Copyright © 2004

AutoCAD 3D Training Manual
®

Written by Kristen S. Kurland

® AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

Chapter 1 Controlling Views

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Viewports Viewports 1.1

Viewports

Screen divided into three tiled viewports

-Vports Command
1. Type -VPORTS at the command prompt. Command: -vports Enter an option [Save/Restore/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/3/4] <3>: enter Enter a configuration option [Horizontal/Vertical/Above/ Below/Left/Right] <Right>: enter Regenerating model. 2. 3. Click Type once in each vport to make it active. a ZOOM option in each viewport. NOTE: AutoCAD plots only the current vport.

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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New Viewports the dropdown option for Setup and click 3D.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . OK.Kristen Kurland 7 .2 1. 2. 3. New Viewports tab of the Viewports dialog Viewports 6 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Click Click View.Viewports 3D Viewports 1. Viewports.

Named Views Orthographic & Isometric Views tab of the View dialog.3 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 9 .Preset Views Preset Views 1. 2. Choose Click Click View. One of the following view options: Top Bottom Front Back Left Right Southwest Isometric Southeast Isometric Northeast Isometric Northwest Isometric Preset Views 4. 5. Click Click the Set Current button the OK button 8 Copyright © 2004 . 3.

Type VPOINT at the command prompt.614. 3D Views. Click a point on the compass to define the viewing angle.0. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. 1.Kristen Kurland 11 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . The compass represents a two dimensional globe. Tripod Point in the center of the compass is the north pole Vpoint Command Middle ring of the compass is the equator Entire outer ring is the south pole Vpoint Command (Rotate) 1.5 Enters a rotation angle at the viewpoint prompt.614. 1. Choose View.-0.4 Displays a compass and tripod for defining a view rotation.500>: R (enter) Enter angle in XY plane from X axis <225>: 225 (enter) Enter angle from XY plane <30>: 15 (enter) Regenerating drawing.500>: (enter) 3. Choose View. 3D Views.-0.0.614.614. Vpoint or 2. Resultant viewport with new 3D view 10 Copyright © 2004 . Vpoint or 2. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0.Vpoint Command Vpoint Command (Tripod) 1.

or 4. Pick a viewing angle in the 2 graphics Left graphic = From X Axis Right graphic = In XY Plane 5. Type DDVPOINT at the command prompt. 3D Views.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .6 1. Click OK. Command: ddvpoint 3. Viewpoint Preset or 2. Set a viewing angle by typing the From X axis and XY Plane angle. Resultant viewport with new 3D view Angle from the X Axis Angle in the XY Plane 12 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 13 . Choose View.Vpoint Command Vpoint Command DDVpoint Command 1.

-1.995>: -1. Bottom.Vpoint Presets Vpoint Command (Vector Option) 1. Choose View.1 Regenerating drawing. Left. 1.7 Enters coordinates at the viewpoint prompt. 3D Views. Front.-1. Back SW Isometric SE Isometric NW Isometric NE Isometric 14 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 15 .-1. Vpoint Presets Resultant viewport with entered coordinates -1. Choose View.8 1.2. and one of the following viewpoint options: Top.981.690. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-1.1 Other Preset Viewpoints 1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. Right. Vpoint or 2. 3D Views.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Plan View
Plan View 1.9
1. Choose View, 3D Views, Plan View the one of the following: Current UCS, World UCS, Named UCS or 2. Type PLAN at the command prompt. Command: plan Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] <Current>: Regenerating model.

Plan View

Current ucs Ucs

Goes to the plan view of the current UCS. At the command line type in a name of a previously named Coordinate System. Goes to the plan view of the World Coordinate System.

World

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Thickness
Thickness Command 2.1
Sets the current 3D solid thickness.

Thickness

1.

Type

THICKNESS at the command prompt. Command: thickness Enter new value for THICKNESS <0.0000>: 2.00

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Kristen Kurland 23 . Type DDMODIFY or DDCHPROP at the command prompt. Command: ddmodify or ddchprop or 3. Choose from the Standard Toolbar 22 Copyright © 2004 . or Changes the current thickness of an object 2.2 Changing the current properties of an object changes its thickness. Properties..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..Thickness Changing the Current Thickness 2. Thickness 1. Choose Modify.

Type ELEVATION at the command prompt. Elevation and Elev Shortcut 1.3 Stores the current elevation relative to the current UCS for the current space.0000>: 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Elevation and Elev Shortcur Elevation Command 2.00 24 Copyright © 2004 . Command: elevation Enter new value for ELEVATION <0.Kristen Kurland 25 .

0000>: 26 Copyright © 2004 . Type ELEV at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0000>: Specify new default thickness: <3. Command: elev Specify new default elevation: <2.Kristen Kurland 27 .4 1.Shortcut to Elevation & Thickness Commands 2.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 29 .Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model 28 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 31 . Type HIDE at the command prompt. Objects After Hidden Line Removal 30 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Hide.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . OR 2. Objects Before Hidden Line Removal Hide 1.Hide Hide Command 3. Command: hide Regenerating Model.1 Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines suppressed.

2 Gourand Shaded (edges on) Shade Displays a flat-shaded image of the drawing in the current viewport while performing a hidden line removal.Kristen Kurland 33 . Type SHADE at the command prompt. The following are various shade options: Flat Shaded Gourand Shaded (edges on) 3D Wireframe Gourand Shaded (Smoother) 32 Copyright © 2004 . Command: shade Regenerating Drawing. Shade. Flat Shaded (edges on) 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . OR 2. Choose View.Shade Shade Command 3.

2 .4 Sets the ratio of diffuse reflective light to ambient light (in percentage of diffuse reflective light).3 Shaded Object Shade Controls shading of edges in rendering. edges in background color Shadif Variable 3. Command: shadedif Enter new value for SHADEDIF <70>:20 34 Copyright © 2004 . Type SHADEDGE at the command prompt. 1. edges in object color Faces in object color. Type SHADEDIF at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 35 3. Command: shadedge Enter new value for SHADEDGE <3>: (enter) 0 1 2 3 Faces shaded. edges not highlighted Faces shaded. 1.Shade Shadedge Variable 3. edges drawn in background color Faces not filled.

Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal and Shade for Plots 3. Hidden Lines in Plots 1. extruded objects. Choose the check box beside the option to remove hidden lines. Type PLOT at the command prompt. Hides Lines for Plots 36 Copyright © 2004 .5 If your drawing contains 3D faces. meshes. or solids. you can direct AutoCAD to remove hidden lines or shade from specific viewports when you plot the paper space view.Kristen Kurland 37 . Command: plot 2. sur faces.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Hidden Lines in Plots Mview with Hidden Line Removal 38 Copyright © 2004 .6 1. Select objects: enter NOTE: You do not see t.he effect of this command until you plot the drawing.Kristen Kurland 39 .Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal in Mviews (Paper Space) 3. Type MVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: mview Specify corner of viewport or [ON/OFF/Fit/Shadeplot/Lock/Object/Polygonal/Restore/2/ 3/4] <Fit>: s Shade plot? [As displayed/Wireframe/Hidden/Rendered] <As displayed>: h Select objects: pick mview in paperspace.

Chapter 4 Z Coordinates 40 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 41 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

0 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 1.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 2.2.0 42 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 2.Y).0 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 1. In addition to specifying X and Y values. Command: 3DPOLY Specify start point of polyline: 1. 3D Polyline 1.1.1.1 3D Polyline Drawn with 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates (X. you specify a Z value.Kristen Kurland 43 .Z) is similar to entering 2D coordinates (X.2.1.Y.3D Coordinates Entering 3D Coordinates 4.

Moving in the Z Direction Moving in the Z Direction 4.1 Circle Moved -2 Units in the Z Direction 44 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . use the move command.Kristen Kurland 45 . 1. Type MOVE at the command prompt.0.0 Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: 0.0.2 Original Circle Draw at Elevation Zero Moving in the Z Direction Move Command To move an object in the Z direction. Command: move Select objects: (pick object) 1 found Select objects: hit enter Specify base point or displacement: 0.

3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 4. use DDPTYPE and choose a visible point style.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Before issuing the point filter command. Command: point Point: . Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt. 3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 1.xy of end P1 of (need Z): 2 46 Copyright © 2004 . you can use point filters.3 To place a point 1 inch above the back left corner of the rectangle.Kristen Kurland 47 .

Kristen Kurland 49 .Chapter 5 User Coordinate System 48 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . It also represents the current viewing direction relative to the UCS XY plane. Choose View. Shows the UCS at the 0. Display. Turns off the display of the UCSICON. Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin] <ON>: UCS icon turned OFF ON OFF All Noorigin ORigin Displays the UCS icon.1 The UCS icon represents the orientation of the UCS axes and the location of the current UCS origin. Mspace UCSICON Pspace UCSICON 1. On/Off.0 origin of the current UCS. Always displays the UCS at the lower left corner.Ucsicon UCS icon turned ON Ucsicon UCSICON 5. or 2. UCS Icon. 50 Copyright © 2004 .0. Type UCSICON at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 51 . Affects the display of the UCSICON in all viewports.

Y. 1. Restores the World Coordinate System. and viewing. Lets you define a new coordinate s ystem by pointing at an entity (except a 3D polyline. These UCS settings are typically used when viewing & editing 3D models [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right] Restores the previously saved UCS. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Redefines a UCS by shifting the origin or changing the Z-depth of the current UCS. Specifies one of the six orthographic UCSs provided with AutoCAD. Z Axis. and Z axes unchanged. Specifies a UCS by its origin and a point on the positive X and Y axes. Lists the defined UCSs in the current drawing. Allows you to define a new origin.Kristen Kurland 53 .UCS Dialog Box & World UCS UCS Overview 5. Face. Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpen dicular to your viewing direction (i. leaving the orientation of its XY plane un changed. Object. Z Origin Defines a new UCS by shifting the origin of the current UCS. 3 Point. UCS Toolbar OrthoGraphic ZAxis 3 Point Object UCSII Toolbar Face View X/Y/Z 52 Copyright © 2004 .2 Manages user coordinate systems. Choose One of the following UCS options: New Defines a new coordinate system by one of six methods: Origin. polygon mesh. planes of operation. Removes a saved UCS definition. Most AutoCAD geometric editing commands are dependent on the location and orientation of the UCS. The user coordinate system provides an alternate movable coordinate system for coordinate entry. Restores a saved UCS. or viewport entity). Names and saves a UCS. View X.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Y.e. leaving the direction of the X. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: 2. Aligns the UCS to the selected face of a solid object. parallel to your screen). Type UCS at the command prompt. Rotates the ucs around a specified axis Previous Restore Save Delete World ? Move .

0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the UCS. 54 Copyright © 2004 .0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the WCS.0. most coordinates are entered relative to the UCS rather than the WCS. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Tip: To enter coordinates relative to the WCS • Precede coordinate values with an asterisk (*).Kristen Kurland 55 .0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . NOTE: This is the UCS you should use when creating Wblocks and inserting Wblocks. Entering @2. Type UCS at the command prompt. In practice. It is the only UCS guaranteed to be the same in all AutoCAD drawings.UCS Dialog Box & World UCS World UCS 5.3 1. Entering @*2. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World> (press enter) World Returns the UCS back to the original World UCS.

53.00>: Setting the UCS with the 3 Point Method UCS UCS modified 56 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 57 .8.73.7. Type UCS at the command prompt.00>: Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <2.4 1.0.73.0.0>: 3 Specify new origin point <0.UCS 3 Point UCS 5.0.0. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.0>: pick origin Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .53.

Type UCS at the command prompt.5 1.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>:V View Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (i. Command: plan UCS View 5. UCS parallel to the View Instead of the Object 58 Copyright © 2004 . Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.Plan View of Current UCS Plan View and UCS 5.0. parallel to your screen). Type PLAN at the command prompt.6 1.Kristen Kurland 59 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .e.

Kristen Kurland 61 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0. 60 Copyright © 2004 . The new UCS has the same extrusion direction (positive Z axis) as that of the selected object.7 1.UCS Object 5.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>:OB Object Defines a new coordinate system based on a selected 3D object. Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.

Type UCS at the command prompt.0.8 1.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>: 62 Copyright © 2004 .AutoCAD Help Topics for New UCS Other New UCS Options 5.Kristen Kurland 63 . Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: s Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: 1.Kristen Kurland 65 .9 Restoring the UCS 5.10 UCS 1.UCS Saving the UCS 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Re store/Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: r Enter name of UCS to restore or [?]: 1 64 Copyright © 2004 . Type UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type UCS at the command prompt.

Command: dducs 66 Copyright © 2004 .11 UCS Dialog Box (DDUCS) 1.Kristen Kurland 67 .UCS Dialog Box 5. Type DDUCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands 68 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 69 .

Pan & Zoom Introduction to 3D Orbit Command 6. Command: 3dorbit OR 2.1 Controls Interactive 3D Viewing D Orbit Command.Moves View about an axis that extends through the center (acts like twist) 1.Kristen Kurland 71 . Pan & Zoom Outside the Arcball .Rotates around the “X” axis through the center. Click on one of the 3D Orbit arcball locations.3D Orbit Command. 3D Orbit.Allows movement in any direction Inside one of the small circles to the top/bottom . Choose View. Inside one of the small circles to the left/right . Type 3DORBIT at the command prompt. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Inside the Arcball .Rotates around the “Y” axis through the center. 70 Copyright © 2004 . The 3D Orbit Arcball appears.

PAN or ZOOM from the pop-up menu. Pan & Zoom Pan and Zoom in 3D Orbit 6. Pan & Zoom 72 Copyright © 2004 .3D Orbit Command. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 73 . D Orbit Command. Click Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.2 1.

and parts of the objects appear larger and closer to you. The shapes are some what distorted when the object is very close. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. 74 Copyright © 2004 . Click Projections.Kristen Kurland 75 . The shapes in your drawing always remain the same and do not appear distorted when they are closer. Projection. Choose Choose Parallel Displays objects so that two parallel lines in a drawing never con verge at a single point. one of the shade options.3 1. Shading. 3. Parallel or Perspective. 2. 2. Shading & Visual Aids Projection Mode 6. Shading & Visual Aids Shading 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . This view correlates more closely to what your eye sees.Projections.4 with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Perspective Displays objects in perspective so that all parallel lines converge at one point. 3. 1. Objects appear to recede into the distance.

5 Simulates the effect of turning the camera. Changes the target of the view. Adjusting Camera 76 Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Adjusting Camera Camer Swivel and Distancea 6. 4. a location in the view to change the camera. More.Kristen Kurland 77 . 1. Swivel Camera. 2. 3.

UCS Icon 78 Copyright © 2004 . Shading & Visual Aids 1.Kristen Kurland 79 .Projections. Visual Aids.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. 2. Compass Option TIP: Use GRIDUNIT to change the spacing of the grid units. one of the visual aids options. 3.6 3D Grid Option Projections. Shading & Visual Aids Visual Aids 6.

they will remain ON. More. Clipping Plane Options Clipping Planes NOTE: If you have clipping planes ON when you exit the 3D Orbit command. 2. Adjusting Clipping Planes in the Clipping Plane Window 80 Copyright © 2004 . 3.7 1. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Clipping Planes Clipping Planes 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . one of the clipping planes options.Kristen Kurland 81 .

and drag to start the continuous 3D Motion. More.Kristen Kurland 83 .8 1. Continuous Orbit.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. 4. Continuous Orbit Continuous Motion (Rt Click to change options) 82 Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose Click with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. 3.Continuous Orbit Continuous Orbit 6. This movement controls the direction and speed of the orbit.

Kristen Kurland 85 .Perspective 84 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 7 Dynamic View .

Note: You can also twist and pick a camera location. or enter angle in XY plane from X axis. or [Toggle (angle in)] <90.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 87 . Choose View.1 1. or enter angle from XY plane. Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK>: pick objects Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: ca Specify camera location.Dynamic View and Perspective DView Camera Option 7.00000>: 45 Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: Regenerating model. or [Toggle (angle from)] <90. Dynamic View and Perspective Setting a Camera Location 86 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Orbit or 2.0000>: 30 Specify camera location. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 89 . Note: You can also type a target location.2644>: pick a target loca tion Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: enter Regenerating model. 3D Orbit or 2. Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK> pick objects: Select objects: enter Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: TA Specify camera location.Dynamic View and Perspective DView Target Option 7. Setting a Target Location Dynamic View and Perspective 88 Copyright © 2004 .2 1. or enter angle from XY plane. Choose View. or [Toggle (angle in)] <35.

Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command.Setting Camera Target with POints Setting Camera Target with Points 7. or 2. 3D Dynamic View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Once a perspective view is set.3 Setting Camera Target with POints Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 91 . Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/ TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: PO 90 Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. 1. zooming is not allowed.

3D Dynamic View. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: D New camera/target distance <1. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View. zooming is not allowed. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: OFF 92 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 93 . Once a perspective view is set.Dynamic View and Perspective Setting Perspective Distance 7.5 1. Choose View.4 Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. or 2. Zoom to a Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective 1. 3D Dynamic View.7321>: pick Resultant Perspective View Turning Perspective Off 7. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

Choose View.Kristen Kurland 95 . or 2.666mm>: pick Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Zoomed and Panned Panning in Dview 7.6 1.Dynamic View and Perspective Zooming in Dview 7. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>:PA Displacement base point: pick Second point: pick 94 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3D Dynamic View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: Z Adjust lens length <9. 3D Dynamic View.7 1. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

00>: pick 96 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 97 .8 Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Clipped Objects 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: TW New view twist <0. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: CL Back/Front/<Off>: F Eye/<Distance from target> <4. 3D Dynamic View.4721>: pick Twisting Objects 7.9 1. 3D Dynamic View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View.Dynamic View and Perspective Clipping Objects 7. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

3D Dynamic View. Choose View. or 2. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Dynamic View and Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective Hidden Line Removal 7.10 1. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: H 98 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 99 .

Kristen Kurland 101 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 8 3D Model Objects 100 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . it consists only of points. With AutoCAD you can create wireframe models by positioning 2D (planar) objects anywhere in 3D space.Wire Frames Wire Frames Wireframes 8. Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be independently drawn and positioned. There are no surfaces in a wireframe model. this type of modeling can be the most time-consuming.1 A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object. AutoCAD also provides some 3D wireframe objects. lines. and curves that describe the edges of the object. 102 Copyright © 2004 . such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS linetype) and splines.Kristen Kurland 103 .

but also its surfaces. AutoCAD calls faceted surfaces. meshes. Surfaces. Choose Draw. the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces. Surfaces 1. 104 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D object. The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh. To differentiate these two types of surfaces.Surfaces Surfaces 8.Kristen Kurland 105 . you can create true curved surfaces. Because the faces of the mesh are planar. With Mechanical Desktop.

spheres. you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes. and tori (donuts). it is recommended that you not mix modeling methods.Solids Solids 8. 1. Choose Draw.3 Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use. wedges. cylinders. With the AutoCAD solid modeler.Kristen Kurland 107 . 106 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D object along a path or revolving it about an axis. You can then combine these shapes to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their intersecting (overlapping) volume. Solids. Solids NOTE: Because each modeling type uses a different method for constructing 3D models and editing methods vary in their effect on the different model types. cones.

Kristen Kurland 109 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces 108 Copyright © 2004 .

Type SOLID at the command prompt. Solids.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3. the Other Predefined tab. Hatch.. 2D Solid. Solid. Command: solid First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: enter 2D Hatch 9. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 111 .2D Solid and Hatch 2D Solid 9.1 2D Solid and Hatch 1. Choose Choose Choose Draw. 110 Copyright © 2004 . NOTE: 2D Solids and Hatches cannot be rendered or shaded.. 2.2 1. or 2.

allowing accurate modeling of objects with holes. which creates a threeor four-sided surface that is parallel to the current UCS and can be extruded.Kristen Kurland 113 . 1. You can specify different Z coordinates for each corner point of a 3D face. or 2.or four-sided surface anywhere in 3D space. Entering i or invisible before the first point of an edge makes the edge invisible. 3D Faces With 3DFACE.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3D Face. Surfaces.3 3DFACE creates a three. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. you control which edges of a 3D face are visible. Choose Draw. 3DFACE differs from SOLID.3D Faces 3D Face 9. Command: 3dface First point: pick Second point: pick Third point: pick Fourth point: pick Third point: enter 112 Copyright © 2004 .

4 1. Type EDGE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 115 . Edge.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Choose Draw. Surfaces. Command: edge Display/<Select edge>: pick a 3D edge Edges 114 Copyright © 2004 .Edges Edge 9.

Choose Draw. or 2.Kristen Kurland 117 . Invisible Faces 116 Copyright © 2004 . Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. 3D Face.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .5 1. Solids. Command: 3dface First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: i P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: i P5 Fourth point: P6 Third point: P7 Fourth point: P8 Third point: enter NOTE: You must enter an “i” for invisible before the face is chosen.Invisible Faces 3D Invisible Edge 9.

Command: pface Specify location for vertex 1-8: P1 -P8 Face 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 2 Face 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 1 Face 1.Pface Pface 9.7 1. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 4 Face 2. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 3 Face 2. vertex 5: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 3. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 5 Face 3. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 2. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: Pface 118 Copyright © 2004 . vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 4 Face 3. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 4. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 7 Face 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 2 Face 2. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 1. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 3. Type PFACE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 119 . vertex 5: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 2.

Chapter 10 3D Surfaces

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3DBox
3DBox 10.1
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the box from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_BOX at the command prompt. Command: ai_box Initializing... 3D Objects loaded. Corner of box: pick Specify length of box: 4 Specify width of box or [Cube]: 2 Specify height of box: 2 Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Refer ence]: 0

3DBox

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Pyramid Pyramid 10.2
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the pyramid from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_PYRAMID at the command prompt. Command: ai_pyramid Specify first corner point for base of pyramid: pick Specify second corner point for base of pyramid: <Ortho on> 4 Specify third corner point for base of pyramid: 4 Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]: 4 Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]: .xy of pick (need Z): 4

Pyramid

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Kristen Kurland 127 . 3D Surfaces. or 3.3 1.Wedge Wedge 10. 2. Command: ai_wedge Specify corner point of wedge: pick Specify length of wedge: 4 Specify width of wedge: 2 Specify height of wedge: 1 Specify rotation angle of wedge about the Z axis: 0 Wedge 126 Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces. the wedge from the dialog menu.. Type AI_WEDGE at the command prompt.. Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Choose Pick Draw.4 1. Surfaces. the dome from the dialog menu.Dome Dome 10.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2.. Type AI_DOME at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 129 . or 3.. Command: ai_dome Specify center point of dome: pick Specify radius of dome or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dome <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dome <8>: 10 Dome 128 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Surfaces.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Sphere Sphere 10. Command: ai_sphere Specify center point of sphere: pick Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Sphere 130 Copyright © 2004 . the sphere from the dialog menu.Kristen Kurland 131 . 2. Type AI_SPHERE at the command prompt... Surfaces.5 1. Choose Pick Draw. or 3. 3D Surfaces.

Surfaces.Cone Cone 10..6 1. Type AI_CONE at the command prompt. or 3. 2. the cone from the dialog menu.Kristen Kurland 133 .. 3D Surfaces. Command: ai_cone Specify center point for base of cone: pick Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: 5 Specify height of cone: 3 Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: enter Cone 132 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Pick Draw.

2.Kristen Kurland 135 . Choose Pick Draw.Torus Torus 10. Type AI_TORUS at the command prompt. the torus from the dialog menu.7 1. 3D Surfaces.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. Command: ai_torus Specify center point of torus: pick Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 1 Enter number of segments around tube circumference <16>: enter Enter number of segments around torus circumference <16>: enter Torus 134 Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces. or 3..

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces.. 2.. 3D Surfaces. Type AI_DISH at the command prompt.8 1. Command: ai_dish Specify center point of dish: pick Specify radius of dish or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dish <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dish <8>: 15 Dish 136 Copyright © 2004 . the dish from the dialog menu. Choose Pick Draw.Dish Dish 10. or 3.Kristen Kurland 137 .

3D Objects loaded. Specify first corner point of mesh: 1. Mesh 1.1 Enter mesh size in the M direction: 20 Enter mesh size in the N direction: 10 138 Copyright © 2004 .9 Creates a planar mesh whose M and N sizes determine the number of lines drawn in each direction along the mesh.Kristen Kurland 139 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .4. Command: ai_mesh Initializing. Type ai_mesh at the command prompt..4.2 Specify fourth corner point of mesh: 1.Mesh Mesh 10.1.1.1 Specify third corner point of mesh: 4.1 Specify second corner point of mesh: 4..

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 141 .Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces 140 Copyright © 2004 .

or 2... Surftab1 and Surftab2 Variables 1. Choose Draw. Surfaces.Revolved Surfaces Revolved Surface 11. -=cw) <360> enter 142 Copyright © 2004 . Command: revsurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object to revolve: pick Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw. Type Revsurf at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .1 Creates a revolved surface about a selected axis.Kristen Kurland 143 . Revolved Surface.

1. Command: surftab2 Enter new value for SURFTAB2 <6>: 30 144 Copyright © 2004 .Suftab1 and Surftab2 11. Command: surftab1 Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>: 30 2.Kristen Kurland 145 .2 Sets the number of tabulations for both directions to be generated for RULESURF and TABSURF. Type Surftab1 at the command prompt. Also sets the mesh density in ROTATE3D the M direction for REVSURF and EDGESURF commands. Type Surftab2 at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: tabsurf Select object for path curve: Select object for direction vector: Path for Curve 146 Copyright © 2004 . Direction Vector Tabulated Surfaces 1. Surfaces. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 147 . Tabulated Surfaces or 2.Tabulated Surfaces Tabulated Surfaces 11.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 Creates a tabulated surface from a path curve and a direction vector. Type TABSURF at the command prompt.

Ruled Surface 1. Surfaces. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 149 . Type RULESURF at the command prompt. Command: rulesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 Select first defining curve: P1 Select second defining curve: P2 148 Copyright © 2004 .Ruled Surface Ruled Surface 11. Ruled Surface or 2.4 Creates a ruled surface between two curves.

4 Ruled Surface 150 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 151 .Ruled Surface More Ruled Surface Examples 11.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Edge Surface Edge Surface 11. Edge Surface or 2. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Surfaces.Kristen Kurland 153 .5 Creates a three-dimensional polygon mesh Edge Surface 1. Command: edgesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object 1 for surface edge: P1 Select object 2 for surface edge: P2 Select object 3 for surface edge: P3 Select object 4 for surface edge: P4 152 Copyright © 2004 . Type EDGESURF at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 155 .Chapter 12 Solids 154 Copyright © 2004 .

Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 4 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: enter 156 Copyright © 2004 . Lines with a Thickness of 2” Extrude Command Lines Extruded 2” 1. Solids. You can extrude multiple objects with EXTRUDE. or 2.1 Creates unique solid primitives by extruding existing two-dimensional objects. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Extrude Command Extrude 12.Kristen Kurland 157 . Extrude.

Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 159 . Choose Draw. Extrude.2 1. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 15 158 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Solids.Extrude with Taper 12.

Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick curved pline Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 0 160 Copyright © 2004 .Extrude Curves 12. or 2. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 1. Solids. Extrude.Kristen Kurland 161 .

Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. or 2.4 EXTRUDE also creates solids by extruding two-dimensional objects (profiles) along a specified path.Extrude Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 12. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: P1 Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: p Select extrusion path: P2 Hidden Line Removal of Extruded Circle Circle Extruded Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 162 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 163 . Choose Draw. 1. Extrude.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids.

Revolve Command Revolve 12. Type REVOLVE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 165 . Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids.5 Creates a composite region or solid by addition. Command: revolve Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick profile Select objects: enter Specify start point for axis of revolution or define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]: o Select an object: pick axis Specify angle of revolution <360>: enter 164 Copyright © 2004 . Revolve or 2. Revolve Command 1.

or 2.Box Box Solid 12.Kristen Kurland 167 . Type BOX at the command prompt Command: box Specify corner of box or [CEnter] <0.0>: pick corner Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick opposite corner Specify height: 2 166 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Box.6 Creates a three-dimensional solid box. Box Solid Box Lines with a Thickness 1. Solids.0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Sphere Sphere with Hidden Lines Sphere 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Sphere.Kristen Kurland 169 . or 2. Solids.Sphere Sphere 12.0>: pick point Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 2 168 Copyright © 2004 .0. Choose Draw. Command: sphere Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of sphere <0.7 Creates a three-dimensional solid sphere. Type SPHERE at the command prompt.

Kristen Kurland 171 . Type ISOLINES at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .8 Specifies the number of isolines per surface on objects. Valid integer values are from 0 to 2047. sphere with 4 isolines Isolines and Facetres 1.Isolines and Facetres Isolines 12. Command: ISOLINES Enter new value for ISOLINES <4>: 15 sphere with 15 isolines 170 Copyright © 2004 .

Command: FACETRES Enter new value for FACETRES <.Isolines and Facetres Facetres 12. Valid values are from 0. sphere with facetres 0. Type FACETRES at the command prompt.1 Isolines and Facetres 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .9 Adjusts the smoothness of shaded and rendered objects and objects with hidden lines removed.01 to 10.1000>: 5 sphere with facetres 5 172 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 173 .0.

or 2. Command: cone Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center point for base of cone or [Elliptical] <0. Cone.Cone Cone 12.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Cone Cone with Hidden Lines Cone 1. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 175 . Type CONE at the command prompt. Solids.10 Creates a three-dimensional solid cone.0.0>: pick point Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify height of cone or [Apex]: 4 174 Copyright © 2004 .

Type WEDGEat the command prompt. 1.0>: pick Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick Specify height: 2 176 Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Command: _wedge Specify first corner of wedge or [CEnter] <0.Wedge12. or 2. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 177 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .11 Creates a three-dimensional solid wedge.0. Wedge.

Torus Torus with Hidden Lines Torus 1. Command: torus Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of torus <0. Solids.0>: pick point Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 2 178 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Torus Torus 12.0. Type TORUS at the command prompt. or 2. Torus.12 Creates a donut-shaped solid. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 179 .

Kristen Kurland 181 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 13 3D Edits 180 Copyright © 2004 .

0>: pick Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 90 Object Rotated 90 degrees around x-axis 182 Copyright © 2004 . Type ROTATE3D at the command prompt. or 2. Choose Modify. Rotate3D.1 Rotates objects about a three-dimensional axis. 3D Operation.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3D Rotate Rotate 3D 13. Object Before Rotation 3D Rotate 1.Kristen Kurland 183 .0. Command: rotate3D Current positive angle: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: pick Select objects: enter Specify first point on axis or define axis by [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]: x Specify a point on the X axis <0.

Command: align Select objects: pick the wedge Select objects: enter Specify first source point: P1 Specify first destination point: P2 Specify second source point: P3 Specify second destination point: P4 Specify third source point or <continue>: enter Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No] <N>: enter Wedge Aligned to the Box ( Not Scaled) Objects before align Align 184 Copyright © 2004 .2 1. Choose Modify. Align.Kristen Kurland 185 . Type ALIGN at the command prompt.Align Align 13. 3D Operation. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: mirror3D Select objects: pick the circle Select objects: enter Specify first point of mirror plane (3 points) or [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: P1 Specify second point on mirror plane: P2 Specify third point on mirror plane: P3 Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: enter 186 Copyright © 2004 .3 Circle Mirrored around 3 Points Mirror 3D 1. or 2. Type MIRROR3D at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify. 3D Operation.Mirror 3D Mirror 3D 13.Kristen Kurland 187 . Mirror 3D.

.): 8 Arrayed Objects in 3D Isometric Arrayed Objects in 3D Viewpoint 188 Copyright © 2004 .4 Arrayed Objects in Plan View 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Front View 1..Kristen Kurland 189 ..3D Array 3D Array (Rectangular) 13. Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick the cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: enter Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 3 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1>: 4 Enter the number of levels (. 3D Operation.) <1>: 2 Specify the distance between rows (---): 5 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 4 Specify the distance between levels (. 3D Array.. or 2.

5 Arrayed Objects Around a Line 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Plan View 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify. 3D Array. or 2. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 191 . 3D Operation.3D Array 3D Array (Polar) 13. -=cw) <360>: enter Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: enter Specify center point of array: mid of axis line Specify second point on axis of rotation: pick 190 Copyright © 2004 . Command: 3darray Select objects: pick cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: p Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw.

Chapter 14 Solid Composites

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Subtract
Subtract 14.1
Creates a composite region or solid by subtraction.

Subtract

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Subtract. or

2.

Type

SUBTRACT at the command prompt. Command: subtract SUBTRACT Select solids and regions to subtract from... Select objects: pick the box Select objects: (press enter) Select solids and regions to subtract... Select objects: pick the cylinder Select objects: enter
Objects Subtracted from Box

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Union
Union 14.2
Creates a composite region or solid by addition.

Union

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Union. or

2.

Type

UNION at the command prompt. Command: union Select objects: pick cylinder & box Select objects: enter

Solid Objects Unioned Together

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

197

Choose Modify. Solids Editing. Command: intersect Select objects: pick cylinder and box Select objects: enter Intersection of Cylinder and Box 198 Copyright © 2004 .3 Creates a solid based on the intersection of two existing solids.Kristen Kurland 199 . Intersect or 2. Type INTERSECT at the command prompt. Intersect 1.Intersect Intersect 14.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 201 .Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects 200 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify. 5.Kristen Kurland 203 . Choose Press Specify Specify a face to extrude. height of extrusion or [Path]: . 3. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. Solids Editing.25 angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45 Extruded Face 202 Copyright © 2004 . If you choose more than one face. Extrude face NOTE: Must be a solid to extrude the face. 4.1 1.Extruding Faces. Moving & Rotating Extruding Faces 15. Extruding Faces. ENTER. Moving & Rotating Select Face 2.

Kristen Kurland 205 . 6. Taper face a face(s) to taper. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. Solids Editing.Tapering Faces Tapered Faces 15. Solid validation completed. the base point: pick the back left corner another point along the axis of tapering: pick point the taper angle: 45 Solid validation started.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. 3. Choose Choose Press Specify Specify Specify Modify. 5. If you choose more than one face. 2.2 Before Taper Tapering Faces 1. After Taper 204 Copyright © 2004 . ENTER.

ENTER. the face to delete. Delete face a face to delete. 2. Choose Choose Press Choose Modify. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. Solids Editing. 3.3 1. If you choose more than one face.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Delete Delete Faces 15. Delete 206 Copyright © 2004 . 4.Kristen Kurland 207 .

2. Solids Editing. Copy face a face to copy .Copy Faces Copy Faces 15. Copy Faces 208 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . a new location. Choose Choose Press Pick Pick Modify. the solid face to copy. 4. ENTER.4 1. 3. 5. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces.Kristen Kurland 209 . If you choose more than one face.

Color
Color Face 15.5
1. 2. Choose Choose faces. 3. 4. Press Choose ENTER. a color to change the face to. Modify, Solids Editing, Color face a face to change the color of. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted

Color

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Imprint
Imprint 15.6
1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. Extrude objects (i.e. walls) to create a solid object. Change the UCS and draw an object on a face of one of the walls. Choose Select Select Delete Modify, Solids Editing, Imprint. a 3D solid: pick solid an object to imprint: pick circle the source object <N>: y

Imprint

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

213

Extrude Imprint to Create Openings 15.7
1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Select Modify, Solids Editing, Extrude Faces. the circle that was imprinted.

Deselect any unwanted faces. Type -8 as the height of extrusion (or desired height)

214

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

215

Clean Clean 15.8 Before Clean Clean 1.Kristen Kurland 217 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . After Clean 216 Copyright © 2004 . 2. Solids Editing. a 3D solid: pick imprinted circle. Clean. Choose Select Modify.

5 218 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 219 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Shell.9 You can create a shell or a hollow thin wall with a specified thickness from your 3D solid object. 1. AutoCAD creates new faces by offsetting existing ones inside or outside their original positions. Solids Editing.Shell 15. AutoCAD treats continuously tangent faces as single faces when offsetting. Choose Modify. Select a 3D solid: pick Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: enter Enter the shell offset distance: .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process 212 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 213 .

1 1. 3.0.0>:quad of bottle.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Draw.Kristen Kurland 215 . Solids.DWG a layer called Section. all 3 solids making up the bottle. Creating Sections 214 Copyright © 2004 . Section. 2. Make it the current layer. 4. Open Create Choose Choose the drawing called 3DBottle. 5.Creating Sections Creating Sections 16. Select objects: Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/ Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] : ZX Specify a point on the ZX-plane <0. 3DRotate the section to a flat plane.

Kristen Kurland 217 .Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Slice 16.0.2 Slices a set of solids with a plane. Type SLICE at the command prompt.0>: quad of bottle Both sides/<Point on desired side of the plane>: pick the side of the bottle you want to keep. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing 1. Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Slice. 216 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Choose Modify. Command: slice Slice plane by Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/ <3points>: ZX Point on ZX plane <0.

New. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Drawing with a Model Space View 218 Copyright © 2004 . This create a new drawing with a border and one floating Model Space. 5.Kristen Kurland 219 . PAPER from the Status Bar to toggle back to Model Space. Choose Choose Double Click File. Ansi_c. Note the change to Paper Space.dwt as the template file to start from. 2. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Double Click Double Click MODEL from the Status Bar.3 1. 4. Use a Template from the startup dialog.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Create a SOLVIEW Viewport 16...

4. PAPER at the Status Bar to return to Model Space. Block. the drawing called 3DBOTTLE. 6.. 1XP at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 221 . the block anywhere in the Model Space view at a scale of 1 and rotation 0. ZOOM.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . MODEL at the Status Bar and resize the Model Space view port in Paper Space. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Model Space View Resized Model Space View Scaled 1XP 220 Copyright © 2004 ..DWG to insert. 5. 3. 2. Choose Choose Insert Double Click Double Click Type Insert.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Insert a Drawing 1.

Solview & Soldraw Create an Orthogonal View 1. Solids. Setup.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type SOLVIEW at the command prompt. Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: O Pick side of viewport to project: P1 View center: P2 Clip first corner: P3 Clip other corner: P4 View name: front Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: Solview & Soldraw 222 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. View.Kristen Kurland 223 . or 2.

Solview & Soldraw Create a 2D Section with Soldraw 16. Type Command: soldraw Select viewports to draw: P1 Select objects: 1 found Select objects: enter 3 solids selected. Solids. Choose Draw. you need to first explode it so it becomes a solid. Solview & Soldraw 1. NOTE: If your object was an inserted block. SOLDRAW can only prepare viewports that have been created with SOLVIEW.Kristen Kurland 225 . Setup.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Resultant Section and Solid Section in a Model View 224 Copyright © 2004 . Drawing.4 Generates profiles and sections in viewports created with SOLVIEW.

6. 3. Command: ucscs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: save ?/Desired UCS name: 3dview 5. Setup. Command: ucs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: view This sets the current UCS parallel to the screen. View Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: u Named/World/?/<Current>: n Name of UCS to restore: 3dview Enter view scale<1. Click Choose PSPACE at the command prompt.Creating a 3D View Create a 3D View Using UCS 16. Solids. Type UCS at the command prompt.. We now need to save this ucs. Click Choose Type MSPACE and the plan view of the 3D Bottle. UCS at the command prompt.. 4. View.0000>: enter View center: pick View center: pick Creating a 3D View 3D Model View 226 Copyright © 2004 . 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 227 . SW Isometric.5 1. 3D Viewport. Draw.

Solids. Profile. Double Click Choose MODEL to return to Model Space. Create Hidden Line Removals Resultant 3D Model 228 Copyright © 2004 .6 1. Setup.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. Type SOLPROF at the command prompt. Command: solprof Select objects: pick solids Select objects: enter Display hidden profile lines on separate layer? <Y>: enter Project profile lines onto a plane? <Y>: enter Delete tangential edges? <Y>: enter 3 solids selected.Create Hidden Line Removals Create a Hidden Line View 16.Kristen Kurland 229 . or 3. Draw.

Kristen Kurland 231 .Chapter 17 Rendering 230 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Render Command. Render Command. Rendered Viewport 232 Copyright © 2004 .1 Creates a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a threedimensional wireframe or solid model.. View. Open Type Choose the AutoCAD drawing called 3DBOTTLE. Cropped Window 1. Command: render 5. Cropped Window Render Command 17. 2. Selection. Render.Kristen Kurland 233 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3.DWG. Type RENDER at the command prompt. or 4.. Selection. Render. MSPACE to go to the model space view. Click the Render button.

Selection. 5. Click Click Choose Query for Selection. 4. Render Command. Choose View. the objects to render.Render Command. Render.Kristen Kurland 235 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. Selection.2 1. Cropped Window Render a Selection 17.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3.. Render.. Render. or 2. Cropped Window Rendered Selection 234 Copyright © 2004 .

5. Command: render 3. Cropped Window Render a Cropped Window 17.. Render. Render. Render.3 1. or 2. Click Click Choose Crop Window. Render Command. Cropped Window Cropped Rendered Window 236 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 237 . a window to render. 4. Selection.Render Command. Selection. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View..

.Render without Dialog Box 17. Render. Choose View.. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render.5 1.4 1. Click Skip Render Dialog. Command: rpref 3. Turn Render Dialog Box On with RPREF 17.Kristen Kurland 239 . Click Click Skip Render Dialog. 238 Copyright © 2004 . 4. Command: render 3. Type RPREF at the command line. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.

4.Kristen Kurland 241 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3. File as the destination options. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport..Render Destinations Render to File 17. or 2. Render Destinations Render to a File Options 240 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View..6 1. Render. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt.

4. Render. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport.Kristen Kurland 243 . Render. or 2. Render Window as the destination option..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render Window 242 Copyright © 2004 .7 1. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Choose View..Render to Render Window 17. Command: render 3.

. Press PRINT SCREEN on the keyboard to copy your rendered image to the Window’s clipboard.Print Screen 17.8 1. or 2.Kristen Kurland 245 . Render. 244 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. Command: render 3. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Choose View..

Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . DIRECT.9 1. or 2. Angles greater than 45 degrees are considered edges. Smoothing Angle Sets the angle at which AutoCAD interprets an edge. To define an edge as less than 45 degrees.. and SH_SPOT. Enter a real number to rescale the blocks. The value is the current scale factor (in drawing units) of rendering blocks in the drawing. reduce the smoothing angle. Click Light Scale Icon and Smoothing to change the values. The scale factor affects the following blocks: OVERHEAD. 246 Copyright © 2004 . Light Icon Scale Controls the size of the light blocks in the drawing. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 247 . The default is 45 degrees. Render.Light Scale Icon and Smoothing Angle 17. Command: render 3. Angles less than 45 degrees are smoothed..

Kristen Kurland 249 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 18 Materials 248 Copyright © 2004 .

4. the Import button. or 2. & Attaching Materials 1. 5. OK. Materials..button... 250 Copyright © 2004 . & Attaching Materials Materials Command 18.1 Materials Library. Command: rmat 3. 6.. Concrete Tile as the material. Click Pick Click Click Click the Materials Library. the Preview button.Materials Library. 7. Importing. Importing. Render.Kristen Kurland 251 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose View.

& Attaching Materials 252 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 253 . Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Materials Library. Importing. Render. Materials Library.Materials Library. Importing. or 2.2 1. Type MATLIB at the command prompt. the Preview button and preview as a sphere or cube. Command: matlib 3. & Attaching Materials Materials Library 18. 4. Pick Click a material from the material list.

6. the Import button. & Attaching Materials Applying Materials with Attach 18. or 2. the Attach button. 7. & Attaching Materials 10.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . OK. 254 Copyright © 2004 .button.Materials Library. 8. Render Photoreal as the render type.. 4. the Preview button. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 255 . Command: rmat 3. Click Pick Click Click Click Click Pick the Materials Library. Materials. Choose Choose Render View. the viewport. Importing. Render. 5.. Materials Library. Glass as the material.3 1. 9... 2. Exit NOTE: You need to set the rendering type to Photorealistic Rendering in order to see the materials 1. Objects to attach materials to. Importing. 3. the materials menu and render the viewport. Render.

256 Copyright © 2004 . Command: rmat 3. Materials. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.. the materials menu and render the viewport.Applying Materials by Layer 18. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material. Type RMAT at the command prompt.4 1.Kristen Kurland 257 . Ball as the layer to attach materials to. 6.. Render. Choose View. the By Layer button. 4.

Materials. the By Layer button. 5. 258 Copyright © 2004 . Render.5 1. or 2. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 259 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. Command: rmat 3... the materials menu and render the viewport. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. Ball as the layer to attach materials to.Applying Materials by Color 18. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material.

Choose View.. 6.Complex Materials 18. Command: rmat 3. the base to attach materials to. the Attach button. Ash Wood as the material. 4. Type RMAT at the command prompt. the materials menu and render the viewport.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Materials. 5. Render. Click Click Click Exit Click Med.Kristen Kurland 261 . 260 Copyright © 2004 . or 2..6 1.

. Choose View.. 7. 5.7 1. 8. the Planar coordinates as necessary. Pick Press Pick Click Adjust Click objects to adjust (base). Mapping or 2. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the type of projection to adjust.Kristen Kurland 263 . Command: setuv 3. Render.Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping Adjusting Materials with Material Mapping 18. enter when finished selecting. button. Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping 262 Copyright © 2004 . OK. the Adjust Coordinates. 4. Type SETUV at the command prompt.

Command: rmat 3. Render. Type RMAT at the command prompt.New Materials New Materials 18. Materials. 5. a new material. 4..6 1. Choose Create Apply the New. New Materials 264 Copyright © 2004 .. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 265 .. or 2..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .button. the material to an object.

Command: rmat 3..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 267 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. or 2.Adjusting Material Appearances 18. a new material. 5. Choose Create Apply the New. 266 Copyright © 2004 ... Render.7 1.. 4. the material to an object.button. Choose View. Materials.

Options.. 4. a textured material such as checkers.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the Systems TAB. 6.Kristen Kurland 269 .10 1. Choose 2...Textures Advanced Material Options 18. 268 Copyright © 2004 . Check Apply Shade the Enable Textures and Enable Materials options. the Properties. 5. Choose Choose Textures Tools.button under the Current 3D Graphics Display.. the drawing to see the material result. 3.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 271 .Chapter 19 Lights 270 Copyright © 2004 .

Choose Click Type Choose Type Pick Exit Point as the light type.Kristen Kurland 273 .. 4.1 1. or 2. 5.xy filters) the light menu. Render. 9.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 8. POINT 1 as the new light name. 6. ‘ZOOM to zoom if necessary a location (Hint: use . RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. Type 11. Light.Point Light Point Light 19. the New. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Choose View. Command: light 3. Modify to place the light. Type 272 Copyright © 2004 .. ZOOM PREVIOUS to zoom to the original view. button. 7. Light Location Point Light 10.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . The Target and Light Locations (Use Endpoint and Midpoint Object Snaps).. 8. Light Location Spot Light Light Target 274 Copyright © 2004 .. the light menus. 6. 9. Click Click Type Click Pick Exit Type the dropdown box for point light and change it to spot light. Light. the New.Kristen Kurland 275 . 4. Modify. 7. SPOT1 as the new light name. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. Render. Choose View. or 2. Type LIGHT at the command prompt.2 1. Command: light 3. button. 5.Spot Light Spot Light 19.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2... Render. 5. the light menus. the box for Shadows On. 6. Shadow Options and set the shadow Map Size to 512. Command: light 3.3 1. Light. Choose View. 4.button. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Click Click Choose Exit S1 and the Modify.Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Setting the Shadow Options in the Light Command 19. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 276 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 277 .

Kristen Kurland 279 . 3. More Options under the Rendering Options dialog. 6. 4.2 Medium as the Anti-Aliasing type. Discard back faces to speed up the rendering processes by having AutoCAD eliminate the calculations for faces it doesn’t need to render. 5. Type Choose Change Change Choose Click RENDER at the command prompt. 2.Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Changing Shadow Options in Render Command 19.1 the Maximum Bias to . Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 278 Copyright © 2004 . the Minimum Bias to .5 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

the scene. Options. Type OPTIONS at the command prompt. Choose Tools. Choose Set Render the Display tab.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Render Smoothness 280 Copyright © 2004 . the Rendered object smoothness to 5..5 1..Kristen Kurland 281 . Command: options 3. 4. 5.Render Smoothness Preferences 19.

Choose View. button...Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . UTAH as the nearest big city. the New. or 2. 10. Type 282 Copyright © 2004 . 9.. Click Click Type Choose Choose Choose Exit the dropdown box for point light and change it to distant light. the Sun Angle Calculator. Light. Command: light 3. 6.Light Command Light Command Distant Light 19.Kristen Kurland 283 ... the light menus. 7. PROVO as the new light name. 5. 4.button.7 1. Render. the Geographic Location. Provo. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights.button. 8..

Kristen Kurland 285 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 20 Scenes 284 Copyright © 2004 .

Copyright © 2004 . Render. with or without lights.New Scene Scene Command 20. Choose Click POINT as the scene to render. Render.. Choose Type Choose Click New. Command: scene 3. or 2. or 2.New Scene Render a Scene 1. 4. Render. to create a new scene. Render. 6. Choose View. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Type SCENE at the command prompt. P1 as the light to include in the scene.to change the lights and views in the scene. Scene Command .1 A scene represents a particular view of all or any portion of the drawing.. OK to exit the Scene dialog box. Choose Modify. Scene.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 5... Command: scene 3. Choose View. POINT as the scene name.. Scene. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Modify a Scene 1. Command: render 3. or 2. Render. 1. 4.Kristen Kurland 286 287 .Scene Command . Choose View.

Kristen Kurland 289 . DDVIEW at the command prompt . 2. Choose Choose Click PERSPECTIVE as the saved view. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3. 288 Copyright © 2004 . Create Type a perspective view with the DVIEW command. This will load a dialog box with predefined saved views. Set Current OK.2 1. Command: ddview 2.Adding a View to a Scene 20.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 21 Backgrounds 290 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 291 .

Click Render Solid as the background type. Background or 2.Kristen Kurland 293 . Command: background 3.1 1.Solid Background Solid Background 21.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Solid Background 292 Copyright © 2004 . 4. the viewport. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Render.

5. Background or 2. the colors as desired. the viewport. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Gradient Background 21. Choose View. Click Adjust Render Gradient as the background type.2 1. Command: background 3.Kristen Kurland 295 . 4. 294 Copyright © 2004 .

4.3 1. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. the C:\Program Files\ACAD2004\ TEXTURES\valley_l.Kristen Kurland 297 . Background or 2. Image Background 296 Copyright © 2004 . Command: background 3. Find File under the Image section. the viewport. OK. Render. Choose View.Image Background Image Background 21. 7. Click Choose Choose Click Render the Image radio button.tga image file as the background. 6. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: background 3. Background or 2. Render. 4. the viewport. Click Render the Merge radio button.Merge Background 21.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .4 1. 298 Copyright © 2004 . Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 299 . Choose View.

Chapter 22 Landscaping 300 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 301 .

the Position button. Command: lsnew 3. 4. 6. 8.. 5. Landscape New.1 1. 7. Render. Choose View. a new position for the Cactus. Render at the command prompt. the Landscape dialog box.. Type LSNEW at the command prompt.Edit a Landscape Object Placing a New Landscape Object 22. Photo Raytrace as the Rendering Type.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 303 . Pick Click Pick Exit Type Choose Cactus as the landscape item. Edit a Landscape Object 302 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.

4..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 305 .2 1.. or 2. Render. 304 Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. the height of the Cactus. Command: lsedit 3. Landscape Edit. Type LSEDIT at the command prompt. Pick Edit the Cactus as the landscape item to edit.Editing an Existing Landscape Object 22.

Create an image and opacity image for desired object. LSNEW at the command prompt to place the new image in your drawing.. 6. Landscape Library. 8. Click Edit Click Type Render New. or 3. 5. 7. the other dialog options as desired.. Landscape Library & Render Landscapes 2. View. the viewport. Choose 306 Copyright © 2004 . Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . NOTE: Youwill need to use an external paint program to do this..to create a new landscape object..Landscape Library & Render Landscapes Custom Landscape Library 22. OK and save the render library. Command: lslib 4. Type LSLIB at the command prompt.3 1.Kristen Kurland 307 .

Kristen Kurland 309 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 23 Misc. Render Commands 308 Copyright © 2004 .

htm 1. If the ray misses all objects. Choose PhotoRaytrace as the render type.1 Introduction Ray Tracing is a global illumination based rendering method. or 2.. Command: render 3. a ray of light is traced in a backwards direction. It traces rays of light from the eye back through the image plane into the scene. www.org/education/ materials/HyperGraph/raytrace/rtrace0. is a point sampling algorithm. 310 Copyright © 2004 . The pixel is then set to the color values returned by the ray. Like all point sampling algorithms. this leads to the potential problem of aliasing. Then the rays are tested against all objects in the scene to determine if they intersect any objects. Note that ray tracing. Render. multiple specular reflections. then that pixel is shaded the background color. We sample a continuous image in world coordinates by shooting one or more rays through each pixel.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Raytracing 23. Render. like scan-line graphics. Choose View.. Ray tracing handles shadows.siggraph. which is manifested in computer graphics by jagged edges or other nasty visual artifacts. and texture mapping in a very easy straight-forward manner. That is. Type RENDER at the command prompt. we start from the eye or camera and trace the ray through a pixel in the image plane into the scene and determine what it hits. In ray tracing.Kristen Kurland 311 .

or 2. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 312 Copyright © 2004 . 4. the viewport. Render. OK. Choose View. 5.2 1.. Command: render 3.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Set Antialiasing 23. 6. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 313 .under Rendering Options.. High as the Anti-Aliasing method...Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Choose Click Render More Options.

314 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.3 1..Adaptive Sampling 23. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 315 .. Render. Choose View..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .under Rendering Options.. Render. Choose More Options. Command: render 3.

.4 1.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Ray Tree Depth 23. Choose View..Kristen Kurland 317 .. Choose More Options. Render.. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: render 3. Type RENDER at the command prompt.under Rendering Options. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 316 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.

Command: render 3. Type RENDER at the command prompt.. Choose View. 5.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Change Subsampling Options 23..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3:1 OK. Render. Choose Choose Click Render the Sub-sampling dropdown list.Kristen Kurland 319 . the viewport. 4. or 2. Render. Raytracing & Subsampling Options Rendered Bottle with Sub-Sampling 3:1 318 Copyright © 2004 .5 1. 6.

6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects.Kristen Kurland 321 . Fog & Render Preferences 1. Fog or 2. the remaining dialog options as desired. 320 Copyright © 2004 .Fog & Render Preferences Fog 23. Type FOG at the command prompt. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Edit Enable Fog to turn FOG on. Render. Command: fog 3. Choose View.

Statistics or 2. 322 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects. Command: stats 3. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 323 . Render. Type STATS at the command prompt. Render Statistics 1.Render Statistics Render Statistics 23. Save the statistics to a file or choose OK to exit.

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