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Autocad 3d Training Manual

Autocad 3d Training Manual

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Sections

  • Chapter 1 Controlling Views
  • Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation
  • Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model
  • Chapter 4 Z Coordinates
  • Chapter 5 User Coordinate System
  • Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands
  • Chapter 7 Dynamic View - Perspective
  • Chapter 8 3D Model Objects
  • Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces
  • Chapter 10 3D Surfaces
  • Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces
  • Chapter 12 Solids
  • Chapter 13 3D Edits
  • Chapter 14 Solid Composites
  • Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects
  • Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process
  • Chapter 17 Rendering
  • Chapter 18 Materials
  • Chapter 19 Lights
  • Chapter 20 Scenes
  • Chapter 21 Backgrounds
  • Chapter 22 Landscaping
  • Chapter 23 Misc. Render Commands

Copyright © 2004

AutoCAD 3D Training Manual
®

Written by Kristen S. Kurland

® AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk, Inc.

Chapter 1 Controlling Views

2

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

3

Viewports Viewports 1.1

Viewports

Screen divided into three tiled viewports

-Vports Command
1. Type -VPORTS at the command prompt. Command: -vports Enter an option [Save/Restore/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/3/4] <3>: enter Enter a configuration option [Horizontal/Vertical/Above/ Below/Left/Right] <Right>: enter Regenerating model. 2. 3. Click Type once in each vport to make it active. a ZOOM option in each viewport. NOTE: AutoCAD plots only the current vport.

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

5

Viewports. OK. Choose Click Click View. 2. New Viewports tab of the Viewports dialog Viewports 6 Copyright © 2004 .Viewports 3D Viewports 1.2 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 7 . 3. New Viewports the dropdown option for Setup and click 3D.

3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Preset Views Preset Views 1. One of the following view options: Top Bottom Front Back Left Right Southwest Isometric Southeast Isometric Northeast Isometric Northwest Isometric Preset Views 4.Kristen Kurland 9 . Choose Click Click View. Click Click the Set Current button the OK button 8 Copyright © 2004 . 2. 5. Named Views Orthographic & Isometric Views tab of the View dialog.3 1.

Tripod Point in the center of the compass is the north pole Vpoint Command Middle ring of the compass is the equator Entire outer ring is the south pole Vpoint Command (Rotate) 1. 1. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0. 3D Views. The compass represents a two dimensional globe.4 Displays a compass and tripod for defining a view rotation.0.Kristen Kurland 11 .500>: R (enter) Enter angle in XY plane from X axis <225>: 225 (enter) Enter angle from XY plane <30>: 15 (enter) Regenerating drawing.614.614. 1.5 Enters a rotation angle at the viewpoint prompt. Vpoint or 2. Choose View. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-0. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.-0.614.-0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Resultant viewport with new 3D view 10 Copyright © 2004 .614.0. Click a point on the compass to define the viewing angle. 3D Views.Vpoint Command Vpoint Command (Tripod) 1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt. Choose View. Vpoint or 2.500>: (enter) 3.

Pick a viewing angle in the 2 graphics Left graphic = From X Axis Right graphic = In XY Plane 5. 3D Views. Type DDVPOINT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 13 .Vpoint Command Vpoint Command DDVpoint Command 1. or 4.6 1. Viewpoint Preset or 2. Resultant viewport with new 3D view Angle from the X Axis Angle in the XY Plane 12 Copyright © 2004 . Set a viewing angle by typing the From X axis and XY Plane angle. Click OK. Choose View. Command: ddvpoint 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Choose View.8 1.690. Right. Vpoint Presets Resultant viewport with entered coordinates -1.1 Other Preset Viewpoints 1. 1. Type VPOINT at the command prompt.995>: -1. Bottom. 3D Views.-1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.-1. 3D Views.981. Back SW Isometric SE Isometric NW Isometric NE Isometric 14 Copyright © 2004 . and one of the following viewpoint options: Top.1 Regenerating drawing.Kristen Kurland 15 .2.Vpoint Presets Vpoint Command (Vector Option) 1. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point> <-1.-1. Vpoint or 2. Left.7 Enters coordinates at the viewpoint prompt. Front.

Plan View
Plan View 1.9
1. Choose View, 3D Views, Plan View the one of the following: Current UCS, World UCS, Named UCS or 2. Type PLAN at the command prompt. Command: plan Enter an option [Current ucs/Ucs/World] <Current>: Regenerating model.

Plan View

Current ucs Ucs

Goes to the plan view of the current UCS. At the command line type in a name of a previously named Coordinate System. Goes to the plan view of the World Coordinate System.

World

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Chapter 2 Thickness and Elevation

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

19

Thickness
Thickness Command 2.1
Sets the current 3D solid thickness.

Thickness

1.

Type

THICKNESS at the command prompt. Command: thickness Enter new value for THICKNESS <0.0000>: 2.00

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

21

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Thickness 1. Type DDMODIFY or DDCHPROP at the command prompt. or Changes the current thickness of an object 2. Choose from the Standard Toolbar 22 Copyright © 2004 .Thickness Changing the Current Thickness 2. Choose Modify.2 Changing the current properties of an object changes its thickness. Properties.Kristen Kurland 23 ... Command: ddmodify or ddchprop or 3.

00 24 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Elevation and Elev Shortcur Elevation Command 2. Elevation and Elev Shortcut 1.0000>: 2.3 Stores the current elevation relative to the current UCS for the current space.Kristen Kurland 25 . Command: elevation Enter new value for ELEVATION <0. Type ELEVATION at the command prompt.

Command: elev Specify new default elevation: <2.0000>: 26 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 27 .4 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type ELEV at the command prompt.0000>: Specify new default thickness: <3.Shortcut to Elevation & Thickness Commands 2.

Chapter 3 Visualizing the Model 28 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 29 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Type HIDE at the command prompt. Hide. OR 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Objects After Hidden Line Removal 30 Copyright © 2004 . Command: hide Regenerating Model. Objects Before Hidden Line Removal Hide 1.Kristen Kurland 31 .1 Regenerates a three-dimensional model with hidden lines suppressed.Hide Hide Command 3. Choose View.

Choose View. Type SHADE at the command prompt.Shade Shade Command 3. Flat Shaded (edges on) 1. The following are various shade options: Flat Shaded Gourand Shaded (edges on) 3D Wireframe Gourand Shaded (Smoother) 32 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 33 . Shade. Command: shade Regenerating Drawing.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 Gourand Shaded (edges on) Shade Displays a flat-shaded image of the drawing in the current viewport while performing a hidden line removal. OR 2.

4 Sets the ratio of diffuse reflective light to ambient light (in percentage of diffuse reflective light). 1. Type SHADEDIF at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 35 3. edges not highlighted Faces shaded.3 Shaded Object Shade Controls shading of edges in rendering. Type SHADEDGE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Shade Shadedge Variable 3. edges drawn in background color Faces not filled. Command: shadedif Enter new value for SHADEDIF <70>:20 34 Copyright © 2004 . edges in background color Shadif Variable 3. 1. edges in object color Faces in object color.2 . Command: shadedge Enter new value for SHADEDGE <3>: (enter) 0 1 2 3 Faces shaded.

Type PLOT at the command prompt. Choose the check box beside the option to remove hidden lines. Command: plot 2. extruded objects.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Hides Lines for Plots 36 Copyright © 2004 . meshes.Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal and Shade for Plots 3.5 If your drawing contains 3D faces.Kristen Kurland 37 . Hidden Lines in Plots 1. sur faces. you can direct AutoCAD to remove hidden lines or shade from specific viewports when you plot the paper space view. or solids.

Type MVIEW at the command prompt. Command: mview Specify corner of viewport or [ON/OFF/Fit/Shadeplot/Lock/Object/Polygonal/Restore/2/ 3/4] <Fit>: s Shade plot? [As displayed/Wireframe/Hidden/Rendered] <As displayed>: h Select objects: pick mview in paperspace.Kristen Kurland 39 .he effect of this command until you plot the drawing. Select objects: enter NOTE: You do not see t.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .6 1.Hidden Lines in Plots Hidden Line Removal in Mviews (Paper Space) 3. Hidden Lines in Plots Mview with Hidden Line Removal 38 Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 4 Z Coordinates 40 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 41 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.0 42 Copyright © 2004 .1 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 2.3D Coordinates Entering 3D Coordinates 4.1. you specify a Z value.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 43 .2.0 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 1. In addition to specifying X and Y values.Y).1.1 3D Polyline Drawn with 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates 3D Coordinates Entering 3D Cartesian coordinates (X.Z) is similar to entering 2D coordinates (X.0 Specify endpoint of line or [Undo]: 1.1. 3D Polyline 1.2. Command: 3DPOLY Specify start point of polyline: 1.1 Specify endpoint of line or [Close/Undo]: 2.Y.

0 Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: 0. Command: move Select objects: (pick object) 1 found Select objects: hit enter Specify base point or displacement: 0.2 Original Circle Draw at Elevation Zero Moving in the Z Direction Move Command To move an object in the Z direction.0.Kristen Kurland 45 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . use the move command.Moving in the Z Direction Moving in the Z Direction 4.1 Circle Moved -2 Units in the Z Direction 44 Copyright © 2004 .0. 1. Type MOVE at the command prompt.

Command: point Point: .Kristen Kurland 47 . 3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 1. use DDPTYPE and choose a visible point style.3D Point Filters 3D Point Filters 4. Type Any command asking for a “point” at the command prompt.xy of end P1 of (need Z): 2 46 Copyright © 2004 . you can use point filters. Before issuing the point filter command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 To place a point 1 inch above the back left corner of the rectangle.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 5 User Coordinate System 48 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 49 .

Turns off the display of the UCSICON. Affects the display of the UCSICON in all viewports. Shows the UCS at the 0. Always displays the UCS at the lower left corner. It also represents the current viewing direction relative to the UCS XY plane. Display. or 2.Ucsicon UCS icon turned ON Ucsicon UCSICON 5. Mspace UCSICON Pspace UCSICON 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View.0 origin of the current UCS. On/Off. 50 Copyright © 2004 .0. UCS Icon. Type UCSICON at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 51 . Command: ucsicon Enter an option [ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin] <ON>: UCS icon turned OFF ON OFF All Noorigin ORigin Displays the UCS icon.1 The UCS icon represents the orientation of the UCS axes and the location of the current UCS origin.

parallel to your screen).UCS Dialog Box & World UCS UCS Overview 5. Lets you define a new coordinate s ystem by pointing at an entity (except a 3D polyline. and viewing. polygon mesh. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: 2. Object. Specifies a UCS by its origin and a point on the positive X and Y axes. Aligns the UCS to the selected face of a solid object. Restores the World Coordinate System. Rotates the ucs around a specified axis Previous Restore Save Delete World ? Move . These UCS settings are typically used when viewing & editing 3D models [Top/Bottom/Front/Back/Left/Right] Restores the previously saved UCS. Specifies one of the six orthographic UCSs provided with AutoCAD. Y.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 53 . 1. leaving the direction of the X. planes of operation. Lists the defined UCSs in the current drawing.2 Manages user coordinate systems. Z Axis. Removes a saved UCS definition. View X. UCS Toolbar OrthoGraphic ZAxis 3 Point Object UCSII Toolbar Face View X/Y/Z 52 Copyright © 2004 . Most AutoCAD geometric editing commands are dependent on the location and orientation of the UCS. Allows you to define a new origin. The user coordinate system provides an alternate movable coordinate system for coordinate entry. Z Origin Defines a new UCS by shifting the origin of the current UCS. Restores a saved UCS. Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpen dicular to your viewing direction (i. 3 Point.e.Y. leaving the orientation of its XY plane un changed. Face. and Z axes unchanged. Type UCS at the command prompt. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Redefines a UCS by shifting the origin or changing the Z-depth of the current UCS. Names and saves a UCS. or viewport entity). Choose One of the following UCS options: New Defines a new coordinate system by one of six methods: Origin.

54 Copyright © 2004 . It is the only UCS guaranteed to be the same in all AutoCAD drawings.Kristen Kurland 55 .UCS Dialog Box & World UCS World UCS 5.0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the WCS.0 specifies a point two units in the X direction of the last point entered relative to the UCS. Type UCS at the command prompt. Entering @2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World> (press enter) World Returns the UCS back to the original World UCS.3 1. most coordinates are entered relative to the UCS rather than the WCS. Entering @*2.0. In practice. NOTE: This is the UCS you should use when creating Wblocks and inserting Wblocks. UCS Dialog Box & World UCS Tip: To enter coordinates relative to the WCS • Precede coordinate values with an asterisk (*).0.

8.4 1.73. Command: ucs Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.Kristen Kurland 57 .0>: 3 Specify new origin point <0.53.0.UCS 3 Point UCS 5.0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0.73.0.0>: pick origin Specify point on positive portion of X-axis <3.7.53.00>: Setting the UCS with the 3 Point Method UCS UCS modified 56 Copyright © 2004 .00>: Specify point on positive-Y portion of the UCS XY plane <2. Type UCS at the command prompt.

Type UCS at the command prompt. Command: plan UCS View 5.Plan View of Current UCS Plan View and UCS 5.5 1.0.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>:V View Establishes a new coordinate system whose XY plane is perpendicular to your viewing direction (i. Type PLAN at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 59 .e. UCS parallel to the View Instead of the Object 58 Copyright © 2004 . parallel to your screen). Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.6 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 61 .0. Type UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 60 Copyright © 2004 .7 1.UCS Object 5. The new UCS has the same extrusion direction (positive Z axis) as that of the selected object.0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>:OB Object Defines a new coordinate system based on a selected 3D object. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.

Kristen Kurland 63 .0>: vOrigin/ZAxis/3point/ OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/ <World>: 62 Copyright © 2004 . Type UCS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .8 1.0.AutoCAD Help Topics for New UCS Other New UCS Options 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: n Specify origin of new UCS or [ZAxis/3point/OBject/ Face/View/X/Y/Z] <0.

Type UCS at the command prompt.10 UCS 1. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Restore/ Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: s Enter name to save current UCS or [?]: 1.UCS Saving the UCS 5. Command: ucs Current ucs name: *NO NAME* Enter an option [New/Move/orthoGraphic/Prev/Re store/Save/Del/Apply/?/World] <World>: r Enter name of UCS to restore or [?]: 1 64 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 65 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .9 Restoring the UCS 5. Type UCS at the command prompt.

UCS Dialog Box 5. Type DDUCS at the command prompt. Command: dducs 66 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 67 .11 UCS Dialog Box (DDUCS) 1.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 6 3D Orbit Commands 68 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 69 .

Rotates around the “X” axis through the center.Kristen Kurland 71 .1 Controls Interactive 3D Viewing D Orbit Command.Allows movement in any direction Inside one of the small circles to the top/bottom . 70 Copyright © 2004 . Pan & Zoom Introduction to 3D Orbit Command 6. Inside one of the small circles to the left/right .Moves View about an axis that extends through the center (acts like twist) 1. Choose View. Pan & Zoom Outside the Arcball . Click on one of the 3D Orbit arcball locations. The 3D Orbit Arcball appears. Inside the Arcball .Rotates around the “Y” axis through the center. Type 3DORBIT at the command prompt. Command: 3dorbit OR 2.3D Orbit Command. 3D Orbit.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2 1.Kristen Kurland 73 . D Orbit Command. 2.3D Orbit Command. Pan & Zoom Pan and Zoom in 3D Orbit 6. Pan & Zoom 72 Copyright © 2004 . PAN or ZOOM from the pop-up menu. Click Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.

Kristen Kurland 75 . Shading. Projection. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. 3. and parts of the objects appear larger and closer to you.Projections. Objects appear to recede into the distance. one of the shade options.3 1. 2.4 with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Parallel or Perspective. 2. Click Projections. 1. Choose Choose Parallel Displays objects so that two parallel lines in a drawing never con verge at a single point. Perspective Displays objects in perspective so that all parallel lines converge at one point. Shading & Visual Aids Shading 6. This view correlates more closely to what your eye sees. Shading & Visual Aids Projection Mode 6. The shapes are some what distorted when the object is very close. The shapes in your drawing always remain the same and do not appear distorted when they are closer. 74 Copyright © 2004 . 3.

Adjusting Camera Camer Swivel and Distancea 6.Kristen Kurland 77 . Adjusting Camera 76 Copyright © 2004 .5 Simulates the effect of turning the camera. Changes the target of the view. 4. 1. More. 3. 2. Click Choose Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. a location in the view to change the camera. Swivel Camera.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Projections.Kristen Kurland 79 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2. one of the visual aids options. 3. UCS Icon 78 Copyright © 2004 . Shading & Visual Aids Visual Aids 6. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command. Compass Option TIP: Use GRIDUNIT to change the spacing of the grid units. Visual Aids. Shading & Visual Aids 1.6 3D Grid Option Projections.

Clipping Planes Clipping Planes 6. Clipping Plane Options Clipping Planes NOTE: If you have clipping planes ON when you exit the 3D Orbit command. More. 3.Kristen Kurland 81 . one of the clipping planes options. 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Adjusting Clipping Planes in the Clipping Plane Window 80 Copyright © 2004 . they will remain ON. Click Choose Choose with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.7 1.

This movement controls the direction and speed of the orbit.8 1. 4. Continuous Orbit. Continuous Orbit Continuous Motion (Rt Click to change options) 82 Copyright © 2004 . Click Choose Choose Click with the right mouse button while in the 3D Orbit command.Kristen Kurland 83 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . More.Continuous Orbit Continuous Orbit 6. 2. 3. and drag to start the continuous 3D Motion.

Perspective 84 Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 7 Dynamic View .Kristen Kurland 85 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

or [Toggle (angle from)] <90.Dynamic View and Perspective DView Camera Option 7. Choose View.0000>: 30 Specify camera location. or enter angle in XY plane from X axis. Note: You can also twist and pick a camera location. or [Toggle (angle in)] <90. Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK>: pick objects Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: ca Specify camera location.00000>: 45 Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: Regenerating model. Dynamic View and Perspective Setting a Camera Location 86 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Orbit or 2.Kristen Kurland 87 . or enter angle from XY plane. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .1 1.

Dynamic View and Perspective DView Target Option 7.2644>: pick a target loca tion Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: enter Regenerating model. or enter angle from XY plane.Kristen Kurland 89 . Command: dview Select objects or <use DVIEWBLOCK> pick objects: Select objects: enter Enter option [CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo]: TA Specify camera location.2 1. or [Toggle (angle in)] <35. 3D Orbit or 2. Note: You can also type a target location. Setting a Target Location Dynamic View and Perspective 88 Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/ TWist/CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: PO 90 Copyright © 2004 . zooming is not allowed.3 Setting Camera Target with POints Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target. Once a perspective view is set. 1. or 2.Kristen Kurland 91 . 3D Dynamic View. Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command.Setting Camera Target with POints Setting Camera Target with Points 7.

Dynamic View and Perspective Setting Perspective Distance 7.7321>: pick Resultant Perspective View Turning Perspective Off 7.5 1. Zoom functions must be done in the DVIEW command. 3D Dynamic View. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: D New camera/target distance <1. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose View. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View. 3D Dynamic View. Zoom to a Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective 1. or 2. zooming is not allowed.4 Moves the camera in or out along the line of sight relative to the target.Kristen Kurland 93 . Once a perspective view is set. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: OFF 92 Copyright © 2004 .

6 1. 3D Dynamic View. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>:PA Displacement base point: pick Second point: pick 94 Copyright © 2004 .Dynamic View and Perspective Zooming in Dview 7. or 2. 3D Dynamic View.7 1. Choose View. or 2. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: Z Adjust lens length <9. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 95 .666mm>: pick Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Zoomed and Panned Panning in Dview 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt.

9 1. or 2.Dynamic View and Perspective Clipping Objects 7.00>: pick 96 Copyright © 2004 . Type DVIEW at the command prompt.8 Dynamic View and Perspective Resultant View of Clipped Objects 1. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: CL Back/Front/<Off>: F Eye/<Distance from target> <4.4721>: pick Twisting Objects 7. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3D Dynamic View.Kristen Kurland 97 . Choose View. 3D Dynamic View. or 2. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: TW New view twist <0.

or 2.Kristen Kurland 99 .10 1. Choose View.Dynamic View and Perspective Dynamic View and Perspective Hidden Line Removal 7. Type DVIEW at the command prompt. Command: dview Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter CAmera/TArget/Distance/POints/PAn/Zoom/TWist/ CLip/Hide/Off/Undo/<eXit>: H 98 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 3D Dynamic View.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 101 .Chapter 8 3D Model Objects 100 Copyright © 2004 .

There are no surfaces in a wireframe model.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Wire Frames Wire Frames Wireframes 8.1 A wireframe model is a skeletal description of a 3D object. AutoCAD also provides some 3D wireframe objects.Kristen Kurland 103 . lines. it consists only of points. and curves that describe the edges of the object. 102 Copyright © 2004 . this type of modeling can be the most time-consuming. With AutoCAD you can create wireframe models by positioning 2D (planar) objects anywhere in 3D space. Because each object that makes up a wireframe model must be independently drawn and positioned. such as 3D polylines (that can only have a CONTINUOUS linetype) and splines.

Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . AutoCAD calls faceted surfaces. Surfaces. With Mechanical Desktop. you can create true curved surfaces.Surfaces Surfaces 8. To differentiate these two types of surfaces. The AutoCAD surface modeler defines faceted surfaces using a polygonal mesh. 104 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 105 . meshes. Because the faces of the mesh are planar. the mesh can only approximate curved surfaces.2 Surface modeling is more sophisticated than wireframe modeling in that it defines not only the edges of a 3D object. but also its surfaces. Surfaces 1.

Solids NOTE: Because each modeling type uses a different method for constructing 3D models and editing methods vary in their effect on the different model types. spheres. it is recommended that you not mix modeling methods.3 Solid modeling is the easiest type of 3D modeling to use.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 107 . You can then combine these shapes to create more complex solids by joining or subtracting them or finding their intersecting (overlapping) volume. cones. You can also create solids by sweeping a 2D object along a path or revolving it about an axis. cylinders. 106 Copyright © 2004 . and tori (donuts). wedges. you can make 3D objects by creating basic 3D shapes: boxes.Solids Solids 8. With the AutoCAD solid modeler. 1. Solids.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 109 .Chapter 9 2D Solids and 3D Faces 108 Copyright © 2004 .

Choose Draw. the Other Predefined tab. Choose Choose Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .2D Solid and Hatch 2D Solid 9. Solids. Command: solid First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: enter 2D Hatch 9.. Hatch. 2D Solid.2 1. or 2.1 2D Solid and Hatch 1. 110 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 111 . Solid. 2.. NOTE: 2D Solids and Hatches cannot be rendered or shaded. 3. Type SOLID at the command prompt.

which creates a threeor four-sided surface that is parallel to the current UCS and can be extruded. 3D Face. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . you control which edges of a 3D face are visible. 1. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. Choose Draw. 3DFACE differs from SOLID.or four-sided surface anywhere in 3D space. Command: 3dface First point: pick Second point: pick Third point: pick Fourth point: pick Third point: enter 112 Copyright © 2004 .3D Faces 3D Face 9. Entering i or invisible before the first point of an edge makes the edge invisible.3 3DFACE creates a three. allowing accurate modeling of objects with holes. You can specify different Z coordinates for each corner point of a 3D face. Surfaces.Kristen Kurland 113 . 3D Faces With 3DFACE.

Surfaces. or 2. Edge. Type EDGE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 115 .4 1.Edges Edge 9. Command: edge Display/<Select edge>: pick a 3D edge Edges 114 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Choose Draw. Invisible Faces 116 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Type 3DFACE at the command prompt. 3D Face.Invisible Faces 3D Invisible Edge 9. Command: 3dface First point: P1 Second point: P2 Third point: i P3 Fourth point: P4 Third point: i P5 Fourth point: P6 Third point: P7 Fourth point: P8 Third point: enter NOTE: You must enter an “i” for invisible before the face is chosen. or 2.Kristen Kurland 117 .5 1.

vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: Pface 118 Copyright © 2004 . vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 7 Face 1. Type PFACE at the command prompt.7 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 1 Face 1. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 3 Face 2. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 3. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 5 Face 3. vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 4 Face 2. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 4. vertex 2: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 2 Face 1. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 2 Face 2. vertex 5: enter Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 2. Command: pface Specify location for vertex 1-8: P1 -P8 Face 1. vertex 4: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 2. vertex 1: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer]: 4 Face 3.Pface Pface 9.Kristen Kurland 119 . vertex 5: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: Face 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . vertex 3: Enter a vertex number or [Color/Layer] <next face>: 6 Face 1.

Chapter 10 3D Surfaces

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3DBox
3DBox 10.1
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the box from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_BOX at the command prompt. Command: ai_box Initializing... 3D Objects loaded. Corner of box: pick Specify length of box: 4 Specify width of box or [Cube]: 2 Specify height of box: 2 Specify rotation angle of box about the Z axis or [Refer ence]: 0

3DBox

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Pyramid Pyramid 10.2
1. 2. Choose Pick Draw, Surfaces, 3D Surfaces... the pyramid from the dialog menu. or 3. Type AI_PYRAMID at the command prompt. Command: ai_pyramid Specify first corner point for base of pyramid: pick Specify second corner point for base of pyramid: <Ortho on> 4 Specify third corner point for base of pyramid: 4 Specify fourth corner point for base of pyramid or [Tetrahedron]: 4 Specify apex point of tetrahedron or [Top]: .xy of pick (need Z): 4

Pyramid

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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3 1. or 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: ai_wedge Specify corner point of wedge: pick Specify length of wedge: 4 Specify width of wedge: 2 Specify height of wedge: 1 Specify rotation angle of wedge about the Z axis: 0 Wedge 126 Copyright © 2004 .. Surfaces. 3D Surfaces..Kristen Kurland 127 .Wedge Wedge 10. 2. Type AI_WEDGE at the command prompt. Choose Pick Draw. the wedge from the dialog menu.

2. or 3. Surfaces. Type AI_DOME at the command prompt..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. the dome from the dialog menu. Command: ai_dome Specify center point of dome: pick Specify radius of dome or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dome <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dome <8>: 10 Dome 128 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 129 .4 1.Dome Dome 10. Choose Pick Draw. 3D Surfaces.

the sphere from the dialog menu.Sphere Sphere 10... Command: ai_sphere Specify center point of sphere: pick Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of sphere <16>: 25 Sphere 130 Copyright © 2004 . 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type AI_SPHERE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 131 . Surfaces. or 3. Choose Pick Draw.5 1. 3D Surfaces.

6 1. Type AI_CONE at the command prompt. 2.Cone Cone 10. Command: ai_cone Specify center point for base of cone: pick Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify radius for top of cone or [Diameter] <0>: 5 Specify height of cone: 3 Enter number of segments for surface of cone <16>: enter Cone 132 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Pick Draw.. or 3. 3D Surfaces. Surfaces.. the cone from the dialog menu.Kristen Kurland 133 .

.Kristen Kurland 135 .. Surfaces. the torus from the dialog menu. Command: ai_torus Specify center point of torus: pick Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 1 Enter number of segments around tube circumference <16>: enter Enter number of segments around torus circumference <16>: enter Torus 134 Copyright © 2004 . or 3.Torus Torus 10. Type AI_TORUS at the command prompt. 2.7 1. 3D Surfaces. Choose Pick Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. the dish from the dialog menu. Surfaces.. 2. Command: ai_dish Specify center point of dish: pick Specify radius of dish or [Diameter]: 3 Enter number of longitudinal segments for surface of dish <16>: 20 Enter number of latitudinal segments for surface of dish <8>: 15 Dish 136 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 137 . Choose Pick Draw. Type AI_DISH at the command prompt. 3D Surfaces. or 3.8 1.Dish Dish 10.

Kristen Kurland 139 .1 Enter mesh size in the M direction: 20 Enter mesh size in the N direction: 10 138 Copyright © 2004 .9 Creates a planar mesh whose M and N sizes determine the number of lines drawn in each direction along the mesh.2 Specify fourth corner point of mesh: 1.1 Specify third corner point of mesh: 4..1. Type ai_mesh at the command prompt.1 Specify second corner point of mesh: 4. Command: ai_mesh Initializing.Mesh Mesh 10. Mesh 1.4. 3D Objects loaded. Specify first corner point of mesh: 1..4.1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Chapter 11 Complex Surfaces 140 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 141 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

-=cw) <360> enter 142 Copyright © 2004 .. or 2. Surftab1 and Surftab2 Variables 1.Kristen Kurland 143 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Revolved Surfaces Revolved Surface 11.1 Creates a revolved surface about a selected axis. Command: revsurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object to revolve: pick Select object that defines the axis of revolution: pick Specify start angle <0>: enter Specify included angle (+=ccw. Choose Draw. Type Revsurf at the command prompt. Revolved Surface.. Surfaces.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Suftab1 and Surftab2 11. 1.Kristen Kurland 145 . Also sets the mesh density in ROTATE3D the M direction for REVSURF and EDGESURF commands. Command: surftab1 Enter new value for SURFTAB1 <6>: 30 2. Type Surftab1 at the command prompt. Command: surftab2 Enter new value for SURFTAB2 <6>: 30 144 Copyright © 2004 . Type Surftab2 at the command prompt.2 Sets the number of tabulations for both directions to be generated for RULESURF and TABSURF.

Surfaces. Direction Vector Tabulated Surfaces 1. Type TABSURF at the command prompt. Command: tabsurf Select object for path curve: Select object for direction vector: Path for Curve 146 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 147 . Tabulated Surfaces or 2.Tabulated Surfaces Tabulated Surfaces 11.3 Creates a tabulated surface from a path curve and a direction vector.

Choose Draw. Surfaces. Ruled Surface 1.4 Creates a ruled surface between two curves. Type RULESURF at the command prompt. Ruled Surface or 2.Ruled Surface Ruled Surface 11.Kristen Kurland 149 . Command: rulesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 Select first defining curve: P1 Select second defining curve: P2 148 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Ruled Surface More Ruled Surface Examples 11.4 Ruled Surface 150 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 151 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Command: edgesurf Current wire frame density: SURFTAB1=6 SURFTAB2=6 Select object 1 for surface edge: P1 Select object 2 for surface edge: P2 Select object 3 for surface edge: P3 Select object 4 for surface edge: P4 152 Copyright © 2004 .Edge Surface Edge Surface 11. Choose Draw. Type EDGESURF at the command prompt.5 Creates a three-dimensional polygon mesh Edge Surface 1. Surfaces.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Edge Surface or 2.Kristen Kurland 153 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 155 .Chapter 12 Solids 154 Copyright © 2004 .

You can extrude multiple objects with EXTRUDE. or 2. Lines with a Thickness of 2” Extrude Command Lines Extruded 2” 1. Extrude. Solids. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .1 Creates unique solid primitives by extruding existing two-dimensional objects.Kristen Kurland 157 .Extrude Command Extrude 12. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 4 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: enter 156 Copyright © 2004 .

Solids.Extrude with Taper 12.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Extrude. Choose Draw.2 1. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick objects Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 15 158 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 159 .

Kristen Kurland 161 . Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Extrude.Extrude Curves 12.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick curved pline Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 3 Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 0 160 Copyright © 2004 .3 1. Solids. or 2. Choose Draw.

Solids. or 2. Extrude. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 1.Kristen Kurland 163 .4 EXTRUDE also creates solids by extruding two-dimensional objects (profiles) along a specified path.Extrude Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 12. Type EXTRUDE at the command prompt. Command: extrude Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: P1 Select objects: enter Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: p Select extrusion path: P2 Hidden Line Removal of Extruded Circle Circle Extruded Along a Path Extrude Along a Path 162 Copyright © 2004 .

Revolve Command Revolve 12. Revolve Command 1. Choose Draw. Command: revolve Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Select objects: pick profile Select objects: enter Specify start point for axis of revolution or define axis by [Object/X (axis)/Y (axis)]: o Select an object: pick axis Specify angle of revolution <360>: enter 164 Copyright © 2004 . Revolve or 2. Type REVOLVE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 165 . Solids.5 Creates a composite region or solid by addition.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 167 .6 Creates a three-dimensional solid box. Solids. Choose Draw. Box.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0>: pick corner Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick opposite corner Specify height: 2 166 Copyright © 2004 . Box Solid Box Lines with a Thickness 1.Box Box Solid 12.0. Type BOX at the command prompt Command: box Specify corner of box or [CEnter] <0. or 2.

7 Creates a three-dimensional solid sphere.0>: pick point Specify radius of sphere or [Diameter]: 2 168 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 169 .0. Type SPHERE at the command prompt. Solids. Sphere Sphere with Hidden Lines Sphere 1. Sphere. Choose Draw. Command: sphere Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of sphere <0. or 2.Sphere Sphere 12.

sphere with 4 isolines Isolines and Facetres 1.Isolines and Facetres Isolines 12.8 Specifies the number of isolines per surface on objects.Kristen Kurland 171 . Type ISOLINES at the command prompt. Valid integer values are from 0 to 2047.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: ISOLINES Enter new value for ISOLINES <4>: 15 sphere with 15 isolines 170 Copyright © 2004 .

01 to 10. Valid values are from 0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Isolines and Facetres Facetres 12.1 Isolines and Facetres 1. Command: FACETRES Enter new value for FACETRES <.Kristen Kurland 173 .1000>: 5 sphere with facetres 5 172 Copyright © 2004 .9 Adjusts the smoothness of shaded and rendered objects and objects with hidden lines removed. Type FACETRES at the command prompt.0. sphere with facetres 0.

Command: cone Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center point for base of cone or [Elliptical] <0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Cone.0>: pick point Specify radius for base of cone or [Diameter]: 2 Specify height of cone or [Apex]: 4 174 Copyright © 2004 .0. Solids. Choose Draw.Kristen Kurland 175 . Type CONE at the command prompt. Cone Cone with Hidden Lines Cone 1.Cone Cone 12.10 Creates a three-dimensional solid cone.

Solids. Type WEDGEat the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .0>: pick Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: pick Specify height: 2 176 Copyright © 2004 . 1.11 Creates a three-dimensional solid wedge.Kristen Kurland 177 . Wedge. Choose Draw.Wedge12. or 2.0. Command: _wedge Specify first corner of wedge or [CEnter] <0.

Torus Torus 12. Torus. Torus Torus with Hidden Lines Torus 1.12 Creates a donut-shaped solid.0>: pick point Specify radius of torus or [Diameter]: 6 Specify radius of tube or [Diameter]: 2 178 Copyright © 2004 . Solids. Type TORUS at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 179 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Draw. Command: torus Current wire frame density: ISOLINES=4 Specify center of torus <0.0. or 2.

Chapter 13 3D Edits 180 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 181 .

Rotate3D.3D Rotate Rotate 3D 13. 3D Operation.0>: pick Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 90 Object Rotated 90 degrees around x-axis 182 Copyright © 2004 . Choose Modify. Object Before Rotation 3D Rotate 1.0.Kristen Kurland 183 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2.1 Rotates objects about a three-dimensional axis. Command: rotate3D Current positive angle: ANGDIR=counterclockwise ANGBASE=0 Select objects: pick Select objects: enter Specify first point on axis or define axis by [Object/Last/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis/2points]: x Specify a point on the X axis <0. Type ROTATE3D at the command prompt.

Align.Kristen Kurland 185 .Align Align 13. Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Type ALIGN at the command prompt.2 1. 3D Operation. Command: align Select objects: pick the wedge Select objects: enter Specify first source point: P1 Specify first destination point: P2 Specify second source point: P3 Specify second destination point: P4 Specify third source point or <continue>: enter Scale objects based on alignment points? [Yes/No] <N>: enter Wedge Aligned to the Box ( Not Scaled) Objects before align Align 184 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Mirror 3D. 3D Operation.3 Circle Mirrored around 3 Points Mirror 3D 1.Kristen Kurland 187 . Choose Modify.Mirror 3D Mirror 3D 13. or 2. Type MIRROR3D at the command prompt. Command: mirror3D Select objects: pick the circle Select objects: enter Specify first point of mirror plane (3 points) or [Object/Last/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] <3points>: P1 Specify second point on mirror plane: P2 Specify third point on mirror plane: P3 Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>: enter 186 Copyright © 2004 .

.3D Array 3D Array (Rectangular) 13. 3D Array.): 8 Arrayed Objects in 3D Isometric Arrayed Objects in 3D Viewpoint 188 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. or 2. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland 189 . 3D Operation.. Command: 3darray Select objects: pick the cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: enter Enter the number of rows (---) <1>: 3 Enter the number of columns (|||) <1>: 4 Enter the number of levels (.4 Arrayed Objects in Plan View 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Front View 1.) <1>: 2 Specify the distance between rows (---): 5 Specify the distance between columns (|||): 4 Specify the distance between levels (..

Choose Modify.5 Arrayed Objects Around a Line 3D Array Arrayed Objects in Plan View 1. 3D Operation.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: 3darray Select objects: pick cube Select objects: enter Enter the type of array [Rectangular/Polar] <R>: p Enter the number of items in the array: 5 Specify the angle to fill (+=ccw. or 2.3D Array 3D Array (Polar) 13. Type 3DARRAY at the command prompt. -=cw) <360>: enter Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes/No] <Y>: enter Specify center point of array: mid of axis line Specify second point on axis of rotation: pick 190 Copyright © 2004 . 3D Array.Kristen Kurland 191 .

Chapter 14 Solid Composites

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Subtract
Subtract 14.1
Creates a composite region or solid by subtraction.

Subtract

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Subtract. or

2.

Type

SUBTRACT at the command prompt. Command: subtract SUBTRACT Select solids and regions to subtract from... Select objects: pick the box Select objects: (press enter) Select solids and regions to subtract... Select objects: pick the cylinder Select objects: enter
Objects Subtracted from Box

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Union
Union 14.2
Creates a composite region or solid by addition.

Union

1.

Choose

Modify, Solids Editing, Union. or

2.

Type

UNION at the command prompt. Command: union Select objects: pick cylinder & box Select objects: enter

Solid Objects Unioned Together

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

197

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solids Editing. Type INTERSECT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 199 .3 Creates a solid based on the intersection of two existing solids. Intersect 1. Command: intersect Select objects: pick cylinder and box Select objects: enter Intersection of Cylinder and Box 198 Copyright © 2004 . Intersect or 2.Intersect Intersect 14. Choose Modify.

Kristen Kurland 201 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 15 Modifying Solid Objects 200 Copyright © 2004 .

4. Solids Editing.25 angle of taper for extrusion <0>: 45 Extruded Face 202 Copyright © 2004 .1 1. 5. height of extrusion or [Path]: . Choose Press Specify Specify a face to extrude. ENTER. Extrude face NOTE: Must be a solid to extrude the face.Kristen Kurland 203 . If you choose more than one face.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Moving & Rotating Select Face 2.Extruding Faces. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. Moving & Rotating Extruding Faces 15. Extruding Faces. Choose Modify. 3.

Solid validation completed.Kristen Kurland 205 . the base point: pick the back left corner another point along the axis of tapering: pick point the taper angle: 45 Solid validation started. Choose Choose Press Specify Specify Specify Modify. Solids Editing. 4. 3. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. 6. If you choose more than one face.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Tapering Faces Tapered Faces 15.2 Before Taper Tapering Faces 1. 2. Taper face a face(s) to taper. 5. ENTER. After Taper 204 Copyright © 2004 .

the face to delete.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4.3 1. Delete face a face to delete.Kristen Kurland 207 . Delete 206 Copyright © 2004 . ENTER. Choose Choose Press Choose Modify. If you choose more than one face.Delete Delete Faces 15. 2. Solids Editing. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. 3.

4. 5. If you choose more than one face. hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted faces. 2. ENTER. Copy face a face to copy .Copy Faces Copy Faces 15. 3. Solids Editing.4 1. the solid face to copy. Choose Choose Press Pick Pick Modify. Copy Faces 208 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 209 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . a new location.

Color
Color Face 15.5
1. 2. Choose Choose faces. 3. 4. Press Choose ENTER. a color to change the face to. Modify, Solids Editing, Color face a face to change the color of. If you choose more than one face, hold the SHIFT key to deselect unwanted

Color

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

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Imprint
Imprint 15.6
1. 2. 3. 2. 3. 4. Extrude objects (i.e. walls) to create a solid object. Change the UCS and draw an object on a face of one of the walls. Choose Select Select Delete Modify, Solids Editing, Imprint. a 3D solid: pick solid an object to imprint: pick circle the source object <N>: y

Imprint

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

213

Extrude Imprint to Create Openings 15.7
1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Select Modify, Solids Editing, Extrude Faces. the circle that was imprinted.

Deselect any unwanted faces. Type -8 as the height of extrusion (or desired height)

214

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Copyright © 2004 - Kristen Kurland

215

Choose Select Modify. Solids Editing. After Clean 216 Copyright © 2004 . 2.Clean Clean 15.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . a 3D solid: pick imprinted circle. Clean.8 Before Clean Clean 1.Kristen Kurland 217 .

AutoCAD creates new faces by offsetting existing ones inside or outside their original positions. Choose Modify. AutoCAD treats continuously tangent faces as single faces when offsetting.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Select a 3D solid: pick Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: enter Enter the shell offset distance: .5 218 Copyright © 2004 . 1.9 You can create a shell or a hollow thin wall with a specified thickness from your 3D solid object.Shell 15. Shell. Solids Editing.Kristen Kurland 219 .

Kristen Kurland 213 .Chapter 16 Enhancing the Drawing Process 212 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

0.Creating Sections Creating Sections 16. Solids. Open Create Choose Choose the drawing called 3DBottle.1 1. Make it the current layer.Kristen Kurland 215 .0>:quad of bottle. Creating Sections 214 Copyright © 2004 . Section. 2. 5. Draw. 3. 3DRotate the section to a flat plane.DWG a layer called Section. all 3 solids making up the bottle. 4. Select objects: Specify first point on Section plane by [Object/ Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/3points] : ZX Specify a point on the ZX-plane <0.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

0>: quad of bottle Both sides/<Point on desired side of the plane>: pick the side of the bottle you want to keep.0. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing 1. Choose Modify. Type SLICE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 217 . Draw. 216 Copyright © 2004 .2 Slices a set of solids with a plane.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: slice Slice plane by Object/Zaxis/View/XY/YZ/ZX/ <3points>: ZX Point on ZX plane <0. or 2. Slice.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Slice 16.

. This create a new drawing with a border and one floating Model Space. Choose Choose Double Click File. 5. 4. 2.3 1. Double Click Double Click MODEL from the Status Bar.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . New. 3. Use a Template from the startup dialog. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Drawing with a Model Space View 218 Copyright © 2004 .dwt as the template file to start from. Note the change to Paper Space..Kristen Kurland 219 . Ansi_c. PAPER from the Status Bar to toggle back to Model Space.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Create a SOLVIEW Viewport 16.

..Kristen Kurland 221 . Choose Choose Insert Double Click Double Click Type Insert. PAPER at the Status Bar to return to Model Space.Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Insert a Drawing 1. Slice Command & Setting Up a 3D Drawing Model Space View Resized Model Space View Scaled 1XP 220 Copyright © 2004 . 1XP at the command prompt.DWG to insert. ZOOM. 2. MODEL at the Status Bar and resize the Model Space view port in Paper Space. the drawing called 3DBOTTLE. 4. 6. 5.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the block anywhere in the Model Space view at a scale of 1 and rotation 0. Block. 3.

Setup. Solids.Kristen Kurland 223 .Solview & Soldraw Create an Orthogonal View 1.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type SOLVIEW at the command prompt. View. Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: O Pick side of viewport to project: P1 View center: P2 Clip first corner: P3 Clip other corner: P4 View name: front Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: Solview & Soldraw 222 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Choose Draw.

Solview & Soldraw Create a 2D Section with Soldraw 16.4 Generates profiles and sections in viewports created with SOLVIEW. NOTE: If your object was an inserted block. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Solview & Soldraw 1. Solids. you need to first explode it so it becomes a solid. Setup.Kristen Kurland 225 . Drawing. SOLDRAW can only prepare viewports that have been created with SOLVIEW. Choose Draw. Type Command: soldraw Select viewports to draw: P1 Select objects: 1 found Select objects: enter 3 solids selected. Resultant Section and Solid Section in a Model View 224 Copyright © 2004 .

Draw. SW Isometric. View Command: solview Ucs/Ortho/Auxiliary/Section/<eXit>: u Named/World/?/<Current>: n Name of UCS to restore: 3dview Enter view scale<1. Setup. Solids. Click Choose PSPACE at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . UCS at the command prompt.5 1. 3D Viewport.. Command: ucs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: view This sets the current UCS parallel to the screen. Command: ucscs Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/ Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>: save ?/Desired UCS name: 3dview 5. We now need to save this ucs. Click Choose Type MSPACE and the plan view of the 3D Bottle.Kristen Kurland 227 ..Creating a 3D View Create a 3D View Using UCS 16.0000>: enter View center: pick View center: pick Creating a 3D View 3D Model View 226 Copyright © 2004 . Type UCS at the command prompt. 6. 2. 3. View. 4.

Create Hidden Line Removals Create a Hidden Line View 16.Kristen Kurland 229 . or 3. Setup. Draw. Create Hidden Line Removals Resultant 3D Model 228 Copyright © 2004 . Command: solprof Select objects: pick solids Select objects: enter Display hidden profile lines on separate layer? <Y>: enter Project profile lines onto a plane? <Y>: enter Delete tangential edges? <Y>: enter 3 solids selected. Double Click Choose MODEL to return to Model Space.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 2.6 1. Solids. Type SOLPROF at the command prompt. Profile.

Kristen Kurland 231 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 17 Rendering 230 Copyright © 2004 .

DWG. Selection. 2. Selection.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. Click the Render button. Command: render 5. Open Type Choose the AutoCAD drawing called 3DBOTTLE.1 Creates a photorealistic or realistically shaded image of a threedimensional wireframe or solid model. or 4. Render. Render. View. Render Command.Kristen Kurland 233 . MSPACE to go to the model space view. Cropped Window 1. Cropped Window Render Command 17. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Render Command. Rendered Viewport 232 Copyright © 2004 .. 3.

Render Command. Selection. Cropped Window Rendered Selection 234 Copyright © 2004 ..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the objects to render. 5. Render.. or 2. Click Click Choose Query for Selection.2 1. Render Command. Render. Choose View. 4. Selection. Command: render 3. Render. Cropped Window Render a Selection 17. Type RENDER at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 235 .

5. Click Click Choose Crop Window. Command: render 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render. Choose View..Render Command. 4. Render. or 2..Kristen Kurland 237 . Cropped Window Render a Cropped Window 17. Cropped Window Cropped Rendered Window 236 Copyright © 2004 . Render Command.3 1. a window to render. Selection. Selection. Render.

. Command: rpref 3.Render without Dialog Box 17.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..4 1. 4. or 2.Kristen Kurland 239 . 238 Copyright © 2004 . Turn Render Dialog Box On with RPREF 17. Type RPREF at the command line. Choose View. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Command: render 3. Render. Click Click Skip Render Dialog. Click Skip Render Dialog. Render.5 1. Render.

4.Kristen Kurland 241 .6 1. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. File as the destination options. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt.. Command: render 3. Choose View. Render Destinations Render to a File Options 240 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Render Destinations Render to File 17. or 2.. Render.

Choose View.7 1.. Click Choose the dropdown list under Viewport. Command: render 3. Render Window 242 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. or 2.Kristen Kurland 243 .. Render.Render to Render Window 17. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render Window as the destination option. Render.

Command: render 3.Print Screen 17.Kristen Kurland 245 . Press PRINT SCREEN on the keyboard to copy your rendered image to the Window’s clipboard. Choose View. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..8 1. Render.. 244 Copyright © 2004 . or 2.

Type RENDER at the command prompt.. reduce the smoothing angle. Smoothing Angle Sets the angle at which AutoCAD interprets an edge. The value is the current scale factor (in drawing units) of rendering blocks in the drawing. To define an edge as less than 45 degrees.9 1. Light Icon Scale Controls the size of the light blocks in the drawing. Click Light Scale Icon and Smoothing to change the values.Light Scale Icon and Smoothing Angle 17. The scale factor affects the following blocks: OVERHEAD. and SH_SPOT.Kristen Kurland 247 . DIRECT. Choose View. Render. Enter a real number to rescale the blocks.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Angles greater than 45 degrees are considered edges. Command: render 3. The default is 45 degrees. Angles less than 45 degrees are smoothed. Render.. or 2. 246 Copyright © 2004 .

Kristen Kurland 249 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 18 Materials 248 Copyright © 2004 .

Importing. Concrete Tile as the material. Materials. or 2.button. 7.. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose View. Importing.Materials Library. Render. 4. the Import button.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Click Pick Click Click Click the Materials Library.1 Materials Library. the Preview button. & Attaching Materials Materials Command 18.. OK.. Command: rmat 3..Kristen Kurland 251 . 250 Copyright © 2004 . 5. & Attaching Materials 1. 6.

Render. & Attaching Materials Materials Library 18. & Attaching Materials 252 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. Importing.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Materials Library. Command: matlib 3. Pick Click a material from the material list. Choose View. the Preview button and preview as a sphere or cube. Type MATLIB at the command prompt. Materials Library.2 1. Importing. 4.Kristen Kurland 253 .Materials Library.

9. the materials menu and render the viewport. the Attach button. Importing.. 5. Click Pick Click Click Click Click Pick the Materials Library. & Attaching Materials Applying Materials with Attach 18. 6.Kristen Kurland 255 . Importing. 3. & Attaching Materials 10. 254 Copyright © 2004 . the Preview button. Render. 2. the viewport. Materials. Exit NOTE: You need to set the rendering type to Photorealistic Rendering in order to see the materials 1. the Import button. Choose Choose Render View. Render Photoreal as the render type. Render.3 1... Objects to attach materials to. Command: rmat 3. or 2. Materials Library.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . OK. 8. 7. 4.. Glass as the material. Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose View.button.Materials Library.

or 2.Kristen Kurland 257 . 256 Copyright © 2004 .4 1. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. 4.. Type RMAT at the command prompt. 6. Materials. Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material.Applying Materials by Layer 18.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. the materials menu and render the viewport. Command: rmat 3. the By Layer button. Render. Choose View. 5.

Click Click Click Exit Click Copper as the material. 5. or 2..5 1. Materials..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. Ball as the layer to attach materials to. Command: rmat 3.Applying Materials by Color 18. the materials menu and render the viewport. Choose View. the By Layer button. 6.Kristen Kurland 259 . 258 Copyright © 2004 . Type RMAT at the command prompt. 4.

. the materials menu and render the viewport. Type RMAT at the command prompt. the base to attach materials to. Choose View. 4.Complex Materials 18.6 1. the Attach button. Render. Click Click Click Exit Click Med. Command: rmat 3.Kristen Kurland 261 . or 2. 5. Materials.. 6. 260 Copyright © 2004 . Ash Wood as the material.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping Adjusting Materials with Material Mapping 18.. Type SETUV at the command prompt. button. Choose View. enter when finished selecting. Pick Press Pick Click Adjust Click objects to adjust (base).Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. 6.7 1. 8. Photorealistic Rendering & Mapping 262 Copyright © 2004 . the Planar coordinates as necessary. 7.Kristen Kurland 263 . 5. OK. the type of projection to adjust. 4. Mapping or 2. Command: setuv 3.. the Adjust Coordinates.

Command: rmat 3. 4. Choose View..Kristen Kurland 265 . Choose Create Apply the New.button.. Materials. Type RMAT at the command prompt. 5.New Materials New Materials 18. New Materials 264 Copyright © 2004 ..6 1.. a new material. or 2. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the material to an object.

Type RMAT at the command prompt. Choose Create Apply the New.7 1. Choose View. Command: rmat 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ..Adjusting Material Appearances 18. Render.. 5.button. the material to an object.Kristen Kurland 267 .. Materials. 4. 266 Copyright © 2004 . or 2. a new material..

Choose Choose Textures Tools. a textured material such as checkers. Check Apply Shade the Enable Textures and Enable Materials options. the Systems TAB. the Properties.. 5. 268 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 269 .. 3. 4. the drawing to see the material result. Choose 2. 6..Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .button under the Current 3D Graphics Display.10 1..Textures Advanced Material Options 18. Options.

Chapter 19 Lights 270 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 271 .

ZOOM PREVIOUS to zoom to the original view. Type 11. Type 272 Copyright © 2004 . 9.xy filters) the light menu. POINT 1 as the new light name.. 6. Light Location Point Light 10.1 1.Point Light Point Light 19. 7. Render. ‘ZOOM to zoom if necessary a location (Hint: use . 5. Modify to place the light. the New.Kristen Kurland 273 . Light. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. or 2. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. 8. Command: light 3. Choose View. button. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Choose Click Type Choose Type Pick Exit Point as the light type..

9. 7.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . The Target and Light Locations (Use Endpoint and Midpoint Object Snaps).2 1. Render. Command: light 3. the New. 8. Click Click Type Click Pick Exit Type the dropdown box for point light and change it to spot light. Light Location Spot Light Light Target 274 Copyright © 2004 . button. or 2. 6.Spot Light Spot Light 19. SPOT1 as the new light name. 4.Kristen Kurland 275 . RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. the light menus. Light. Type LIGHT at the command prompt.. Modify. Choose View. 5..

Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 276 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 277 . 5. Click Click Choose Exit S1 and the Modify.Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Setting the Shadow Options in the Light Command 19.button. Type LIGHT at the command prompt. Render. Choose View.3 1. 4.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the box for Shadows On. 6. Shadow Options and set the shadow Map Size to 512.. or 2. Light.. the light menus. Command: light 3.

6. Shadows and Changing Shadow Options 278 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 279 . 2.Shadows and Changing Shadow Options Changing Shadow Options in Render Command 19.2 Medium as the Anti-Aliasing type. 3.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .5 1.1 the Maximum Bias to . 5. More Options under the Rendering Options dialog. Discard back faces to speed up the rendering processes by having AutoCAD eliminate the calculations for faces it doesn’t need to render. Type Choose Change Change Choose Click RENDER at the command prompt. 4. the Minimum Bias to .

. Choose Tools. 5. Choose Set Render the Display tab. Command: options 3.Kristen Kurland 281 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Options. Type OPTIONS at the command prompt. the Rendered object smoothness to 5.Render Smoothness Preferences 19. Render Smoothness 280 Copyright © 2004 . the scene. or 2.5 1.. 4.

. Choose View. Command: light 3.. UTAH as the nearest big city. the New. 4. 6. button. RENDER at the command prompt to render the viewport with the new lights. the light menus. Type 282 Copyright © 2004 .button. 5..Kristen Kurland 283 . 10.. Provo. 9.button. 8.. Light. PROVO as the new light name.Light Command Light Command Distant Light 19. the Sun Angle Calculator. the Geographic Location.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render.. 7. Click Click Type Choose Choose Choose Exit the dropdown box for point light and change it to distant light. Type LIGHT at the command prompt.7 1. or 2.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 20 Scenes 284 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 285 .

. Render. Type RENDER at the command prompt. with or without lights.New Scene Render a Scene 1. 6. to create a new scene. 4. Scene. Render. Choose Click POINT as the scene to render. 1. Choose View.. Choose Modify.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . or 2. or 2. Render.. Scene. Command: scene 3.. POINT as the scene name. OK to exit the Scene dialog box. Modify a Scene 1. Choose Type Choose Click New. Render. Command: scene 3. P1 as the light to include in the scene. Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 286 287 . or 2.. 4. Command: render 3.Scene Command .New Scene Scene Command 20. Choose View. 5. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Choose View. Scene Command .1 A scene represents a particular view of all or any portion of the drawing.to change the lights and views in the scene. Type SCENE at the command prompt. Render.

Command: ddview 2. DDVIEW at the command prompt .2 1. Create Type a perspective view with the DVIEW command. 2.Adding a View to a Scene 20. Choose Choose Click PERSPECTIVE as the saved view.Kristen Kurland 289 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . 4. Set Current OK. 288 Copyright © 2004 . This will load a dialog box with predefined saved views. 3.

Chapter 21 Backgrounds 290 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 291 .

Click Render Solid as the background type.Solid Background Solid Background 21.1 1. 4. Command: background 3. Background or 2. Solid Background 292 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. the viewport. Choose View.Kristen Kurland 293 . Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt.

2 1. Render. 5. 4.Gradient Background 21. Click Adjust Render Gradient as the background type. 294 Copyright © 2004 . Background or 2. the colors as desired. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. the viewport. Choose View.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: background 3.Kristen Kurland 295 .

5. Command: background 3. Image Background 296 Copyright © 2004 . 7. Find File under the Image section. the viewport. Render. OK. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 297 . Background or 2. Choose View.tga image file as the background. Click Choose Choose Click Render the Image radio button. 4. the C:\Program Files\ACAD2004\ TEXTURES\valley_l.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .3 1. 6.Image Background Image Background 21.

298 Copyright © 2004 .4 1. 4. Type BACKGROUND at the command prompt. Command: background 3.Kristen Kurland 299 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. Background or 2.Merge Background 21. Choose View. the viewport. Click Render the Merge radio button.

Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 301 .Chapter 22 Landscaping 300 Copyright © 2004 .

Render at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 303 .. 8. Choose View. Photo Raytrace as the Rendering Type. 5. Pick Click Pick Exit Type Choose Cactus as the landscape item.. or 2. Type LSNEW at the command prompt.Edit a Landscape Object Placing a New Landscape Object 22. Render. Command: lsnew 3. the Position button. Landscape New. the Landscape dialog box.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .1 1. 7. 6. Edit a Landscape Object 302 Copyright © 2004 . 4. a new position for the Cactus.

2 1.. Choose View. Type LSEDIT at the command prompt.Kristen Kurland 305 . Render.. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Command: lsedit 3. 304 Copyright © 2004 .Editing an Existing Landscape Object 22. the height of the Cactus. Pick Edit the Cactus as the landscape item to edit. Landscape Edit. 4.

.. View. the other dialog options as desired. 5. 8. 6. 7... Choose 306 Copyright © 2004 . Command: lslib 4. Render. the viewport. Create an image and opacity image for desired object.Landscape Library & Render Landscapes Custom Landscape Library 22.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . OK and save the render library.Kristen Kurland 307 . NOTE: Youwill need to use an external paint program to do this.to create a new landscape object. Type LSLIB at the command prompt. LSNEW at the command prompt to place the new image in your drawing. Click Edit Click Type Render New. Landscape Library.3 1. Landscape Library & Render Landscapes 2. or 3.

Render Commands 308 Copyright © 2004 .Chapter 23 Misc.Kristen Kurland 309 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

Ray tracing handles shadows. is a point sampling algorithm. and texture mapping in a very easy straight-forward manner. then that pixel is shaded the background color. this leads to the potential problem of aliasing.. multiple specular reflections.Raytracing 23. or 2. We sample a continuous image in world coordinates by shooting one or more rays through each pixel. Choose PhotoRaytrace as the render type. www.siggraph. Like all point sampling algorithms. Choose View. Then the rays are tested against all objects in the scene to determine if they intersect any objects. like scan-line graphics. we start from the eye or camera and trace the ray through a pixel in the image plane into the scene and determine what it hits.. The pixel is then set to the color values returned by the ray. Render. a ray of light is traced in a backwards direction. Render. If the ray misses all objects.htm 1. which is manifested in computer graphics by jagged edges or other nasty visual artifacts. Note that ray tracing. That is.1 Introduction Ray Tracing is a global illumination based rendering method.org/education/ materials/HyperGraph/raytrace/rtrace0. 310 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. Command: render 3. It traces rays of light from the eye back through the image plane into the scene.Kristen Kurland 311 . In ray tracing.

Raytracing & Subsampling Options Set Antialiasing 23. 4.Kristen Kurland 313 . 5. Choose Choose Click Render More Options.. Choose View.2 1. Render. or 2.under Rendering Options. 6.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .. High as the Anti-Aliasing method.. Type RENDER at the command prompt. Command: render 3.. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 312 Copyright © 2004 . Render. OK. the viewport.

Type RENDER at the command prompt.Adaptive Sampling 23.. Render.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 ... or 2.under Rendering Options. Choose More Options. Render. 314 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland 315 .. Command: render 3. Choose View.3 1.

4 1.. Choose View. Raytracing & Subsampling Options 316 Copyright © 2004 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. or 2..Raytracing & Subsampling Options Ray Tree Depth 23.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .under Rendering Options.Kristen Kurland 317 .. Render.. Render. Command: render 3. Choose More Options.

4.. or 2.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . the viewport.5 1. Choose Choose Click Render the Sub-sampling dropdown list.Raytracing & Subsampling Options Change Subsampling Options 23. Raytracing & Subsampling Options Rendered Bottle with Sub-Sampling 3:1 318 Copyright © 2004 . Type RENDER at the command prompt. Render. Choose View. Render. 3:1 OK. 5. 6..Kristen Kurland 319 . Command: render 3.

Fog & Render Preferences 1. Command: fog 3.Fog & Render Preferences Fog 23. Type FOG at the command prompt. the remaining dialog options as desired. 320 Copyright © 2004 . Fog or 2. Render.Kristen Kurland 321 . Choose View. 4.6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects. Click Edit Enable Fog to turn FOG on.Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 .

322 Copyright © 2004 .Kristen Kurland Copyright © 2004 . Render. Statistics or 2. Command: stats 3. Render Statistics 1. Type STATS at the command prompt.6 Provides visual cues for the apparent distance of objects.Kristen Kurland 323 . Choose View. Save the statistics to a file or choose OK to exit.Render Statistics Render Statistics 23.

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