Autocad 3d Training Manual | Extrusion | Sphere

Copyright © 2004

AutoCAD 3D Training Manual
®

Written by Kristen S. Kurland

® AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

Chapter 1 Controlling Views

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Viewports Viewports 1.1

Viewports

Screen divided into three tiled viewports

-Vports Command
1. Type -VPORTS at the command prompt. Command: -vports Enter an option [Save/Restore/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/3/4] <3>: enter Enter a configuration option [Horizontal/Vertical/Above/ Below/Left/Right] <Right>: enter Regenerating model. 2. 3. Click Type once in each vport to make it active. a ZOOM option in each viewport. NOTE: AutoCAD plots only the current vport.

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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New Viewports tab of the Viewports dialog Viewports 6 Copyright © 2004 .2 1. 3. New Viewports the dropdown option for Setup and click 3D.Kristen Kurland 7 . OK.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Viewports. 2. Choose Click Click View.Viewports 3D Viewports 1.

Choose Click Click View. 3. Click Click the Set Current button the OK button 8 Copyright © 2004 . 5. 2. Named Views Orthographic & Isometric Views tab of the View dialog.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 1.Preset Views Preset Views 1.Kristen Kurland 9 . One of the following view options: Top Bottom Front Back Left Right Southwest Isometric Southeast Isometric Northeast Isometric Northwest Isometric Preset Views 4.

614. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.5 Enters a rotation angle at the viewpoint prompt. Vpoint or 2.614. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click a point on the compass to define the viewing angle.0. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. 1. 3D Views. Choose View. Tripod Point in the center of the compass is the north pole Vpoint Command Middle ring of the compass is the equator Entire outer ring is the south pole Vpoint Command (Rotate) 1. Resultant viewport with new 3D view 10 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Views.4 Displays a compass and tripod for defining a view rotation. 1.614.-0. Choose View.614. Vpoint or 2.0.Vpoint Command Vpoint Command (Tripod) 1.500>: (enter) 3. The compass represents a two dimensional globe.Kristen Kurland 11 .500>: R (enter) Enter angle in XY plane from X axis <225>: 225 (enter) Enter angle from XY plane <30>: 15 (enter) Regenerating drawing.-0.

Type DDVPOINT at the command prompt. Command: ddvpoint 3.6 1. or 4.Vpoint Command Vpoint Command DDVpoint Command 1. Resultant viewport with new 3D view Angle from the X Axis Angle in the XY Plane 12 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click OK. Set a viewing angle by typing the From X axis and XY Plane angle. Viewpoint Preset or 2.Kristen Kurland 13 . 3D Views. Pick a viewing angle in the 2 graphics Left graphic = From X Axis Right graphic = In XY Plane 5. Choose View.

and one of the following viewpoint options: Top.Vpoint Presets Vpoint Command (Vector Option) 1. Front. 1.-1. Left. Vpoint or 2.1 Other Preset Viewpoints 1.Kristen Kurland 15 . Bottom. Right.995>: -1.2. Vpoint Presets Resultant viewport with entered coordinates -1.-1.1 Regenerating drawing. 3D Views. Choose View.690.7 Enters coordinates at the viewpoint prompt. Choose View. Back SW Isometric SE Isometric NW Isometric NE Isometric 14 Copyright © 2004 .8 1.-1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .981. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-1. 3D Views.

Plan View
Plan View 1.9
1. Choose View, 3D Views, Plan View the one of the following: Current UCS, World UCS, Named UCS or 2. Type PLAN at the command prompt. Command: plan Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] <Current>: Regenerating model.

Plan View

Current ucs Ucs

Goes to the plan view of the current UCS. At the command line type in a name of a previously named Coordinate System. Goes to the plan view of the World Coordinate System.

World

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Thickness
Thickness Command 2.1
Sets the current 3D solid thickness.

Thickness

1.

Type

THICKNESS at the command prompt. Command: thickness Enter new value for THICKNESS <0.0000>: 2.00

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Thickness 1.2 Changing the current properties of an object changes its thickness. Properties.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 23 .. Type DDMODIFY or DDCHPROP at the command prompt. or Changes the current thickness of an object 2.. Command: ddmodify or ddchprop or 3.Thickness Changing the Current Thickness 2. Choose Modify. Choose from the Standard Toolbar 22 Copyright © 2004 .

Command: elevation Enter new value for ELEVATION <0.Kristen Kurland 25 . Type ELEVATION at the command prompt.Elevation and Elev Shortcur Elevation Command 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0000>: 2.3 Stores the current elevation relative to the current UCS for the current space. Elevation and Elev Shortcut 1.00 24 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 27 .4 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: elev Specify new default elevation: <2.0000>: Specify new default thickness: <3.0000>: 26 Copyright © 2004 . Type ELEV at the command prompt.Shortcut to Elevation & Thickness Commands 2.

Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model 28 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 29 .

OR 2. Objects Before Hidden Line Removal Hide 1.Hide Hide Command 3.1 Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines suppressed. Objects After Hidden Line Removal 30 Copyright © 2004 . Command: hide Regenerating Model. Choose View. Type HIDE at the command prompt. Hide.Kristen Kurland 31 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 33 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: shade Regenerating Drawing. Flat Shaded (edges on) 1.2 Gourand Shaded (edges on) Shade Displays a flat-shaded image of the drawing in the current viewport while performing a hidden line removal. OR 2. Shade. Choose View.Shade Shade Command 3. The following are various shade options: Flat Shaded Gourand Shaded (edges on) 3D Wireframe Gourand Shaded (Smoother) 32 Copyright © 2004 . Type SHADE at the command prompt.

Type SHADEDGE at the command prompt. Command: shadedif Enter new value for SHADEDIF <70>:20 34 Copyright © 2004 . edges in object color Faces in object color. Type SHADEDIF at the command prompt.4 Sets the ratio of diffuse reflective light to ambient light (in percentage of diffuse reflective light).Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . edges not highlighted Faces shaded. edges in background color Shadif Variable 3.2 . 1. 1. Command: shadedge Enter new value for SHADEDGE <3>: (enter) 0 1 2 3 Faces shaded.Shade Shadedge Variable 3. edges drawn in background color Faces not filled.Kristen Kurland 35 3.3 Shaded Object Shade Controls shading of edges in rendering.

Hides Lines for Plots 36 Copyright © 2004 . or solids.Kristen Kurland 37 .Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal and Shade for Plots 3. meshes. Type PLOT at the command prompt. Command: plot 2. Choose the check box beside the option to remove hidden lines. extruded objects. sur faces. you can direct AutoCAD to remove hidden lines or shade from specific viewports when you plot the paper space view. Hidden Lines in Plots 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .5 If your drawing contains 3D faces.

Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal in Mviews (Paper Space) 3. Hidden Lines in Plots Mview with Hidden Line Removal 38 Copyright © 2004 . Type MVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 39 .he effect of this command until you plot the drawing. Select objects: enter NOTE: You do not see t.6 1. Command: mview Specify corner of viewport or [ON/OFF/Fit/Shadeplot/Lock/Object/Polygonal/Restore/2/ 3/4] <Fit>: s Shade plot? [As displayed/Wireframe/Hidden/Rendered] <As displayed>: h Select objects: pick mview in paperspace.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 41 .Chapter 4 Z Coordinates 40 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 1.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 2.0 42 Copyright © 2004 .0 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 1.Y). 3D Polyline 1.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 2.1. In addition to specifying X and Y values.1.Z) is similar to entering 2D coordinates (X.Kristen Kurland 43 .Y.1 3D Polyline Drawn with 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates (X.2. Command: 3DPOLY Specify start point of polyline: 1.3D Coordinates Entering 3D Coordinates 4.2.1. Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt. you specify a Z value.

Command: move Select objects: (pick object) 1 found Select objects: hit enter Specify base point or displacement: 0.0 Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: 0.0. Type MOVE at the command prompt.1 Circle Moved -2 Units in the Z Direction 44 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . use the move command. 1.0.Kristen Kurland 45 .Moving in the Z Direction Moving in the Z Direction 4.2 Original Circle Draw at Elevation Zero Moving in the Z Direction Move Command To move an object in the Z direction.

you can use point filters. 3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 1. use DDPTYPE and choose a visible point style.xy of end P1 of (need Z): 2 46 Copyright © 2004 . Command: point Point: .3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 4.3 To place a point 1 inch above the back left corner of the rectangle. Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Before issuing the point filter command.Kristen Kurland 47 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 49 .Chapter 5 User Coordinate System 48 Copyright © 2004 .

1 The UCS icon represents the orientation of the UCS axes and the location of the current UCS origin. 50 Copyright © 2004 . Affects the display of the UCSICON in all viewports. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 51 . Display.0. UCS Icon. Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin] <ON>: UCS icon turned OFF ON OFF All Noorigin ORigin Displays the UCS icon. Type UCSICON at the command prompt.0 origin of the current UCS. Turns off the display of the UCSICON. Mspace UCSICON Pspace UCSICON 1. It also represents the current viewing direction relative to the UCS XY plane. On/Off. Always displays the UCS at the lower left corner.Ucsicon UCS icon turned ON Ucsicon UCSICON 5. Shows the UCS at the 0. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Restores the World Coordinate System.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Z Axis. Most AutoCAD geometric editing commands are dependent on the location and orientation of the UCS. and viewing. Y. Z Origin Defines a new UCS by shifting the origin of the current UCS. Aligns the UCS to the selected face of a solid object.e. Choose One of the following UCS options: New Defines a new coordinate system by one of six methods: Origin.Y. polygon mesh. Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpen dicular to your viewing direction (i. Restores a saved UCS. Removes a saved UCS definition. Names and saves a UCS.2 Manages user coordinate systems. Specifies a UCS by its origin and a point on the positive X and Y axes. Object. Specifies one of the six orthographic UCSs provided with AutoCAD. leaving the orientation of its XY plane un changed. These UCS settings are typically used when viewing & editing 3D models [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right] Restores the previously saved UCS.Kristen Kurland 53 . UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Redefines a UCS by shifting the origin or changing the Z-depth of the current UCS. or viewport entity). Type UCS at the command prompt. Rotates the ucs around a specified axis Previous Restore Save Delete World ? Move . and Z axes unchanged. Lets you define a new coordinate s ystem by pointing at an entity (except a 3D polyline. View X. leaving the direction of the X. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: 2. Face. Allows you to define a new origin. UCS Toolbar OrthoGraphic ZAxis 3 Point Object UCSII Toolbar Face View X/Y/Z 52 Copyright © 2004 .UCS Dialog Box & World UCS UCS Overview 5. 3 Point. Lists the defined UCSs in the current drawing. 1. parallel to your screen). The user coordinate system provides an alternate movable coordinate system for coordinate entry. planes of operation.

UCS Dialog Box & World UCS World UCS 5.0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the UCS. Type UCS at the command prompt.0. 54 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . In practice. Entering @2. most coordinates are entered relative to the UCS rather than the WCS.0. NOTE: This is the UCS you should use when creating Wblocks and inserting Wblocks.Kristen Kurland 55 . It is the only UCS guaranteed to be the same in all AutoCAD drawings. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World> (press enter) World Returns the UCS back to the original World UCS. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Tip: To enter coordinates relative to the WCS • Precede coordinate values with an asterisk (*). Entering @*2.0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the WCS.3 1.

Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.53.0.0>: pick origin Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <3.7.8. Type UCS at the command prompt.0.UCS 3 Point UCS 5.00>: Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <2.0.73.4 1.0.00>: Setting the UCS with the 3 Point Method UCS UCS modified 56 Copyright © 2004 .0>: 3 Specify new origin point <0.53.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .73.Kristen Kurland 57 .

Command: plan UCS View 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0. Type PLAN at the command prompt.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>:V View Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (i.5 1. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.e. UCS parallel to the View Instead of the Object 58 Copyright © 2004 . parallel to your screen).6 1.Plan View of Current UCS Plan View and UCS 5. Type UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 59 .

0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>:OB Object Defines a new coordinate system based on a selected 3D object.Kristen Kurland 61 . 60 Copyright © 2004 .7 1.UCS Object 5. The new UCS has the same extrusion direction (positive Z axis) as that of the selected object.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0. Type UCS at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland 63 .8 1.AutoCAD Help Topics for New UCS Other New UCS Options 5. Type UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>: 62 Copyright © 2004 .0. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.

Kristen Kurland 65 .10 UCS 1.9 Restoring the UCS 5.UCS Saving the UCS 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: s Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type UCS at the command prompt. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Re store/Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: r Enter name of UCS to restore or [?]: 1 64 Copyright © 2004 .

UCS Dialog Box 5.Kristen Kurland 67 . Type DDUCS at the command prompt.11 UCS Dialog Box (DDUCS) 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dducs 66 Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands 68 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 69 .

70 Copyright © 2004 .Moves View about an axis that extends through the center (acts like twist) 1. Click on one of the 3D Orbit arcball locations. The 3D Orbit Arcball appears. 3.Rotates around the “X” axis through the center. Command: 3dorbit OR 2. Type 3DORBIT at the command prompt.1 Controls Interactive 3D Viewing D Orbit Command. Pan & Zoom Introduction to 3D Orbit Command 6. Pan & Zoom Outside the Arcball . 3D Orbit.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Inside the Arcball . Inside one of the small circles to the left/right .Kristen Kurland 71 .Allows movement in any direction Inside one of the small circles to the top/bottom . Choose View.3D Orbit Command.Rotates around the “Y” axis through the center.

D Orbit Command. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3D Orbit Command. Pan & Zoom 72 Copyright © 2004 .2 1. Pan & Zoom Pan and Zoom in 3D Orbit 6. Click Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. PAN or ZOOM from the pop-up menu.Kristen Kurland 73 .

3. Projection.Projections. Click Projections. 2. Shading. Parallel or Perspective. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. and parts of the objects appear larger and closer to you.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . The shapes in your drawing always remain the same and do not appear distorted when they are closer. 3. Choose Choose Parallel Displays objects so that two parallel lines in a drawing never con verge at a single point. Shading & Visual Aids Shading 6. one of the shade options. Objects appear to recede into the distance.3 1. 74 Copyright © 2004 . Shading & Visual Aids Projection Mode 6. Perspective Displays objects in perspective so that all parallel lines converge at one point. 2. The shapes are some what distorted when the object is very close.Kristen Kurland 75 .4 with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. 1. This view correlates more closely to what your eye sees.

3.5 Simulates the effect of turning the camera. Swivel Camera. a location in the view to change the camera. 4.Adjusting Camera Camer Swivel and Distancea 6. Adjusting Camera 76 Copyright © 2004 . Changes the target of the view. 1. 2.Kristen Kurland 77 . More. Click Choose Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Projections.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 79 . Compass Option TIP: Use GRIDUNIT to change the spacing of the grid units. Shading & Visual Aids 1.6 3D Grid Option Projections. UCS Icon 78 Copyright © 2004 . 2. one of the visual aids options. 3. Shading & Visual Aids Visual Aids 6. Visual Aids. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.

Kristen Kurland 81 . they will remain ON. 2. one of the clipping planes options. Adjusting Clipping Planes in the Clipping Plane Window 80 Copyright © 2004 . 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . More.7 1. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Clipping Planes Clipping Planes 6. Clipping Plane Options Clipping Planes NOTE: If you have clipping planes ON when you exit the 3D Orbit command.

Kristen Kurland 83 . Continuous Orbit.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose Click with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Continuous Orbit Continuous Orbit 6. More. 3. This movement controls the direction and speed of the orbit. and drag to start the continuous 3D Motion. Continuous Orbit Continuous Motion (Rt Click to change options) 82 Copyright © 2004 .8 1. 2. 4.

Kristen Kurland 85 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 7 Dynamic View .Perspective 84 Copyright © 2004 .

or enter angle in XY plane from X axis. or enter angle from XY plane.Kristen Kurland 87 .00000>: 45 Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: Regenerating model. or [Toggle (angle from)] <90.1 1. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 3D Orbit or 2.Dynamic View and Perspective DView Camera Option 7. Note: You can also twist and pick a camera location.0000>: 30 Specify camera location.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK>: pick objects Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: ca Specify camera location. Dynamic View and Perspective Setting a Camera Location 86 Copyright © 2004 . or [Toggle (angle in)] <90. Choose View.

Dynamic View and Perspective DView Target Option 7. Note: You can also type a target location. or [Toggle (angle in)] <35. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.2644>: pick a target loca tion Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: enter Regenerating model.Kristen Kurland 89 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Setting a Target Location Dynamic View and Perspective 88 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Orbit or 2.2 1. or enter angle from XY plane. Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK> pick objects: Select objects: enter Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: TA Specify camera location. Choose View.

Kristen Kurland 91 .Setting Camera Target with POints Setting Camera Target with Points 7. 1. 3D Dynamic View. Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/ TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: PO 90 Copyright © 2004 .3 Setting Camera Target with POints Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. or 2. zooming is not allowed. Once a perspective view is set.

4 Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: D New camera/target distance <1. Zoom to a Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective 1. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: OFF 92 Copyright © 2004 .5 1. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.7321>: pick Resultant Perspective View Turning Perspective Off 7.Kristen Kurland 93 . Once a perspective view is set. Choose View. 3D Dynamic View. Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. Choose View.Dynamic View and Perspective Setting Perspective Distance 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 3D Dynamic View. zooming is not allowed. or 2.

Kristen Kurland 95 . 3D Dynamic View.7 1. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View.6 1.Dynamic View and Perspective Zooming in Dview 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>:PA Displacement base point: pick Second point: pick 94 Copyright © 2004 . Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: Z Adjust lens length <9. 3D Dynamic View. or 2.666mm>: pick Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Zoomed and Panned Panning in Dview 7.

or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: TW New view twist <0. 3D Dynamic View. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: CL Back/Front/<Off>: F Eye/<Distance from target> <4.00>: pick 96 Copyright © 2004 .8 Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Clipped Objects 1.9 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.4721>: pick Twisting Objects 7.Kristen Kurland 97 .Dynamic View and Perspective Clipping Objects 7. Choose View. or 2. 3D Dynamic View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: H 98 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.Dynamic View and Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective Hidden Line Removal 7.10 1.Kristen Kurland 99 . 3D Dynamic View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.

Chapter 8 3D Model Objects 100 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 101 .

such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS linetype) and splines.Kristen Kurland 103 .1 A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object. AutoCAD also provides some 3D wireframe objects. There are no surfaces in a wireframe model. this type of modeling can be the most time-consuming. it consists only of points. With AutoCAD you can create wireframe models by positioning 2D (planar) objects anywhere in 3D space. and curves that describe the edges of the object. Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be independently drawn and positioned. lines.Wire Frames Wire Frames Wireframes 8.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 102 Copyright © 2004 .

104 Copyright © 2004 . meshes. With Mechanical Desktop.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . but also its surfaces. Because the faces of the mesh are planar. Choose Draw. you can create true curved surfaces. To differentiate these two types of surfaces. The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh. the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces. Surfaces 1.Kristen Kurland 105 .2 Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D object. Surfaces. AutoCAD calls faceted surfaces.Surfaces Surfaces 8.

it is recommended that you not mix modeling methods. Choose Draw. You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D object along a path or revolving it about an axis. cones. spheres. 1. You can then combine these shapes to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their intersecting (overlapping) volume. you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes.Kristen Kurland 107 . 106 Copyright © 2004 . cylinders. Solids NOTE: Because each modeling type uses a different method for constructing 3D models and editing methods vary in their effect on the different model types.3 Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use.Solids Solids 8. wedges.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . and tori (donuts). Solids. With the AutoCAD solid modeler.

Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces 108 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 109 .

NOTE: 2D Solids and Hatches cannot be rendered or shaded. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 111 .2D Solid and Hatch 2D Solid 9. 2. Hatch.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. Choose Choose Choose Draw. 110 Copyright © 2004 . Command: solid First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: enter 2D Hatch 9.2 1.1 2D Solid and Hatch 1. Solids. 3. or 2. 2D Solid. the Other Predefined tab. Type SOLID at the command prompt.. Solid.

Choose Draw. Surfaces.3D Faces 3D Face 9. Command: 3dface First point: pick Second point: pick Third point: pick Fourth point: pick Third point: enter 112 Copyright © 2004 . you control which edges of a 3D face are visible. which creates a threeor four-sided surface that is parallel to the current UCS and can be extruded. Entering i or invisible before the first point of an edge makes the edge invisible. 3DFACE differs from SOLID. 3D Face.3 3DFACE creates a three. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. allowing accurate modeling of objects with holes.Kristen Kurland 113 . 1. or 2. You can specify different Z coordinates for each corner point of a 3D face.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3D Faces With 3DFACE.or four-sided surface anywhere in 3D space.

4 1. Choose Draw. or 2. Surfaces.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 115 . Type EDGE at the command prompt. Edge.Edges Edge 9. Command: edge Display/<Select edge>: pick a 3D edge Edges 114 Copyright © 2004 .

Command: 3dface First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: i P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: i P5 Fourth point: P6 Third point: P7 Fourth point: P8 Third point: enter NOTE: You must enter an “i” for invisible before the face is chosen.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Invisible Faces 116 Copyright © 2004 .Invisible Faces 3D Invisible Edge 9. or 2.Kristen Kurland 117 . Choose Draw. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt.5 1. 3D Face.

vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 1. vertex 5: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 3. vertex 5: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 2. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 2 Face 2. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 3. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 2 Face 1.7 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 4 Face 3. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 4 Face 2. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 5 Face 3. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 7 Face 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 2. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: Pface 118 Copyright © 2004 . Command: pface Specify location for vertex 1-8: P1 -P8 Face 1.Kristen Kurland 119 . vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 4.Pface Pface 9. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 1 Face 1. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 3 Face 2. Type PFACE at the command prompt.

Chapter 10 3D Surfaces

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3DBox
3DBox 10.1
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the box from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_BOX at the command prompt. Command: ai_box Initializing... 3D Objects loaded. Corner of box: pick Specify length of box: 4 Specify width of box or [Cube]: 2 Specify height of box: 2 Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Refer ence]: 0

3DBox

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Pyramid Pyramid 10.2
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the pyramid from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_PYRAMID at the command prompt. Command: ai_pyramid Specify first corner point for base of pyramid: pick Specify second corner point for base of pyramid: <Ortho on> 4 Specify third corner point for base of pyramid: 4 Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]: 4 Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]: .xy of pick (need Z): 4

Pyramid

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3 1. 3D Surfaces..Wedge Wedge 10. the wedge from the dialog menu.Kristen Kurland 127 . Type AI_WEDGE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Pick Draw. Surfaces.. 2. Command: ai_wedge Specify corner point of wedge: pick Specify length of wedge: 4 Specify width of wedge: 2 Specify height of wedge: 1 Specify rotation angle of wedge about the Z axis: 0 Wedge 126 Copyright © 2004 . or 3.

3D Surfaces. Surfaces.. Type AI_DOME at the command prompt..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Pick Draw.4 1. Command: ai_dome Specify center point of dome: pick Specify radius of dome or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dome <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dome <8>: 10 Dome 128 Copyright © 2004 .Dome Dome 10. 2. or 3.Kristen Kurland 129 . the dome from the dialog menu.

. 3D Surfaces. Command: ai_sphere Specify center point of sphere: pick Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Sphere 130 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 3. Type AI_SPHERE at the command prompt. 2. Surfaces.5 1.Kristen Kurland 131 .Sphere Sphere 10. the sphere from the dialog menu.. Choose Pick Draw.

3D Surfaces. Type AI_CONE at the command prompt.. 2.6 1.. Surfaces. or 3. the cone from the dialog menu.Cone Cone 10. Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland 133 . Command: ai_cone Specify center point for base of cone: pick Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: 5 Specify height of cone: 3 Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: enter Cone 132 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

. 2.7 1.Kristen Kurland 135 .. Surfaces. 3D Surfaces. Type AI_TORUS at the command prompt. Command: ai_torus Specify center point of torus: pick Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 1 Enter number of segments around tube circumference <16>: enter Enter number of segments around torus circumference <16>: enter Torus 134 Copyright © 2004 . the torus from the dialog menu.Torus Torus 10. Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 3.

3D Surfaces. Type AI_DISH at the command prompt.. Command: ai_dish Specify center point of dish: pick Specify radius of dish or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dish <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dish <8>: 15 Dish 136 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. the dish from the dialog menu.Kristen Kurland 137 . Choose Pick Draw. or 3.Dish Dish 10. Surfaces..8 1.

3D Objects loaded.. Type ai_mesh at the command prompt.1 Enter mesh size in the M direction: 20 Enter mesh size in the N direction: 10 138 Copyright © 2004 .4.4. Command: ai_mesh Initializing.1 Specify second corner point of mesh: 4..1. Mesh 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Mesh Mesh 10.9 Creates a planar mesh whose M and N sizes determine the number of lines drawn in each direction along the mesh.Kristen Kurland 139 . Specify first corner point of mesh: 1.2 Specify fourth corner point of mesh: 1.1 Specify third corner point of mesh: 4.1.

Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces 140 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 141 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surftab1 and Surftab2 Variables 1.Kristen Kurland 143 . Surfaces. Command: revsurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object to revolve: pick Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw. Revolved Surface.. Choose Draw..Revolved Surfaces Revolved Surface 11. -=cw) <360> enter 142 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.1 Creates a revolved surface about a selected axis. Type Revsurf at the command prompt.

1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 Sets the number of tabulations for both directions to be generated for RULESURF and TABSURF.Kristen Kurland 145 . Also sets the mesh density in ROTATE3D the M direction for REVSURF and EDGESURF commands. Command: surftab2 Enter new value for SURFTAB2 <6>: 30 144 Copyright © 2004 . Command: surftab1 Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>: 30 2.Suftab1 and Surftab2 11. Type Surftab1 at the command prompt. Type Surftab2 at the command prompt.

Surfaces. Choose Draw.3 Creates a tabulated surface from a path curve and a direction vector. Type TABSURF at the command prompt. Tabulated Surfaces or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Direction Vector Tabulated Surfaces 1. Command: tabsurf Select object for path curve: Select object for direction vector: Path for Curve 146 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 147 .Tabulated Surfaces Tabulated Surfaces 11.

Command: rulesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 Select first defining curve: P1 Select second defining curve: P2 148 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 149 . Ruled Surface or 2.Ruled Surface Ruled Surface 11.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces. Choose Draw. Type RULESURF at the command prompt. Ruled Surface 1.4 Creates a ruled surface between two curves.

Ruled Surface More Ruled Surface Examples 11.Kristen Kurland 151 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .4 Ruled Surface 150 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 153 .5 Creates a three-dimensional polygon mesh Edge Surface 1.Edge Surface Edge Surface 11. Command: edgesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object 1 for surface edge: P1 Select object 2 for surface edge: P2 Select object 3 for surface edge: P3 Select object 4 for surface edge: P4 152 Copyright © 2004 . Edge Surface or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type EDGESURF at the command prompt. Choose Draw. Surfaces.

Chapter 12 Solids 154 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 155 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 157 . Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 4 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: enter 156 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Extrude. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.1 Creates unique solid primitives by extruding existing two-dimensional objects. Lines with a Thickness of 2” Extrude Command Lines Extruded 2” 1. Choose Draw. You can extrude multiple objects with EXTRUDE. Solids.Extrude Command Extrude 12.

2 1. or 2. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 15 158 Copyright © 2004 . Extrude.Extrude with Taper 12. Solids. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 159 .

Solids.3 1. Extrude.Extrude Curves 12.Kristen Kurland 161 . Choose Draw. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick curved pline Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 0 160 Copyright © 2004 .

4 EXTRUDE also creates solids by extruding two-dimensional objects (profiles) along a specified path. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Solids.Kristen Kurland 163 . Choose Draw. or 2. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: P1 Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: p Select extrusion path: P2 Hidden Line Removal of Extruded Circle Circle Extruded Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 162 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Extrude Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 12. Extrude. 1.

Command: revolve Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick profile Select objects: enter Specify start point for axis of revolution or define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]: o Select an object: pick axis Specify angle of revolution <360>: enter 164 Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Choose Draw. Revolve Command 1.5 Creates a composite region or solid by addition. Type REVOLVE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Revolve or 2.Kristen Kurland 165 .Revolve Command Revolve 12.

or 2.0.Box Box Solid 12.Kristen Kurland 167 . Solids. Box Solid Box Lines with a Thickness 1.6 Creates a three-dimensional solid box.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Box. Type BOX at the command prompt Command: box Specify corner of box or [CEnter] <0.0>: pick corner Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick opposite corner Specify height: 2 166 Copyright © 2004 .

Type SPHERE at the command prompt.Sphere Sphere 12.7 Creates a three-dimensional solid sphere. or 2.Kristen Kurland 169 .0>: pick point Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 2 168 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Sphere. Solids. Sphere Sphere with Hidden Lines Sphere 1.0. Choose Draw. Command: sphere Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of sphere <0.

Kristen Kurland 171 . Type ISOLINES at the command prompt.8 Specifies the number of isolines per surface on objects.Isolines and Facetres Isolines 12.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . sphere with 4 isolines Isolines and Facetres 1. Valid integer values are from 0 to 2047. Command: ISOLINES Enter new value for ISOLINES <4>: 15 sphere with 15 isolines 170 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 173 .Isolines and Facetres Facetres 12.01 to 10.9 Adjusts the smoothness of shaded and rendered objects and objects with hidden lines removed. Command: FACETRES Enter new value for FACETRES <.0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Valid values are from 0.1000>: 5 sphere with facetres 5 172 Copyright © 2004 . sphere with facetres 0. Type FACETRES at the command prompt.1 Isolines and Facetres 1.

Kristen Kurland 175 .0. Cone Cone with Hidden Lines Cone 1.Cone Cone 12. or 2.0>: pick point Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify height of cone or [Apex]: 4 174 Copyright © 2004 . Cone.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .10 Creates a three-dimensional solid cone. Choose Draw. Command: cone Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center point for base of cone or [Elliptical] <0. Solids. Type CONE at the command prompt.

Wedge12.0.Kristen Kurland 177 . or 2. Wedge. Command: _wedge Specify first corner of wedge or [CEnter] <0. 1. Type WEDGEat the command prompt. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids.0>: pick Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick Specify height: 2 176 Copyright © 2004 .11 Creates a three-dimensional solid wedge.

or 2. Torus.Kristen Kurland 179 . Command: torus Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of torus <0. Type TORUS at the command prompt. Torus Torus with Hidden Lines Torus 1.0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids.0>: pick point Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 2 178 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.12 Creates a donut-shaped solid.Torus Torus 12.

Chapter 13 3D Edits 180 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 181 .

3D Rotate Rotate 3D 13.0>: pick Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 90 Object Rotated 90 degrees around x-axis 182 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 183 .1 Rotates objects about a three-dimensional axis. Object Before Rotation 3D Rotate 1. Type ROTATE3D at the command prompt. Rotate3D.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify. Command: rotate3D Current positive angle: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: pick Select objects: enter Specify first point on axis or define axis by [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]: x Specify a point on the X axis <0.0. 3D Operation. or 2.

Choose Modify. Align. or 2. 3D Operation.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 1. Command: align Select objects: pick the wedge Select objects: enter Specify first source point: P1 Specify first destination point: P2 Specify second source point: P3 Specify second destination point: P4 Specify third source point or <continue>: enter Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No] <N>: enter Wedge Aligned to the Box ( Not Scaled) Objects before align Align 184 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 185 . Type ALIGN at the command prompt.Align Align 13.

3D Operation. Choose Modify. Command: mirror3D Select objects: pick the circle Select objects: enter Specify first point of mirror plane (3 points) or [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: P1 Specify second point on mirror plane: P2 Specify third point on mirror plane: P3 Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: enter 186 Copyright © 2004 .3 Circle Mirrored around 3 Points Mirror 3D 1. Type MIRROR3D at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 187 . or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Mirror 3D.Mirror 3D Mirror 3D 13.

. 3D Array..): 8 Arrayed Objects in 3D Isometric Arrayed Objects in 3D Viewpoint 188 Copyright © 2004 .3D Array 3D Array (Rectangular) 13..Kristen Kurland 189 . 3D Operation..4 Arrayed Objects in Plan View 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Front View 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: 3darray Select objects: pick the cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: enter Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 3 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1>: 4 Enter the number of levels (.) <1>: 2 Specify the distance between rows (---): 5 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 4 Specify the distance between levels (. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. Choose Modify. or 2.

or 2. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: p Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw. 3D Array.3D Array 3D Array (Polar) 13.Kristen Kurland 191 .5 Arrayed Objects Around a Line 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Plan View 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. 3D Operation. -=cw) <360>: enter Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: enter Specify center point of array: mid of axis line Specify second point on axis of rotation: pick 190 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify.

Chapter 14 Solid Composites

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Subtract
Subtract 14.1
Creates a composite region or solid by subtraction.

Subtract

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Subtract. or

2.

Type

SUBTRACT at the command prompt. Command: subtract SUBTRACT Select solids and regions to subtract from... Select objects: pick the box Select objects: (press enter) Select solids and regions to subtract... Select objects: pick the cylinder Select objects: enter
Objects Subtracted from Box

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Union
Union 14.2
Creates a composite region or solid by addition.

Union

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Union. or

2.

Type

UNION at the command prompt. Command: union Select objects: pick cylinder & box Select objects: enter

Solid Objects Unioned Together

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Solids Editing.3 Creates a solid based on the intersection of two existing solids. Intersect 1.Kristen Kurland 199 . Choose Modify. Command: intersect Select objects: pick cylinder and box Select objects: enter Intersection of Cylinder and Box 198 Copyright © 2004 . Type INTERSECT at the command prompt.Intersect Intersect 14. Intersect or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects 200 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 201 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. Choose Modify. Extruding Faces.Extruding Faces. 5. Solids Editing. ENTER.25 angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45 Extruded Face 202 Copyright © 2004 . Moving & Rotating Extruding Faces 15. Choose Press Specify Specify a face to extrude. height of extrusion or [Path]: .Kristen Kurland 203 . Extrude face NOTE: Must be a solid to extrude the face.1 1. If you choose more than one face. Moving & Rotating Select Face 2. 3. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces.

After Taper 204 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Choose Press Specify Specify Specify Modify. 3.Tapering Faces Tapered Faces 15. 5. If you choose more than one face. the base point: pick the back left corner another point along the axis of tapering: pick point the taper angle: 45 Solid validation started. Solids Editing. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces.Kristen Kurland 205 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Taper face a face(s) to taper. 2. 6. 4. ENTER.2 Before Taper Tapering Faces 1. Solid validation completed.

2. Solids Editing.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Delete Delete Faces 15. 3. Delete face a face to delete. Choose Choose Press Choose Modify. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces.Kristen Kurland 207 . Delete 206 Copyright © 2004 . 4. the face to delete. If you choose more than one face. ENTER.3 1.

a new location. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . If you choose more than one face. 5. 2.Kristen Kurland 209 .4 1. Copy face a face to copy . Choose Choose Press Pick Pick Modify. Solids Editing. 4. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. the solid face to copy.Copy Faces Copy Faces 15. ENTER. Copy Faces 208 Copyright © 2004 .

Color
Color Face 15.5
1. 2. Choose Choose faces. 3. 4. Press Choose ENTER. a color to change the face to. Modify, Solids Editing, Color face a face to change the color of. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted

Color

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

211

Imprint
Imprint 15.6
1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. Extrude objects (i.e. walls) to create a solid object. Change the UCS and draw an object on a face of one of the walls. Choose Select Select Delete Modify, Solids Editing, Imprint. a 3D solid: pick solid an object to imprint: pick circle the source object <N>: y

Imprint

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

213

Extrude Imprint to Create Openings 15.7
1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Select Modify, Solids Editing, Extrude Faces. the circle that was imprinted.

Deselect any unwanted faces. Type -8 as the height of extrusion (or desired height)

214

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

215

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Clean Clean 15.8 Before Clean Clean 1. a 3D solid: pick imprinted circle. After Clean 216 Copyright © 2004 . Solids Editing. 2. Choose Select Modify. Clean.Kristen Kurland 217 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .9 You can create a shell or a hollow thin wall with a specified thickness from your 3D solid object. Shell. AutoCAD treats continuously tangent faces as single faces when offsetting.5 218 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland 219 . 1. AutoCAD creates new faces by offsetting existing ones inside or outside their original positions. Select a 3D solid: pick Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: enter Enter the shell offset distance: . Solids Editing.Shell 15.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 213 .Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process 212 Copyright © 2004 .

1 1.Creating Sections Creating Sections 16. 4.DWG a layer called Section. Section. all 3 solids making up the bottle.0. Open Create Choose Choose the drawing called 3DBottle. Draw. 3DRotate the section to a flat plane.0>:quad of bottle. Solids.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Select objects: Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/ Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] : ZX Specify a point on the ZX-plane <0. 5. Creating Sections 214 Copyright © 2004 . Make it the current layer.Kristen Kurland 215 . 2. 3.

Kristen Kurland 217 . Draw. Command: slice Slice plane by Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/ <3points>: ZX Point on ZX plane <0. Choose Modify. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing 1. or 2.0>: quad of bottle Both sides/<Point on desired side of the plane>: pick the side of the bottle you want to keep.2 Slices a set of solids with a plane.0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Slice 16. 216 Copyright © 2004 . Slice. Type SLICE at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Choose Double Click File. Note the change to Paper Space. Double Click Double Click MODEL from the Status Bar. 2.dwt as the template file to start from. This create a new drawing with a border and one floating Model Space. PAPER from the Status Bar to toggle back to Model Space. Ansi_c.3 1. Use a Template from the startup dialog.Kristen Kurland 219 .. 3.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Create a SOLVIEW Viewport 16. 4. New. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Drawing with a Model Space View 218 Copyright © 2004 . 5..

3.DWG to insert. 6. Choose Choose Insert Double Click Double Click Type Insert. MODEL at the Status Bar and resize the Model Space view port in Paper Space. Block. PAPER at the Status Bar to return to Model Space. 2. ZOOM. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Model Space View Resized Model Space View Scaled 1XP 220 Copyright © 2004 . 4.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Insert a Drawing 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. 5. the drawing called 3DBOTTLE. the block anywhere in the Model Space view at a scale of 1 and rotation 0. 1XP at the command prompt..Kristen Kurland 221 .

Setup. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 223 . Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: O Pick side of viewport to project: P1 View center: P2 Clip first corner: P3 Clip other corner: P4 View name: front Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: Solview & Soldraw 222 Copyright © 2004 .Solview & Soldraw Create an Orthogonal View 1. View. Solids.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type SOLVIEW at the command prompt. or 2.

SOLDRAW can only prepare viewports that have been created with SOLVIEW.Solview & Soldraw Create a 2D Section with Soldraw 16. you need to first explode it so it becomes a solid. or 2.Kristen Kurland 225 . Drawing. Setup.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . NOTE: If your object was an inserted block. Type Command: soldraw Select viewports to draw: P1 Select objects: 1 found Select objects: enter 3 solids selected. Resultant Section and Solid Section in a Model View 224 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Solids. Solview & Soldraw 1.4 Generates profiles and sections in viewports created with SOLVIEW.

6. Setup.0000>: enter View center: pick View center: pick Creating a 3D View 3D Model View 226 Copyright © 2004 .. 3. SW Isometric. 3D Viewport. Solids.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: ucs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: view This sets the current UCS parallel to the screen.5 1. Command: ucscs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: save ?/Desired UCS name: 3dview 5. 4. 2. Click Choose Type MSPACE and the plan view of the 3D Bottle.Kristen Kurland 227 ..Creating a 3D View Create a 3D View Using UCS 16. UCS at the command prompt. Type UCS at the command prompt. We now need to save this ucs. Draw. View Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: u Named/World/?/<Current>: n Name of UCS to restore: 3dview Enter view scale<1. View. Click Choose PSPACE at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland 229 . or 3.6 1. 2. Solids.Create Hidden Line Removals Create a Hidden Line View 16. Create Hidden Line Removals Resultant 3D Model 228 Copyright © 2004 . Profile. Double Click Choose MODEL to return to Model Space. Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type SOLPROF at the command prompt. Command: solprof Select objects: pick solids Select objects: enter Display hidden profile lines on separate layer? <Y>: enter Project profile lines onto a plane? <Y>: enter Delete tangential edges? <Y>: enter 3 solids selected. Setup.

Chapter 17 Rendering 230 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 231 .

Command: render 5. or 4. Selection. View. 2. Rendered Viewport 232 Copyright © 2004 . Selection. Cropped Window Render Command 17. Open Type Choose the AutoCAD drawing called 3DBOTTLE. Render Command. MSPACE to go to the model space view.1 Creates a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a threedimensional wireframe or solid model.. Click the Render button. Cropped Window 1. Render..Kristen Kurland 233 .Render Command. Render. 3.DWG. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Choose View. Render Command. Selection. Render.2 1. 5. Render.. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render. Cropped Window Rendered Selection 234 Copyright © 2004 . the objects to render. or 2. Click Click Choose Query for Selection.Kristen Kurland 235 . Selection. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Render Command. Cropped Window Render a Selection 17. 4..

Selection.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Render Command. Click Click Choose Crop Window.. Command: render 3. 5. Cropped Window Render a Cropped Window 17. Render Command. a window to render. Render. Render. Selection. Render.. Type RENDER at the command prompt.3 1. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 237 . 4. or 2. Cropped Window Cropped Rendered Window 236 Copyright © 2004 .

or 2. Click Skip Render Dialog.5 1.Kristen Kurland 239 .. Render.4 1.. Render. Choose View. Command: rpref 3. Command: render 3. Click Click Skip Render Dialog.Render without Dialog Box 17.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 238 Copyright © 2004 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. Type RPREF at the command line. Render. Turn Render Dialog Box On with RPREF 17. 4.

Kristen Kurland 241 . File as the destination options.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Destinations Render to a File Options 240 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Type RENDER at the command prompt..6 1. Render. Command: render 3. 4.. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport.Render Destinations Render to File 17. Render. Choose View.

Render to Render Window 17. Render..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Window 242 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.7 1.Kristen Kurland 243 . Render Window as the destination option. Choose View.. Render. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Command: render 3. 4.

. Press PRINT SCREEN on the keyboard to copy your rendered image to the Window’s clipboard. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland 245 . 244 Copyright © 2004 .Print Screen 17. Choose View.8 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Render..

The scale factor affects the following blocks: OVERHEAD. Light Icon Scale Controls the size of the light blocks in the drawing. Smoothing Angle Sets the angle at which AutoCAD interprets an edge. and SH_SPOT. Type RENDER at the command prompt. The value is the current scale factor (in drawing units) of rendering blocks in the drawing. Render. To define an edge as less than 45 degrees. reduce the smoothing angle.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Light Scale Icon and Smoothing to change the values. Render. Command: render 3.Light Scale Icon and Smoothing Angle 17.Kristen Kurland 247 . The default is 45 degrees..9 1. or 2. Choose View.. Angles less than 45 degrees are smoothed. DIRECT. Angles greater than 45 degrees are considered edges. Enter a real number to rescale the blocks. 246 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 249 .Chapter 18 Materials 248 Copyright © 2004 .

Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose View. 6.. Click Pick Click Click Click the Materials Library. Command: rmat 3. Render. 5. & Attaching Materials Materials Command 18.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Importing... Concrete Tile as the material. the Import button. 250 Copyright © 2004 . OK. the Preview button.Materials Library. Materials. & Attaching Materials 1.Kristen Kurland 251 . or 2. Importing. 7.button..1 Materials Library. 4.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type MATLIB at the command prompt.2 1. & Attaching Materials 252 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.Kristen Kurland 253 . Pick Click a material from the material list. 4. & Attaching Materials Materials Library 18. Importing. Command: matlib 3.Materials Library. Importing. Materials Library. or 2. Materials Library. the Preview button and preview as a sphere or cube. Render.

Materials Library. 7.3 1. 6. Type RMAT at the command prompt.. Importing. the Attach button. 5. & Attaching Materials 10. the materials menu and render the viewport. 8.button.Materials Library. Render.. the Preview button. & Attaching Materials Applying Materials with Attach 18. Render Photoreal as the render type. the Import button. 9. Click Pick Click Click Click Click Pick the Materials Library. or 2.. 2. Exit NOTE: You need to set the rendering type to Photorealistic Rendering in order to see the materials 1.Kristen Kurland 255 . OK. the viewport. Materials. 4. 3. Choose Choose Render View. Command: rmat 3. 254 Copyright © 2004 . Importing. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Objects to attach materials to. Choose View. Glass as the material..

Ball as the layer to attach materials to.Kristen Kurland 257 . Render.. or 2. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the materials menu and render the viewport. 256 Copyright © 2004 . Type RMAT at the command prompt.. 5. 4.4 1. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material.Applying Materials by Layer 18. Command: rmat 3. Choose View. the By Layer button. Materials.

6.. Render.Applying Materials by Color 18. or 2.. the By Layer button. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material. Choose View.5 1. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. Command: rmat 3. 258 Copyright © 2004 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the materials menu and render the viewport.Kristen Kurland 259 . Materials. 4.

6.Complex Materials 18. Render. Materials.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. or 2. Ash Wood as the material.. Choose View. 5. Command: rmat 3.6 1..Kristen Kurland 261 . the materials menu and render the viewport. the base to attach materials to. 260 Copyright © 2004 . the Attach button. Click Click Click Exit Click Med. Type RMAT at the command prompt.

the Planar coordinates as necessary. enter when finished selecting. Pick Press Pick Click Adjust Click objects to adjust (base). Command: setuv 3. 5.. the type of projection to adjust.7 1. OK.. the Adjust Coordinates. 7. button.Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping Adjusting Materials with Material Mapping 18. 4. 8. Type SETUV at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 263 . Mapping or 2. Choose View. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping 262 Copyright © 2004 . 6.

Kristen Kurland 265 .. or 2.button. 4. the material to an object. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Command: rmat 3.6 1.. Render. a new material.New Materials New Materials 18. Materials.. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. New Materials 264 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Create Apply the New. Choose View.

button.. Render. the material to an object. 4. Command: rmat 3. Choose Create Apply the New. 266 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 267 . Choose View. or 2.. Materials..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. 5.. a new material.7 1.Adjusting Material Appearances 18.

the Properties. 6. the drawing to see the material result. Choose 2. Options. a textured material such as checkers.Kristen Kurland 269 . Check Apply Shade the Enable Textures and Enable Materials options. Choose Choose Textures Tools.10 1.Textures Advanced Material Options 18. 4. 268 Copyright © 2004 ...button under the Current 3D Graphics Display. 3. 5.. the Systems TAB.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..

Chapter 19 Lights 270 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 271 .

1 1. 9. Command: light 3. Type 272 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. the New.. ZOOM PREVIOUS to zoom to the original view. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. Modify to place the light. 6. button. 8.Kristen Kurland 273 .. or 2. 4. Type 11. Light.Point Light Point Light 19.xy filters) the light menu. POINT 1 as the new light name. Choose Click Type Choose Type Pick Exit Point as the light type. 5. ‘ZOOM to zoom if necessary a location (Hint: use . 7. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Render. Light Location Point Light 10.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

. Render. or 2. Light Location Spot Light Light Target 274 Copyright © 2004 . Click Click Type Click Pick Exit Type the dropdown box for point light and change it to spot light.Kristen Kurland 275 . Modify. 6. button.. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Choose View.Spot Light Spot Light 19. 8. 9. 7. Command: light 3. the light menus. Light. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. 5.2 1. The Target and Light Locations (Use Endpoint and Midpoint Object Snaps). SPOT1 as the new light name. the New.

3 1.. or 2. 6. the light menus. Command: light 3. Click Click Choose Exit S1 and the Modify.button. Light. 5. Render. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 276 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 277 . 4. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. the box for Shadows On. Choose View. Shadow Options and set the shadow Map Size to 512..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Setting the Shadow Options in the Light Command 19.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Changing Shadow Options in Render Command 19. Discard back faces to speed up the rendering processes by having AutoCAD eliminate the calculations for faces it doesn’t need to render.2 Medium as the Anti-Aliasing type. the Minimum Bias to . 3. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 278 Copyright © 2004 .5 1. 2.1 the Maximum Bias to . 6. 4. 5.Kristen Kurland 279 . Type Choose Change Change Choose Click RENDER at the command prompt. More Options under the Rendering Options dialog.

Command: options 3..Render Smoothness Preferences 19.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Smoothness 280 Copyright © 2004 .. 5. or 2. Options. Type OPTIONS at the command prompt.5 1. 4.Kristen Kurland 281 . the Rendered object smoothness to 5. Choose Tools. Choose Set Render the Display tab. the scene.

6. 4.Light Command Light Command Distant Light 19.7 1. 8.button. Render. or 2. the New. Click Click Type Choose Choose Choose Exit the dropdown box for point light and change it to distant light. Command: light 3. Provo.. the Sun Angle Calculator. PROVO as the new light name.. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. 10. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 7. 5..Kristen Kurland 283 .button.. the light menus. button.. Light. Type LIGHT at the command prompt.. Type 282 Copyright © 2004 . 9. the Geographic Location. UTAH as the nearest big city.

Chapter 20 Scenes 284 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 285 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

. P1 as the light to include in the scene. Choose Type Choose Click New. 6. OK to exit the Scene dialog box. Render. Scene. or 2. Render. or 2.1 A scene represents a particular view of all or any portion of the drawing. Choose View. 4. 1. 4. POINT as the scene name. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Render.. Render. Render. with or without lights.to change the lights and views in the scene.. Choose Click POINT as the scene to render.New Scene Render a Scene 1. Type SCENE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.Kristen Kurland 286 287 . Scene. Command: render 3. Command: scene 3. Command: scene 3.New Scene Scene Command 20. Choose View. to create a new scene. Choose View. Scene Command .. Copyright © 2004 .Scene Command . Type RENDER at the command prompt. Choose Modify. 5.. Modify a Scene 1.

Kristen Kurland 289 . This will load a dialog box with predefined saved views.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 288 Copyright © 2004 . Set Current OK. Choose Choose Click PERSPECTIVE as the saved view.2 1. 2. Command: ddview 2. DDVIEW at the command prompt . 3.Adding a View to a Scene 20. Create Type a perspective view with the DVIEW command. 4.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 21 Backgrounds 290 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 291 .

Solid Background 292 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 293 . 4. the viewport. Background or 2. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt.1 1. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: background 3.Solid Background Solid Background 21. Click Render Solid as the background type. Render.

Background or 2. Choose View. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Render. Command: background 3. 4. the viewport. the colors as desired. Click Adjust Render Gradient as the background type. 294 Copyright © 2004 . 5.Kristen Kurland 295 .2 1.Gradient Background 21.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

tga image file as the background.Image Background Image Background 21.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Find File under the Image section. 5. the viewport. 4. Image Background 296 Copyright © 2004 . Command: background 3. 7. Choose View. 6. the C:\Program Files\ACAD2004\ TEXTURES\valley_l.Kristen Kurland 297 . Click Choose Choose Click Render the Image radio button. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Background or 2. OK.3 1. Render.

Merge Background 21. Command: background 3. 298 Copyright © 2004 . Render. Choose View. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the viewport. Background or 2.4 1.Kristen Kurland 299 . Click Render the Merge radio button. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 22 Landscaping 300 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 301 .

8. 5. Edit a Landscape Object 302 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 303 .. Render. the Position button. Command: lsnew 3.Edit a Landscape Object Placing a New Landscape Object 22. 7. Render at the command prompt. the Landscape dialog box.. a new position for the Cactus. or 2. 4. 6.1 1. Landscape New. Type LSNEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Photo Raytrace as the Rendering Type. Pick Click Pick Exit Type Choose Cactus as the landscape item.

Type LSEDIT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 305 . Command: lsedit 3. 4. Render.. Pick Edit the Cactus as the landscape item to edit. the height of the Cactus. Choose View.Editing an Existing Landscape Object 22. Landscape Edit..2 1. or 2. 304 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

. Choose 306 Copyright © 2004 . Render. OK and save the render library. 5.Landscape Library & Render Landscapes Custom Landscape Library 22. Create an image and opacity image for desired object.. NOTE: Youwill need to use an external paint program to do this.3 1. Landscape Library. 7. View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Landscape Library & Render Landscapes 2.to create a new landscape object. LSNEW at the command prompt to place the new image in your drawing. Click Edit Click Type Render New. or 3. the other dialog options as desired.Kristen Kurland 307 .. 8. Command: lslib 4. 6. Type LSLIB at the command prompt.. the viewport.

Kristen Kurland 309 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Commands 308 Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 23 Misc.

Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 311 .htm 1. If the ray misses all objects. or 2. We sample a continuous image in world coordinates by shooting one or more rays through each pixel. Like all point sampling algorithms. www. which is manifested in computer graphics by jagged edges or other nasty visual artifacts.siggraph. a ray of light is traced in a backwards direction.. this leads to the potential problem of aliasing. multiple specular reflections. and texture mapping in a very easy straight-forward manner. In ray tracing.Raytracing 23. like scan-line graphics. Ray tracing handles shadows. Choose PhotoRaytrace as the render type. we start from the eye or camera and trace the ray through a pixel in the image plane into the scene and determine what it hits. then that pixel is shaded the background color. Command: render 3. is a point sampling algorithm.1 Introduction Ray Tracing is a global illumination based rendering method. Type RENDER at the command prompt.. It traces rays of light from the eye back through the image plane into the scene. Note that ray tracing.org/education/ materials/HyperGraph/raytrace/rtrace0. That is. Render. Then the rays are tested against all objects in the scene to determine if they intersect any objects. 310 Copyright © 2004 . The pixel is then set to the color values returned by the ray. Choose View.

.2 1. Render.. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 312 Copyright © 2004 .. High as the Anti-Aliasing method. Render. 5. Choose View. Choose Choose Click Render More Options. the viewport. Command: render 3. 4. 6. or 2.under Rendering Options. Type RENDER at the command prompt. OK.Kristen Kurland 313 ..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Raytracing & Subsampling Options Set Antialiasing 23.

Render.. Command: render 3.under Rendering Options. or 2. Choose More Options.3 1.. Type RENDER at the command prompt. 314 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 315 . Render..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Adaptive Sampling 23.. Choose View.

.under Rendering Options. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Ray Tree Depth 23. Command: render 3. Render.. Render. Choose View. or 2. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 316 Copyright © 2004 ..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 317 .. Choose More Options.4 1.

Raytracing & Subsampling Options Change Subsampling Options 23. Type RENDER at the command prompt..5 1. 6. Raytracing & Subsampling Options Rendered Bottle with Sub-Sampling 3:1 318 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Render. 5. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland 319 . the viewport. Choose View. Render. 4. Choose Choose Click Render the Sub-sampling dropdown list.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3:1 OK..

Render. the remaining dialog options as desired. Command: fog 3. Fog or 2. Fog & Render Preferences 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Edit Enable Fog to turn FOG on. 320 Copyright © 2004 . 4.Fog & Render Preferences Fog 23.Kristen Kurland 321 .6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects. Type FOG at the command prompt. Choose View.

Render Statistics Render Statistics 23. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 323 . Statistics or 2. Render. 322 Copyright © 2004 . Type STATS at the command prompt. Save the statistics to a file or choose OK to exit.6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: stats 3. Render Statistics 1.

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