fernandog@lcoe.etsii.upm.

es


Guide to Sheath Bonding Design, in Distribution and Transmission Lines with
HV Underground Cables


F. GARNACHO
1
, A. KHAMLICHI
1
, P. SIMON
1
, A. GONZÁLEZ
2


1
LCOE,
2
Gas Natural Fenosa
Spain
SUMMARY

Power electrical networks using HV underground cables are continuously increasing in the big cities. In
order to avoid or reduce transmission losses in cable sheaths provoked by solid-bonding connections
special sheath bonding techniques, such as cross-bonding (CB) or single-bonding (SB) connections, are
commonly used for the HV cable systems. Nevertheless experience has proven that clear design rules are
required to achieve safe and reliable sheath bonding and earth connection systems.

Maintenance and operation experiences in the 220 kV network have showed that failures in the cable
system are not negligible when a short-circuit occurs in the power network. Continuous growing of the
short-circuit power in the high voltage network and progressive increasing of elementary cable section
length between two consecutive accessories require to apply more efficient bonding design criteria.
Sheath overvoltages depend on different factors: place where an eventual short-circuit appears (inside
cable grid, in a substation or in an overhead line), earth resistance value at each earthing point and
architecture used to link elementary cable sections (SB, continuous CB and sectionalised CB). The design
of the bonding system must take into account not only to select sheath voltage limiters but also to
determine the insulation level of the oversheath, joints, terminations and link boxes.

This paper presents the application guide to be applied to sheath bonding design of high voltage power
cable systems in the range between 45 kV and 220 kV. This guide shows temporary over-voltages in
sheaths when different kinds of short-circuits occurs for different sheath bonding configurations. The
results obtained by the guide allow a reliable selection of sheath voltage limiters and insulation level in
order to assure a suitable protection level against eventual short-circuit overvoltages. Different specific
methods have been used to determine overvoltages and they have been compared for a wide range of
cases in order to have an easy and generic numerical tool GSBD adapted to cable systems. The software
package developed allows to define any arbitrary architecture to link elementary cable sections (SB,
continuous CB and sectionalised CB) in order to determine continuous over-voltages in accessory sheaths
and in overvoltages limiters. The programme is used when the architecture applied is not close to the
cases studied in the Guide.

KEYWORDS

Cables, sheath, overvoltages, link boxes, cross bonding, single bonding, ATP.


21, rue d’Artois, F-75008 PARIS B1-105 CIGRE 2012
http : //www.cigre.org

1

1 INTRODUCTION

When a single phase short-circuit occurs in a high voltage network significant overvoltages appear on
power cable sheaths, especially in the cable terminations that are not connected to the earth of SB
configurations and in the sheaths of cross zones of cross-bonding configurations. In the first instants a
transient damped overvoltage of several teens of kilohertz’s of up to several teens of kilovolts is
superimposed to a temporary overvoltage of power frequency that disappears when the short-circuit is
removed by switchgear (see figure 1). Both overvoltages, transient and temporary, provoke significant
stress to be considered in insulation coordination of cables, link boxes and overvoltage limiters.















Figure 1. Voltage evolution on a cable sheaths due to single short circuit.

The rated voltage of overvoltage limiters must be chosen taking into account temporary overvoltage and
its residual voltage is selected in order to get an appropriate protection level, according to transient
withstand voltage of insulation media involved. Consequently, temporary overvoltages must be
determined for a correct selection of overvoltage limiters. In particular, it is very important to determine
the absolute overvoltages that appear in cable outer sheat and the local temporary overvoltages that
appear on overvoltage limiters.

Although ATP software can be used to determine temporary overvoltages, it does not have a user
interface simple enough for project engineers dedicated to high voltage cable projects. In practice, data
tables or alternative flexible numeric tools are required to analyze different influence parameters, (e.g.
earth connection values, length of cable sections, cable arrangements, etc.) on temporary overvoltages for
specific sheath architectures.


2 DIFFERENT KINDS OF SHORT CIRCUITS

In high voltage grids different kinds of short circuits can appear. A special attention must be paid to single
phase short circuits in comparison to three phase short circuits, because the induced overvoltage on
sheaths is not balanced by currents of others phases. However, the relative position between short circuit
point and the voltage supply allows to establish different short circuit scenarios: a) substation-substation
short circuit (figure 2) where the main short circuit current returns through a conductor (sheaths or earth
continuity conductor “ecc”), b) Siphon short circuit (figure 3) where the main short circuit current returns
through earth, c) far away short circuit (figure 4) where the short circuit current returns through both earth
and conductors (sheaths or ecc).





(f ile Transitorio50ns80ms.pl4; x-v ar t) v :E1IA v :E1IB v :E1IC
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 [ms]
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
[kV]
2











Figure 2. Substation-substation short circuit: a) Solid-bonding or Cross-bonding configuration, b) Single-bonding configuration.










Figure 3. Siphon short circuit: a) Solid-bonding or Cross-bonding configuration, b) Single-bonding configuration.








Figure 4. Far away short circuit: a) Solid-bonding or Cross-bonding configuration, b) Single-bonding configuration.

In this paper the same electrical scheme is used for solid-bonding and for cross-bonding configuration,
because in a CB there is a sheath circuit for short circuit current circulation with both ends of the circuit
earthed, in a similar way as in solid bonging configurations.


3 CALCULATION METHOD TO LINK DIFFERENT SHEATHS CONFIGURATIONS

It is impossible to establish simple formulas to determine local and absolute sheath overvoltages in an
arbitrary interconnection architecture of sheaths configurations when a single phase short circuit occurs.
In these cases, it is necessary to use numeric calculation tools. In the following paragraphs a general
method of circuit analysis (GMCA) and a circuit analysis by symmetrical components (CASC) are
presented. Differences of both methods in comparison with results obtained by means of ATP software
are negligible.

3.1 Circuit analysis by symmetrical components

For each section of bonding connection (solid-bonding, single-bonding, cross bonding sectionalized, etc.)
the zero sequence circuit of each section is derived in order to interconnect them in the correct way as the
real arrangement used in the system cable. In the following paragraphs the zero sequence formulas of a
single-bonding configuration with earth continuity conductor are developed.

Overvoltage on the earth cable U
mn
is given by the superposition of the induced voltages provoked by the
currents of the three phase conductors [J
c(abc)
] and the current through the earth continuity conductor J
t
:


| || |
t tt ) abc ( c ) abc ( tc mn
J Z J Z U + = (1)


Conductor equipotencial

+
-
R1 R2
IF
c . IF
(1÷c) . IF
c . IF
A
B
C
¸IF


R1
R2
IF
A


R1 R2
IF A
IF


R1
R2
IF


Conductor equipotencial

+
-
R1 R2
IF
Iecc
B
C A
IF
¸IF


Conductor equipotencial

+
-
R1 R2
IF
B
C
¸IF
c´IF (1÷c´) IF
3

J
a
m
J ’
m
R
tm
R
tn
J
b
J
c
J
t J ’
n
n
U
mn
J
a
m
J ’
m
R
tm
R
tn
J
b
J
c
J
t J ’
n
n
U
mn
where:

- | |
) abc ( tc
Z coupling impedances between the earth continuity conductor (ecc) t and each phase
conductor calculated by the Carson’s formulas.
-
tt
Z self impedance of the ecc calculated by the Carson’s formulas.

Taking into account the electric scheme shown in figure 5 and assuming J’
tn
= 0 the following expression
can be written:

t tn t
'
tm mn
J R ) J J ( R U
t
÷ ÷ = (2)
where
- R
tm
earth resistance of the ecc on the left side.
- R
tn
earth resistance of the ecc on the right side.
- J
t
’= J’
tm
current through ecc of the previous section on the left side.























Figure 5. Electric scheme associated to single-bonding configuration with an earth conductor.

Replacing expression (1) in expression (2) the following equation can be written:

| || |
'
t tm t tt tn tm ) abc ( c ) abc ( tc
J R J ) Z R R ( J Z ÷ + + = ÷ (3)

Applying symmetric components analysis:

'
0 t tm 0 t tt tn tm 0 c 0 tc
J R 3 J ) Z 3 R 3 R 3 ( J Z 3 ÷ + + = ÷

(4)
where:

-
0 tc
Z sequence zero coupling impedance between the three phase conductors and the ecc.
-
0 t t
J 3 J = ,
'
0 t
'
t
J 3 J = ,
0 c F
J 3 J =
- J
F
single phase short circuit current.

The equivalent electric circuit associated to equation (4) is shown in figure 6:

4

3·Z
tt
m
J’
t0
3·R
tm
3·R
tn
J
t0
-3·Z
tc0
·J
c0
+
J’
t0
J
t0
3·Z
tt
m
J’
t0
3·R
tm
3·R
tn
J
t0
-3·Z
tc0
·J
c0
+
J’
t0
J
t0












Figure 6. Sequence zero circuit of the earth continuity conductor.

If the short circuit current J
F
, the resistance earth, R
tm
y R
tn
, and current through phase conductors [J
c(abc)
]
are known, the current of the ecc
0 t
J can be determined by means of the equation (4), later U
mn
and
sheath voltages U
pa
, U
pb
y U
pc
, can be determined applying (1) and the following equations:

(5)

where:

- | |
) abc ( pc
Z coupling impedances between the phase conductors and each phase sheath.
- | |
t ) abc ( p
Z coupling impedances between the phase sheaths and the ecc.

3.2 General circuit analysis method

A software application that uses the general theory of analysis of circuits has been developed. The
software application allows linking many sections with different bonding connections (SB, CB) with
overhead lines (with or without skywires). For each single-bonding configuration equation (1) can be
written, which unknown parameters are the current through the ecc J
t
and the voltage through the ecc,
U
mn
. For each cross-bonding configuration a system of three equations can be written, which unknown
variables are sheaths currents
o
J ,
|
J y
¸
J , and voltage, U
mn
across a major CB section. In addition, for
each bonding configuration the following equation must be satisfied:

) J J J )·( R R ( ' J · R ' J · R U
tn tm n tn m tm mn ¸ | o
+ + + ÷ ÷ = (6)

The resolution of the linear equation system allows determine the unknown variables.

The electrical bonding circuit composed by two CB sections in series with two SB sections shown in
figure 7 with cable arrangement of figure 8 is analyzed by means of the GCA.
















Figure 7. Electric circuit of bonding connection.
| | | || | | |
t t ) abc ( p ) abc ( c ) abc ( pc ) abc ( p
J Z J Z U + =
5












a) Single-bonding formation section. b) Power cable transversal section. c) Ecc section.

Figure 8. Cable arrangement.

Figures 9 and 10 show sheaths overvoltages corresponding to a single phase short circuit in substation-
substation and far away short circuit scenarios respectively.












Figure 9. Sheath overvoltages due to a single phase short circuit of 1 kA in a substation-substation short circuit scenario.














Figure 10. Sheath overvoltages due to a single phase short circuit of 1 kA in a far short circuit scenario.

Table I shows a comparison between the GCA method and ATP method for far short circuit scenario. No
relevant differences were obtained using both methods.

Table I. Comparison between GCA and ATP method for figure 7 short circuit.

Voltage (V/kA) GCA (V/kA) ATP (V/kA) Difference (V/kA)
CB1_1 119.8 119.5 0.3
CB1_2 157.2 157.0 0.2
CB2_1 252.9 252.2 0.7
CB2_2 302.9 302.2 0.7
SP1 328.8 328.5 0.3
SP2 347.5 347.1 0.4




6



S S
0,75S




s




S
d

-A-
-B-
-C- -D-
s
4 APPLICATION GUIDE

4.1 Overvoltage tables in different sheaths configurations in different laying types

In order to have a fast magnitude order of sheath overvoltages the guide includes many different result
tables with sheath overvoltage values for different sheath configurations (SB, sectionalised CB, continous
CB), for three different short-circuit scenarios: substation-substation, siphon and far away short-circuit,
for the cables arrangements (flat formation -A-, trefoil formation -B- with an ecc laid in the geometric
center of the equilateral triangle, trefoil formation -C- with ecc transposed in the middle, or trefoil
formation -D- with 2 ecc transposed in the middle) used by Gas Natural Fenosa (GNF), and using
different section cable lengths (500 m y 1000 m) and for different earth resistance values on cable ends.

An example is shown in table II, corresponding to local and absolute overvoltages for a single-bonding
configuration in a short circuit scenario substation-substation. Induced overvoltages per unit increase
when the sum R
1
+ R
2
of increases and when the ratio S/d increases also. However, overvoltages decrease
for trefoil formation if the earth conductor is on the geometrical center in comparison with the results
obtained for other ecc positions. In addition, in general, local voltages are bigger than absolute
overvoltages for a substation- substation short-circuit scenario.









Figure 11. Different cables arrangements used by GNF: A: flat formation, B) trefoil formation with an ecc laid in the geometric
center of the equilateral triangle, C) trefoil formation with ecc transposed in the middle, D) trefoil formation with 2 ecc
transposed in the middle).


























Table II. Temporary overvoltages (V/kA· km) for a single-bonding section of 500 m, during a single phase
short-circuit in a cable of 220kV-2000mm
2
Cu. Considering a substation-substation short-circuit scenario.

U
local /
absolute

Phase conductor and ecc
arrangement
R1/R2
0O
y
0O
0,25O
y 0,25O
0,25O
y
0,5O
0,5O
y 0,25O
0,5O
y
0,5O
0,25O
y
10O
0,5O
y
10O
10O
y
0,25O
10O
y
0,5O
10O
y
10O
10O
y
20O
20O
y
10O
20O
y
20O
local
T-A S/d=1,12 159 175 182 182 186 196 196 196 196 197 197 197 197
T-A S/d=2,29 290 335 350 350 358 379 379 379 379 380 380 380 380
T-C S/d=1,12 225 253 263 263 269 285 285 285 285 285 285 285 286
T-C
S/d=2,29
290 335 350 350 358 379 379 379 379 380 380 380 380
T-D
S/d=2,93
214 226 229 229 231 236 236 236 236 237 237 237 237
absolute

T-A S/d=1,12 159 125 99 138 113 28 28 192 188 107 76 137 107
T-A S/d=2,29 220 187 158 204 176 70 75 272 267 169 133 206 169
T-C S/d=1,12 225 192 162 210 181 74 79 279 274 174 138 211 174
T-C S/d=2,29 290 261 226 285 252 125 130 373 366 247 203 291 247
T-D S/d=2,93
214 189 169 198 181 119 121 233 231 175 155 195 175



7

4.2 Overvoltages examples for different sheath connection architectures.

Elemental different bonding sections (SB, CB) are linked in order to create different interconnection
architectures. Temporary overvoltages on cable sheaths depend on the architecture created. Although, the
correct way to know temporary overvoltages is using the software tools described in section 3, it is very
important to study some examples in order to have general design criteria.

Table III shows local overvoltages per unit (V/ kA) in the different sheaths crosses of three cross-bonding
linked for a substation-substation short circuit scenario when a far away short occurs, considering length
cable section of 500 m and 1,000 m for each CB section. The resistance earth value has been changed
between 0,5 O to 20 O. Greater overvoltages are obtained for far away short-circuits than for substation-
substation short circuits. In addition, overvoltages are proportional to section lengths when the short
circuit appears between substations, however, the length does not affect significantly on sheaths
overvoltages (less than 10%) for far away short circuit scenarios. Must be headline that overvoltages
increases signigicantly when the earth value on the cable end increase to 5 O or 10 O).

Table III. Local overvoltages per unit (V/ kA) on crosses of 3 CB linked.



5 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR OVERVOLTAGE LIMITERS AND OUTER SHEATH
PROTECTION

For a specific laying arrangement (trefoil formation, flat formation, etc.) and for a specific bonding
connection (SB, CB), sheath overvoltage limiters (SVL) used for outer sheath protection, should
withstand temporary overvoltages, U
t
that appears between sheaths and earth. This overvoltage depends
on induced local voltage u
local
(V/kA) and on the short circuit current value that is foreseen in the grid for
a specific short circuit scenario (substation-substation short circuit, siphon short circuit or far away short
circuit).
( ) kA I · u ) V ( U
cc local t
= (7)

L
e
n
g
t
h

Substation-substation short-circuit Far away short-circuit


5
0
0

-

5
0
0

-

5
0
0

(
m
)




1
,
0
0
0

-
1
,
0
0
0

-

1
,
0
0
0

(
m
)





R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4
R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R1 R2 R3 R4

CB1_1 CB1_2 CB2_1 CB2_2 CB3_1 CB3_2
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
V
/
k
A
Tensiones de pantalla absolutas. CBS + CBS + CBS. Falta monofásica fase C. S/E-S/E
Caso 1
Caso 2
Caso 3
Caso 4
CB1_1 CB1_2 CB2_1 CB2_2 CB3_1 CB3_2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
V
/
k
A
Tensiones de pantalla absolutas. CBS + CBS + CBS.
Falta monofásica fase C. Pasante lejana
Caso 1
Caso 2
Caso 3
Caso 4
Caso 5
Caso 6
CB1_1 CB1_2 CB2_1 CB2_2 CB3_1 CB3_2
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
V
/
k
A
Tensiones de pantalla absolutas. CBS + CBS + CBS. Falta monofásica fase C. S/E-S/E
Caso 1
Caso 2
Caso 3
Caso 4
CB1_1 CB1_2 CB2_1 CB2_2 CB3_1 CB3_2
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
V
/
k
A
Tensiones de pantalla absolutas. CBS + CBS + CBS.
Falta monofásica fase C. Pasante lejana
Caso 1
Caso 2
Caso 3
Caso 4
Caso 5
Caso 6
Case
R1
(O)
R2
(O)
R3
(O)
R4
(O)
1 0.5 5 5 0.5
2 0.5 10 10 0.5
3 0.5 5 10 0.5
4 0.5 10 5 0.5

Case
R1
(O)
R2
(O)
R3
(O)
R4
(O)
1 0.5 5 5 0.5
2 0.5 10 10 0.5
3 0.5 5 10 0.5
4 0.5 10 5 0.5
5 0.5 10 10 0.5
6 0.5 1 1 0.5

Case
R1
(O)
R2
(O)
R3
(O)
R4
(O)
1 0.5 5 5 0.5
2 0.5 10 10 0.5
3 0.5 5 10 0.5
4 0.5 10 5 0.5
5 0.5 10 10 0.5
6 0.5 1 1 0.5

Case
R1
(O)
R2
(O)
R3
(O)
R4
(O)
1 0.5 5 5 0.5
2 0.5 10 10 0.5
3 0.5 5 10 0.5
4 0.5 10 5 0.5
5 0.5 10 10 0.5
6 0.5 1 1 0.5

8

In order to have a security margin the rated voltage of the overvoltage limiter U
r
(withstand power
frequency voltage for 10 s) is chosen greater or equal to the temporary overvoltage (e.g. overvoltage
during short circuit).

( ) kA I · u U
cc local r
> (8)

Local voltages per unit, u
local
, must be determined for each project, either by means of table data
included in the Guide either by means of a software application developed for this purpose. On the other
hand the maximum short circuit currents must be evaluated taking into account the specific performances
of the grid.

SVL selected for each voltage level of the system must assure an appropriate protection margin taking
into account the insulation level for transient overvoltages, and considering the effect of distance between
the SVL´s and the insulation to be protected.

( ) 100 1
U
U
% MP
res
t p
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
(9)
where:

U
p-t
: withstand voltage sheath-earth, for lightning impulses 1,2/50 µs
U
res
: Residual voltage of the SVL´s.

Table IV shows the characteristic values of the SVL´s used by GNF and the protection margin
considering the withstand voltage required for each voltage level in order to compensate the distance
effect between limiter and the insulation protected.

An additional energy analysis performed for the GNF grids allowed to recommend overvoltage limiter of
class 2, except for overvoltage limiters of rated voltages of 3,3 kV, that is recommended a class 3.

Table IV. Protection margin.
























Uo/U
(kV)
U
p-t
1,2/50
(kV)
Limiter characteristics
Protection level
MP

(%) =100∙(U
pt
/U
res
-1)
U
r
(kV)
U
c

(kV)
U
res
(kV)
26/45 30
3,3 2,7 10 200
5 4,0 14 114
36/66 30
3,3 2,7 10 200
5 4,0 14 114
76/132 37,5
3,3 2,7 10 275
5 4,0 14 168
6 4,8 18 108
127/220 47,5
3,3 2,7 10 375
5 4,0 14 239
6 4,8 18 164
6 5 20,6 131
9 8 24,6 93
9

On the other hand, the outer sheath should withstand temporary overvoltages that appears between
sheaths and reference earth. This overvoltage depends on induced absolute voltage u
absolute
(V/kA) and on
the short circuit current value that is foreseen in the grid for a specific short circuit scenario (substation-
substation short circuit, siphon short circuit or far away short circuit):

) kA ( I · u U
cc absolute Hz 50 sheath outer
> (10)

As a reference, a typical value for the power frequency (50 Hz/1 min) insulation level for the outer sheath
is 10 kV.


CONCLUSION

Significant overvoltages can appear in cable sheaths when short circuits occur in high power grids.
Taking into account that temporary and transient overvoltages on cable sheaths depend on the sheath
connection architectures, specific short circuit studies must be performed for each project of a new cable
system. Although ATP package is a good numerical tool to determine transient and temporary
overvoltages, it is not usually used by the project designers of underground cable lines.

Specific software packages have been developed to determine sheath overvoltages of cable systems, one
of them applying circuit analysis by symmetrical components (CASC) and other by a general method of
circuit analysis (GMCA). Both software packages allow to define any arbitrary architecture to link
elementary cable sections (single-bonding, continuous cross-bonding and sectionalised cross-bonding) in
order to determine continuous over-voltages in accessory sheaths and in overvoltages limiters for the
different short-circuit scenarios (substation-substation, Siphon and far away fault).

In addition application guide has been elaborated with overvoltage tables for different sheaths
configurations used by GNF utility for different laying types. Application guide and software packages
have allowed improve bonding configurations and the SLV selection of existing underground cables of
GNF utility and new underground lines.


10

BIBLIOGRAPHY


[1] “Estudio de sobretensiones en las pantallas de los cables de alta tensión de los circuitos
Mazarredo-Mediodía y Cerro de la Plata-Mediodía en caso de cortocircuito monofásico en la
subestación de Mediodía”. Report nº 200612300541. LCOE-FFII.

[2] The design of specially bonded cable systems. Working Group 07, of study Committee nº 21
(HV insulated cables). ELECTRA nº 28. 1973.

[3] The design of specially bonded cable systems. Part II. Working Group 07, of study Committee
nº 21 (HV insulated cables). ELECTRA nº 47. 1976.

[4] Guide of the protection of specially bonded cable systems against sheath overvoltages. Working
Group 07, of study Committee nº 21 (HV insulated cables). ELECTRA nº 128. 1990.

[5] IEEE Guide for the Application of Sheath-Bonding Methods for Single-Conductor Cables and
the Calculation of Induced Voltages and Currents in Cable Sheaths. ANSI/IEEE Std 575-1988.

[6] Characteristics and reduction of sheath circulating currents in underground power cable systems.
C.K. Jung and, J.B. Lee, J.W. Kang, Xinheng Wang, Young-Hua Song, International Journal of
Emerging Electric Power Systems. Volume 1, issue 1, 2004. Article 1005.

[7] “Special Bonding of High Voltage Power Cables”. CIGRE BROCHURE Nº 283. Working
Group B1.18. October 2005.

[8] “Slim Cables compact cross-bonding and corrected distance protection” B1-112 Session 2004
CIGRE.

[9] UNE 21-143-85. Ensayo de cubiertas exteriores de cables que tienen una función especial de
protección y que se aplican por extrusión. Equivalente a CEI 60229.

[10] UNE 211004. Cables de potencia con aislamiento extruido y sus accesorios, de tensión asignada
superior a 150 kV (Um=170kV) hasta 500 kV (Um =550 kV). Requisitos y métodos de ensayo.

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