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The study of Bangladesh history and her descriptions are within very shortly as because in common understanding there are in many way and dimension to explain the History of Bangladesh or Discovery of Bangladesh potential to give details. The territory constituting Bangladesh was under the Muslim rule for over five and a half centuries from 1201 to 1757 A-D. Subsequently, it was under the defeat of the British after the defeat of the last sovereign ruler, Nawab Sirajuddowla, at the Battle of 1 Plessey on the fateful day of June 23, 1757. “The British ruled over the entire Indian sub-continent including this territory for nearly 190 years from 1757 to 1947. During that period Bangladesh was a part of the British Indian provinces of Bengal and Assam. With the termination of the British rule in August, 1947 the sub-continent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Bangladesh was then a part of Pakistan and was known as East Pakistan. It remained so about 24 years from August 14. 1947 to March 25, 1971. It appeared on the world map as an independent and sovereign state on December 16, 1971 following the victory at the War of Liberation from March 25 to December 16, 1971” (Statistical year book of Bangladesh 2001, page-19, 22nd edition).
Intervention of the central government from depriving Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman of a source of living and his greatest contribution was in instilling among Bengali 2 bureaucrats and elite the courage for dissent and a great measure of self-confidence. “After nine months of war, the Pakistani military forces surrendered by freedom fighters of Bangladesh at Dhaka on 16th December 1971 after killing three million people. Due to the heroic fight and supreme sacrifices of the heroic freedom fighters Bangladesh finally became an independent country. Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan” (Global Interactive Marketing and Technology Solution). “Bangladesh is one of the world's most densely populated and least developed country. Its economy is predominately agricultural (employs two thirds of population), with rice being the chief crop. These rural communities are very weak to the frequent, devastating cyclones and floods and about a third of this enormously Least Development Country (LDC) floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development” (Global Interactive Marketing and Technology Solution). First as part of British India and then of Pakistan, the area now constituting 3 Bangladesh suffered from chronic economic neglect. “The region produced large quantities of agricultural goods, including most of the world's jute, but received little investment in such basic items as transportation facilities and industrial plants. Bangladesh's gross domestic product was estimated at $42.7 billion in 1998. The manufacturing sector, which contributed 18.10 percent of Bangladesh's domestic product in 1998, is made up principally of unmechanized, small-scale enterprises.
The chief manufactures of the country are jute products (such as cordage and sacks), textiles, processed food, beverages, tobacco items, handicrafts and goods made of wood, cane, or bamboo. Large-scale factories process jute and sugarcane. Much of the nation's heavy industry, including a small steel mill, is in the port of Chittagong” (Sugata Bose & M. M. Akash, History of Bangladesh, Page – 92-157).
1.2.1 Country Profile Official name Location & borders : The People’s Republic of Bangladesh : South Asia. Bordered by India on the east, west & north & by the Bay of Bengal on the south and the small border strip with Myanmar on the south-east. : Parliamentary form of government, headed by Prime Minister. : 147, 570 square km / Mostly alluvial fertile plain. : Sub-tropical monsoon / Summer, monsoon, autumn, winter : Varies between 11° C to 29° C in Winter & 21° C to 34° C in Summer. : Varies from 160 cm to 400 cm at different areas. : Highest 99% in peak Summer in July, Lowest 36% in Winter in Dec-Jan. : GMT + 6 hours. : 135 million / 65 (15 years +) : Bangla, English is generally understood & used as a second language. : Dhaka. Other major cities are Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet, Rajshahi & Barisal. : Dhaka, Chittagong & Sylhet. : Chittagong & Mongla. : Taka (TK.) / Floating exchange rate hovers round US $ 1=Tk. 59.72, Euro 1=Tk. 74.51. : US $ 57 billion (2003-2004) / 5.5% (2003-2004) : 22.83% agriculture, 27.80% industries (including manufacturing and construction) and the rest for others) : US $ 421 / US $ 444 (2003-2004) : US $ 7.60 billion & US $ 10.87 billion (2003-2004) respectably. : Ready-made garments, frozen food (Shrimp), leather, leather products, jute, jute products, tea, ceramics, textile fabrics, home textile, chemical products, light engineering products including bi-cycle.
Government Area / Land Climate / Seasons Temperature Annual rainfall Humidity Standard time Population / Literacy Official language Capital Intl. Airports Sea ports Currency / Exch. Rate GDP / Rate of growth Sectoral share of GDP Per capital GDP / GNI Annual export & import Major exports
: Oil, edible oil, petroleum products, wheat seeds, fertilizer, yarn, capital goods, machinery, power generating machinery, scientific & medical equipments, iron & still, motor vehicles, raw cotton, chemicals. : USA, EU countries, China, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, UAE etc.
Source: Annual Report 2002-2003, EPB, Page-4
Major trading partners
1.2.2 Geography “Bangladesh lies in the north eastern part of South Asia between 20° 34' and 26° 38’ north latitude and 68° 01' and 92° 41' east longitude. The country is bounded by India on the west, the north, and the north-east and Burma on the south-east and the Bay of Bengal on the south. The area of the country is 56,977 sq. miles or 1, 47,570 sq k.m. The limits of territorial waters of Bangladesh are 12 nautical miles and the area of the high seas extending to 200 nautical miles measured from the base lines constitutes the economic zone of the country” (Statistical year book of Bangladesh 2001, page-19, 22nd edition). 1.2.3 Physiography “Except the hilly regions in the north-east and the south-east, some areas of high lands in the north and north western part, the country consists of low, flat and fertile land. A network of rivers of which the Padma, the Jamuna, the Teesta, the Brahmaputra, the Surma, the Meghna and the Karnaphuli are important, and their tributaries numbering about 230 with a total length of about 24140 k.m. covering the country How down to the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil is thus continuously being enriched by heavy silts deposited by rivers during the rainy season” (Statistical year book of Bangladesh 2001, page-19, 22nd edition). 1.2.4 Forest “The total forest area covers about 13.36% of the land area. The country produces timber, bamboo and cane. Bamboos grow in almost all areas but quality timber grows mostly in the valleys. Among the timber sal, gamari, chaplish, telsu. jarui, teak, garjan, chandon and sundari are important. Sundari trees grow in the Sundarbans located in the south-western part of the country bordering the Bay of Bengal, Plantation of rubber in the hilly regions of the country was undertaken recently and extraction of rubber had already started. Varieties of wild animals are found in the forest areas. Sundarban is the home of the world famous 'Royal Bengal Tigers' and cheetahs, of other animals elephants, bears, deer, monkeys, boars, leopard, and crocodiles are worth mentioning. A few hundred species and sub-species of birds are found in the country. Some of them are of seasonal and migratory types” (Statistical year book of Bangladesh 2001, page-19, 22nd edition).
1.2.5 Government Since the nation's formation in 1971, the government of Bangladesh has undergone many changes and a secular parliamentary form of democracy was established by the 1972 constitution, but it was suspended in late 1974 and replaced in January 1975 by a presidential form of government. The 1972 constitution, as amended, was suspended again in 1982 after a coup d'& état. A ban on political activities was 4 withdrawn and the constitution reinstated in 1986. “Bangladesh became independent and sovereign after a clarion call Bangladesh now has a multi-party democratic system with a parliamentary form of government. A sovereigntary parliament (Jatiya Sangsad) is elected by the people for a five-year term. It acts as the legislature and approves the annual national budget. It can amend the Constitution with the support of at least two-thirds of the 330 members in the House. A simple majority is, however, sufficient to approve laws and pass the budget. Three hundred Members of parliament are elected by direct franchise while 30 seats reserved for women are filled in through indirect election by elected MPs. Parliament has to sit every two months and is summoned into session by the President. It has tenured of five years” (Bangladesh History and &
Government, Title: Democratic System).
1.2.6 Bangladesh Economy “The economy of the country has achieved a growth rate of 5.3% during the year 2002-2003 compared to 4.8% during the preceding year. GDP during the year was US$ 5189 million compared to US$ 47571 million during the preceding year. Per capita GDP was US$ 389, which was US$ 361 during the previous year Inflation increased to 5.2% during 2002-2003. Agriculture still holds an important position in our national economy in creating employment and increasing national income. The contribution of this sector in national income is about 23.5%. Growth in agriculture has increased to 3%. Fish production has increased by 2.3%. Growth in the sector during the preceding year was 2.2%, Food production during the year 2002-2003 was about 27.1 million tons, compared to 26.1 million tons in the year 2001-2002. As the depression in the world economy is almost over, growth in the industry sector during the year 2002-2003 Increased to 7.3% compared to 6,6% during the previous year” (Annual Report 2002-2003, EPB, Page – 6-7). “Gross national savings during the year was 18.24% of GDP compared to 18.5% during the previous year. Gross fixed investment increased by 6.3% in 2002-2003 compared to 7% in 2001-2002. Total investment during the year 2002-2003 was US$ 1615.25 million out of which US$ 1512 million was registered with the Board of Investment. Investment made by Bangladesh Small & Cottage Industries Corporation was US$ 18.25 million; Investment in the EPZs was US$ 85 million. Import payment during the year 2002-2003 was US$ 9658 million compared lo US$ 8540 million during the year 2001-2002. Import expenditure increased by 13%. In total import, the contribution of" capital goods was 22%, industrial raw materials 16%, primary commodities 10%, others including EPZ 45%. Total export earning during the year 2002-2003 was US$ 6548 million. The principal exportable are - Woven garments
49.7%, Knitwear 25.26%, Frozen food 4.91%, Jute Products 3.93%, Leather 2.92%. Chemical Products are 1.53% and Raw Jute 1.26%. Trade deficit during the year increased to US$ 3110 million, which was US$ 2554 million during the previous year. Remittance from expatriate Bangladeshis was US$ 3000 million compared to US$ 2501 during the preceding year registering an increase of about 20%” (Annual Report
2002-2003, EPB, Page – 6-7).
1.2.7 Labor ”The civilian labor force of Bangladesh was estimated in 1998 to include 64.1 million people. Agriculture (including fishing) employs 64 percent of the workers, while 9 percent worked in industry and 24 percent in services and the unemployment and underemployment are significant problems in the country” (Global Interactive Marketing
and Technology Solution).
“Occupationally, 75 percent of the civilian labor force, which is currently estimated at 56 million, is directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture. Only 12 percent is engaged in industry. Unemployment is estimated at around 18.5 percent. In terms of age structure, it is more youthful than in the western countries. Heavy pressure of population on scarce land has no doubt created an extremely unfavorable land-man ratio. Coupled with this is the problem of unequal distribution and heavy fragmentation of land in the rural areas. This is expected to improve with more vigorous efforts at poverty improvement and advancement of educational and social consciousness. Slowness of the agricultural sector has resulted in its increasing dependence on the whims of nature and the per capita daily availability of food grains coming down to low level of 432 gram. Nearly 45% of the people live below the poverty line” (Discovery Bangladesh, Wednesday April 13, 2005). 1.2.8 Manufacturing The manufacturing sector, which contributed 18.10 percent of Bangladesh's domestic product in 1998, is made up principally of unmechanized, small-scale enterprises. The chief manufactures of the country are jute products (such as cordage and sacks), textiles, processed food, beverages, tobacco items, and goods made of wood, cane, or bamboo. Large-scale factories process jute and sugarcane. Much of the nation's heavy industry, including a small steel mill, is in the port of Chittagong (Global
Interactive Marketing and Technology Solution).
1.2.9 International Organizations ”Bangladesh is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and was admitted to the United Nations in 1974 and It also belongs to the Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic and Social Development, headquartered in Sri Lanka” (Global Interactive
Marketing and Technology Solution, Page-1, Front page), title: About Bangladesh History).
1.1.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade ”The per-capita volume of Bangladeshi internal and foreign trade is low. Domestic trade is conducted largely through thousands of periodic markets called hats. Since independence in 1971 the value of Bangladesh's annual imports has usually been at least twice that of exports; in 1998 imports cost $6.9 billion, and exports earned $4.2 billion” (Global Interactive Marketing and Technology Solution, Page-1, Front page. “The principal exports are jute products and raw jute; clothing, seafood, tea, and hides and leather goods are the other important exports. Imports include foodstuffs, basic manufactures, mineral fuels, machinery, and transportation equipment. Exports go mainly to European countries (especially Germany and Italy), the United States, Hong Kong, and Japan; imports come chiefly from the India, European countries, China, Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, and the United States and only a small number of tourists visit Bangladesh each year” (Annual Report 2002-2003, EPB, Page – 29-31).
1.3 Incentive to Export-Oriented and Export-Linkage Industries
Export-oriented industrialization is one of the major objectives of the Industrial Policy 1999. Export-oriented industries will be given priority and public policy support will be ensured in this respect and an industry exporting at least 80% of its manufactured goods or an industry contributing at least 80% of its products as an input to finished exportable, and similarly, a business entity exporting at least 80% of services including information technology related products will be considered as an export5 oriented industry. The export-oriented industries, further to the provisions of Bangladesh Bank foreign exchange regulations, will be entitled to receive additional foreign exchange, on case to case basis, for publicity campaign, opening overseas 6 offices and participating in international trade fairs. The entire export earning from Handicrafts and Cottage Industries will be exempted from income tax, for all other industries, income tax rebate on export earning will be given at 50 percent and 100% percent export-oriented industry outside EPZ will be allowed to sell 20% percent of 7 their products in the domestic market on payment of applicable duties and taxes. The Export-oriented industries which are identified by the government as "Thrust 8 Sector" will be provided special facilities and venture capital support. Apart from the above-mentioned facilities, other facilities announced and provided in the Export Policy will be applicable to export-oriented and export-linkage industries.
1.4 Handy Craft of Bangladesh
“The traditional crafts of Bangladesh have been a focal point of interest for visitors from abroad for centuries. The rural-based infrastructure has made it a potential ground for the development of numerous items crafted out of wood, jute, cane, bamboo, grass, straw, clay and other indigenous raw materials. The items produced by early craftsmen were not only singularly beautiful, but also representative of the culture, tradition and customs of the country. With the passage of time, however, new and modern styles and designs have been adapted and this has paved the way for a
unique blend of the old and the new. Popular items in vogue are bamboo mirror and picture frames. Split bamboo shoots can be used as wall lining to create the ultimate tropical decor. Bamboo and cane furniture as well as rattan, grass and cane handicrafts and cane screens are just a few of the products available in an amazing array. Leather goods of attractive design and finishing are being produced by skilled craftsmen; the items produced are handbags, wallets, belts, shoe uppers, travel bags, pen holders, card holders and many other utility items. Jute again is another fiber from which a variety of useful products can be fashioned-be it bags, belts, light shoes, wall hangings, draperies and of course jute carpets. Color fast, fire-resistant, hazardfree jute carpets are unbelievably price advantageous. They are also popular for health and environmental reasons all over the world” (Information Division, Export Promotion Bureau, March - April '99).
1.4.1 Handicraft Sector “Bangladesh is now very much a part of the international scene and keeping in mind the discerning taste of the consumers, a vast range of crafts and novelties are now produced in the country under the technical supervision of qualified product development specialists. With the resurgence of worldwide interest in cane, development of cane products has gained momentum. Bamboo, another tropical grass is often used as a base for support of cane furniture and handicrafts, Bamboo baskets of various shapes and sizes are in great demand in Europe and America”
(Export Promotion Bureau, March - April '99).
“Five Bangladeshi handicraft companies recently participated in the Frankfurt international trade fair Ambient-2005 and received spot and prospective orders of US$ 550 thousand (5.5 lakh). The five companies, which participated in the fair under the auspices of the Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), are Creation (Pvt.) Limited, Folk International, Heed Handicrafts, the Source and Wax Lyrical. The EPB set up a pavilion for the companies in the fair, the biggest ever for handicraft and consumer goods. The EPB takes part in the fair every year on a regular basis to promote and expand the export of handicraft items from Bangladesh” (Daily News Monitoring Service, February 25, 2005). 1.4.2 HANDICRAFT EXPORTS The most recent national survey on handicraft and cottage industries in Bangladesh 9 was undertaken by BSCIC in 1991 and published in 1994. The survey found that 1.3 million people were employed in handicrafts and cottage industries and over three quarters are employed in three industries - food preparation, textiles/leather, and wood/cane/bamboo, these were followed in importance by metal work and potteries 10 including minor crafts, a total of 940,000 were employed in craft industries. Exports of general handicrafts reached a peak of US$ 8.7 million in 1991/92 and declined to 11 US$ 6.5 million in 1994/95, 0.2 % of total manufactured exports. By contrast leather goods exports increased from nothing in 1990/91 to US$ 6.4 million in 1994/95 and 12 artificial flowers from nil to US$ 800.000. The main importing countries of general
handicrafts in order of importance are UK, USA, Germany, and Italy; for leather 13 goods, USA, Japan and Italy for artificial flowers Italy. 1.4.3 GOVERNMENT POLICY “The Bangladesh Export Development Strategy 1992-2000 includes measures to promote handicraft exports and the identification and proposals for the removing bottlenecks limiting the growth of handicraft exports is the objective of the present report. The incentives relating to bonded import of materials and duty drawback on imports are not of great importance to the handicraft sector as local materials are mostly used Even where imported materials are required (e.g. dyes and chemicals) they are purchased by the small handicraft producers in the local market” (Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page- 2-3). The packing credit and simplification of export procedures will help especially the small and novice exporter, but it seems that much more progress is required in ibis direction Assignee with participation in fairs is useful, but the contribution of costs required of the exporter, is usually too great for the smaller entrepreneur to benefit. Specific measures to promote leather goods exports- which include tax and duty concessions and bonded facilities, are important, as leather goods are the most often exported item from the handicraft sector. “The 25% subsidy on local fabrics used for export may help certain handicraft industries, especially embroidery and embroidery related products. The export Crash Programme includes several handicraft product categories - gifts, stationary, artificial flowers, bamboo and cane. Certain measures are aimed specifically at the handicraft sector - the setting up of a handicrafts village, and award of a national trophy, but neither of these measures have a very direct bearing on the promotion of exports Developments in the use of jute through technical innovation, may be the answer for the long term development of jute product exports But they may not help the existing producers of jute export handicrafts” (Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-2). At present most jute handicrafts are made by small rural groups using locally purchased fiber, and the finished product is purchased by an exporting organization in Dhaka. If the fiber has to be preprocessed in bulk, then it will probably be more feasible to also centralize the manufacture of the finished product. 1.4.4 HANDICRAFT INDUSTRY Thirty three (33) handicraft enterprises were surveyed in detail comprising. Organization Number
NGO exporters of handicrafts………………………………………7 NGO or cooperative producers (non-exporters)………………….4 Private manufacturer/exporters ..…………………………………10 Small private manufacturers (non-exporters)……………………12
Source: Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-3
The large NGOs were the main buyers of the products of the small non-exporting private manufacturers as well as the small NGO producers. The large NGOs surveyed one was 100% export and the remaining sit combined exporting with local sales through their own retail outlets, mainly in Dhaka. For three, the major part of their income was export sales, and for three it was in retail sales. “Although the large NGOs involved in handicrafts are basically traders, they provide a great deal of support to their cooperative and self-help group suppliers. Assistance may include training, product development and design, start up financial assistance-management support, transport and materials supply of the eight private manufacturer/exporters three were 100% export, three exported the major part of their output and also supplied (mainly NGO) handicraft retail outlets and two sold the major part of their output through their own retail outlets” (Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-3). 1.4.5 DESIGN, QUALITY AND PRICE The NGO exporters have often quite large design departments, staffed by art college graduates who have in addition received training and guidance from foreign designers supplied by their foreign partners. Private enterprises often depend on the creativity and the ability of the proprietor to develop new product ideas and designs, often very successfully. Others simply copy designs from local competitors or foreign catalogues or produce to specifications supplied by the customer (which is often one of the big NGOs). The quality of the best of the traditional decorative work on Jute product, Home testile, Lather goods, Wooden, Bamboo and Candle product are outstanding. Unfortunately the making up and finishing of articles is usually not up to the same standard as the technical work, and often the quality of the assistance and coating and other materials also detracts from the overall effect. “The huge cost projected is unjustified and unsustainable in the long term. The proposals for making the centre self-financing are unrealistic. A more focused and cost effective approach avoiding an unnecessary man-agreement burden and high fixed costs (in particular a big wage bill) could provide essential support services which are difficult or impossible for members to acquire individually, leaving members to undertake those tasks most effectively tackled by the individual enterprise” (Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page- 5-7).
1.4.6 Demanded Handicrafts in Bangladesh The demanded Handicraft products are available in Bangladesh, these are as below: Main Product Sub Product Twine, hessian, gunny bag, twill, carpet backing, wool pack, tarpaulin, mats, canvas, wall cover, upholstery, and as Jute products furnishing fabrics of different types and natures Nakshi Katha, Jamdani Sharee, Benarashi Sharee, Bags, bed cover, Cushion Cover, Ornaments Box, Table Home textile Prettification, Vest, Wall Mat Leather Embroidered bags, spectacle cases, chair backs, embossed coin purse wallets made from buff leather, nappa Lather goods leather wallets and bags etc. Wooden Desk Accessories, Kaleidoscope, Kitchen Accessories, Photo Frame, Show Piece Bamboo products Basket, Shoe piece, wall accessories Candle products Birth candle, musical candle, candle doll
18.104.22.168 Jute Product Jute a natural fiber has been in use for various purposes over the centuries through the world. Bangladesh has been blessed with the favorable climate and the potential to be the largest grower and export of the best quality jute, the golden fiber. Jute, having been the most environment friendly natural fiber because of its inherent unique properties, has great advantages over man-made artificial polymer fiber, twine, hessian, gunny bag, twill, carpet backing, wool pack, tarpaulin, mats, canvas, wall cover, upholstery, and as furnishing fabrics of different types and natures sheet and packing materials on many counts. The uncompromising resolve to stick to the use of the best raw jute, strict adherence to buyer’s needs and specification rigorous quality control and timely delivery Bangladesh has earned an international eminence as the principle source of high quality jute products. 22.214.171.124 Home Textile In recent years, remarkable progress has been made related to the development of this sector. Home textile products of Bangladesh which include all sorts of towel, bar mat, nakshi katha, jamdani sharee, benarashi sharee, bags, bed cover, cushion cover, ornaments box, table prettification, vest, wall mat, bath rob, wash cloth, ehram for haj, kitchen gloves, dish cloth, mommy napkin, pillow cover etc. are quite popular in the world market for their quality and design. The government has formulated a favorable police for its over all development envisaging its potentiality. Producers for
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export at the custom points have been simplified and speedy shipment of goods has been emphasized for boosting export. “The art of weaving is perhaps as old as human civilization. Bangladesh can proudly claim to have many branches of this ancient art, of which the best known and most popular is the specialty Jamdani, which is one of the varieties of the famous Dhaka Muslin or Mul-mul. For over ten centuries, the Dhaka area has been renowned for this fine fabric. So fine was its texture and quality that it was said to be woven with the "thread of the winds" and the Greek and the Roman texts mention the "Gangetic muslins" as one of the most coveted luxury items. Woven from superfine cotton or silk yarn, jamdani fabric is embroidered or inlaid on the loom with silk, gold and silver threads. Over the years, the weavers simplified the designs making them more stylized and geometric. A new handloom product has been developed by Grameen Bank- a leading nongovernment rural-oriented financial institution with trade name "GRAMEEN CHECK" which is soft, colour fast and 100% cotton, The "Grameen Check" fabric and the apparels made out of it have already made a breakthrough in the European markets with potential of penetrating Other- parts of the world. Another delicate and finely woven product is the glowing soft silk of Rajshahi in rainbow hues. Very ethnic are the striking, bold designs which is the trademark of the colourful, tough fabric woven by the weavers belonging to the various tribal races who inhabit the hilly areas like Cox's Bazar, Rangamati and Sylhet. Apart from those that already have been mentioned, there are numerous other handloom materials which have made their particular district of origin famous. The most notable are sarees of Dhaka, Tangail and Pabna, Monipuri blankets of Sylhet and Khadi or Khaddar products of Comilla. At present, the number of handlooms in Bangladesh is five hundred thousand and there are about one million weavers. Handloom products have shown decisive upward trend in the export market since 1972 and Bangladeshi handloom products with their distinctive design and superior quality have created a niche for themselves in overseas markets. We can now proudly claim to be equipped to meet the demand for the latest fashion. An international expert's study reveals that the technical skill of the weavers of Bangladesh is second to none in the handloom producing world. The product range of handloom is simply amazing and include Muslin Jamdani Sarees, Bedcovers, Bedsheets, Tapestry, Upholstery, Place mats, Rugs or Blankets, Satranji or Durees, Crochet, Muslin, Tribal textiles, Silk fabrics, Sofa covers, Block Prints, Table cloth and Napkins, Towels, Dusters, Kitchen towels, Gents, Ladies and Baby Wear and Shirts, Panjabis, Bedsheets and other household linen in printed, plain or embroidered Khadi”. Export Promotion Bureau Bangladesh Web page. Title about handloom http://www.epbbd.com/expprod/handloomT.htm 126.96.36.199 Lather Good Leather goods of attractive design and finishing are being produced by skilled craftsmen, The items produced are handbags, wallets, belts, shoe uppers, travel bags, pen holders, card holders and many other utility items.
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A leather product of export quality require specialized machinery and equipment (even though the work is very labor intensive and requires a high level of craft skill) and is usually done in a factory with a high level of division of labor. Only one exporter visited had the technical standards, and capacity, to manufacture competitively for export of retail goods, although there are specialist markets which the smaller factories may be able to exploit. Although it is difficult for small manufacturers to get the quantifies they need at competitive prices in the open market; most of the better quality leather is exported or used in the tanners' own leather goods and footwear manufacturing units. A large minimum order is required to get supplies direct from the tanneries. Moreover at present in Bangladeshi prospective lather products are Leather Embroidered bags, spectacle cases, chair backs, embossed coin purse wallets made from buff leather, nappa leather wallets and bags etc. 188.8.131.52 Wooden Wooden made handicrafts are popular through the world. Mainly this sector is popular in producing furniture, dolls, showpieces etc. 184.108.40.206 Bamboo Product With the resurgence of worldwide interest in cane, development of cane products has gained momentum. Bamboo, another tropical grass is often used as a base for support of cane furniture and handicrafts, Bamboo baskets of various shapes and sizes are in great demand in Europe and America. Popular items in vogue are bamboo mirror and picture frames. Split bamboo shoots can be used as wall lining to create the ultimate tropical decor. Bamboo and cane furniture as well as rattan, grass and cane handicrafts and cane screens are just a few of the products available in an amazing array. Export Promotion Bureau Bangladesh Web page. Title about handicraft http://www.epbbd.com/expprod/handicrafts.htm 220.127.116.11 Candle Product Candle is now a days popular as because of its design, color and low price. It is very easy to give attractive shape to candle and the process also simple and less costly. 1.4.7 Problem of Handicraft Exporting from Bangladesh 1. Handicrafts, unlike fair trade foods, are not repeat products. 2. Alternative Trading Organizations and fair trade importers have historically lost market share to commercial importers 3. Expenditure is very seasonal. 4. World Shops generally lack professionalism 5. Global recession 6. Stiff competition from China and SE Asia, where labor rates are very low 7. Traditional giftware faces competition from ‘gift experiences’, where vouchers can be exchanged for activity days 8. ATOs and importers are focusing on food products to increase sales (especially in mainstream outlets)
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Source: Ecommerce and poverty
Lack of products and designs suitable for the commercial market has been identified as one of the main constraints to growth of handicraft exports from Bangladesh in recent years. There is little capacity for expansion of traditional craft exports; the demand for handicrafts as such is very limited. Handcrafted products have to compete directly on price, design, and capacity, with modern machine made products as well as with handcrafted products from other countries. House wares, home decoration, seasonal products, toys and personal accessories and designs need to be in modern or in nostalgic styles in the western tradition Existing Bangladesh products and designs are often clearly Bangladeshi in style. They are often very beautiful, and there has been a very healthy trend in the demand in the local market in recent years. But a reorientation of the product range is needed to benefit from the export and job creation opportunities presented by the challenge of the international market. The NGO exporters have design departments, staffed by trained designers who develop products suitable for the local and/or the foreign Alternative Trading organization (ATO) market, which organizations also provide product development 14 assistance. However they do not have much experience in developing products for the commercial export market. The decline in ATO demand for handicraft products has forced the NGO exporters to look to the needs of commercial buyers in order to 15 maintain and expand their employment creation programs. Private enterprises often depend on the creativity and the ability of the proprietor to develop new product ideas and designs. Others simply copy designs from local competitors or foreign catalogues 16 or produce to specifications supplied by the customer. Few have the expertise and necessary exposure lo international17 markets to develop products which fully exploit the skills and raw materials available. The main constraints on their growth are lack of access to capital, lack of original and export oriented designs, inefficient production 18 systems and inadequate technology, and insufficient market exposure. 1.4.8 Prospect of the Handicraft in Bangladesh Bangladesh is a land of opportunities. Fertile land, hundreds of inland water sources, favorable climate, abundant human resource and ethnic homogeneity are the main strengths of the country. Every inches of land in this country can be utilized. Besides, some development indicators like mortality rate, literacy rate, and nutrition rate are also increasing. And democracy has been institutionalized. Despite so, I think we failed to attain the growth rate that it should be. Now time has come to redesign Bangladesh economic policy to attain faster growth. Keeping the open market philosophy in mind we have to develop our economic policy in a way so that our export volume substantially increases and side-by-side import substitute industries successfully compete with foreign goods. Above all, to attain ultimate and sustainable economic growth there is no alternative of massive rural economic development. Considering all the implications of new economic order we like to present an economic strategy through which we could achieve economic independence. - 13 -
“We have divided the economic activities or basic types of industries into three categories, which are discussed below: a) Agriculture b) Labor c) Handicraft But our main concern deals with effective promotion strategy of the Handicrafts in Bangladesh. Our handicraft has earned enormous respect in the global market with the initiative of Arong and some other NGOs. Most of the ingredients of these items are locally made and easily available. Technology is well known to us and our rural women are very efficient in manufacturing these handmade items. We can produce more quality handicrafts with better training and technology. More commercial firms should come-up to make the work done by rural women workers and market them both at home and abroad. If men can generate income through agriculture and other businesses women can also earn through handicrafts. This combined effort and earnings of the family members ultimately increase their lifestyle and generate more money flow in the economy. Not only that these industry will also uplift the image of our cultural heritage to the global community. This basic industry can be the backbone of our economy. If we are able to develop the industries we can earn foreign currency through exportation after meeting our own need” (Author: Shayokh
Ahmad, March 01, 2005).
1.4.9 Communication Systems
Our study has been directed communicate to the effective promotion strategy of Handicrafts; how Bangladeshi Handicrafts very promptly can influence the world market from setting home situations? So, the convenient of the promotion Handicrafts in the world markets we may apply few communication systems which will be more effective for those who are exporter in Bangladesh. The communication systems are as follows: 18.104.22.168 Media Campaign Bangladesh handy craft manufacturers can attain world wide export opportunity through media campaigns .To promote awareness about handy crafts among the people, media campaigning is very vital promotional activities. To visualize and provide information about handy crafts, advertising is very effective as well as communicable. Detail information make available in Index but some sources are given below: Export Import Burro Aarong Web Page. Title about Aarong – An Overview http://www.brac-aarong.com/about.asp
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According to above representation , we realize that , if we research the above sources , should get accurate information and also establish handy trade in international market. 22.214.171.124 Direct Export: Direct export is one of the most popular and profitable media for the exporters. Thorough these media exporters attract the foreign importers and by satisfying their demand exporters export the goods directly to the importer’s country. 126.96.36.199 Online Marketing Online Marketing facilitates number related activities such as product advertisement, order, payment and place requirement etc. Philip Kotler & Gray Armstrong, Principles of marketing, Seventh Edition, CHAPTER 15 PROMOTING PRODUCTS: MARKETING COMMUNICATION STRATEGY. Page # 479 As prior , we assumed, Bangladesh is a cost effective handy craft manufacturing country in the world but they fail to satisfy the world market quality handy crafts demand within a cheaper price , only because of ineffective communication system. From our view point, through online , can place our products , the importers can give their specification of desired product in accordance their requirement and exporters also state their requirement about their products. So its very easier way to transaction between buyers and sellers and also transparency is there. We provide in detail in Index, now we just provide the sources in below: Alibaba.com web page. Title about Product http://www.alibaba.com From the above scenario, if we examine and explore correctly through sources with accurate and precise information, should be benefited to promote Bangladesh handy crafts manufacturers in international market.
188.8.131.52 National & International trade fare Bangladesh is developing country and growing up very fast. As because we are developing country , so to reduce the rate of unemployment, to save foreign exchange , also use inexpensive and abundant resources, to increase local production, should have to focus on local and international operation by export, invite foreign importers who are interested to buy handy crafts from Bangladesh etc. Some sources are given below:
E-commerce for crafts producers web page
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From the above state, if we observe and discover correctly through sources with accurate and precise information, should be benefited to encourage Bangladesh handy crafts manufacturers in international market 184.108.40.206 Local & International Advertisement The world is very much competitive now and Medias are very strong and available to reach almost every one in the world. So advertising is very important. Advertising locally and internationally is now a days very attractive and effective for any product. 220.127.116.11 Personal selling Personal selling means the personal presentation of the product by the companies’ sales force. This promotion tool builds strong customer relationship (Chapter 15 Page 461, Principles of Marketing. By Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong)
1.5 Government Facilities
To attract foreign direct investors, the government should take initiative and corrective actions to invest our country. The government should provide all protection and also political stability so that they feel secure to invest here and also cover their return as well as profit. The necessary sources are given below:
Source: Export Import Burro www.ecommerceandpoverty.com http://www.brac-aarong.com/about.asp
According to above illustration , we comprehend that , if we research the above sources , should get accurate information and also establish handy trade in international market.
Opportunities also exist in export markets as these markets are exposed to the unique design characteristics of Handicrafts. Small amounts of handicrafts are already being exported to Europe, Japan and the U.S. however exporters continue to be confronted by numerous obstacles in meeting the quantity and cost demands of these world wide markets. In order for exporters to be able to take advantage of new economic opportunities and capture new markets the need assistance to promotion our production capacity: Up-gradation the quality of Handicrafts products will be the standards demanded by potential buyers and overcome the many obstacles situation of our country. The NGO’s Project and local private organization also can be provided the necessary support to the Export Promotion Department in the Ministry of Commerce, to provide trouble shooting help desk services, government to government liaison, and international promotion of Bangladeshi Handicraft products.
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The background clearly indicates the opportunity for Bangladeshi handy crafts in the form of handy crafts made of Jute, home made textiles, leather goods, wooden products and Bamboo & candy products and in the market USA, CANADA & European Union. However the Strategic implementation issue and confirmation of the above need to be assumed.
A sufficient number of exporters to justify its setting up must make a commitment to exploiting the resources of the centre. They should be committed to developing their businesses by updating and upgrading their product range, and be prepared to convert new ideas on products, designs and production into a commercial reality by contributing the necessary resources - materials, sample making capacity management time, test production, market promotion etc. The successful achievement of the project purpose i.e. the development of more acceptable products am designs, can contribute to the achievement of the overall objective of increasing exports, assuming that EPB and the ITC export promotion project give special attention to the promotion of handcrafted products and support exporters in their efforts to find new international markets - for gifts, house wares, decor, seasonal products, toys, and accessories. The project proposal is based on the assumption that candidates of the right caliber, with appropriate qualifications (albeit in need of further training), and very special personal qualities, will be available to recruitment to the key posts, in particular the posts of director and senior designer. If this is not the cast rather than appointing less than suitable persons to key posts upon which the whole success or failure the project depends, an alternative approach to providing the product development needs of exporters must be adopted. This might for example consist of a Bangla craft program based on the use of free-lance of part-time designers, technicians and other consultants to supply the services required by exporters It assumed however, that a qualified information officer/librarian can be recruited (preferably one with a interest in design, handicrafts and related subjects) as a suitable candidate would be required to have recognized and fairly common qualification.
3. Problem Identification:
The secondary study indicate that any clear cut promotional strategy to ensure successes of handy craft export from Bangladesh are not been undertaken. In edition, the issue of which product for market or media should be consider has not been designed clearly. For more it also needs to assume the feasibility of the strategy if it is implemented.
4.1 Broad Objective: - 17 -
The objective of the research is to identify the most effective promotion strategy for Bangladeshi handy crafts.
4.2 Specific Objectives: 1) To check if the product identify in the secondary list actually be considered prospective. 2) 2) To assess the demand for various products 3) 3) To check the opportunity to export Bangladeshi handy crafts regarding competitive advantages. 4) To design a promotional strategy based on the opportunity. 5) To measure the effectiveness of the various media that can be used for promotion of handy crafts. 6) To identify a ‘SWOT’ analysis of the various product.
Types of Information Are the products selected for promotion prospective? What will be the sequential order of the selective handy crafts? Hypothesis H1: Based on Background study we can say that the product classes those we have chosen for our study are prospective. H1: Based on Background study, among those selective products, the sequential order is handy crafts made of Jute home made textile, leather goods, wooden products and Bamboo & candy products H0: Qualitative H1: Bangladeshi exporters can export quality handy crafts with in a cheaper price.
What are the attributes given by the world exporters regarding their handy craft? What will be the competitive advantages that can be provided by Bangladeshi exporters to the world market?
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What are the promotional strategies available to the handy crafts exporters of the world market?
What will be the effective promotional strategy that can be applied for promotion of Bangladeshi handy crafts? What are the media available in Bangladesh for export purpose?
H1: Bangladeshi exporters can export handicrafts which will represent the uniqueness of Bangladeshi culture & tradition. H1: From background study we can say that on-line marketing is one of the most effective promotional strategies available to the handy craft exporters of the world market. H1: From background study we can say that international trade fair is one of the most effective promotional strategies available to the handy craft exporters of the world market. H0: Qualitative. H1: Local and international trade fair is a media available in case of exporting handy crafts. H1: B2B is a communication media available in case of exporting handy crafts. H0: Qualitative. H1: From background study we can see that Lower cost is a significant characteristics that is considered as a ‘Strengths’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts. H1: From background study we can see that idiosyncrasy in design is a significant characteristics that is considered as a ‘Strengths’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts. H1: From background study we can see that lack of proper communication is a ‘Weaknesses’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts. H0: Qualitative. H0: Qualitative.
What are the most effective media that can be used for export purpose? What are the ‘Strengths’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts?
What are the ‘Weaknesses’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts? What are the ‘Opportunities’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts? What are the ‘Threats’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts?
To identify the facilities those are given by Bangladeshi government for exporting Bangladeshi handicrafts.
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6 Research Question:
1. What types of product were exported more in last five year? 2. What is the listing position of the handy crafts those are by us? 3. Does government provide any facility for those products? 4. Is there any research or any study takes place for particular products? 5. When the exporter or the government fines out that those products has future for export? 6. Find out what is the last 5 years ranking position of handy crafts on export ? 7. To identify which country is eagerly interested for the handy products? 8. Are they have any categorize for that product? 9. To identify what strategy they are easily reached to obtain? 10. Regarding foreign country, to identify, what is the best strategy which is appropriate for them? 11. If they follow any existing marketing strategy? 12. To identify, if there any training institutions regarding handy crafts (foreign countries)? 13.What type of conveniences provided by the government in export of handy crafts and also compare and evaluate with other countries? 14. To identify, what type of media they are using for export? 15. If there is any organization in abroad as regards handy crafts? Bangladesh Embassy in Foreign 16. To identify what facilities are provided by country as regard to export? 17. What are the ‘Strengths’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts? 18. What are the ‘Weaknesses’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts? 19. What are the ‘Opportunities’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts? 20. What are the ‘Threats’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts?
7. Scope of The study:
Scope of the study is limited to designing the effective promotion strategies for the handy crafts. The handy crafts will be limited to handy crafts made of Jute, home - 20 -
made textile, leather goods, wooden products and Bamboo & candy products. Both Qualitative and quantitative research techniques will implement.
8. Sampling Type:
Sampling is a part or portion of the population chosen for the study or research. We use sampling because it is not possible to count or measure every item in the population. Through Sampling study, we can simplify ‘what information is required, how should the sample members be selected,’ etc. For our study we only focus on Non- Probability Sampling it should use for selecting sample members primarily as a matter of convenience. In non- probability, we will go for judgment and convenience sampling. Through it, we will assess the reactions of the people on the promotion strategy of Bangladesh Handicrafts. By judgment and convenience sampling , the data or information is easily communicable , accessible and also inexpensive as well as we can collect data from specific areas which create more values in a short time.
8.1 Sampling Unit: The followings are to be sampled EPB (Export Promotion Burro) Exporters of handy crafts Foreign Projects on rural development Bangladesh ‘Loc O Karu Shilpo’ Foundation. 8.2 Sampling Elements Director General of Export Promotion Bureau, (EPB) Exporters of Various Handy Crafts Project Directors and Designers of Foreign Projects on rural development. Handy crafts manufacturers of Bangladesh ‘Loc O Shilpo’ Foundation –Sonargaon, Saver. 8.3 The Size of the Sample
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It is an important aspect of the planning of any survey involves the determination of an appropriate number of sample members. The effective sample size should be time and cost effective. For our study, we will work on two weeks which is 14 days. Each day three members will collect data at 30 minutes. So, we have to locate 168 elements within 14 days. Confidence Interval: 90% (Assumed) Error Factor: 10
9. Research Budget:
1. Activities Sampling Survey (Including Cost Tk. 3000/= 1000/= 500/= 1000/= 500/= 6000/=
Conveyance) 2. Printing and publication 3. Communication 4. Food 5. Amusement Total
Company Name: Nakshi
Address: 16, Paribagh (1st Floor) Sonargoan Road, Dhaka-1000 Bangladesh. Mobile: 0189-182790, 0171-104354 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com
An overview of the Organization The organization has been established to conduct a research based on the promotional Strategy of Bangladeshi Handy Crafts. There are five people working in this Organization as researchers. The Organization is doing this research under direct supervision of Dr. Syed Ferhat Anwar. The research is expected to be completed within 13 weeks.
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Members of the Organization:
Md. Faizul Alam (Team Leader) Area of Working: Idea Generating, Computer Graphics, Collecting various types of information, Rearrange types of information, Distribution of the activities, Data Analysis. Ronald T. Reberio (Treasurer) Area of Working: Money Arrangement, Collecting various types of information, rearranges types of information, sampling survey. Arafin Islam (Executive Member) Area of Working: Sampling survey, communicating with other team members. Humayan Rashid (Executive Member) Area of Working: Sampling survey, Data Analysis, Communicating with other sample elements. Md. Enamul Haque (Executive Member) Area of Working: Data Analysis, Printing and publication.
11. Contribution of the study:
The study will contribute on both Industry and Community. According to this study or research, if the handy crafts will be marketed accordingly by promotional strategy, it may help to create a handy industry in Bangladesh. On the other hand , promotion of handy crafts will play a major role in case of rural development in Bangladesh which will help on the development of the local community of Bangladesh. Through Handy crafts promotion, can be reduced unemployment rate, to create job opportunity, earn foreign exchange , to develop the trade and industry state and also enriching our culture as well as civilization.
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What is the demand of the following product classes for export? What types of product were exported more in last five years? Rank the following product classes according to their demand. What is the standard attributes given by the world exporters for handicrafts export? What are the specialties of Bangladeshi handicrafts compare to
Level of Scale Ordinal Ordinal Interval
Types pf scale Rank order Scale Rank order Scale Likart Type Scale
Likart Type Scale
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handicrafts of other countries. What are the most common promotional strategies available in Bangladesh for handicrafts export? Chose the most effective strategy among the following strategies for handicrafts export. What are the facilities given by Bangladeshi government for exporting Bangladeshi handicrafts? Do you think that the facilities those are given by the Government for exporting Bangladeshi handicrafts are satisfactory enough? What are the shortcomings of the existing facilities those are given by Bangladeshi Government? What are the facilities that should be given by Bangladeshi Government for exporting handicrafts?
Itemized Rating Scale
Rank Order Scale
Typical Likart Scale Nominal
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What are the medias available for export of Bangladesh? What are the medias that can be used for exporting Bangladeshi handicrafts Rank the following medias for exporting handicrafts considering effectiveness. Rank the following medias for exporting handicrafts considering cost. Rank the following advantages those are considered as ‘Strength’ of Bangladeshi handicrafts? Do you think Bangladeshi handicrafts have any weakness? If Yes, then what are the ‘Weaknesses’ of Bangladeshi handicrafts? Do you think Bangladeshi handicrafts have some ‘opportunities’ regarding handicrafts export? What are the ‘Threats’ of Bangladeshi handy crafts?
Nominal Ordinal Q-sorting Scale
Rank Order Scale
Nominal Nominal Nominal
Typical Likart Scale
Itemized Rating Scale
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1. (1) A. M. A Muthin, Bangladesh – Emergence of a Nation, page – 34-38, second revised edition published by March 1992, title – Towards Pakistan, Chapter-2, published by Mohiuddin Ahmed, The University Press Limited. 2. Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh 2001, Page -19, 22nd edition. 3. (2) A. M. A Muthin, Bangladesh – Emergence of a Nation, page – 81-82, second revised edition published by March 1992, title – Towards Pakistan, published by Mohiuddin Ahmed, Chapter-3, The University Press Limited. 4.
Advertisement Media (Global Interactive Marketing and Technology Solution), Page-1 (Front page), title: About Bangladesh History Website: www. advertisemedia.aamibangali.com/about_us.as
5. (3) A. M. A Muthin, Bangladesh – Emergence of a Nation, page – 93-100, title: Evolution of a Colony, Chapter-4.
6. Editor: Sirajul Islam, History of Bangladesh 1704-1971, Published in September 1992,titles: General Economic Conditions Under the Raj (Sugata Bose) & General
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Economic Condition During Pakistan Period (M. M. Akash), Vol-2 Economic History, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 7. Mir Shahabuddin Mohammad, Annual Report 2002-2003, Export Promotion Bureau Bangladesh, title: Country Profile, Produced & published by Information division.
8. (4) A. M. A Muthin, Bangladesh – Emergence of a Nation, page – 93-100, title: The Government in Exile, Chapter-12. 9. Bangladesh History and & Government, title: Democratic system, page second front page, website: advertisemedia.aamibangali.com/about_us.as
10. Mir Shahabuddin Mohammad, Annual Report 2002-2003, Export Promotion Bureau Bangladesh, title: Bangladesh Economy, Produced & published by Information division.
11. Advertisement Media (Global Interactive Marketing and Technology Solution), Page-1 (Front page), title: About Bangladesh History Website: www. advertisemedia.aamibangali.com/about_us.as 12. The Bangladesh Travel Guide(A web site dedicated to explore & bridge Bangladesh with other foreign countries to promote trade, establish and increase connections and communications on business affairs), Discovery Bangladesh, Wednesday April 13, 2005, title: Economy, Operated By - "Annex Graph"- A sister concern of Overseas Marketing Corporation (Pvt) Ltd, Website: www.bizinfo-bangladesh.com www.discoverybangladesh.com/meetbangladesh/labour_force.html 13. (5) Board of Investment Bangladesh (BOI), Tuesday-March 01, 2005, displayed page by web front page, title: Incentive to export-oriented & export-linkage industries, website: http://www.boibd.org/invest_incentive.html, 2004 © board
of investment Bangladesh, all rights reserved.
14. (6) Board of Investment Bangladesh (BOI), Tuesday-March 01, 2005, displayed page by web front page. 15. (7) Board of Investment Bangladesh (BOI), Tuesday-March 01, 2005, displayed page by web front page. 16. (8) Board of Investment Bangladesh (BOI), Tuesday-March 01, 2005, displayed page by web front page.
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17. Export Promotion Bureau, Assistant Editor: Akhtaruzzaman, Report March April '99, Page- 3-18, Title: Handicraft, produced & published by: Information Division. 18. Daily News Monitoring Service, Board of Editors: Dr. A. Jaffor Ullah , Tariq M. Mazumdar, February 25, 2005, Title: Bangladeshi handicraft cost get $0.55m orders in Frankfurt fair, Webpage: www.bangladesh-web.com, 19. (9) International trade centre UNCTAD/WTO (Consultancy on handicrafts), Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-2, title: export development and promotion project BGD 91/004, Report found in EPB library. 20. (10) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-2. 21. (11) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-2. 22. (12) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-2. 23. (13) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-2. 24. (14) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-61. 25. (15) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-61. 26. (16) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-61. 27. (17) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-61. 28. (18) Report on a mission by David Holboutnr, May 8 – June 1996, Page-61. 29. Ecommerce and Poverty, title: Over view of Handicraft and E-commerce, website: www.ecommerceandpoverty.info/chap4.pdf, page – front page. 30. Author: Shayokh Ahmad, Title of the Articles: Business Feature, Tuesday, March 01, 2005, Published by: bizbangla.com, Website: bizbangla.com.
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