.8 1. the dish from the dialog menu.Kristen Kurland 137 . Type AI_DISH at the command prompt.. Command: ai_dish Specify center point of dish: pick Specify radius of dish or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dish <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dish <8>: 15 Dish 136 Copyright © 2004 .Dish Dish 10. 2. 3D Surfaces..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 3.

.Kristen Kurland 139 . Command: ai_mesh Initializing.Mesh Mesh 10.2 Specify fourth corner point of mesh: 1.. Mesh 1. Specify first corner point of mesh: 1. 3D Objects loaded. Type ai_mesh at the command prompt.9 Creates a planar mesh whose M and N sizes determine the number of lines drawn in each direction along the mesh.4.1.1 Specify second corner point of mesh: 4.4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .1 Enter mesh size in the M direction: 20 Enter mesh size in the N direction: 10 138 Copyright © 2004 .1.1 Specify third corner point of mesh: 4.

Kristen Kurland 141 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces 140 Copyright © 2004 .

or 2. -=cw) <360> enter 142 Copyright © 2004 . Command: revsurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object to revolve: pick Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw. Revolved Surface.1 Creates a revolved surface about a selected axis.. Surfaces.Revolved Surfaces Revolved Surface 11.. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 143 . Type Revsurf at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surftab1 and Surftab2 Variables 1.

Suftab1 and Surftab2 11. Command: surftab1 Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>: 30 2. 1. Also sets the mesh density in ROTATE3D the M direction for REVSURF and EDGESURF commands.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type Surftab1 at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 145 . Command: surftab2 Enter new value for SURFTAB2 <6>: 30 144 Copyright © 2004 . Type Surftab2 at the command prompt.2 Sets the number of tabulations for both directions to be generated for RULESURF and TABSURF.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Type TABSURF at the command prompt. Command: tabsurf Select object for path curve: Select object for direction vector: Path for Curve 146 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 147 . Tabulated Surfaces or 2.3 Creates a tabulated surface from a path curve and a direction vector. Surfaces. Direction Vector Tabulated Surfaces 1.Tabulated Surfaces Tabulated Surfaces 11.

Choose Draw. Type RULESURF at the command prompt. Surfaces. Command: rulesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 Select first defining curve: P1 Select second defining curve: P2 148 Copyright © 2004 .4 Creates a ruled surface between two curves. Ruled Surface 1.Ruled Surface Ruled Surface 11. Ruled Surface or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 149 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .4 Ruled Surface 150 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 151 .Ruled Surface More Ruled Surface Examples 11.

Choose Draw. Type EDGESURF at the command prompt.5 Creates a three-dimensional polygon mesh Edge Surface 1.Kristen Kurland 153 . Surfaces.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: edgesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object 1 for surface edge: P1 Select object 2 for surface edge: P2 Select object 3 for surface edge: P3 Select object 4 for surface edge: P4 152 Copyright © 2004 . Edge Surface or 2.Edge Surface Edge Surface 11.

Kristen Kurland 155 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 12 Solids 154 Copyright © 2004 .

Extrude Command Extrude 12. Lines with a Thickness of 2” Extrude Command Lines Extruded 2” 1. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.1 Creates unique solid primitives by extruding existing two-dimensional objects. Extrude.Kristen Kurland 157 . You can extrude multiple objects with EXTRUDE. Solids. Choose Draw. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 4 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: enter 156 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

2 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Extrude with Taper 12. Extrude.Kristen Kurland 159 . or 2. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 15 158 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Solids.

Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 1. or 2.Extrude Curves 12. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick curved pline Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 0 160 Copyright © 2004 . Extrude. Choose Draw. Solids.Kristen Kurland 161 .

4 EXTRUDE also creates solids by extruding two-dimensional objects (profiles) along a specified path.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 163 . Extrude. or 2. 1.Extrude Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 12. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: P1 Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: p Select extrusion path: P2 Hidden Line Removal of Extruded Circle Circle Extruded Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 162 Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Choose Draw.

Revolve Command Revolve 12. Command: revolve Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick profile Select objects: enter Specify start point for axis of revolution or define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]: o Select an object: pick axis Specify angle of revolution <360>: enter 164 Copyright © 2004 . Revolve or 2.Kristen Kurland 165 . Solids. Type REVOLVE at the command prompt.5 Creates a composite region or solid by addition. Revolve Command 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.

Box Box Solid 12. Choose Draw.6 Creates a three-dimensional solid box. or 2. Box.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0. Solids.Kristen Kurland 167 . Box Solid Box Lines with a Thickness 1.0>: pick corner Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick opposite corner Specify height: 2 166 Copyright © 2004 . Type BOX at the command prompt Command: box Specify corner of box or [CEnter] <0.

Sphere.Sphere Sphere 12. Command: sphere Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of sphere <0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0>: pick point Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 2 168 Copyright © 2004 .0.7 Creates a three-dimensional solid sphere. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 169 . or 2. Solids. Type SPHERE at the command prompt. Sphere Sphere with Hidden Lines Sphere 1.

8 Specifies the number of isolines per surface on objects. Type ISOLINES at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 171 .Isolines and Facetres Isolines 12.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Valid integer values are from 0 to 2047. Command: ISOLINES Enter new value for ISOLINES <4>: 15 sphere with 15 isolines 170 Copyright © 2004 . sphere with 4 isolines Isolines and Facetres 1.

01 to 10.1 Isolines and Facetres 1. Valid values are from 0.0.1000>: 5 sphere with facetres 5 172 Copyright © 2004 . Type FACETRES at the command prompt.Isolines and Facetres Facetres 12.9 Adjusts the smoothness of shaded and rendered objects and objects with hidden lines removed. sphere with facetres 0.Kristen Kurland 173 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: FACETRES Enter new value for FACETRES <.

Cone.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.0>: pick point Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify height of cone or [Apex]: 4 174 Copyright © 2004 .0. Command: cone Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center point for base of cone or [Elliptical] <0.10 Creates a three-dimensional solid cone.Kristen Kurland 175 .Cone Cone 12. Cone Cone with Hidden Lines Cone 1. Solids. Type CONE at the command prompt. or 2.

Command: _wedge Specify first corner of wedge or [CEnter] <0. or 2.11 Creates a three-dimensional solid wedge.Kristen Kurland 177 . Solids.Wedge12. Wedge.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0.0>: pick Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick Specify height: 2 176 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Type WEDGEat the command prompt. 1.

Kristen Kurland 179 . Type TORUS at the command prompt.12 Creates a donut-shaped solid.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids.0.0>: pick point Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 2 178 Copyright © 2004 .Torus Torus 12. or 2. Torus Torus with Hidden Lines Torus 1. Choose Draw. Torus. Command: torus Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of torus <0.

Kristen Kurland 181 .Chapter 13 3D Edits 180 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

3D Rotate Rotate 3D 13. Choose Modify.0.1 Rotates objects about a three-dimensional axis. Command: rotate3D Current positive angle: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: pick Select objects: enter Specify first point on axis or define axis by [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]: x Specify a point on the X axis <0.0>: pick Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 90 Object Rotated 90 degrees around x-axis 182 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Rotate3D. 3D Operation. Type ROTATE3D at the command prompt. Object Before Rotation 3D Rotate 1.Kristen Kurland 183 .

Kristen Kurland 185 . Choose Modify. Align.2 1. Type ALIGN at the command prompt. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: align Select objects: pick the wedge Select objects: enter Specify first source point: P1 Specify first destination point: P2 Specify second source point: P3 Specify second destination point: P4 Specify third source point or <continue>: enter Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No] <N>: enter Wedge Aligned to the Box ( Not Scaled) Objects before align Align 184 Copyright © 2004 .Align Align 13. 3D Operation.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 187 . Type MIRROR3D at the command prompt. Choose Modify.Mirror 3D Mirror 3D 13.3 Circle Mirrored around 3 Points Mirror 3D 1. Mirror 3D. 3D Operation. or 2. Command: mirror3D Select objects: pick the circle Select objects: enter Specify first point of mirror plane (3 points) or [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: P1 Specify second point on mirror plane: P2 Specify third point on mirror plane: P3 Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: enter 186 Copyright © 2004 .

): 8 Arrayed Objects in 3D Isometric Arrayed Objects in 3D Viewpoint 188 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Kristen Kurland 189 . 3D Operation.. 3D Array. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick the cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: enter Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 3 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1>: 4 Enter the number of levels (..4 Arrayed Objects in Plan View 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Front View 1. Choose Modify..3D Array 3D Array (Rectangular) 13.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..) <1>: 2 Specify the distance between rows (---): 5 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 4 Specify the distance between levels (.

Kristen Kurland 191 . 3D Array.5 Arrayed Objects Around a Line 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Plan View 1. 3D Operation. or 2. -=cw) <360>: enter Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: enter Specify center point of array: mid of axis line Specify second point on axis of rotation: pick 190 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3D Array 3D Array (Polar) 13. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: p Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt.

Chapter 14 Solid Composites

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Subtract
Subtract 14.1
Creates a composite region or solid by subtraction.

Subtract

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Subtract. or

2.

Type

SUBTRACT at the command prompt. Command: subtract SUBTRACT Select solids and regions to subtract from... Select objects: pick the box Select objects: (press enter) Select solids and regions to subtract... Select objects: pick the cylinder Select objects: enter
Objects Subtracted from Box

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Union
Union 14.2
Creates a composite region or solid by addition.

Union

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Union. or

2.

Type

UNION at the command prompt. Command: union Select objects: pick cylinder & box Select objects: enter

Solid Objects Unioned Together

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Command: intersect Select objects: pick cylinder and box Select objects: enter Intersection of Cylinder and Box 198 Copyright © 2004 . Solids Editing. Type INTERSECT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 199 . Choose Modify.Intersect Intersect 14.3 Creates a solid based on the intersection of two existing solids. Intersect or 2. Intersect 1.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 201 .Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects 200 Copyright © 2004 .

1 1. Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland 203 . Moving & Rotating Extruding Faces 15. Choose Press Specify Specify a face to extrude. 3. 5. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. Solids Editing. height of extrusion or [Path]: . Moving & Rotating Select Face 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. ENTER.Extruding Faces. If you choose more than one face. Extruding Faces.25 angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45 Extruded Face 202 Copyright © 2004 . Extrude face NOTE: Must be a solid to extrude the face.

Taper face a face(s) to taper. Solids Editing. If you choose more than one face. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. After Taper 204 Copyright © 2004 . 3. the base point: pick the back left corner another point along the axis of tapering: pick point the taper angle: 45 Solid validation started. 5. Choose Choose Press Specify Specify Specify Modify.Kristen Kurland 205 . Solid validation completed. 2.2 Before Taper Tapering Faces 1. 4. 6. ENTER.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Tapering Faces Tapered Faces 15.

3 1. the face to delete. ENTER. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces.Delete Delete Faces 15. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. Solids Editing. 4. Delete 206 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 207 . Choose Choose Press Choose Modify. Delete face a face to delete. If you choose more than one face.

the solid face to copy. Copy Faces 208 Copyright © 2004 . ENTER.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. Choose Choose Press Pick Pick Modify. a new location.Copy Faces Copy Faces 15. Copy face a face to copy .Kristen Kurland 209 . hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. 3.4 1. 4. Solids Editing. 5. If you choose more than one face.

Color
Color Face 15.5
1. 2. Choose Choose faces. 3. 4. Press Choose ENTER. a color to change the face to. Modify, Solids Editing, Color face a face to change the color of. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted

Color

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Imprint
Imprint 15.6
1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. Extrude objects (i.e. walls) to create a solid object. Change the UCS and draw an object on a face of one of the walls. Choose Select Select Delete Modify, Solids Editing, Imprint. a 3D solid: pick solid an object to imprint: pick circle the source object <N>: y

Imprint

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Extrude Imprint to Create Openings 15.7
1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Select Modify, Solids Editing, Extrude Faces. the circle that was imprinted.

Deselect any unwanted faces. Type -8 as the height of extrusion (or desired height)

214

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

215

Clean Clean 15. Solids Editing. a 3D solid: pick imprinted circle.Kristen Kurland 217 . 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .8 Before Clean Clean 1. Choose Select Modify. After Clean 216 Copyright © 2004 . Clean.

Shell 15. Select a 3D solid: pick Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: enter Enter the shell offset distance: . Solids Editing. Shell. 1.9 You can create a shell or a hollow thin wall with a specified thickness from your 3D solid object.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 219 .5 218 Copyright © 2004 . AutoCAD treats continuously tangent faces as single faces when offsetting. AutoCAD creates new faces by offsetting existing ones inside or outside their original positions. Choose Modify.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process 212 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 213 .

2. 3DRotate the section to a flat plane. Draw. 5. Make it the current layer. 3.1 1. Solids. Creating Sections 214 Copyright © 2004 .0>:quad of bottle.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . all 3 solids making up the bottle.Creating Sections Creating Sections 16. Select objects: Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/ Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] : ZX Specify a point on the ZX-plane <0. Open Create Choose Choose the drawing called 3DBottle.Kristen Kurland 215 .0. Section.DWG a layer called Section. 4.

or 2.0>: quad of bottle Both sides/<Point on desired side of the plane>: pick the side of the bottle you want to keep.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type SLICE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 217 .2 Slices a set of solids with a plane.0. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing 1. Draw. 216 Copyright © 2004 . Slice. Command: slice Slice plane by Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/ <3points>: ZX Point on ZX plane <0.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Slice 16. Choose Modify.

4... New.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Create a SOLVIEW Viewport 16. 2. PAPER from the Status Bar to toggle back to Model Space. Note the change to Paper Space. This create a new drawing with a border and one floating Model Space. Ansi_c. Double Click Double Click MODEL from the Status Bar.3 1. 5. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Drawing with a Model Space View 218 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 219 .dwt as the template file to start from. 3. Use a Template from the startup dialog. Choose Choose Double Click File.

ZOOM. 3.. 5.Kristen Kurland 221 . Block. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. 1XP at the command prompt. the block anywhere in the Model Space view at a scale of 1 and rotation 0. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Model Space View Resized Model Space View Scaled 1XP 220 Copyright © 2004 . the drawing called 3DBOTTLE. Choose Choose Insert Double Click Double Click Type Insert. 4.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Insert a Drawing 1.DWG to insert. MODEL at the Status Bar and resize the Model Space view port in Paper Space. 6. PAPER at the Status Bar to return to Model Space.

View. Type SOLVIEW at the command prompt. or 2. Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: O Pick side of viewport to project: P1 View center: P2 Clip first corner: P3 Clip other corner: P4 View name: front Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: Solview & Soldraw 222 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 223 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Setup.Solview & Soldraw Create an Orthogonal View 1. Solids. Choose Draw.

you need to first explode it so it becomes a solid.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . NOTE: If your object was an inserted block. Solids.Solview & Soldraw Create a 2D Section with Soldraw 16. or 2.4 Generates profiles and sections in viewports created with SOLVIEW. Setup.Kristen Kurland 225 . Choose Draw. Type Command: soldraw Select viewports to draw: P1 Select objects: 1 found Select objects: enter 3 solids selected. Solview & Soldraw 1. SOLDRAW can only prepare viewports that have been created with SOLVIEW. Drawing. Resultant Section and Solid Section in a Model View 224 Copyright © 2004 .

3D Viewport.. 4. View. 3. Draw.5 1. Type UCS at the command prompt. Setup. Command: ucscs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: save ?/Desired UCS name: 3dview 5. 2. Solids.Creating a 3D View Create a 3D View Using UCS 16. SW Isometric. View Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: u Named/World/?/<Current>: n Name of UCS to restore: 3dview Enter view scale<1. We now need to save this ucs.0000>: enter View center: pick View center: pick Creating a 3D View 3D Model View 226 Copyright © 2004 . UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Type MSPACE and the plan view of the 3D Bottle.. 6. Click Choose PSPACE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 227 . Command: ucs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: view This sets the current UCS parallel to the screen.

Type SOLPROF at the command prompt. Setup.Create Hidden Line Removals Create a Hidden Line View 16. Double Click Choose MODEL to return to Model Space. Profile. Command: solprof Select objects: pick solids Select objects: enter Display hidden profile lines on separate layer? <Y>: enter Project profile lines onto a plane? <Y>: enter Delete tangential edges? <Y>: enter 3 solids selected. Solids.6 1. or 3. Create Hidden Line Removals Resultant 3D Model 228 Copyright © 2004 . 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Draw.Kristen Kurland 229 .

Chapter 17 Rendering 230 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 231 .

Open Type Choose the AutoCAD drawing called 3DBOTTLE. Selection. or 4. Command: render 5. View.1 Creates a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a threedimensional wireframe or solid model. Selection.DWG..Render Command. Type RENDER at the command prompt. 3. Render.. Cropped Window Render Command 17. Rendered Viewport 232 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 233 . Cropped Window 1. Click the Render button. 2. Render Command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . MSPACE to go to the model space view. Render.

4. Cropped Window Rendered Selection 234 Copyright © 2004 . Selection.Render Command. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Choose View. Render.. 5. Render Command. Cropped Window Render a Selection 17. Command: render 3..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render.Kristen Kurland 235 . or 2. Selection.2 1. Click Click Choose Query for Selection. the objects to render.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. Render.Render Command. Render. Command: render 3. Cropped Window Cropped Rendered Window 236 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Kristen Kurland 237 . 4. 5. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Selection. Render Command.3 1. Choose View. Selection. a window to render. Click Click Choose Crop Window.. Cropped Window Render a Cropped Window 17.

. Command: rpref 3. Render.. Render. 238 Copyright © 2004 . Click Click Skip Render Dialog.Render without Dialog Box 17. 4.Kristen Kurland 239 . Click Skip Render Dialog. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Type RPREF at the command line. or 2. Render.4 1. Choose View. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Turn Render Dialog Box On with RPREF 17.5 1.

Render Destinations Render to File 17. Render. or 2. Render. Choose View..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Destinations Render to a File Options 240 Copyright © 2004 .6 1. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. File as the destination options..Kristen Kurland 241 . 4. Command: render 3.

Kristen Kurland 243 .7 1. Choose View... Render Window as the destination option. Render. Render. Render Window 242 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Render to Render Window 17.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. Command: render 3. 4. Type RENDER at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland 245 . Render.Print Screen 17. Choose View. Render. Press PRINT SCREEN on the keyboard to copy your rendered image to the Window’s clipboard.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3. 244 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.8 1... Type RENDER at the command prompt.

The scale factor affects the following blocks: OVERHEAD. Enter a real number to rescale the blocks.Kristen Kurland 247 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3. Render. The default is 45 degrees. Choose View. or 2.. and SH_SPOT. To define an edge as less than 45 degrees. Smoothing Angle Sets the angle at which AutoCAD interprets an edge. DIRECT.Light Scale Icon and Smoothing Angle 17. The value is the current scale factor (in drawing units) of rendering blocks in the drawing. Angles less than 45 degrees are smoothed. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render. Angles greater than 45 degrees are considered edges.. 246 Copyright © 2004 . Light Icon Scale Controls the size of the light blocks in the drawing. reduce the smoothing angle. Click Light Scale Icon and Smoothing to change the values.9 1.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 18 Materials 248 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 249 .

250 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 251 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. 4. Importing. Click Pick Click Click Click the Materials Library. Concrete Tile as the material. the Import button. the Preview button. OK.1 Materials Library.Materials Library.. Materials. Importing.button.. Choose View..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 7. 5. & Attaching Materials 1. or 2. 6. Command: rmat 3. & Attaching Materials Materials Command 18.. Render.

& Attaching Materials 252 Copyright © 2004 . Pick Click a material from the material list. Render.Kristen Kurland 253 . Command: matlib 3. Type MATLIB at the command prompt. or 2. the Preview button and preview as a sphere or cube.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. Materials Library. & Attaching Materials Materials Library 18. Importing. Materials Library.2 1. Importing.Materials Library. Choose View.

8. Click Pick Click Click Click Click Pick the Materials Library. the Attach button. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Objects to attach materials to. 5. the Preview button. Importing. 254 Copyright © 2004 . Materials. 6. 4. 7. Choose View. Materials Library. the viewport. Importing.. the materials menu and render the viewport.. & Attaching Materials 10.Kristen Kurland 255 . & Attaching Materials Applying Materials with Attach 18. the Import button.3 1. Exit NOTE: You need to set the rendering type to Photorealistic Rendering in order to see the materials 1. Choose Choose Render View. Render Photoreal as the render type. 3. Glass as the material. Render. Command: rmat 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. Render. 9.Materials Library..button. or 2. OK..

256 Copyright © 2004 . 5.. Materials. 4. Choose View. the materials menu and render the viewport..Kristen Kurland 257 . the By Layer button. or 2. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. Render. Command: rmat 3. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material. Type RMAT at the command prompt.Applying Materials by Layer 18. 6.4 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

the By Layer button... Materials. Command: rmat 3. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material. the materials menu and render the viewport. Type RMAT at the command prompt.5 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Render. or 2. 5.Kristen Kurland 259 .Applying Materials by Color 18. 4. 258 Copyright © 2004 . 6.

Kristen Kurland 261 .. Command: rmat 3. 5. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Click Click Exit Click Med.Complex Materials 18. the materials menu and render the viewport. the base to attach materials to. Ash Wood as the material. 260 Copyright © 2004 . Render. Materials.6 1. or 2. Choose View. Type RMAT at the command prompt.. 4. the Attach button.

4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 7. Command: setuv 3. the type of projection to adjust. button. 8.Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping Adjusting Materials with Material Mapping 18.Kristen Kurland 263 .7 1. the Adjust Coordinates. the Planar coordinates as necessary. Type SETUV at the command prompt. enter when finished selecting. Pick Press Pick Click Adjust Click objects to adjust (base). Render. 6. Choose View. 5.. Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping 262 Copyright © 2004 . Mapping or 2. OK..

Type RMAT at the command prompt. Materials. New Materials 264 Copyright © 2004 . Render. the material to an object.button.. Choose Create Apply the New. Command: rmat 3.. Choose View. 5.New Materials New Materials 18.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..6 1. a new material. 4.Kristen Kurland 265 . or 2..

Choose Create Apply the New. 4.button. Render.Adjusting Material Appearances 18.. 5.Kristen Kurland 267 . Command: rmat 3. the material to an object. or 2. Type RMAT at the command prompt..7 1. 266 Copyright © 2004 .. a new material..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Materials.

. Choose 2. the Systems TAB. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 269 .button under the Current 3D Graphics Display. Options. the Properties. 5. Choose Choose Textures Tools. 3. 4..Textures Advanced Material Options 18. a textured material such as checkers. 268 Copyright © 2004 . the drawing to see the material result.. Check Apply Shade the Enable Textures and Enable Materials options..10 1.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 271 .Chapter 19 Lights 270 Copyright © 2004 .

9. the New. ZOOM PREVIOUS to zoom to the original view. Command: light 3. 5. Choose View. ‘ZOOM to zoom if necessary a location (Hint: use . 8. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. 6.xy filters) the light menu.Point Light Point Light 19. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Modify to place the light. Light.. Type 272 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. button. POINT 1 as the new light name. Light Location Point Light 10. 7.Kristen Kurland 273 . Choose Click Type Choose Type Pick Exit Point as the light type. Type 11.. 4. Type LIGHT at the command prompt.1 1.

SPOT1 as the new light name. Light Location Spot Light Light Target 274 Copyright © 2004 . Light.Kristen Kurland 275 . Click Click Type Click Pick Exit Type the dropdown box for point light and change it to spot light. 6. 7.. 9. 4. Choose View. the light menus. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. button. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 1. 8. Modify.Spot Light Spot Light 19. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. the New. Render. Command: light 3. or 2.. The Target and Light Locations (Use Endpoint and Midpoint Object Snaps).

the box for Shadows On. Shadow Options and set the shadow Map Size to 512.. the light menus. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 276 Copyright © 2004 . 5. 6. or 2.button. Command: light 3. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type LIGHT at the command prompt.3 1.Kristen Kurland 277 .Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Setting the Shadow Options in the Light Command 19. Choose View. Click Click Choose Exit S1 and the Modify.. Light. 4.

Kristen Kurland 279 .5 1. More Options under the Rendering Options dialog. Type Choose Change Change Choose Click RENDER at the command prompt. 5.2 Medium as the Anti-Aliasing type. 4. 3.1 the Maximum Bias to . the Minimum Bias to . 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 278 Copyright © 2004 . 6.Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Changing Shadow Options in Render Command 19. Discard back faces to speed up the rendering processes by having AutoCAD eliminate the calculations for faces it doesn’t need to render.

Type OPTIONS at the command prompt. Render Smoothness 280 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Tools.. 4. or 2.. 5. Choose Set Render the Display tab. the Rendered object smoothness to 5. Options.Kristen Kurland 281 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .5 1. Command: options 3.Render Smoothness Preferences 19. the scene.

. Render. 9. 5. the Sun Angle Calculator. 4.7 1. 8.. the light menus.button.Light Command Light Command Distant Light 19. 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . UTAH as the nearest big city..button.. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 283 .. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. Light. PROVO as the new light name. the Geographic Location. the New. or 2. Provo. button. 6. Type 282 Copyright © 2004 . Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Click Click Type Choose Choose Choose Exit the dropdown box for point light and change it to distant light. Command: light 3. 10..

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 285 .Chapter 20 Scenes 284 Copyright © 2004 .

.. POINT as the scene name.. Render. P1 as the light to include in the scene. Type RENDER at the command prompt..1 A scene represents a particular view of all or any portion of the drawing.New Scene Scene Command 20. with or without lights.Scene Command .New Scene Render a Scene 1. Render. Command: scene 3. or 2. or 2. Command: render 3. Choose Modify. 1. 6. to create a new scene. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Scene. Choose View. Scene. Choose View.. Render. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 5.to change the lights and views in the scene. Render. Command: scene 3. OK to exit the Scene dialog box. Choose View. or 2. Choose Click POINT as the scene to render. Scene Command . Render. Modify a Scene 1. Choose Type Choose Click New. 4.Kristen Kurland 286 287 . 4.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 288 Copyright © 2004 . Command: ddview 2.Adding a View to a Scene 20. Choose Choose Click PERSPECTIVE as the saved view. 2. This will load a dialog box with predefined saved views. 3. Set Current OK. Create Type a perspective view with the DVIEW command. 4.2 1.Kristen Kurland 289 . DDVIEW at the command prompt .

Kristen Kurland 291 .Chapter 21 Backgrounds 290 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Background or 2. the viewport.Kristen Kurland 293 . Command: background 3.Solid Background Solid Background 21. Click Render Solid as the background type. Solid Background 292 Copyright © 2004 . 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.1 1. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Render.

Click Adjust Render Gradient as the background type. Background or 2. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. the viewport. 5. Command: background 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render.Kristen Kurland 295 . 4.2 1. 294 Copyright © 2004 .Gradient Background 21. Choose View. the colors as desired.

Find File under the Image section. Choose View. Image Background 296 Copyright © 2004 .Image Background Image Background 21.3 1. the C:\Program Files\ACAD2004\ TEXTURES\valley_l. Click Choose Choose Click Render the Image radio button.tga image file as the background. 4. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Render. Background or 2. 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 6.Kristen Kurland 297 . Command: background 3. 5. OK. the viewport.

Click Render the Merge radio button. Background or 2. Render.Merge Background 21.Kristen Kurland 299 . Choose View. 298 Copyright © 2004 . Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt.4 1. the viewport.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. Command: background 3.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 301 .Chapter 22 Landscaping 300 Copyright © 2004 .

. Landscape New.Edit a Landscape Object Placing a New Landscape Object 22. 5. Edit a Landscape Object 302 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 8. the Landscape dialog box. Photo Raytrace as the Rendering Type. Choose View. 4. the Position button. Render at the command prompt.1 1.Kristen Kurland 303 . 7. 6. Pick Click Pick Exit Type Choose Cactus as the landscape item. Command: lsnew 3. Type LSNEW at the command prompt.. Render. or 2. a new position for the Cactus.

. or 2. Landscape Edit.Editing an Existing Landscape Object 22. Type LSEDIT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 305 . Render. Command: lsedit 3. Choose View. 304 Copyright © 2004 . the height of the Cactus.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Pick Edit the Cactus as the landscape item to edit.2 1. 4..

LSNEW at the command prompt to place the new image in your drawing. Type LSLIB at the command prompt. OK and save the render library.Kristen Kurland 307 . or 3.3 1. Command: lslib 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. NOTE: Youwill need to use an external paint program to do this.Landscape Library & Render Landscapes Custom Landscape Library 22. 5. Create an image and opacity image for desired object. 7... Landscape Library & Render Landscapes 2. Render. 6. View. Click Edit Click Type Render New. 8. Landscape Library.to create a new landscape object.. the viewport. the other dialog options as desired. Choose 306 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 309 . Render Commands 308 Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 23 Misc.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Note that ray tracing.. Choose View. Then the rays are tested against all objects in the scene to determine if they intersect any objects. Render. Ray tracing handles shadows. multiple specular reflections.1 Introduction Ray Tracing is a global illumination based rendering method.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. a ray of light is traced in a backwards direction. we start from the eye or camera and trace the ray through a pixel in the image plane into the scene and determine what it hits. That is.. or 2. It traces rays of light from the eye back through the image plane into the scene. www. In ray tracing.htm 1. this leads to the potential problem of aliasing. like scan-line graphics. Command: render 3. Render. then that pixel is shaded the background color. We sample a continuous image in world coordinates by shooting one or more rays through each pixel. If the ray misses all objects. and texture mapping in a very easy straight-forward manner.org/education/ materials/HyperGraph/raytrace/rtrace0. 310 Copyright © 2004 . The pixel is then set to the color values returned by the ray. which is manifested in computer graphics by jagged edges or other nasty visual artifacts.Kristen Kurland 311 .siggraph. is a point sampling algorithm. Like all point sampling algorithms. Choose PhotoRaytrace as the render type.Raytracing 23.

. Choose View.2 1.. Render. High as the Anti-Aliasing method.Kristen Kurland 313 .under Rendering Options. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3.. OK. Render. 4. 5. the viewport.. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 312 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Choose Choose Click Render More Options.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Set Antialiasing 23.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ...3 1. Choose View.Adaptive Sampling 23.under Rendering Options. or 2.Kristen Kurland 315 . Render. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt. 314 Copyright © 2004 ... Command: render 3. Choose More Options.

Render.Kristen Kurland 317 . Command: render 3.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Ray Tree Depth 23.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose More Options..4 1. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 316 Copyright © 2004 .under Rendering Options.. Choose View.. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt.. or 2.

or 2. Choose View. Choose Choose Click Render the Sub-sampling dropdown list. Render. 5.Kristen Kurland 319 . Type RENDER at the command prompt.. Render. 3:1 OK. Raytracing & Subsampling Options Rendered Bottle with Sub-Sampling 3:1 318 Copyright © 2004 ..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .5 1. the viewport. Command: render 3. 6. 4.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Change Subsampling Options 23.

Fog & Render Preferences 1.6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Fog or 2. Type FOG at the command prompt. Choose View. the remaining dialog options as desired.Fog & Render Preferences Fog 23. Command: fog 3. 4. Click Edit Enable Fog to turn FOG on. Render. 320 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 321 .

Type STATS at the command prompt. Render. Command: stats 3. Statistics or 2. Save the statistics to a file or choose OK to exit.6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects.Kristen Kurland 323 . 322 Copyright © 2004 . Render Statistics 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Render Statistics Render Statistics 23. Choose View.

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