Joannes Richter

Dyæus

For my androgynous partner
Fries

2

Joannes Richter

Dyæus
Discovering the Predecessor
of Modern Religions

Published by Lulu
-2009-

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© 2009 by Joannes Richter
Published by Lulu
www.lulu.com
All Rights Reserved
ISBN: xxx-x-xxxx-xxxx-x

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Contents
1 Introduction............................................................................9
2 Overview..............................................................................11
3 Patriarchy versus Matriarchy...............................................17
4 Palaeolithic Artwork and Tools ...........................................19
5 Unnamed N-headed Sculptures............................................25
6 Named N-headed Sculptures................................................39
7 Body Mirroring at Burials....................................................57
8 Text Manuscripts..................................................................65
9 The Bible..............................................................................75
10 The garments....................................................................105
11 Etymology for the Word “Paars”......................................111
12 Flags.................................................................................115
13 A Survey of Androgynous Godheads ..............................119
14 Proto-Indo-European Language.......................................123
15 Colours, Twining and Runes............................................133
16 Religious Symbolism in Traditions..................................157
17 Linguistic Traces of Duality.............................................173
18 Psychoanalysis and Androgyny.......................................177
19 Modern androgynous symbolism.....................................179
20 Overview of Androgynous Symbols................................181
21 Credits in for this Study...................................................185
22 Conclusion.......................................................................187
23 Appendices (Summaries).................................................191

List of Figures and Photographs
Fig. 1: The cobble from Makapansgat.....................................20
Fig. 2: Palaeolithic androgynous sculpture .............................29
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Fig. 3: First Man - Dual Principle............................................31
Fig. 4: Hermes of Roquepertuse..............................................35
Fig. 5: Bifaced statue found at Holzgerlingen.........................36
Fig. 6: Horned bi-faced Hermes of Roquepertuse...................37
Fig. 7: The androgynous deity Zurvan.....................................40
Fig. 8: The Zbruch idol ...........................................................46
Fig. 9: Male figure at Boa Island (east side)............................49
Fig. 10: The female figure at the westside (Boa-Island)..........50
Fig. 11: Brahma carving at a temple in Halebidu....................52
Fig. 12: Janus-Sculpture (Vatican) .........................................53
Fig. 13: Androgynous couple (Mexico)...................................55
Fig. 14: Comparing head-to-head-positions............................62
Fig. 15: Headerlines from several medieval Bibles.................86
Fig. 16: Initial Ancient History (14th Century).......................87
Fig. 17: La Divina Commedia.................................................88
Fig. 18: Headerline Korczek-Bible (Prag- around 1410).........91
Fig. 19: Headerline Korczek-Bible (Prag- around 1410).........91
Fig. 20: God's hand to Noah (Viennese Codex - 6th Cent.).....93
Fig. 21: Creator God in red and blue garments........................97
Fig. 22: Jesus Christ being kissed by Judas(1336)..................98
Fig. 23: Male Sky-God (Viennese Codex - sixth Cent.)........101
Fig. 24: God's hand to Noah (Viennese Codex - 6th Cent.)...102
Fig. 25: Our Lady of Czestochowa........................................106
Fig. 26: Emperor Henry (detail Codex Manesse)..................108
Fig. 27: Register for Codex Manesse.....................................110
Fig. 28: The Tricolour of France (1358)................................115
Fig. 29: CIE xy chromaticity diagram...................................134
Fig. 30: Seal of Solomon.......................................................135
Fig. 31: The Celtic burial tomb at Hochdorf .........................136
Fig. 32: The Qabalistic Tree of Life.......................................141
Fig. 33: Sephiroth Tree according to Carla Randel................144
Fig. 34: The Prince's Flag (1572)...........................................147
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Fig. 35: The Yin/Yang-symbol in the Korean banner............148
Fig. 36: German Maypole (2008)..........................................159
Fig. 37: Djed-pillar ................................................................161
Fig. 38: Androgynous -Married- Couple...............................164
Fig. 39: Androgynous face by Marc Chagall.........................179
Fig. 40: Androgynous face (painting J. Richter, 2003)..........180
Fig. 41: Seal of Solomon.......................................................181
Fig. 42: Heraldic sign for the Hansa-City of Bruges.............184
Fig. 43: Heraldic sign -Hanse-trading-era.............................184

List of Tables
Table 1: Time Table for the Pleistocene...................................19
Table 2: Creation phases in Book Genesis...............................92
Table 3: Categorisation of medieval Bibles...........................100
Table 4: Basic Core PIE-Vocabulary.....................................125
Table 5: Androgynous Deities and their Pronouns................130
Table 6: Overview of Androgynous Deities...........................199

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1 Introduction
The manuscript reveals a synthesis between etymology,
religion, myths, history, palaeolithic sculptures and traditions,
including the symbolism in ancient sculptures, in pronouns,
twining and colours.
Dyæus describes a predecessor for modern religions, in which
people were aware they shared one common religion and a
single sky-deity.
Although travelling must have been difficult 20,000 years ago,
traders seem to have been in regular contact at long distances,
spreading language and religious ideas over Europe and other
continents. Palaeolithic sculptures reveal a common basic idea
of combining skulls in a form of duality. Comparing these
symbols with other traces in the course of history we will learn
to interpret some of these symbols as an ancient creation
legend, in which a divine being creates an androgynous person
and splits up the first being into a woman and a man.
It is hard to believe people already have been devoted to a
singular androgynous deity 20,000 years ago, but the
palaeolithic sculptures are quite explicit. Many multi-headed
sculptures have been found and one of the oldest identifiable
sculptures, made of ivory of mammoth and found at Gagarino,
Ukraine, is claimed be to 22,000 years old.
Written sources reveal the deities have been symbolized by
common symbols represented by vocals respectively by the
characters I and U.

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Basic characters (the female “U” and the male symbol “I”) may
be traced back in great number of divine names, in sculptures,
in modern pronouns and even in symbolic colours.
The Books Exodus and Chronicles reveal a great number of
symbolic coloured woven materials (red, blue and purple
twining) in the divine instructions for the Covenant tent and
for Solomon's temple. Equivalent clothes and towels created in
finest twining technology applying the basic colours red and
blue to create the special emperor's colour purple have been
found at the burial tomb in Hochdorf. These colours are the
fundamental religious codes for the androgynous principle.
The primary text of the Kabbala (Zohar) and Medieval variants
of the Genesis describe an ancient Hebrew androgynous
creation-legend, comparable to the legendary description in
Plato's Symposium. The Kabbala allows us to reconstruct the
original legend in the early version of the Bible. However the
Zohar probably lost the main key to androgynous religion. The
Zohar's author incorrectly defines the androgynous keys as
(male) I and (female) H instead of the correct values (male) I
and (female) U.
The Book Dyæus now starts with an overview. Subsequently
the author will describe the ancient sculptures and gradually
develop the androgynous symbolism at full scope, leaving no
doubt for a grand historical monument:
A common androgynous religion for all peoples.

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2 Overview
The manuscript starts with an
androgynous religion in a summary.

overview,

explaining

Sky-gods in Indo-European Language
In an introduction1 to the religious life of mankind Mircea
Eliade describes the nature of the first common deity, identified
as the Sky-Dweller or Owner of the Sky with a thundering voice
and applying the lightning bolt as a weapon. In Indo-European
language his name has been documented as Dyæus . The
Mongol name for the supreme God is Tengri, which means sky.
The Chinese T'ien may be translated as the sky and as God of
the sky. Zeus and Jupiter still preserve in their names the
memory of the sacredness of the sky. However we will also be
able to identify androgynous symbolism in their names.
Gradually the sky-god may be replaced by other divine figures,
but in a few religions tending to monotheism the androgynous
sky-god attains a unique position.

Analysis of N-headed and N-faced sculptures
Found sculptures will cover a long period of time from
palaeolithic eras until relatively recent centuries and finding
locations are being spread worldwide. The idea of N-headed
sculptures seems to be covering all continents.

1:

In the Sacred and the Profane-The Nature of Religion,
by Mircea Eliade (1956), ISBN 978-0-15-679201-1.

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Findings at the Hochdorf burial mound and at the burial
location of the Nebra disc reveal pre-historical travelling and
trading routes between Northern European and Mediterranean
cultures, spreading religious and cultural knowledge over long
distances. These contacts explain why 2-, 3- and 4-faced deities
may be found all over the world as if travelling had been as
easy as today.

Androgynous bipolarity in sculptures
Several ancient sculptures reveal androgynous bipolarity in
gender-attributes. Some 4-faced sculptures (e.g. the Brahmasculpture at a temple in Halebidu) reveal androgynous
attributes by referring to at least 1 bearded and 1 non-bearded
face. Some 2-faced sculptures (e.g. in Hermes of
Roquepertuse) reveal androgynous attributes by referring to a
7-10% difference in skull-size. A number of 4-faced sculptures
(e.g. the Zbruch idol) reveal androgynous attributes by
referring to 2 persons with breasts and 2 persons without
breasts, but wearing beards.

Pronouns in Proto-Indo-European Language
Prototypes for religious concepts and basic concepts for IndoEuropean Languages may share a number of ideas. Basically
any language may be considered to apply fundamental words
(covering basic ideas and fundamental thoughts).
According to linguistic theories August Schleicher
reconstructed and arranged the most important words in the
Proto-Indo-European (PIE-) Language or probably in any
language. In PIE the three most important words are the
pronouns: "I", "You" and "We". In modern English we may
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now consider three proto-pronouns (in order of ranking) "I" ,
"U" and "UI".
Considering their ranking in linguistic statistics these three
personal pronouns "I", "You" and "We" we will correlate these
pronouns to equally important basic religious concepts in an
androgynous symbolic context.
The most prominent proto-pronoun "I" is the first person
singular, which may be considered as a male symbol and refer
to the religious concept of the lingam. The second relevant
proto-pronoun "U" is the second person singular, which may be
considered a female symbol and refer to the religious concept
of the yoni.
The third ranking word in Proto-Indo-European (PIE-)
Language is the proto-pronoun "UI" or "IU" which may be
considered as a merging joint for the singular proto-pronouns
"U" and "I". In religious proto-concepts the joint of the male
and female element may have been the divine joint "UI" or in a
symmetrical version "IU".
We may consider "IU-piter" (or "IU"-Father) to be a protoreligious concept as a parent-couple of the "IU"-concept. We
may read "UI" as a "prototype" for the pronoun "We". In
German mythology the "UI"-core is to be traced in the name of
the androgynous creator-god Tuisco. The proto-pronouns (I, U)
may refer to the male and female elements in a number of
androgynous religions. The pronouns U (you) and I may very
well be identified within the main deities names (Thou and I
inside Tuisco, "je" at the inside and "Du" at the outside of the
French "Dieu", and "io" inside "Dios"), indicating a religious
bipolar symbolism.

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Tetragrammatons2
In Indo-European languages most principal deities, e.g. Diaeus
(Sanskrit "Dyaus", Greek Zeus or Latin Deus) and Sius (the
Hittite sun-god) are etymological pendants, which have been
identified as androgynous deities as well. Kabbalistic literature
explains the Hebrew Tetragrammaton IHVH as a combination
of a male element (the elementary and smallest letter Jod, I)
and a female element (V), equivalent to the symbol U.

Creation legends
Androgynous creation legends (Plato's Symposium and the
Zohar's legend) generally claim the male and the female halves
of the first-born androgynous creature called "man" had been
unable to see each other's faces. Although they had been linked
together they felt lonely and in an idea of compassion the
Hebrew God decided to split them. Plato however claims Zeus
had to split them in fear for too much power...
Either way the Creator-God had to separate their skulls and
corpses by splitting the androgynous „man“-unity ("Adam").
Subsequently he "ornamented" the female half “like an bride”
and did lead her in front of the male half (the bridegroom).
Face-to-face and eye-to-eye the bride and the bridegroom were
allowed to see each other's face for the very first time... This
legend seems to symbolize a marriage in which the bride is "to
be unveiled" at the wedding ceremony. Existing wedding
ceremonies suggest the use of a mirror in wedding ceremonies
to enable the couple to view the „rejoined“ duality as an image
of „man“ and as an image of the Creator-God3.
2:

Four-lettered divine names
Details about Afghan wedding symbols have been documented by Khaled

3:

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Biblical symbols in colouring and weaving
In an ancient Celtic grave at the German village Hochdorf the
king's purple clothes reveals to have been woven in Byssus- or
twining-technology using the finest threads of blue and red at
extremely high densities of 80 threads/cm.
This high density weaving of red and blue colours cannot be
identified without optical tools and therefore the clothes look
like a homogeneous purple material.
The same technology (Byssus/Twining applying red, blue and
purple) is found in the Bible's Exodus: we will learn to
understand the relevant biblical quotations in the following
chapters of this book. Elementary colours red, blue and purple
refer to androgynous deities, symbolizing male (blue colours)
and female (red colours) or divine symbols (purple colours).

Garments, Icons and Paintings
From the beginning the “writing” of sacred artwork (icons,
Bibles, books and paintings) had been organized by strict rules.
Consequently these rules had to be followed for the royal
garments as well. Seated at their imperial thrones the emperors
Barbarossa and Henry VI had to wear either purple or red &
blue.

Hosseini in The Kite Runner. Afghan symbols seem to have been valid in
modern times as the novel is describing the seventies around 1970.

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Flags
In analogy the royal garments (in fact however from the divine
commands in Exodus) a great number of West-European flags
has been designed. These flags probably represent the latest
traces of androgynous religion in our modern society.

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3 Patriarchy versus Matriarchy
Often the sky-god or the principal deity is called
„Heavenly Father“ or „Father in Heaven“. The idea of
a father-deity is rather aged and must have been a
common definition as early as 500 before Christ.
However in prehistoric ages we consider the idea of a
preceding matriarchy, which also invites us to presume
an intermediate crossover period of androgynous
religion.
Before studying the religious symbolism in ancient books,
which have been written before 1950, I noticed some problems
in understanding these texts due to the background knowledge
for modern readers. The main cause for these
misunderstandings is a dramatic changeover in social position
for women.
Up to World War II the Father-titles for the monotheistic deity
were quite easily understood. Today we are used to consider
women as equally ranked, individual citizens, but these equal
rights are relatively new. Up to World War II most married
women did not have the right to vote or to even manage their
own property. In legal procedures the husband represented his
wife as one of his children, including the voting procedures and
the management of their property. The Bible defined the
woman as a servant to her husband and some matrimonial
manuals even described women as a man's limb.
For at least 25 centuries “Man” used to be defined as a male
person, which simply included his wife as an appendix4.
4:

see the manuscript Core Dump at Scribd by Joannes Richter (2009)

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In fact the English word “Man” represented a married couple
instead of an individual human being.
Therefore the Pope 1931 merely choose to address the
encyclical "De Rerum Novarum" to the male members of the
Church. Obviously the male addressees would be expected to
pass the information to their female relatives and children.
Now thinking of “Man” as God's image caused some
problems. “Man” as a male person including a female
appendix would result in a married couple, which certainly
could not be depicted or even considered as a monotheistic
deity. This paradox resulted in a historical phase in which
Yahweh had to be accompanied by a wife Asjera. The people
may even have been used to this common idea and have
accepted the couple as a normal monotheistic deity.
Now the initially created androgynous “Man” called Adam still
needed to be halved into two individual beings woman and
man, which as individual traditionally have been considered as
incomplete. In ancient times unmarried individuals have been
considered as halved “Men5”. In a matrimonial ceremony these
male and female individuals were to be rejoined to an original
androgynous “Man” as a divine image.
The patriarchal idea, which mutated woman to an unimportant
man's limb, may have been existing from at least 500 before
Christ in the Mediterranean areas.

5:

This context requires the androgynous creatures in “Men” to be
understood as female and male “human beings” and not strictly as “male
beings”.

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4 Palaeolithic Artwork and Tools
Summary of archaic art
Some scientific terms used in this manuscript refer to the
earth’s last glacial period, the Pleistocene, which extends from
about 1.8 million years ago to about 10 thousand years ago.
Epoch
Pleistocene

Number
of years

Age

1.8 million Lower Paleolithic
years ago Industry: Olduwan
Industry: Acheulean
Middle Paleolithic
Industry: Mousterian
30,000
years ago

Upper Paleolithic
Industry: Chatelperronian
Industry: Aurignacian
Industry: Gravettian
Industry: Solutrean
Industry: Magdalenian

Holocene

10,000
years ago

Neolithic

Table 1: Time Table for the Pleistocene

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Also known as the Stone Age and the Palaeolithic, the
Pleistocene has been divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper,
the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic being associated with
Acheulean and Mousterian tool industries, respectively. Each
industry is defined by a specific tool-type.

The oldest paleolithic idol

Fig. 1: The cobble from
Makapansgat.

One of the oldest palaeolithic idols ever found may be
interpreted as a human two-faced head6, dated 3-2,3 million
years ago. The idol has been used or produced in South Africa
by an Australopitechus, a hominid preceding man.

6:

The ‘australopithecine’ cobble from Makapansgat, South Africa. Found
by W.I. EITZMAN in 1925

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“On the back of the pebble, there is a second image,
that is similar to the face of an Australopithecus.
Scholars consider this dual-faced pebble as a product
of natural processes, but it has been treated like a
sculpture by an Australopithecus and therefore must be
thought the first shape known of PRE-ART, that is the
use of the ready-made before the fabrication of
anthropomorphic or zoo-morphic sculptures for cult
rituals. We never have seen the original, but if it has
been slightly retouched, we may consider it as art”7.
But even as a ready-made object this cobble may be the first
dual-faced object, used as a religious totem and referring to a
religious duality and/or any other symbolism.
Archaeologists discovered a great number of similar ancient 2headed (and other N-headed) sculptures representing deities.
Although any dual-faced object may refer to the androgynous
creation-legend (equivalent to the famous creation-legend in
Plato's Symposium) it may be hard or impossible to prove a
link between this at least 2.5 - 2.9 million years old object and
any later symbolism in our modern religions...
The Australopithecus belongs to a very ancient series of
hominids. In much later periods, in the period between 45,000
and 30,000 years ago in Europe, the relatively recent Homo
sapiens neandertalensis has been replaced by our own species
(Homo sapiens sapiens). In this era we observe acculturation of
the local archaic Neanderthals merging with the newcomers,
who seem to have arrived from Africa. From now on we will
focus into these younger peoples and their religious ideas.
7:

From: Museum of the Origins of Man - by Pietro Gaietto

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Interpreting palaeolithic artwork and tools
Interpretation of palaeolithic sculpture requires great skill,
experience and a profound knowledge of the various types of
sculptures found in archaeological sites all over the world.
I am very grateful for the generous support I received from
Pietro Gaietto and Licia Filingeri, who allowed me to use
relevant informations from their websites8. Pietro Gaietto, who
discovered the first sculpture referring to Neanderthal-idols in
his Italian excavations, explains:
“Sculptures of the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic
predominantly represent human heads, as an imitation
of natural objects. But in subsequent eras the head's
representation will change its effective form in
following an evolving "fashion". The form for
sculptures of the human head considerably varies over
the past three million years as these depictions will
represent quite different types of the human species.
Elder sculptures are representing the head without
forehead and chin, while younger sculptures, depicting
the Homo sapiens sapiens, reveal both a forehead and a
chin”9.
According to Pietro Gaietto sculptures of the lower and middle
Palaeolithic eras refer to religious cults and may be classified
in:
8:

"Museum of the Origins of Man" managed by Pietro Gaietto
and “Paleolithic Art Magazine“ managed by Licia Filingeri.

9:

From: introduction to "Museum of the Origins of Man" by Pietro Gaietto

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

an individual human head
an individual animal's head
a human head, dual-faced
an animal head, dual-faced
a human head joined at the neck to an animal's head
a combination of a human head and an animal's head
a naked woman (Venus)
an animal's head applied to a human body.

The religious functions of these eight types of sculptures will
be explained at the web-exhibition of sculptures including
other artistic applications, produced in post-Palaeolithic eras:
“As can be seen in the photographs, the artists have
always been varying the size and orientation in the
combinations of the heads, even in the same sculpture.
This certainly had a purpose, which still is unknown to
us.
The depiction of the individual head, and of the
combinations of heads, is reflected in the cult of the
skull of the deceased. Authoritative scholars in the first
half of the nineties claimed this cult for the lower
Palaeolithic, given the large amount of parts of skulls
found, compared to other parts of the skeleton.
Findings of human skulls preserved in burial places are
known from the middle Palaeolithic to the historical
eras and have been found in many existing small
primitive civilizations. The conservation of bear skulls
in middle Palaeolithic has been observed as well”10.
10:

From: introduction to "Museum of the Origins of Man" by Pietro Gaietto

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From 2-headed to 4-headed idols
Subsequently Pietro Gaietto describes the evolutionary
transition from 2-headed to 4-headed sculptures as follows:
“In the post-Palaeolithic eras, the eight types
dramatically evolve along with the application of new
working technologies and use of new materials, with an
increase in the composition of the sculptures and of
religious meanings. To the two-faced human heads the
artists will add new heads, a human body, many arms,
even eyes on the body, clothes, colours, etc., as may be
found in the Indian deities. More chronological
determinations may be obtained if the sculptures of
two-faced human heads represent a union of two
different human species, such as Neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens sapiens”11.
In must be noted that these evolutionary transitions differ from
the transitions between monotheism and the N-headed idols as
described by Mircea Eliade in later chapters of this book.
This introduction to interpreting palaeolithic artwork and tools
will help us to understand the sculptures in the next chapters of
this book.

11:

From: Introduction to Museum of the Origins of Man" by Pietro Gaietto.

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5 Unnamed N-headed Sculptures
Most of the figurines in this chapter may have received a name,
but these names do not refer to the original names used by their
creators.

Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic
Depictions of the human feminine figure found in association
with Upper Palaeolithic cultures commonly called “Venus
figurines” are an extremely varied class of artefacts. Hundreds
of these figurines have been found across the Eurasian
continent from France to Siberia and have been dated to around
25,000 b. C.E. Karen Diane Jennett has published a fine
overview of these Venus-statuettes in her thesis12. Although
Jennett restricts her thesis to female sculptures she describes
some relevant androgynous aspects, which may be used as a
start in analysing the androgynous symbolism.
Across the Eurasian landmass, hundreds of depictions of the
human figure crafted by the artisans of various Upper
Palaeolithic cultures -especially the Gravettian- have been
unearthed at sites spanning from the French Pyrenees to Lake
Baikal in Siberia. An assortment of raw materials have been
employed to create both portable and fixed images portraying
not only the female form, but also the male body,
anthropomorphic characters, and androgynous people.

12:

Female Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic (2008) - by Karen Diane
Jennett

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Jennett's thesis discerns the following groups of sculptures:




Pyrenees-Aquitaine Group
Mediterranean Group
Rhine-Danube Group
Russian Group
Siberian Group

Although mammoth-ivory has been found in Italy the
archaeologists never detected any mammoth-remains in Italy.
Therefore the mammoth-ivory must have been transported
from remote locations to Italy. This details explains how
groups must have been in remote contact and may have spread
religious ideas and trading goods.

Pyrenees-Aquitaine Group
This group includes sculptures from South-western France
along the edge of the Pyrenees, generally considered to have
been densely populated at the end of the last Ice Age. Lascaux's
art dates to about 15,000 b. C.E. and is much younger than
Jennett's principal subject, the figurines more than 22,000 year
old.

The Mediterranean Group
Researchers found that this area was in fact one of the richest
on the continent, featuring a number of dual-headed sculptures.
In this overview we will concentrate on androgynous
sculptures.
In northeastern Italy, at the site of Savignano, the Venus of
Savignano reveals “ambiguous sexual character” and may
represent both feminine and masculine organs.
26

Margherita Mussi concludes that this piece is “clearly related
to a sophisticated and now vanished cosmogony, in which a
feminine and masculine principle were somehow interrelated
into a superior oneness”.
La Belle et la Bete (“the Beauty and the Beast”) is “a small
pendant with a female figurine paired back-to-back with an
animal”. Made from “a pale green-yellow serpentine,” the two
carved creatures are “connected at the backs of the heads, the
shoulders, and the feet”. The animal may be a canid (fox, wolf)
or mustelid (weasel, marten, wolverine).
The “yellow steatite figurine” is also included here with the
“Janus” figurine. Also known as the “woman with the pierced
neck”, the “very roughly carved” figurine has “an unusual face
repeated on both sides”. The so-called ‘Janus’-figurine was
named by Jullien in a letter he wrote to Edouard Piette in 1903,
after the mythological Greek god of dreams who was
considered to have two heads.
Called the “female with two heads” or Bicéphale (“a woman
with a double head”), the feminine figure features a second
head is “slightly larger than the other” head and is “tilted in the
same angle as the first”. Sculptures with slightly larger skulls
may refer to their androgynous nature.

Rhine-Danube Group
This geographic section includes those sites that are in what is
today Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic.

27

Russian Group
This geographic group encompasses those artefacts found in
parts of south-west Russia and the Ukraine near the Black Sea.
The sites from this area show remarkable similarities between
each other – enough to qualify them for their own cultural
subcategory – as well as similarities to many of those artefacts
from the Rhine-Danube Group.
Although not discussed Jennett's thesis lists a
photograph for the androgynous ivory sculpture found
at Gagarino, Ukraine, an example of two human beings
joined together by the neck, with the whole body, which
will be discussed in the following chapter.

Siberian Group
Despite many recently conducted excavations all over the
territory of North and Central Asia, the prehistoric era of this
region is still poorly understood.

Conclusion
Jennett's thesis accurately describes the feminine aspects of the
sculptures, but leaves room for discussions in the field of
androgynous symbolism. We will now proceed with an analysis
for the androgynous ivory sculpture found at Gagarino.

28

The sculpture found at Gagarino, Ukraine
Identified androgynous 2-headed sculptures may be very old. A
small sculpture in ivory of mammoth (extinct hairy Elephant)
14.8cm high (5.2cm the female figurine; and 9.6 cm the male
figurine), found in a Palaeolithic site (evolved Gravettian,
dated about 21,800 years ago) at Gagarino, Ukraine, is a rare
example of two human beings joined together by the neck,
including the complete body.

Fig. 2: Palaeolithic androgynous sculpture

According to the Institute for Ice Ages Studies L.M. Tarassov
discovered a cylindrical ivory "baguette" during his
excavations at Gagarino in 1968. Tarassov immediately
understood they had been joined at the head13 and he states:
“When finished the two figures remained attached at
the tops of their heads”.
13:

Source: Institute for Ice Ages Studies

29

In support of this argument he observed that:
1. “There was no advantage to working two figurines at
the same time, as a single fracture during manufacture
could destroy both statuettes,
2. economizing on ivory was not a satisfactory
explanation because sites on the Russian Plain had an
abundance of ivory, and
3. the incision between the heads was uniformly deep and
very regular along its entire length”.
Tarassov went so far as to relate this head-to-head position to
the adolescent double burial at Sungir in which two individuals
were interred with the tops of their heads touching.
To my idea the head-to-head position of this sculpture refers to
religious (or maybe even androgynous-like) symbolism.

The dual principle found in the Gobi desert
As a frontispiece of his book14 colonel James Churchward
chose the following dual-headed sculpture, coming from the
ancient capital of the Uighurs. To this sculpture he reports:
“The city has been destroyed about 18,000 to 20,000
years ago - Chinese records say 19,000 years ago – and
the sculpture is probably the oldest record of man being
created with the dual principle. <….>
These possibly are the two halves of man and woman
which in bygone times made one soul.”
14:

The Sacred Symbols of Mu, published 1933 by James Churchward

30

Of course modern investigation methods may eventually reveal
a much younger age for the sculpture...

Fig. 3: First Man - Dual Principle
Courtesy of P. K. Kosloff - Over 20,000 years old.
From the ancient Uighur Capital, beneath Karakhota, Gobi Desert.
(Non copyrighted material )

31

Hermes of Roquepertuse
Located at the city of Velaux, near Marseilles in Provence in
southern France, Roquepertuse has been a religious centre
without permanent inhabitants. Only a few priests may have
been guarding the place permanently. The neighbour city
Marseilles has been a Greek colony ever since 600 before
Christ and the Greek colonists must have been living for
centuries in a peaceful agreement with their Celtic neighbours.
Roquepertuse belongs to the capital Entremont and both
settlements were the religious respectively commercial centres
of a Celtic tribe called the Salier.
In 124 before Christ Roman forces, commanded by Consul
Gaius Sextius Calvinus, destroy both Salien centres by using
long-range artillery with heavy catapults, hurling 6 kg stone
projectiles. The Romans devastate both centres completely and
Consul Calvinus does not allow the Celts to rebuild them
again, but instead he founds Colonia Aquae Sextia, the modern
city Aix en Provence. Structures and buildings in Roquepertuse
are set afire and collapse. They will be left abandoned and
unnoticed for centuries, soon covered by layers of dust and
brushwoods.
Rediscovery starts 1860, followed by main excavations in 1923
by H. de Gérin-Ricard, unveiling:



1 bi-faced, androgynous idol (Hermes, 20 cm high)
3 columns with some cavities for human skulls
2 statues in Buddha-like seating position (62 cm high)
1 big bird, fallen apart into 24 pieces
32

Exposed in the museum Borély in Marseilles, these findings
are dated at the third century before Christ. In this era the Celts
have expanded from their homelands (Switzerland, southern
Germany and northern France).
Gérin-Ricard interprets the strange, bi-faced sculpture as
equivalent to a Greek deity. He calls it Hermes as an equivalent
to the bi-faced Hermes-statues and the Roman Termini. Other
French archaeologist point out a 7 % difference in size between
both heads and claim the statue to be a male-female portrait, in
which a bird’s beak may be interfering. The statue is
interpreted as a medium for some kind of a burial ceremony.
The faces originally were painted red, the eyes and the hair
being indicated by black colour.
Obviously the French archaeologists are not aware of
androgynous deities. German etymologists already declared
Tuisco androgynous around 1844. Other equivalent
androgynous gods have been documented to create man
according to their image and to split them into male and
female. A separation phase of this kind seems to be taking
place in the above statue, found in a Celtic sanctuary.
According to these legends the statue can be seen as an image
of Mannus, but equally as an image of its Creator Tuisco.
Nevertheless the statue found in Roquepertuse is an
extraordinary finding, as Tacitus reports Germanic religious
philosophy does not support the idea of locking up divine
beings inside a temple or creating images and sculptures.
Instead they honour their gods in trees and forests by calling
his divine name in respectful contemplation.

33

Several other androgynous and single skulls have been found
in other Celtic towns like Entremont, Mouriès, Nages and
Noves, indicating the head as a centre of venerability.
Sometimes a human-like hand is resting on the top of the head,
while the eyes may be shut or swollen like the eyes of a newly
born baby.
Unfortunately the sculptures found in the sanctuary reveal no
inscriptions, but the language and the accompanying creation
legend may be found in other regions, where the peoples were
too crowded to be eliminated by the Pax Romana.
Analysis of the Roquepertuse15 sculpture (fig. 3) may
concentrate on the object between both skulls. Three ideas have
been suggested by now:
• an intervening beak of a bird (proposed by French
archaeologists)
• a third head (proposed by Mrs. Licia Filingeri in the
Palaeolithic Art Magazine)
• an obsidian knife (proposed by Joannes Richter)
In discussions we may have an closer look at the sculpture: the
object between both skills does not have a neck, but instead
ends in a sharp blade like an obsidian knife to break up the
joined skulls. The blade does not end up in a sharp point, which
might refer to a bird's beak. Instead the blade refers to a sharp
knife.

15:

Museum Borély in Marseilles, France

34

Fig. 4: Hermes of Roquepertuse
Splitting up the bi-fronted skulls must be seen as a religious
procedure, which might be equivalent to Plato's creating legend
in Symposium. Some sculptures will have been made with
opposite faced heads, others with faces in the same, parallel
direction.

35

The Hermes at Holgerlingen
The Hermeslike statue found at Holzgerlingen 16 is a double
faced Herme, which may be comparable to the Hermes of
Roquepertuse. The horns (or ears ?) are special features, which
may clearly be identified in this 230 cm high sculpture.

Fig. 5: Bifaced statue found at Holzgerlingen

16:

now exhibited at the Landesmuseum Stuttgart - Germany

36

Comparing the horns to the Hermes-like sculpture found in
Roquepertuse, the equivalent elements may have been broken
in the middle. I made a sketch to imagine how this sculpture
may have been created as a horned (or eared) deity of the same
type as the Holzgerlingen type:

Fig. 6: Horned bi-faced Hermes of Roquepertuse

37

38

6 Named N-headed Sculptures
In contrast to the preceding chapter most of the figurines in this
chapter have received a name, more or less -depending on the
historical sources- referring to the original names used by their
creators.

The old-Iranian deity Zurvan
Zurvanism17 is a now-extinct branch of Zoroastrianism that had
the divinity Zurvan as its First Principle (the primordial creator
deity). Zurvanism is also known as Zurvanite Zoroastrianism,
in which Zurvan is the hypostasis of Time (and Space). The
"classic" Zurvanite model of creation, preserved only by nonZoroastrian sources, describes:
“In the beginning, the great God Zurvan existed alone.
Desiring offspring that would create 'heaven and hell and
everything in between,' Zurvan sacrificed for a thousand years.
Towards the end of this period, androgynous Zurvan began to
doubt the efficacy of sacrifice and in the moment of this doubt
Ohrmuzd and Ahriman were conceived: Ohrmuzd for the
sacrifice and Ahriman for the doubt.
Upon realizing that twins were to be born, Zurvan resolved to
grant the first-born sovereignty over creation. Ohrmuzd
perceived Zurvan's decision, which He then communicated to
His brother. Ahriman then pre-empted Ohrmuzd by ripping
open the womb to emerge first. Reminded of the resolution to
grant Ahriman sovereignty, Zurvan conceded, but limited
kingship to a period of 9000 years, after which Ohrmuzd
would rule for all eternity”.
17:

Information from the Wikipedia-entry Zurvanism

39

Fig. 7: The androgynous deity Zurvan
A silver plate18 documents the birth of Zoroastric's main Deity
Ahura Mazdā and his counterpart (the devil) Ahriman from the
shoulders of hermaphrodite original god Zurvan (referring to
an endless time).

18:

Cincinatti Art Museum, Ohio, USA

40

The Creator-god IHVH
In a publication19 Raffaele Pettazzoni, professor of the History
of Religions at the university of Rome reports an overview of
4-headed or 4-faced sculptures in the Bible:
“In the post Biblical Judaism and in ancient, especially
Syrian Christianity we may localize the tradition of a
divine simulacrum with four faces, or four heads, that
would have been adored by the Hebrew:
1. The Ba' al of Tyrus that Ahab, king of Israel, introduced
in IX century b. C. in Samaria, as a result of his
wedding with Izebel, daughter of the king of Syria ( The
Kings 16. 29 & followings). The sculpture is described
like "four-shaped" by Eustachius from Antiochia
(approximately 300 AD).
2. The idol that Manasse king of Juda (VII century)
creates and locates in the temple of Jerusalem (2 Chr.
33. 7). However he removes the sculpture in repentance
after his return from Babylon (2 Chr. 33. 15).
In the Syrian version (Pesitta) of 2 Chr. 33. 7 the idol is
described as a "four-faced".
Efrem Syrus (+ 373 a.D.) in the poem against Julian the
Apostate, and Jacob from Sarug (+ 521) in the homily
for "the Fall of the Idols" and in the homily for “Palm
Sunday”, reproach the Hebrew to have adored a "fourfaced" idol, referring to the idol of Manasse.
19:

"The all-Knowing God" (London, 1956; original edition: "L'onniscenza di
Dio", Edizioni Scientifiche Einaudi, Torino, 1955)

41

The simulacrum of the 2. Book of Chronicles has
explicitly been described in Barhebreus and in George
Syncellus, Cedrenus and Suida. The Greek name for the
4-faced God is "Zeus".
In the Talmud the idol of Manasse has four faces as
well, whereas in the Syrian "Apocalypses of Baruch"
the sculpture has five faces – an echo of this concept is
found at St. Girolamus.
1. The simulacrum of Jahwe created by Micha, the son of
Efraim for his private (illegitimate) cult. Subsequently
the idol is to be possessed by the Danites and later
worshipped in Dan-Lajis (Jew. 17 and 18). According to
the Talmud this idol is equivalent to the 4-faced idol of
Manasse.
2. Also the "imagine of jealousy" in the Temple of
Jerusalem, according to Ezech. 8. 3, 5, is identified in
the Judaic and Christian tradition with the idol of
Manasse, and has therefore four faces”.
These sculptures probably indicate an early Hebrew phase in
religion has been erring between monotheism and attractive
neighbouring deities. Mircea Eliade20 describes this early phase
as follows:
“Each time the ancient Hebrews experienced a period
of peace and prosperity they abandoned Yahweh for the
Baals and the Astartes of their neighbours.

20:

In the Sacred and the Profane-The Nature of Religion, by Mircea Eliade
(1956), ISBN 978-0-15-679201-1, page 126.

42

Only historical catastrophes forced them to return to
Yahweh: 'And they cried unto the Lord and said, We
have sinned, because we have foresaken the Lord and
have served Baalim and Astaroth. But now deliver us
out of the hands of our enemies and we will serve Thee'
(1 Samuel, 12, 10)”.
In general Mircea Eliade describes the paradox in which
primitives remember their supreme beings in cases of cosmic
catastrophes, abandoning their deities of fertility and opulence.
They knew the godheads of opulence were unable to save
them...
However Mircea Eliade may have overseen the hidden source
of power in the name of the monotheistic god. The sky-god
provides his own fertility symbol inside his androgynous name,
which will eventually guarantee fertility's survival in
catastrophic situations.
The Jewish Encyclopaedia report Yahweh created an
androgynous Adam. In explaining the various views
concerning Eve's creation, the Pharisees taught21 that Adam
was created as a man-woman (androgynos), explaining
(Gen. i. 27) as "male and female" instead of "man and
woman," and that the separation of the sexes arose from the
subsequent operation upon Adam's body, as related in the
Scripture. This idea has been transported by various scholars
and manuscripts in all subsequent eras (Philo, Zohar).

21:

From the Jewish Encyclopedia: Adam Kadmon ( Er. 18a, Gen. R. viii.)

43

Svetovid
In Wikipedia the entry Svetovid documents the following
information for this deity:
Sventevith, Svetovid, Suvid, Svantevit, Svantovit,
Svantovít, Swantovít, Sventovit, Zvantevith, Świętowit,
Światowid, Sutvid, Vid. and, incorrectly, Światowit, is
the Slavic deity of war, fertility and abundance,
sometimes referred to as Beli (or Byali) Vid, Beli =
white, bright, shining22.
Svetovid is associated with war and divination, being depicted
as a four-headed god with two heads looking forward and two
backward. A statue portraying the god reveals four heads, each
one looking in a separate direction, a symbolical representation
for the four directions at the compass and maybe for the four
yearly seasons as well.
Boris Rybakov argued for identification of the faces with the
gods Perun, Svarog, Lada and Mokosh (comparable to the
Zbruch idol). Joined together, the 4 faces observe all four sides
of the world.
This gave rise to a false etymology of the name of the god as
"world-seer" (svet = "world", vid = "sight"; Svetovid = "worldseer"). However, the forms Sventevith and Zvantewith show a
derivation of the name from the word svętъ, meaning "saint,
holy". The second stem is sometimes reconstructed as vit =
"lord, ruler, winner".

22:

The Wikipedia-entry already links to fertility and Baal.

44

The name recorded in chronicles of contemporary Christian
monks is Svantevit, which - properly transcribed - could be an
adjective meaning approximately "Dawning One" (svantev,
svitanje = "dawning, raising of the Sun in the morning" + it,
adjective suffix). In later time Christians renamed Svantevit to
the "dancing" Christian saint St. Veit.
In Book 14 of the Danish History (Historia Danica) Saxo
Grammaticus describes the sculpture at the temple on top of
Cap Arkona at the northern German island of Rugia (Rügen).
According to various chronicles the giant wooden sculpture of
Svantevit is described as equipped with 4 heads including 4
necks and a horn of abundance. Each year the horn was filled
with fresh mead. Two heads were facing forward to the right
and left, whereas the other two heads were facing backward to
the right and left.
The temple was also the seat of an oracle in which the chief
priest predicted the future of his tribe by observing the
behaviour of a white horse identified with Svantevit and
casting dice (horse oracles have a long history in this region,
being already attested in the writings of Tacitus). The temple
also contained the tribal treasury and was defended by a group
of 300 mounted warriors forming the core of the tribal armed
forces.
Svantevit's sculpture and temple at Cap Arkona have been
destroyed 1168 and the remains of the wooden sculpture have
immediately been burnt in the religious baptising festivities at
the conversion to the Christianity.
45

The Zbruch idol
The Zbruch idol23, on display in the National Museum in
Kraków, Poland reveals androgynous symbolism.

Fig. 8: The Zbruch idol

23:

National Museum in Kraków, Poland (free photograph from Wikipedia)

46

The Zbruch Idol is a 9th century sculpture and one of the rarest
monuments of pre-Christian Slavic beliefs. The pillar is
commonly associated with the Slavic deity Svantevit, although
opinions on the exact meaning of all the sculpting and their
symbols differ.
The Zbruch Idol is a four-sided pillar of grey limestone, 2.67
meters in height, and has three tiers of incisions at each of the
four sides. The lower tier is 67 cm; the middle tier is 40 cm;
and the top tier is 167 cm.
Soon after the discovery, Joachim Lelewel theorized the top
tier represented two bearded males and two beardless females.
Boris Rybakov in his work Paganism of Ancient Rus (1987)
argued that four sides of the top tier represent four different
Slavic gods, two female and two male, with their
corresponding middle-tier entities always of the opposite
gender. Rybakov also identified the side with the male figure
holding a horn as the front of the idol, based on the bottom-tier
figure, which is shown with legs as if seen from head-on, the
two adjoining sides showing the legs from the side, and the
fourth side left blank.
Finally, Rybakov believes that the entire idol's phallic shape is
meant to unite all of the smaller figures as a single larger deity
“Rod”.
The four sculptures (numbered 1,2,3 and 4 from left to right in
the following description) each symbolize three human persons
in a vertical line. The upper large idols are wearing hats.

47

Large upper idols
The large upper idols all cover their breasts with their arms and
partly hide their androgynous characters.

Small idols in the middle
The small idols in the middle do not cover their breasts with
their arms and clearly reveal their androgynous characters.
• The small idols numbered 1 and 4 reveal their breasts
and may be identified as female idols.
• In contrast the large idols numbered 2 and 3 do not
reveal female breasts and may be identified as male
idols.

Lower pedestal idols
The lower pedestal idols do not seem to reveal any relevant
symbolism.

Androgynous character
The breasts may indicate an harmonizing (50% male and 50%
female) androgynous symbolism in the Zbruch idol sculpture.
Both the 4-headed Zbruch Idol and the Svantevit sculpture
may have experienced Pietro Gaietto's evolutionary transition
from 2-headed to 4-headed sculptures.

48

The androgynous deity Odin
Interpreting "the Lusty Man" in the androgynous Celtic
sculpture at Boa Island in Northern Ireland we may observe the
male figure indeed is lusty and we wonder why he cannot turn
around and mate with his partner.

Fig. 9: Male figure at
Boa Island (east side)
(the sculpture has been dated to the 1th century AD)
The male figure with a phallus underneath his crossed arms
seems to be blind on one eye, which may refer to Odin, who
was blind at the left eye as well. He gave his left eye to the
giant Mimir who allowed him to drink from the source of
wisdom...
49

Odin has been identified as an androgynous deity: Odin = the
Raging One, initiated in Freya's mysteries and One-Eyed
Androgyne.

Fig. 10: The female figure at the
westside (Boa-Island)
Source: http://www.irishmegaliths.org.uk/zCaldragh.htm

50

Of course the poor one-eyed man has been fixed in the back-toback position by a rope at the waist, which fastens the male and
the female figures at their back-to-back-position. I am not sure
if a rope also fixes the arms of both persons in a "helpless"
crossed position, which would be a clear indication for
depicting a helpless position. Crossing arms is a usual way of
depicting persons in a helpless position.
Although it is unclear whether the sculpture depicts a sky-god
(e.g. Odin), these ideas may have been so common as to be
used for several deities, including the "Lusty Man".
If this interpretation is considered as correct, the "a"-symbol
(or e, æ, ä, @...) between the male letters (I or Y) and the
female (O or U) symbols in the divine name may be the "rope"symbol in fixing the male and female elements, which must be
released by the sky-god to re-unite the couple for mating. In
this case a, e, æ, ä, @... may easily all be identified as "lassos"
or as rope-symbols.

51

The 4-headed Creatorgod Brahma

Fig. 11: Brahma carving at a temple in
Halebidu
The Wikipedia-entry “Brahma” is documenting:
Brahma is the Hindu god (deva) of creation and one of the
Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. He is not to be
confused with the Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hindu Vedanta
philosophy known as Brahman. Brahmā's consort is Saraswati,
the goddess of learning. Brahmā is often identified with
Prajapati, a Vedic deity.
52

The Brahma carving at a temple in Halebidu may indicate
androgynous symbolism as the deity's frontal face reveals a
beard, whereas the left and right faces do not wear beards.
Also the temple at the city of Pushkar houses a life-sized idol
of the 4-headed God.

The 2- or 4-headed androgynous God Janus
According to Macrobius and Cicero, Janus24 and Jana are a
pair of divinities, worshipped as the sun and moon. For this
reasons they were regarded as the main gods and received their
sacrifices before all other deities. Janus and Janua are variant
forms of Dianus and Diana. Both refer to the root of dies "day",
deus "god" (see also “Dyæus ”, the Indo-European Sky-God).

Fig. 12: Janus-Sculpture (Vatican)
24:

Information from: Wikipedia-entry (Janus)

53

In Roman mythology, Janus (or Ianus) was the god of gates,
doors, doorways, of all beginnings and endings. His most
apparent remnants in modern culture are his namesakes, the
month of January and the caretaker of doors and halls: the
janitor. Janus is considered as the God of all beginnings. In
Roman sermons Janus used to be called in the very first place,
even before Jupiter.
Though he was usually depicted with two faces looking in
opposite directions (Janus Geminus, twin Janus or Bi-frons), in
some places he was Janus Quadri-frons (the four-faced).
His two faces (originally, one was always bearded, one cleanshaven; later both bearded) initially represented the sun and the
moon, and he was usually shown with a key. The sun and the
moon however also used to be androgynous symbols
representing man respectively woman.
The Romans associated Janus with the Etruscan deity Ani.
However, he was one of the few Roman gods who had no
ready-made counterpart nor an analogous mythology. Several
scholars suggest that he may have been the most important god
in the Roman archaic pantheon: this is reflected in the
appellation Ianus Pater, still used in Classical times. He was
often invoked together with an obviously equally androgynous
deity IU-piter (Jupiter).
In Greece we may find Janus-like heads of gods related to
Hermes, perhaps forming a compound god: Herm-athena (a
herme of Athena), Herm-ares, Herm-aphroditus, Herm-anubis,
Herm-alcibiades, and so on.

54

In the case of these compounds it is disputed whether they
indicated a Herme with the head of Athena, or with a Janus-like
head of both Hermes and Athena, or a figure compounded from
both deities. However these bi-faced figures may also be seen
as androgynous symbols.

Androgynous Sculptures in Mexico

Fig. 13: Androgynous couple
(Mexico)
Archaeologists uncovered numerous dual-faced sculptures in
Mexico. The left sided female person in this figure wears a
necklace, whereas her male partner is somewhat taller.
55

56

7 Body Mirroring at Burials
Freud stated: "that right and left should mean male and
female seems quite obvious..."
Chris McManus25 clearly depicts the systematic scheme in
burials for several cultures. Obviously the system varied from
culture to culture, but some systematic approach may still be
identified. The earliest left-right symbolism may be found at
the burial pattern of proto-Indo-European peoples, the Kurgans,
who dominated Europe at the fourth millenium BC and
originated from the Black Sea area.

The Kurgan period
Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for
tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a
mostly wooden burial chamber. In 1956 Marija Gimbutas
introduced her Kurgan hypothesis combining kurgan
archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the ProtoIndo-European (PIE) speaking peoples.
In the Kurgan period dead corpses were buried in a semi-flexed
position, quite similar to a foetal position, to the right or left
side. As a general rule most of the burials identified opposite
sides for male and female persons. Man and woman seem to
have been considered as mirrored images. At the Kurgan III-IV
period the bodies of male and female corpses were oriented
east-west, facing to the south. The females were lying on their
left side and the males on their right side.
25:

Right Hand, Left Hand: The Origins of Asymmetry in Brains, Bodies,
Atoms and … by Chris McManus (2002)

57

The Beaker periods
The burials at the Beaker periods are younger than the Kurgan
period of the 4th millennium BC. The Beaker culture (also
Bell-Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk 26), ca.
2600-2000 BC, is the term for a widely but spottily scattered
archaeological culture of prehistoric western Europe starting in
the late Neolithic (stone age) running into the early bronze age.

At the Beaker I period the bodies of male and female
corpses were oriented north-south, facing to the east. The
females were lying on their right side and the males on
their left side.

At the Beaker II period the bodies of male and female
corpses were oriented north-south, facing to the east. The
females were lying on their right side and the males on
their right side.

At the Beaker III period the bodies of male and female
corpses were oriented east-west, facing to the south. The
females were lying on their right side and the males on
their left side.

Corded Ware culture
The term "Corded Ware culture" (die Schnurkeramikkultur)
was introduced by the German archaeologist Friedrich
Klopfleisch in 1883. The name is taken from cord impressions
found on the surface of vessels found in archaeological sites
across a large portion of central and eastern Europe. Corded
Ware culture is associated with the Indo-European family of
languages by many scientists.
26:

German Glockenbecherkultur

58

The "Corded Ware culture" was a central and eastern European
phenomenon. Its western boundary was the Rhine River. To the
south it reached the Alps and occupied the Upper Danube River
basin to the mouth of the Morava River.
Carbon-14 dating of the remaining central European regions
shows that Corded Ware appeared after 2880 b. C. The pile
settlements with Corded Ware in the Alpine foothills, which
yield the most accurate information, disappeared about 2440 b.
C. The years between 2300 and 2100 b. C. were a period
during which the Corded Ware culture ended in most regions,
especially in the southern part of its domain (basins of the
Danube, Upper Rhine, Elbe, and Vistula). Only in the Russian
Plain did it last until 2000 b. C.
An important observation concerned the orientation of the
buried body according to gender. Throughout Corded Ware
culture, there was a definite opposition to placing men and
women in the same positions in graves.
Inhumation occurred under flat ground or below small tumuli
in a flexed position; on the continent males lay on their right
side, females on the left, with the faces of both oriented to the
south. However, in Sweden and also parts of northern Poland
the graves were oriented north-south, men lay on their left side
and women on the right side - both facing east.
Originally, there was probably a wooden construction, since the
graves are often positioned in a line. This is in contrast with
practices in Denmark where the dead were buried below small
mounds with a vertical stratigraphy: the oldest below the
ground, the second above this grave, and occasionally even a
third burial above those.

59

Other types of burials are the niche-graves of Poland. Grave
goods for men typically included a stone battle-axe. Pottery in
the shape of beakers and other types are the most common
burial gifts, generally speaking. Often decorated with cord, but
also incisions and other types of impressions.
The approximately contemporary Beaker culture had similar
burial traditions, and together they covered most of Western
and Central Europe. While broadly related to the Corded Ware
culture, the origins of the Bell-Beaker folk are considerably
more obscure, and represent one of the mysteries of European
pre-history.
On this basis researchers conclude that the internal
organization of the Corded Ware people was based on a
definite assignment of gender roles. The right to burial was not
equal for both genders. There were many more male burials,
fewer female, but the rarest were those of children (children
were often buried together with an adult).

Corded Ware pottery
The prototype of the Corded Ware culture, German Schnurkeramikkultur is found in Central Europe, mainly Germany
and Poland, and refers to the characteristic pottery of the era:
twisted cord was impressed into the wet clay to create various
decorative patterns and motifs. It is known mostly from its
burials, and both sexes received the characteristic corddecorated pottery. Whether made of flax or hemp, they had
rope.
In fact the rope may refer to the basic idea of the biblical
weaving technology (Byssus), which also has been found at the
chieftain's grave at Hochdorf.
60

A rope is a length of fibres, twisted or braided together to
improve strength for pulling and connecting. Rope is thicker
and stronger than similarly constructed cord, line, string, and
twine.
In a sense of improving strength twisted cord may have been
used to symbolize the power of marriage in which male and
female partners join forces. The symbolism has also been
described by Tacitus by “oxen joined in the same yoke”:
“This they esteem the highest tie, these the holy
mysteries, and matrimonial Gods. That the woman may
not suppose herself free from the considerations of
fortitude and fighting, or exempt from the casualties of
war, the very first solemnities of her wedding serve to
warn her, that she comes to her husband as a partner in
his hazards and fatigues, that she is to suffer alike with
him, to adventure alike, during peace or during war.
This the oxen joined in the same yoke plainly indicate,
this the horse ready equipped, this the present of arms.”
It is hard to believe the rope used in the Corded Ware should
merely represent some decoration instead of symbolizing a
divine command to join forces by marriage. To me the rope in
the Corded Ware equalizes the weaving technology in the red
& blue clothes to produce the divine purple colour, which has
been described in the books Exodus and Chronicles.

61

Comparison to the Gagarino idol
Both the Kurgan period (4th Millenium b. C.) and the "Corded
Ware culture"-period (2880 b. C.-2000 b. C.) buried their
women left sided and their men right sided as mirrored images,
both facing towards the east. Generally the buried bodies are
located to face the dawn's position and/or the sun. Facing the
east and the south may refer to contacting the divine sun and
the sun's birth at dawn.

Fig. 14: Comparing head-to-head-positions
These positions are equivalent to the small sculpture in ivory of
mammoth cm 14.8 high found in a Palaeolithic site (evolved
Gravettian, about 21,800 years ago) at Gagarino27, Ukraine.
In this sculpture two full-bodied human beings have been
joined together by the neck. A similar androgynous head-tohead-position has been found at the grave of Sungir (near
Moscow).
27:

Visit the source at: Institute for Ice Ages Studies

62

The bodies are united by the heads, but turned to the opposite
directions. Here we could see again the mystical concept of the
unity of polarity.

Left-right differences at the Gogo people
The left-right oriented gender differences may be found in
more recent languages as well. In Central Tanzania the Gogo
people define the right hand as muwoko wokulume, "the male
hand", whereas the left hand is identified as muwoko
wokucekulu, "the female hand".
The Gogo people of Tanzania will also define the right side as

the side the male partner lies on during intercourse and

the side on which male persons are to be buried.

In contrast the left side is the side:

the female partner lies on during intercourse and

on which female persons are to be buried.

63

Ochre28
Ritual pouring with red ochre has been registered in a great
number of graves. A discussion paper suggests a reference
between biology and red colour pigments. Red colour pigments
became a symbolic vehicle through recognizing and relating.
These developments led to the transformation of red ochre into
human (female) blood, a basic element in the symbolism of the
"mother" prevalent in present-day societies but probably also
developed by Upper Palaeolithic and successive peoples.

References to androgynous symbolism
Mirrored burial positions suggest references
androgynous symbolism such as:

to other

Plato's androgynous creation legend

The Zohar's and other biblical androgynous creation
legends

The sculpture found at Roquepertuse

the etymology of the divine names (e.g. Dyaeus, IHVH,
IU-piter and dUI).

and many others...

An overview of these symbolisms will be documented in the
next chapters of the Scribd-document The Sky-God Dyaeus.

28:

Red Ochre and Human Evolution: A Case for Discussion

64

8 Text Manuscripts
The Zohar
The main Kabbalistic Hebrew book Zohar is available at
several on-line-web-sources. In the Zohar the symbolism for
the four characters of the sacred Tetragrammaton (YHVH
respectively IHVH) is documented as follows:
• The great Being in himself is both male and female.
And who is He? The eternal One, En Soph, the
boundless One, from whom hath proceeded all life and
breath and all things29.
• The two supreme letters of the divine name, Y & H are
ruling and dominating the two remaining letters, V and
H, that form their chariot30.
• The letters yod and he symbolize the father and the
mother31
• The V in the divine name IHVH is the son or child of
the parents I and H, the Father and the Mother 32
The first man Adam has been created androgynous, with faces
turning one to the right, the other to the left. Both the male and
female half felt lonely and the halves had to be separated by
God.

29:

Source: Zohar - Chapter 2
Source: Zohar - Chapter 3
31:
Source: Zohar - Chapter 7
32:
Source: Zohar - Chapter 12
30:

65

The divine Being decorated the feminine half like a bride and
did lead her in front of her male companion to see each other in
the eyes for the very first time:
“The Holy One then separated them and having clothed
the latter in a form most fair and beautiful brought her
to man, as a bride is adorned and led to the
bridegroom. Scripture states that He took one of the
sides or parts (of the androgynous form) and filled up
the place with flesh in its stead. Then Adam and Eve
ceased to be androgynous and gazed into each other's
faces, as is the case with heaven and earth, the one
reflecting the image of the other”33.
The rainbow provides a special covenant's description in a 4headed and 4-colours scheme, referring divine symbolism to 3
animals: lion, the bull and the eagle. The Zohar documents:
• It is termed the bow of the covenant, as the ray in the
bow refracting in three others is one way, so is the
celestial light reflected downward by the firmament
supported by the four cherubic forms of the heavenly or
divine chariot. Therefore it is forbidden to gaze at the
rainbow that appears in the heaven because thereby the
Schekina of which it is an image is profaned.
• Above them is the glittering firmament, whose cardinal
quarters reflect the image of each of their forms when
turned towards them, as also the colours peculiar to
each of them. They are the forms of a lion, an bull, an
eagle and a man.
33:

Source: Zohar - Chapter 16

66

In three of these, the human countenance is so
prominent, that the lion resembles a lion-man and so
with the two others, that are termed the eagle-man, the
bull-man, and thus as scripture states, 'They four had
the face of a man.'34
As the firmament was above them it not only reflected
their forms but also the colours peculiar to each of them
and that correspond to the four letters of the sacred
name I. H. V. H. and visible to man, as green, red, white
and blue35.
A father- and a mother-symbol clearly identify the 4-headed
idol as an androgynous symbol and there cannot be any doubt
the androgynous deity En Soph should create an androgynous
creature Adam as an image of the androgynous "Father and
Mother"-Creator god.

The Matres Lectionis
In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages,
Matres Lectionis36, refer to the use of certain consonants to
indicate a vowel. The letters that do this in Hebrew are ‫א‬
aleph, ‫ ה‬he, ‫ ו‬waw (or vav) and ‫ י‬yod (or yud). The yod and
waw in particular are more often vowels than they are
consonants.

34:

Ez. 1:10
Source: Zohar - Chapter 57
36:
Latin: "mothers of reading"
35:

67

The four letters or the Tetragrammaton
transliterated from Hebrew as:

are

usually

• IHVH in Latin,
• JHWH in German, French and Dutch, and
• YHWH in English.
According to the entry “Tetragrammaton” in the English
Wikipedia the third character "V" must be read as a placeholder for an "O"/"U" vowel. Most commonly in applying this
rule of the Matres Lectionis, the Yod ‫ י‬indicates I or E, while
Vav ‫ ו‬indicates O or U.
If the third character "V" respectively "W" is to be a placeholder for "O"/"U" vowel, the Tetragrammaton may just as
well be reduced to the basic androgynous IU-core, in which the
first character "I" is a male and the third character "V" (or "U")
represents the female element. A core IU in a divine name
directly refers to IU-piter's core "IU" and Tuisco's core "UI",
which both are equivalent androgynous symbols.
This thesis however contradicts to the Zohar's explanation, in
which "I" is the male and "H" represents the female element.
Both letters "H" (He) in the Tetragrammaton however do not
seem to contribute to the religious androgynous symbolism.
Authors who define the Tetragrammaton's letter "H" as a main
female symbol already lost the key to symbolism, which
obviously has happened in the web-version of the Zohar and in
the Kabbala by Papus.

68

In contrast Helena Blavatsky correctly interpreted the
androgynous symbolism in JHVH37, quoting:
"We know from the Jewish records that the Ark
contained a table of stone. . . . that stone was phallic,
and yet identical with the sacred name Jehovah . . .
which written in un-pointed Hebrew with four letters, is
J-E-V-E or JHVH (the H being merely an aspirate and
the same as E). This process leaves us the two letters I
and V (in another form U); then if we place the I in the
U we have the 'Holy of Holies'; we also have the
Lingha and Yoni and Argha of the Hindus, the Isvara
and 'supreme Lord'; and here we have the whole secret
of its mystic and arc-celestial import, confirmed in itself
by being identical with the Linyoni of the Ark of the
Covenant." 38.

37:

quoting Hargrave Jennings' Phallicism: Celestial and Terrestrial (p. 67) in
her book The Secret Doctrine (published 1888).
38:
Page 1246

69

Rashi's and Rashbam's Genesis
The following quotations describe the relevant lines in Genesis:

Rashi's Genesis
“God as Judge, alone without the angels, created the human
being, by hand, in a mold which was like the mold with which a
seal is made or like the die from which a coin is produced, and
which had been specially crafted for the human being. In a
mold which was a hologram image of God, God created the
human being. One being which was both male and female and
which was subsequently divided into two beings, God created
them” 39 .

Rashbam's Genesis
God said, 'Let us make humanity in our angelic image, like us
in wisdom. The humans shall rule the fish of the sea, the birds
of the heaven, the domestic animals, and all the earth, as well
as the creeping things which creep over the earth'. God created
humanity in the angelic image; in the image of the angels, God
created humanity; God included the woman in the man and
separated them later40.

39:

Rabbi Rashi 1040-1105, northern Europe (chapter 27)

40:

Rasbam, Rashi's Great Grandson, 1085-1174, northern Europe (Ch. 27)

70

Plato's Banquet (Symposium)
The first author, who clearly describes androgynous religion, is
the Greek philosopher Plato, publishing his famous manuscript
with the name Symposium around 380 b. C., in which he
documents the creation of an androgynous human race. The
book contains six speeches, but we will especially be interested
in the fourth speech of this series, the speech by Aristophanes.
Aristophanes describes how mankind in early days existed in
another form, completely different from today. Their human
bodies seem to have been living in pairs, being joined back to
back, whereas their dual faces were looking into opposite
directions, unable to see each other. Plato discerns the
following dual combinations: man-woman, woman-woman,
man-man and he defines them as Children of the Moon, Earth
or Sun respectively.
These dual corpses were extremely strong and they had high
ambitions like rising up to the Olympic Mountain, into the
house of gods. They really did spread fear among the divine
family and Zeus did not know, how to solve the problem.
Then, in a bright moment, he solved the problem by splitting
the dual corpses each into couples: man and woman, man and
man, woman and woman. Splitting the dual corpses also was
advantageous in doubling mankind and halving their strength
simultaneously.
After halving these individuals, the male and female
individuals immediately and desperately started searching their
complementary part. Having found their original partner they
would cling to these halves and refuse to ever let their partner
go.
71

This way individual humans are attracted in pairs by a strange
force called love and yet those who cling to each other for a
lifetime cannot explain for what reason they need each other
that much. The reason of course is our former composition of
dual corpses, which must be joined to re-unite.

male-male
“Adam”
male-female
“Adam”

Drawing 1: Four-headed Adam-Model
In order to generate the three combinations man-woman, manman and woman-woman as proposed by Plato, we will need a
4-headed structure according to the previous drawing.
The male-male-pair will result in a homosexual couple whereas
the male-female-pair will generate the normal androgynous
respectively heterosexual couple. The third woman-womanpair has not been symbolized for clarity.
Basically this structure may be a reason for applying 4-headed
godheads.

72

The Greek philosopher Plato was the first author to write down
the common creation legends of ancient eras. It may have been
a sacrilege to publish these religious details in the open-minded
world of Hellas, but Plato just describes androgynous people
and not an androgynous Deity. He leaves no doubt about the
supremacy of god Zeus, who remains the powerful masculine
ruler in Hellas up till Christianity.
Strange as it may seem we may identify a great number of
androgynous deities among the main Indo-European gods.
In Indo-European deities and in ancient sculptures we cannot
identify any argument against the thesis all ancient creator-gods
reveal an androgynous character. This thesis will be analysed in
the next chapter of this book.

73

74

9 The Bible
Symbolic codings in the Bible
Jeremiah ben Eleazar41, a Palestinian scholar of the 2nd century
(living a few centuries after Plato), inferred from Ps. cxxxix. 5
that Adam was created with two faces, one of a man and one
of a woman, and that God afterward cleft them asunder ('Er.
18a). In Gen. R. viii. 1 this opinion is ascribed to Samuel b.
Naḥman, while Jeremiah's opinion is stated to have been that
Adam was created a hermaphrodite42.
Jeremiah, son of Eleazar, says:
"God created Adam androgynous, but Samuel, son of
Naḥman, says, He created him 'double-faced,' then
cutting him in twain and forming two backs, one to the
one and the other to the second" 43.
The same statement is given in Moses ha-Darshan's Bereshit
Rabbati44. The difference in the interpretation is that, according
to Jeremiah's opinion,
Adam had both sexes, and was thus a real
hermaphrodite in the old mythical sense, identical with
that conception of Hermes in which he is understood to
be the "logos alethinos," the son of Maya, the bisexual
primeval man of the East.
41:

Info from the website: Jewish Encyclopedia
See the entry Androgynos at the Jewish Encyclopedia
43:
see Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." i. 547, iii. 585
44:
"Pugio Fidei" p. 446, Paris, 1651
42:

75

The Greek Hermaphroditus —represented by statues and on
old gems, in which representations, however, bisexuality is
scarcely indicated—has remained strange to the East and
totally unknown to the Jews.
In all the parallel passages in the Talmud, the opinion of
Samuel b. Naḥman alone prevails, for we find regularly Adam
(bifrons, double-fronted), as, for example: 'Er. 18a, Ber. 61a,
etc. 45.
The opinion expressed by Jeremiah is, however, very old and
wide-spread, for we find the fathers of the Christian Church at
pains to refute this "Jewish fable"; Augustine writes against it
in his commentary on Genesis, ad loc. ch. 22. Strabos, agreeing
with Augustine, declares this opinion to be one of the
"damnatæ Judæorum fabulæ."
Others revive the question, and Sixtus Senensis in his
"Bibliotheca Sacra" devotes to it a special chapter 46. An
alchemic interpretation has been given to "Adam androgynus,"
by Guil. Menens 47.
Existing secret atbash- and abbam-coding-systems in the Bible
suggest the use of other coding systems. One of these codingsystems may be the colouring scheme in Exodus and
Chronicles. As these colours have been introduced by Moses
they may have been inspired by Egyptian religion.

45:

Jastrow, "Dict." s.v., p. 304, 1
ed. Colon. 1586, fol. 344, 345
47:
"Aurei Velleris libri tres, Theatrum chemicum," vol. v., p. 275, Argent.,
1660
46:

76

In androgynous religion the coding schema defines the
following basic symbols:
• red / scarlet / crimson = the female (= yin) symbol
• blue = the male (= yang) symbol, individually to be
used for the priests
• purple = the androgynous / joined / matrimonial symbol
• Byssus, fine linen, from Hebrew būṣ 'fine linen',
referring to fine linen and twined material
• twine = intensely joining (marriage, the matrimonial
couple)
• rainbow = divine symbol in Genesis with it's bordering
colours red and blue
The now following Biblical coding system in twining and
colouring can be understood by comparing the identical
technology and colouring system for the clothes and towels in
the burial tomb at Hochdorf at the river Enz, Southern
Germany.

Book Exodus
25: 3This is the offering which you shall take from them: gold,
silver, brass, 4blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goats’ hair,
5rams’ skins dyed red, sea cow hides, acacia wood, 6oil for the
light, spices for the anointing oil and for the sweet incense,
7onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod and for the
breastplate.

77

26: “Moreover you shall make the tent with ten curtains; of
fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, with
cherubim. The work of the skillful workman you shall make
them.
4You

shall make loops of blue on the edge of the one curtain
from the edge in the coupling; and likewise shall you make in
the edge of the curtain that is outmost in the second coupling.
14You

shall make a covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed
red, and a covering of sea cow hides above.
31“You

shall make a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and
fine twined linen, with cherubim. The work of the skillful
workman shall it be made.
36“You

shall make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue,
and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of
the embroiderer. 37You shall make for the screen five pillars of
acacia, and overlay them with gold: their hooks shall be of
gold: and you shall cast five sockets of brass for them.
27: 9“You shall make the court of the tent: for the south side
southward there shall be hangings for the court of fine twined
linen one hundred cubits long for one side: 10and the pillars of
it shall be twenty, and their sockets twenty, of brass; the hooks
of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver.
16For

the gate of the court shall be a screen of twenty cubits, of
blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work
of the embroiderer; their pillars four, and their sockets four.
18The

length of the court shall be one hundred cubits, and the
breadth fifty every where, and the height five cubits, of fine
twined linen, and their sockets of brass.
78

28: 5They shall take the gold, and the blue, and the purple,
and the scarlet, and the fine linen. 6“They shall make the
ephod of gold, of blue, and purple, scarlet, and fine twined
linen, the work of the skilful workman. 7It shall have two
shoulder-pieces joined to the two ends of it, that it may be
joined together. 8The skilfully woven band, which is on it, that
is on him, shall be like its work and of the same piece; of gold,
of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.
15“You

shall make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the
skilful workman; like the work of the ephod you shall make it;
of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined
linen, shall you make it.
28They

shall bind the breastplate by the rings of it to the rings
of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be on the skillfully
woven band of the ephod, and that the breastplate may not
swing out from the ephod.
35: 5 Take from among you an offering to Yahweh. Whoever is
of a willing heart, let him bring it, Yahweh’s offering: gold,
silver, brass, 6blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goats’ hair,
7rams’ skins dyed red, sea cow hides, acacia wood, 8oil for the
light, spices for the anointing oil and for the sweet incense,
9onyx stones, and stones to be set for the ephod and for the
breastplate.
23Everyone, with whom was found blue, purple, scarlet, fine
linen, goats’ hair, rams’ skins dyed red, and sea cow hides,
brought them.
25All

the women who were wise-hearted spun with their hands,
and brought that which they had spun, the blue, the purple,
the scarlet, and the fine linen.
79

35He

has filled them with wisdom of heart, to work all manner
of workmanship, of the engraver, of the skillful workman, and
of the embroiderer, in blue, in purple, in scarlet, and in fine
linen, and of the weaver, even of those who do any
workmanship, and of those who make skillful works.
36:8All the wise-hearted men among those who did the work
made the tent with ten curtains; of fine twined linen, blue,
purple, and scarlet, with cherubim, the work of the skillful
workman, they made them.
11He

made loops of blue on the edge of the one curtain from
the edge in the coupling.
35He

made the veil of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined
linen: with cherubim. He made it the work of a skillful
workman.
37He

made a screen for the door of the tent, of blue, purple,
scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of an embroiderer;
38
18The screen for the gate of the court was the work of the
embroiderer, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen.
23With

him was Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of
Dan, an engraver, and a skillful workman, and an embroiderer
in blue, in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen.
39
Of the blue, purple, and scarlet, they made finely worked
garments, for ministering in the holy place, and made the holy
garments for Aaron; as Yahweh commanded Moses. 2He made
the ephod of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined
80

linen. 3They beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires,
to work it in the blue, in the purple, in the scarlet, and in the
fine linen, the work of the skillful workman. 4They made
shoulder-pieces for it, joined together. At the two ends it was
joined together. 5The skillfully woven band that was on it, with
which to fasten it on, was of the same piece, like its work; of
gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen; as
Yahweh commanded Moses.
8He

made the breastplate, the work of a skillful workman, like
the work of the ephod; of gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and
fine twined linen.
21They

bound the breastplate by its rings to the rings of the
ephod with a lace of blue, that it might be on the skillfully
woven band of the ephod, and that the breastplate might not
come loose from the ephod, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
22He

made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue.

24They

made on the skirts of the robe pomegranates of blue,
purple, scarlet, and twined linen.
27They

made the coats of fine linen of woven work for Aaron,
and for his sons, 28and the turban of fine linen, and the linen
headbands of fine linen, and the linen breeches of fine twined
linen, 29and the sash of fine twined linen, and blue, and
purple, and scarlet, the work of the embroiderer, as Yahweh
commanded Moses.
30They

made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and
wrote on it a writing, like the engravings of a signet: “HOLY
TO YAHWEH.” 31They tied to it a lace of blue, to fasten it on
the turban above, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
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The Second Book of Chronicles
For the people of Israel the temple had been created by
Yahweh, who revealed his plans to his chosen 48. Thus Yahweh
said to Moses:
"And let them make me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among
them" 49
And as David is handing out the plans for the temple-buildings,
the tabernacle and all the utensils to his son Solomon he
assures him that:
"all this ... the Lord made me understand in writing by his hand
upon me" 50.
And Solomon confirms to YHWH:
"Thou hast commanded me to build a temple upon Thy holy
mount, and an altar in the city wherein Thou dwellest, a
resemblance of the holy tabernacle which Thou hast prepared
from the beginning" 51.
Although the Covenant Tent and the Temple reveal a
completely different character it may be noted that God's
prescription for the colouring code remains identical to both
David and Solomon. The Second Book of Chronicles reports:
48:

Mircea Eliade, In the Sacred and the Profane-The Nature of Religion.
Exodus 15,8-9.
50:
II Chronicles, 28, 19
51:
Wisdom of Solomon, 9, 8
49:

82

27Now therefore send me a man skilful to work in gold, and in
silver, and in brass, and in iron, and in purple, and crimson,
and blue, and who knows how to engrave all manner of
engravings, to be with the skilful men who are with me in
Judah and in Jerusalem, whom David my father did provide.
313Now I have sent a skillful man, endowed with
understanding, of Huram my father’s, 14the son of a woman of
the daughters of Dan; and his father was a man of Tyre, skillful
to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in
timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson,
also to engrave any manner of engraving, and to devise any
device; that there may be a place appointed to him with your
skillful men, and with the skillful men of my lord David your
father.

Categorizing Bibles
The colour codings in the medieval Bibles may be discerned
and categorized in several ways. In order to statistically analyse
the great number of codices available the Austrian National
Library I decided to study the book “Die prächtigsten
Bibeln52”.
The most expensive codices used a vellum made of sheepskin
coloured in purple and written with sparkling golden and silver
or white ink. The purple colour had been a divine symbol,
which had also been reserved by Roman emperors, who of
course had promoted themselves to deities.

52:

Die prächtigsten Bibeln by Andreas Fingernagel –
published 2008, ISBN: 978-3-8365-0297-6

83

Normal codices had to be written in brown or black inks.
Special topics used to be highlighted in gold, or in a
replacement yellow colours made from arsenic sulfides.
Most of the coloured manuscripts were using red and blue for
decorations. These decorations however may very well be
referring to special religious symbols, which may become clear
in the followings chapters. The following categorisation may
apply in the study of colouring aspects:



expensive codices (in purple, gold, silver and white)
red and blue coloured codices
non red and blue coloured codices (the Rado-Bible)
non coloured codices (simpler manuscripts)

As already described in the specified previous books the
overwhelming application of the colours red and blue seems to
be referring to the previously described relevant colouring
codes in the texts of the Pentateuch and/or androgynous
symbolism as documented in the web-manuscript: The SkyGod Dyæus. An overview of other details referring to the
symbolism in the colouring codes of red, blue and purple may
be found in: The Fundamental colour Symbols Blue and Red.

The Rado-Bible
As far as I see there is one exception to standard colouring
scheme. The Rado-Bible or Carolingial Bible created around
850 AD53 is using another scheme by applying green, red and
yellow in their initial lettering symbols. Obviously the monks
who created this early codex did not know or follow the
colouring standards, which have been applied in later years.
53:

Northern France

84

Red & blue Initials
Most of the biblical codices have been copied from earlier
manuscripts and they seem to have followed strict rules in
depicting the biblical symbolism. An early codex is named the
Bolognese Bible with ornamental initials referring to St. Paul's
letter to Philemon: In fact the colours red and blue prevail in
this page at the initials, in the heading line at the topside of the
pages and in the decorations at the side of the pages.

Background colours
Alternating red and blue backgrounds in the Bible (Goslar
Evangeliar, ca. 1240 AD) may also be referring to androgynous
symbolism in the Bible.

Heading lines
Generally the heading lines are seen to alternate blue and red
letters. Although most lines start with a red letter the system
does not seem to select a special colour for the very beginning
of the headlines as may be observed in an overview of headerlines.

Initial lines
Obviously the initial lines are following the same colouring
code in alternating red and blue letters. These lines start with
an initial letter which combines several colours, including red
and blue letters.

85

Fig. 15: Headerlines from several medieval Bibles

86

Some codices are applying alternating red and blue letters for
long texts covering a number of lines.
As a remarkable fact God's image54 also combines a red and
blue garment.

Fig. 16: Initial Ancient History (14th Century)
Initial for the letter L = Liber Generationis including a number
of blue and red and yellow (golden) decorations.
The Utrechter “historical” Bible55 from Evert van Soudenbalch
(in Dutch language) does contain a great number of initials
combining blue and red colouring codes in singular letters.

54:

while giving the blessings
Codex 2772, fol. 198v (III Maccabeorum = Josephus Flavius,
Antiquitates XIII-XVI)
55:

87

La Divina Commedia
Even Dante's manuscript starts with a coloured line La Divina
Commedia:

Fig. 17: La Divina Commedia

88

The initials of the first line apply purple and golden ornamental
letters. The text now follows with alternating letters at the first
lines of the Divina Commedia:

N

EL
MEZ
ZO
DEL
CA
MMI
N

DI NOSTRA VITA

mi ritrovai per una selva oscura,
...

Obviously the initial letters for each line are chosen as to
preferably alternate the front line of the page as well.
Dante Alighieri's codex for the Divina Commedia (1308) has
been written using initials in alternating red and blue colours.
This method may be compared to the coding rules in writing a
medieval Bible...

89

The weaving of words
According to the basic principles of androgynous religion
most medieval Bibles preferred the colours red and blue as
religious symbols for ornaments.
God saw the light, and saw that it was good. God divided the
light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the
darkness he called Night. This is the first symbolic division in
which the colour red symbolizes the daylight and the sun,
whereas blue symbolizes the moon and the twilight. The
evening correlating to Eve may be corresponding to the female
element and the daylight to the male symbol of creation.
The following layout for the Book Genesis explains the basic
idea of weaving words like human beings symbolized by male
and female persons as married couples.
Initially man had started as a couple of two individuals
coloured red and blue, which had to multiply. The individuals
grew to a large number of human beings which intermixed to
purple coloured masses.
The words have been written in alternating colours red and
blue suggesting a growth of the population by decreasing the
letter size from 36 to 4 points. The last lines will not be printed
in alternating red and blue, but in plain purple colours.
Some original pictures from medieval Bibles illustrate the idea
as a medieval concept for coding the basic symbolism the the
ancient manuscripts. The weaving of words corresponds to the
high density weaving of the burial garments in blue & red for
the sovereign at Hochdorf, which from a distance will also be
seen as a purple garment.

90

The following example applies a 4-point sized Genesis text in
Old English Text MT over 2 A5-sized pages to demonstrate the
illusion of a purple coloured text, enclosed inside two
headerlines of the Korczek-Bible (Prag- around 1410).

Fig. 18: Headerline Korczek-Bible (Prag- around 1410)
In the beginning God56 created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty. Darkness was on the surface of the deep. God’s Spirit was hovering over the surface of the
waters. God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God saw the light, and saw that it was good. God divided the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he
called Night. There was evening and there was morning, one day.
God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” God made the expanse, and divided the waters which were under the expanse from the
waters which were above the expanse, and it was so. God called the expanse sky. There was evening and there was morning, a second day.
God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together to one place, and let the dry land appear,” and it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters he
called Seas. God saw that it was good. God said, “Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit after their kind, with its seed in it, on the earth,” and it was so.
The earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, with its seed in it, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. There was evening and there was
morning, one day, a third day. God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of sky to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; and let
them be for lights in the expanse of sky to give light on the earth,” and it was so.

Fig. 19: Headerline Korczek-Bible (Prag- around 1410)

Complementary phases in Red and Blue
Six divine creation phases seem to correlate to splitting phases,
which may correlate to symbolic colours. The created objects
may be listed in the correct sequence of occurrence. Except for
the fishes, the birds and man all red coloured symbols seem to
occur in the first place. Traditionally male and female persons
have been symbolized by different colours, but the correct
definition has been blurred in the course of time.
56:

1:1 After “God,” the Hebrew has the two letters “Aleph Tav” (the first and
last letters of the Hebrew alphabet) as a grammatical marker.

91

Day

First mentioned

Last mentioned

1

light - Day

darkness - Night

2

waters under the expanse
(sea – salt water)

waters above the expanse
(rain – sweet water)

3

Earth

Seas

4

greater light (sun-day)

lesser light (moon-night)

5

waters (fishes)

earth (birds)

6

man (male)
man (male)

man (female)
man (female)

Table 2: Creation phases in Book Genesis
Let's check the different phases in detail. The keywords and a
few lines of text will be highlighted in the medieval symbolic
colours red and blue.

In the beginning
In the beginning God57 created the heavens and the earth. Now
the earth was formless and empty. Darkness was on the surface
of the deep. God’s Spirit was hovering over the surface of the
waters. God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God
saw the light, and saw that it was good. God divided the light
from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness
he called Night. There was evening and there was morning,
one day.
Traditionally the Egyptians painted the greater light (the sun)
red and the the lesser light (the moon) blue.
57:

1:1 After “God,” the Hebrew has the two letters “Aleph Tav” (the first and
last letters of the Hebrew alphabet) as a grammatical marker.

92

A second day
God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters,
and let it divide the waters from the waters.” God made the
expanse, and divided the waters which were under the
expanse from the waters which were above the expanse, and it
was so. God called the expanse sky. There was evening and
there was morning, a second day.

Fig. 20: God's hand to Noah (Viennese Codex - 6th Cent.)
Standard colours in this section may only be understood if the
expanse may be understood as a rainbow, which reveals blue
colour at the upper border and red colours at the lower border.
The main rainbow has been a divine symbol to the ancient
people. As a remarkable fact the Bible never refers to the
second minor rainbow, which displays a reversed sequence of
colours.
93

A third day
God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together to
one place, and let the dry land appear,” and it was so. God
called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the
waters he called Seas. God saw that it was good. God said,
“Let the earth put forth grass, herbs yielding seed, and fruit
trees bearing fruit after their kind, with its seed in it, on the
earth,” and it was so. The earth brought forth grass, herbs
yielding seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit, with its
seed in it, after their kind: and God saw that it was good. There
was evening and there was morning, one day, a third day.
There hardly can be any doubt in defining the earth red and the
seas blue.

A fourth day
God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of sky to divide
the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for
seasons, and for days and years; and let them be for lights in
the expanse of sky to give light on the earth,” and it was so.
God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day,
and the lesser light to rule the night. He also made the stars.
God set them in the expanse of sky to give light to the earth,
and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the
light from the darkness. God saw that it was good. There was
evening and there was morning, one day, a fourth day.
Traditionally the Egyptians painted the greater light (the sun)
red and the the lesser light (the moon) blue. As a remarkable
fact the night is not dark, but lighted by the lesser light (moon).
94

A fifth day
God said, “Let the waters swarm with swarms of living
creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse
of sky.” God created the large sea creatures, and every living
creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed, after their
kind, and every winged bird after its kind. God saw that it was
good. God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful, and multiply,
and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the
earth.” There was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.
There hardly can be any doubt in defining the earth red and the
seas blue.

A sixth day
God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their
kind, cattle, creeping things, and animals of the earth after their
kind,” and it was so. God made the animals of the earth after
their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that
creeps on the ground after its kind. God saw that it was good.
God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness:
and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over
the birds of the sky, and over the cattle, and over all the earth,
and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”
God created man in his own image. In God’s image he created
him; male and female he created them. God blessed them. God
said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth, and subdue it.
Have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the
sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”
95

The overview of the sixth day reveals only a singular splitting
phase at this sixth day: the separation of the first human being
man into a male and female person, which is to be described in
Genesis later.
God said, “Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed,
which is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree, which
bears fruit yielding seed. It will be your food. To every animal
of the earth, and to every bird of the sky, and to everything that
creeps on the earth, in which there is life, I have given every
green herb for food.” And it was so. God saw everything that
he had made, and, behold, it was very good. There was evening
and there was morning, the sixth day.

A seventh day
The heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of
them. On the seventh day God finished his work which he had
made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work
which he had made. God blessed the seventh day, and made it
holy, because he rested in it from all his work which he had
created and made.

96

The divine garments
Garments for the Creator God
The Creator God will often wear red and blue colour
combinations in either the garments or the head's decorations58.
Additionally yellow is used to indicate gold as a precious
symbol.

Fig. 21: Creator God in red and
blue garments
58:

Codex 1179, fol. 1v (Genesis)

97

Please note the upper line in alternating blue and red letters
illustrating the Creator God in “Bibles moralisées” (dated
1275)

Garments for Jesus Christ
Also the garments for Jesus Christ will often apply red and
blue or purple combinations as seen in the following example
from “Speculum Humanae Salvationis” (dated 1336):

Fig. 22: Jesus Christ being
kissed by Judas(1336)

98

Creation of Adam and resolving Eve
Most of the creation phases depict a full-grown and adult Eve,
which is being resolved from the backside (in fact the correct
translation for the back-side) of the androgynous Adam.
The Creator often wears either a purple or white garment or is
dressed in a red and blue combination. We will depict a few of
these creation phases:
The following table lists an overview of the (15) main
illustrated codices available at the KHM in Vienna. Except for
the Rado-Bible these manuscripts will always apply some
combinations of red and blue, which will be found in the
header-lines, in the initials, in the garments and in the other
decorations.

99

Codex

Year

Main colours

colours in
headers and
initials

Divine
garments

Vienna

550

red/blue/white

-

red/blue/
white

Rado

875

Yellow/red/
green

Yellow/red/
green

-

Paris

1250

red/blue

red & blue

red/blue

Admont

1150

red/blue/green

red

red/blue

Lilienfeld

1225

red/blue/green

red & blue

red/green

Krems

1275

red/blue

red & blue

red/blue

Wenzel

1390

red/blue/gold

red/blue/gold

red/blue

Korczek

1400

purple/green/
gold

red & blue

purple

Neapel

1360

red/blue

red & blue

white

Eberler

1464

red/blue/green

red

red/blue/
green

Schreier

1472

red/blue/green

red & blue

red/purple/
green

Utrecht

1430

red/blue/gold

red ; initials in
red & blue

purple

Hieronymos

1488

red/blue/gold

red & blue

red/blue

Utrecht

1460

red/blue/green

red ; initials in
red & blue

purple

Paris

1225

red/blue/gold

1308

red/blue/gold

59

Dante

red/blue
red/blue

red/blue

Table 3: Categorisation of medieval Bibles
59:

Vatican Codex of La Divina Commedia (approximately 1308)

100

The divine image in the early Middle Age
Early biblical symbolism describes God as a man hidden in the
sky, inside the sun or in a cloud. The following image found in
the Vienna Bible from the sixth century symbolizes God as a
red-coloured man sending yellow-golden sun-rays to Joseph,
lying on his bed. The moon does contain a blue-coloured
woman with cow-horns like an Egyptian deity. The stars have
been painted like asterisks in an Egyptian grave.

Fig. 23: Male Sky-God (Viennese Codex - sixth Cent.)
In early Middle Age some medieval people obviously believed
in a male God located in the sky, in the sun or inside a cloud,
accompanied by a woman.

101

Another painting in the Vienna-codex symbolizes God as a redcoloured hand from the sky reaching to a rainbow and sending
a signal to Noah and his relatives.

Fig. 24: God's hand to Noah (Viennese Codex - 6th Cent.)
Although there a written proof seems to be missing, red and
blue are to be considered as religious symbols. Obviously the
colours may be related to the sun and the moon, which are
known as religious elements representing male and female
attributes. These symbols have been observed in the biblical
decorations as well.
The sun and moon will always be identified by opposite
genders. The Mediterranean peoples identified a male sun
(“Sol”) accompanied by a female moon (“Luna”). In Egyptian
traditional colourings the male sun has usually been displayed
by a red circle (and only in seldom cases by a yellow disc),
whereas the female moon is being attributed by blue light.
102

At the northern side of the Alps the genders are reversed. In
German language the sun is female and the moon is a male
symbol. The medieval Bibles seem to depict the male moon as
a blue object, which will also refer to the blue colourings for
the warriors' faces as documented by Julius Caesar in “De
Bello Gallico”.
This leaves the identification for the male and female symbols
open. There may be a clear distinction in gender symbolism
between red and blue, but we cannot be sure which gender is to
be attributed to the basic colours. As fas as I can see red seems
to have been male in southern areas (e.g. Egypt) whereas red
may have been female in northern areas (e.g. Germany). Of
course the blue colours will always refer to the opposite
gender, whereas purple is a divine mixture of red and blue.

103

104

10 The garments
A language for icons
In the icons of Eastern Orthodoxy, and of the Early Medieval
West, very little room is made for artistic license. Almost
everything within the image has a symbolic aspect. Christ, the
saints, and the angels all have halos. Angels (and often John the
Baptist) have wings because they are messengers. Figures have
consistent facial appearances, hold attributes personal to them,
and use a few conventional poses.
A few colours play an important role: gold, purple, red, blue
and white. Jesus wears red undergarment with a blue outer
garment (God become Human) and Mary wears a blue
undergarment with a red upper garment. Letters are symbols
too. Most icons incorporate some calligraphic text naming the
person or event depicted, often presented in a stylized manner.
In later Western depictions, much of the symbolism survives,
though there is far less consistency.
An icon of Our Lady of Czestochowa, one of the national
symbols of Poland60. In religious icons colour plays an
important role, especially gold, red, blue and white. Jesus
Christ wears red undergarment with a blue outer garment and
Mary wears a blue undergarment with a red outer garment.

60:

Free photograph from Wikipedia.

105

Fig. 25: Our Lady of
Czestochowa
In the icons of Eastern Orthodoxy, and of the Early Medieval
West, very little room is made for artistic license. Almost
everything within the image has a symbolic aspect. In later
Western depictions, much of the symbolism survives, though
there is far less consistency. Some icons will also purple
garments as a alternative and as a mixture for red and blue.

Maria's medieval garments
In medieval paintings the garments for Maria seem to have
been structured in a standard coloring scheme. In most
paintings the outer garment reveals a blue robe, whereas the
inner garment or applies a red material. Sometimes an
additional yellow veil or towel will be used. These statistics
may easily be checked in a well supplied art museum such as
the Pinakothek-museum in Munich,Germany.
106

Artwork has mainly be selected randomly from „Artwork from
A till Z with 1200 paintings 61. As black is a very seldom color
in oil paintings some of the colouring may originally have been
dark blue, which in the course of the centuries transformed into
black.
Analysis of 33 selected paintings ranging from 1295 up to 1938
reveals 21 matches for standard compositions, which is
equivalent to approximately 66%. According to the table
paintings created from 1800 up to today do not follow the
general standard composition rules, which suggests the
symbolism may have been lost around the end of the 18th
century. Of course these coloring conventions may have been
derived from the Bible, which prescribes red and blue and
purple for religious garments62.
This statistical analysis merely includes one painting for an
artists and may not be a neutral research base. Another
approach will be based on a database with 5555 (noncopyrighted) Masterpieces63. Evaluation of all 510 paintings 64
for artists with names starting with a letters „A“ respectively
„B“ result in the following 50 paintings with a Maria-depiction.
Analysis of these 50 selected paintings ranging from 1350 up
to 1600 reveals 34 matches for standard compositions, which is
equivalent to approximately 66%. Both methods for analysis
result in approximately 66% of standard colours (red for the
inner robe and blue for the outer robe) for Mary.

61:

Schilderkunst van A tot Z, ISBN: 9036605970, 9789036605977
see the previous chapter of the Bible and the Sephiroth.
63:
Die virtuelle Gemäldegalerie, ISBN: 3-932544-65-X
64:
9% of a total of 5555 paintings
62:

107

This is a remarkable proof for the theory that from Middle
Ages Mary's garments have been following a standard
colouring system.

The garments in the Manessa Codex
In Middle Age the royal garments corresponded to the rules for
icon painting. The basic principle may easily be identified at
the paintings of the Codex Manesse65, stored at the Heidelberg
University and available as web-documents. The colour coding
in red and blue has not been restricted to garments but has also
been applied in decorating the text, in which merely red and
blue symbolic elements will be discovered.

The emperor Henry
The emperor Henry has been depicted in a purple-red overcoat
and a blue undercoat. The borderline decorations consist of red
and blue elements as well.

Fig. 26: Emperor Henry (detail
Codex Manesse)
65:

Cod. Pal. germ. 848, Codex Manesse, Zurich, 1305 bis 1340

108

King Tyro from Schotten
According to the icon's codex King Tyro from Schotten wears a
blue overcoat and a red undercoat. His (female or male ?)
partner wears a red overcoat and a blue undercoat. The king
therefore meets the rules for painting Christ's icon and the
partner meets the rules for painting Maria's icon. The
borderline decorations apply the divine colour combinations
red & blue.
• weblink to the page King Tyro from Schotten

King Wenzel from Bohemia
According to the divine garment-codes King Wenzel from
Bohemia is wearing a blue overcoat and a red undercoat whiloe
residing on a purple throne. The king has been dressed
according to the icon-codex for Christ's images.
• weblink to the page King Wenzel from Bohemia

King Conrad junior
King Conrad junior wears a green garment, probably because
he has been displayed in a hunting scene. The borderline
decorations apply the divine colour combinations red & blue.
• weblink to the page King Conrad junior

109

The lower aristocracy
The lower aristocracy hardly uses red and blue, but the
borderline decorations will often apply the divine colour
combinations.

The Register
The register for the Codex Manesse applies alternating initials
for subsequent lines → see the complete web-document at: 4v:
Register

Fig. 27: Register for Codex Manesse

110

11 Etymology for the Word “Paars”
A resurrection for dead words
From time to time I wake up in the middle of the night
from a bad dream in which a particular word has only
survived in one single language, being lost forever in
German, French and English and other languages as
well. The dead word is barely alive and may only be
understood if we study the ancient remains of the
prehistoric colour coding.
It was only yesterday I started a discussion with my friend
Stephan, who claimed the world purple cannot be explained as
a religious symbol, because “purple” has been derived from the
special snail from the Mediterranean area, where clever people
managed to produce and export a very expensive dye by
boiling huge portions of snails in large pots.
My antithesis the purple colour originally had to be woven
from red and blue coloured threads could not convince
Stephan. Obviously purple robes had become ceremonial
objects at a time in which the original androgynous symbolism
had been lost.
The very next morning however I woke up after a thoughtdream about the Dutch adjective “paars”, which still preserves
the true symbolism of the English word “purple”. In fact purple
is a mixed dye originally identifying a couple or a pair,
composed from a woman (as a red symbol) and a man (as a
blue66 symbol).
66:

There is some evidence the blue colour symbolizes a female element and
the red colour symbolizes a male element at the southern side of the Alps.

111

Paars is the colour for the “peers”
The official etymological explanation for “paars” is obscure.
Etymological experts suggest a derivation from Persae
'Persians', Persia 'Persia' and perzik (Peach).
The main etymological database http://www.etymologie.nl/
reveals the following entries for medieval words around 1300
AD:
paars Substantive (as a 'colour')
Mnl. perse 'purple (sheet)' [1294; VMNW], perse saye
'purple
woolen
sheets'
[1296;
VMNW],
peers bruxsch lakene ' purple sheets from Brugge'
[1343-44; MNW], groen of blaeu of root of paers [ca.
1475; MNW].
Two documents from 1672 and 1742 reveal references to the
words „Paars“ respectively „Pers“, which may be analysed in
details. Both documents describe an assembly hall for the peers
of Leiden, called „Paars“ or „Pers“. Basically these words
have been derived from Latin „Pares“, the “equals”.
In French the word “pair” translates to “peer” and is equivalent
to the medieval Dutch idea of “paars” or “pers”.

112

Korte besgryving van het Lugdunum Batavorum nu Leyden
door Simon van Leeuwen – 1672
Het selve Stadhuys is soo onder als boven in verscheide
plaatsen verdeelt, elk tot sijn byfonder gebruyk, als fijn
boven de Grote Vroedschaps-kamer, Burgermeesters
kamer, Schepens kamer, Secretarie, Griffie ende Weeskamer, voor ende tussen dewelke een groote Wandelplaats, dat men de Paars nomt, ten eynde van dewelke
twee vertrekken voor sijn, daar de Burgen alle nagten
de wagt houden. Boven deselve Paars is de Artelerie
ende Wapen-kamer,
Hedendaegsche historie... - Seite 523
Thomas Salmon, Jan Wagenaar, Matthias Van Goch – 1742
Langs den eerst beschreeven' Buiten-opgang van
twintig trappen naar bovengaande, komt men op eene
ruime Zaal, gemeenlyk de Paars of Pers genaamd, die
zeventig treden lang is.
In order to understand why “purple” and “paars” may have
been used as religious symbols we will have to study medieval
colouring theories in the next chapters.

113

114

12 Flags
The Tricolour of France (1358)
During the Middle Ages, these colours came to be associated
with the reigning house of France. In 1328, the coat-of-arms of
the House of Valois was blue with gold fleurs-de-lis bordered in
red. From this time on, the kings of France were represented in
vignettes and manuscripts wearing a red gown under a blue
coat decorated with gold fleurs-de-lis. It should be noted that,
in liturgical symbolism, gold is the equivalent of white.
Wearing a red gown under a blue coat for kings corresponds to
the red undergarment with a blue outer garment for Jesus
Christ in icons and medieval paintings. Obviously the kings
had adopted the divine clothing codes from the Book Exodus.
The blue and red of the flag have been the colours of Paris
since 1358 when they were used by the followers of Etienne
Marcel, then leader of a Parisian revolt against the King of
France and the Dauphin. In 1794, the Convention officially
adopted the tricolour, the Commander of the Guard, Lafayette,
having reputedly added the royal white between the blue and
the red.

Fig. 28: The Tricolour of France (1358)

115

The flag of the Netherlands (1572)
The flag of the Netherlands is a horizontal tricolour of red,
white, and blue. Introduced in 1572, it is one of the first
tricolours and the oldest tricolour still in use today. Since 1937,
the flag has officially been the national flag of the Netherlands
and of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The provinces of the Low Countries, rose in revolt against
King Philip II of Spain, and the Prince of Orange placed
himself at the head of the rebels. The Watergeuzen (proindependence privateers), acting on his instructions, harassed
the enemy everywhere they could and they did this under a
tricolour Orange White Blue ("Orange Blanche Blue", or in
Dutch: "Oranje Wit Blauw"/"Oranje Blanje Bleu"), the colours
of the Prince's coat of arms. It was thus a flag easily associated
with the leader of the rebellion, and the association was also
expressed in the name: "the Prince's Flag." In an atlas of
Kittensteyn, the first Red White and Blue flag can be seen on a
painting imaging a battle between the Watergeuzen and the
Spaniards. This date was early on in the Eighty Years' War, the
Dutch war of independence. Hence 1572 is the official year of
the introduction of this banner.

116

References to related documents

Another Etymology for Purple

Paint It Purple - A short History of painting Red and
Blue

Genesis - Weaving the Words in Red and in Blue

Hochdorf Revisited - A reconstructed Celtic Site

The Sky-God Dyæus

117

118

13 A Survey of Androgynous Godheads
The authors Mircea Eliade and Rens van der Sluijs document
an overwhelming long list of supreme, androgynous CreatorGods in their works:
• Adam was originally androgynous: Adam and Eve were
created back to back, attached at their shoulders; then
God separated them with an axe, or cut them in two.
Others have a different picture: the first man, Adam,
was a man on his right side, a woman on his left; but
God split him into two halves 67.
• Several of the most ancient gods in Egypt were
bisexual68.
• Tammuz, Enki and Ninurta have androgynous aspects69.
• Bel and Belit may originally have been an androgynous
god 70.
• Aštart may appear in a masculine form, sometimes with
the characteristics of the masculine sex. Certain authors
have offered the hypothesis of an androgynous Ištar 71.

67:

Bereshit Rabbah I. 1, fol. 6, col. 2:Patterns in Comparative Religion : 423
Mircea Eliade - Patterns in Comparative Religion: 421f.
69:
D. N. Talbott, The Saturn myth; a reinterpretation of rites and symbols
illuminating some of the dark corners of primordial society, 1980: 88

68:

70:

Mircea Eliade - Patterns in Comparative Religion : 422

71:

J. Leclant: ‘Asurté à Cheval, d'après les Représentations Egyptiennes’,
Syrie, 37 (1960): 7, cited in Z. Rix, ‘The androgenous comet’, SIS Review,
I. 5 (1977): 17-19)

119

• In South-Arabia too Atar probably was a hermaphroditic god 72.
• The designation ‘duplex Amathusia’ for Aphrodite of
Amathus73 tems from the double sex of the Cyprian
deity. She was represented in art with a beard 74.
• Kronos is given the title Man-Woman 75.
• Dyaus, the ancient sky, was androgynous, and so was
Purusha, the primeval man 76.
• Plato’s ‘first man’, who had a spherical body (Plato,
Symposium) is described as an androgynous person to
be split by Zeus 77.
• The Germanic figures of Odin, Loki, Tuisco and
Nerthus all preserve traces of androgyny 78.
• The Chinese knew of a hermaphroditic Supreme
Divinity, who was the god of darkness and light 79.
• Australian and Oceanic aboriginals claim bisexuality
for the first man 80.
• Quetzalcoatl has androgynous aspects 81.
72:

U. Oldenburg, ‘Above the stars of El: El in ancient South Arabic
religion’, Zeitschrift für alt-testamentliche Wissenschaft, 82 (1970): 199f.,
cited in E. Cochrane, ‘Mars Gods of the New World’, Aeon IV. 1 (1995): 60
73:
Catullus 68. 51
74:
A. de Grazia & P. James, ‘Aphrodite - The Moon or Venus’, SIS Review
I. 3 (1976): 8-14)
75:
(->>Great Magical Papyrus of Paris) K. Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae
Magicae; Die Griechischen Zauberpapyri, 1928, I: 64, cited in D. Cardona,
‘Child of Saturn (part III)’, Kronos VII. 3 (1982): 3-14)
76:
Rig-Veda X. 90; Patterns in Comparative Religion : 421
77:
Patterns in Comparative Religion : 1958: 423
78:
Patterns in Comparative Religion : 422f.
79:
Patterns in Comparative Religion: 422
80:
Patterns in Comparative Religion : 423
81:
D. N. Talbott, The Saturn myth; a reinterpretation of rites and symbols
illuminating some of the dark corners of primordial society, 1980: 88

120

• The androgynous Yin and the Yang have been combined
in the Chinese holy woman T’ai Yuan.
• The Zuni Indian chief god Awonawilona who is an
androgynous he-she.
• IU-piter is being called "simultaneously father and
mother" 82.
• The androgynous (hermaphrodite) deity Zurvan
generates Zoroastric's main Deity Ahura Mazdā and his
counterpart (the devil) Ahriman from its shoulders.
An overview of literature to this chapter:
• Compilation and overview by Rens van der Sluijs,
January 2001 in Ignis-e-coelo
• The Secret Doctrine, H.P. Blavatsky, 1888
• Patterns in Comparative Religion, by Mircea Eliade,
Rosemary Sheed, John C. Holt, 1958
• Symposium by Plato (ca. 385 BC.)
• Twenty-two books to Theocracy, by St. Augustine (354–
430)

82:

St. Augustine in Twenty-two books to Theocracy

121

122

14 Proto-Indo-European Language
It was judge Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27,
1794), who discovered similarities between Indo-European
Languages. In The Sanscrit Language (1786) he suggested that
all three languages had a common root, and that indeed they
may all be further related, in turn, to Gothic and the Celtic
languages, as well as to Persian. This common source came to
be known as Proto-Indo-European, which apart from common
language also implies several religious concepts (especially
androgynous symbolism) and the religious coding in the
pronouns.
At the beginning of the 19th century the Norwegian Rasmussen
Rask found a law of correspondence between a Greek letter ph
(f) and the German letter b. This effect explains a
correspondence between a Greek word "phrater" and the
English word "brother".
At the middle of the 19th century August Schleicher started a
reconstruction of PIE, a short-cut for Proto-Indo-European
language, which must be considered as a basic platform for all
Indo-European languages.
An Australian specialist for archaeology Gordon Childe
(working in England) investigated the original countryside for
the Proto-Indo-European language and located the area in the
regions Northern-India, Central-Europe, Northern-Europe and
South-Russia.
His favourite region referred to the area north of the Black Sea.
His work has been continued by Maria Gimbutas, who
developed the Kurgan-theory, referring to the Kurgan-tumulusconcentrations.

123

Pronouns in the PIE-language
The following table lists a fundamental word-list for the PIE(Proto-Indo-European) language as developed by Morris
Swadesh83. Priority ranking in the table seems to follow a
general rule:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Pronouns (I, you, we)
Indicators (this, that, not)
Basic Questions (who, what ?)
Amounts (all, many, one, two)
Sizes (big, long, little)
Individuals (woman, man, person)
… to be followed by other categories (fish, bird, dog,
lice, tree, seed, leaf, radix...)
8. Sky objects (sun, moon, star)
9. … to be followed by other categories (water, rain,
stone, sand, earth, cloud, smoke...)
10. Colours (red, green, yellow, white, black 84)
11. Quality (full, new, good, round, dry)
12. to be followed by other categories (name, etcetera...)
These rankings clearly indicate the priority for pronouns.

83:
84:

from: C. Renfrew 1988
Excluding the colour “blue” for unknown reasons

124

Rank

English

Dutch

German (old) Category

1

I (I)

Ik

Ich (Ih)

Pronoun

2

You (Thou) Jij

Du (Thu)

Pronoun

3

We

Wij

Wir

Pronoun

4

This

Dit

Diese

Indicator

5

That

Dat

Jene

Indicator

6

Who

Wie

Wer

Basic
Questions

7

What

Wat

Was

Basic
Questions

8

Not

Niet

Nicht

Indicator

9

All

Alles

Alles

Amount

10

Much/
Many

Veel

Viel

Amount

11

One

Een

Ein

Amount

12

Two

Twee

Zwo

Amount

13

Big

Groot

Gross

Size

14

Long

Lang

Lang

Size

15

Small

Klein

Klein

Size

16

Woman

Vrouw

Frau

Individuals

17

Man

Man

Mann

Individuals

18

Person

Persoon

Person

Individuals

Table 4: Basic Core PIE-Vocabulary

125

At positions 1-18 the above list reveals some remarkable pairs
of antipodes referring to dualism:




The antipodes I ↔ you (whereas: I & you = “we”)
at positions 1, 2 and 3
this ↔ that (at positions 4 & 5)
one ↔ two (at positions 11 & 12)
big ↔ small (at positions 14-15)
woman ↔ man (at positions 16-17)

PIE pronouns
In PIE pronouns are difficult to reconstruct owing to their
variety in later languages. This is especially the case for
demonstrative pronouns. PIE had personal pronouns in the first
and second person, but not in the third person, where
demonstratives were used instead. The personal pronouns had
their own unique forms and endings, and some had two distinct
stems; this is most obvious in the first person singular, where
the two stems are still preserved in English I and me.
According to Beekes, there were also two varieties for the
accusative, genitive and dative cases, a stressed and an enclitic
form.
Pronouns in the first and second person perfectly suit the
Androgynous Religion, in which only two (male and female)
antipodes are to be served.
There is no special religious symbol in the ranking area
between 1 and 100. However there are two deities identified in
the PIE-language.

126

The sky-god as a Proto-deity in PIE
Indo-Europeans cannot (yet) be localized in archaeological
findings. Localizing Indo-Europeans is being proposed by
available tools (wagons, wheels, etc.). Horses do not belong to
the Indo-European basic common vocabulary. Basic common
vocabulary contains father, mother, etc...
Only two deities belong to basic common vocabulary85: The
sky-Father (Dyæus , Zeus, Tyr, Ti-Father, etc.) and a deity for
the morning-light. The common deity for the morning-light
must be Eos or to be more precise "Haeoos" / Aurora. Aurora
may be derived from Gr.: "ausosa" (from Eos) and is to be
compared to English "Easter-", or German "Oster-", simply
referring to the early Sun-rising-deity in the East. Basic
common PIE-vocabulary also provides a common, neutral
word for "God".
Dating the common Indo-European language is being
accomplished by tracing the words for the metal bronze, which
has been invented at 2000 b. C. and has been dated later than
the splitting point into individual Indo-European languages.
Further analysis of earlier Greek- and Hittite-languages places
the origin of common Indo-European language before 3000 b.
C.

85:

Information from: Indo-Germans lt. dtv-Atlas Weltgeschichte (in
German), ISBN:978-3-423-08598-3 (page 41)

127

From the viewpoint of androgynous creation legends and
Germanic languages we may define three personal protopronouns in the subsequent individual Indo-European
languages:


I for the first person singular (I),
U for the second person singular (you) and
UI for the first person plural (we).

These personal proto-pronouns are the fundamentals for
religious, androgynous definitions (such as the composed name
Tuisco by concatenating the pronouns "Thou"/"Thu" and
"I"/"Ih"), but they vary according to the divine name.
In contrast to standard deities (e.g. Zeus, IU-piter, IHVH, etc.)
Tuisco cannot be classified as a sky-god. In Germania Tacitus
describes Tuisco as an earth-related deity and Caesar relates
Tuisco to Dis-Pater, the father of darkness and the
underworld86.
In fact the reversion of the androgynous joined symbols “UI”
in the name Tuisco etymologically reveals the symbolic
darkness87. “Duister” is the Dutch word for “dark”.

Equivalent Proto-Deities
Androgynous creation and the accompanying legends certainly
cannot be restricted to Greece. In “The Secret Doctrine”
Helena Blavatsky remembers an old, equivalent creation
legend from Persia:

86:

De Bello Gallico – by Julius Caesar, Book VI, 53 b. C.
Helena Blavatsky

87:

128

Meshia and Meshiane were but a single individual with
the old Persians. They also taught that man was the
product of the tree of life, growing in androgynous
pairs, till they were separated at a subsequent
modification of the human form.
And even many centuries later in history the idea has not been
lost completely. According to Blavatsky, Eugibinus, a
Christian, and the Rabbis Samuel, Manasseh ben Israel, and
Maimonides taught that:
"Adam had two faces and one person, and from the
beginning he was both male and female -- male on one
side and female on the other (like Manu's Brahma), but
afterwards the male and female halves were separated."
Simple correspondences are abundantly present, such as the
Sanskrit devas, the Latin deus, Lithuanian dievas, Old Irish dia
and the Old Norse plural tivar, which are all words for “gods”
88
. Of particular interest to the present paper is a set of
correspondences listed and completed in the following table89:

88:

Mallory, p. 128
as proposed by Blavatsky in the Secret Doctrine (1888) – however
Blavatsky did not imply Tuisco in her work.
89:

129

corresponding
pronouns

Language

Deity

Proto-IndoEuropean

*dyeus-peter

Egyptians

Teut

Persians

Sire

Magi

Orsi

Greeks

Zeu-Pater, Theos

ancient Turks

Esar

Sanskrit

dyaus-pita

Italy / Latin

d'Ju-piter

D'u and I

Umbria

d'Iuve-patre

D'u and I

Illyria

Dei-patyros

Hittite

DSius

French

Dieu

Germanic

Ti-var (Tyr-Father) Tu and I

Celtic

Tuisco

Thu and Ih

Arab

dUI

UI

Tu and Je

Table 5: Androgynous Deities and their Pronouns90
These correspondences indicate a correlation between
androgynous creation legends, androgynous deities and
pronouns. However correlations cannot be restricted to PIEareas and are covering other languages as well.
90:

Based on Helena Blatatsky, The Secret Doctrine (1888)

130

The androgynous pronouns U, I and UI
Basically any language may be considered to contain
fundamental words (for basic ideas and fundamental thoughts).
According to linguistic theories the (primarily three) most
important words in the Proto-Indo-European (PIE-) Language
(as reconstructed by August Schleicher) or probably in any
language are (in that order): "I", "You" and "We".
Starting from modern English we may now consider three
proto-pronouns (in order of ranking) "I" , "U" and "UI".
Considering their ranking in linguistic statistics these three
pronouns "I", "You" and "We" may design a suitable reference
to basic religious concepts.
The most prominent proto-pronoun "I" is the first person
singular, which may be considered a male symbol and refer to
the religious concept of the lingam. The second relevant protopronoun "U" is the second person singular, which may be
considered a female symbol and refer to the religious concept91
of the yoni. The third ranking word in Proto-Indo-European
(PIE-) Language is the proto-pronoun "UI" or "IU" which may
be considered as a merged joint for the singular proto-pronouns
"U" and "I". In religious proto-concepts the joint of the male
and female element may have been the divine joint "UI" or the
symmetrical version "IU".

Paleolithic Continuity Theory
The Paleolithic Continuity Theory estimates an earliest
possible origin for an European version of PIE at the 10th
millennium BC.
91:

As suggested by Helena Blavatsky in The Secret Doctrine (1888)

131

The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (or PCT) is a hypothesis
suggesting that the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European language
can be traced back to the Palaeolithic era, tens of millennia
earlier than the Chalcolithic or at the most Neolithic estimates
in other scenarios of Proto-Indo-European origins.
Its main proponent has been linguist Mario Alinei, besides prehistorian Marcel Otte and others, organized in a "PCT
workgroup". The main exposition of "PCT" is Alinei's Origini
delle Lingue d’Europa, published in two volumes in 1996 and
2000. The PCT posits that the advent of Indo-European
languages should be linked to the arrival of Homo sapiens in
Europe and Asia from Africa in the Upper Paleolithic.
This PCT-Theory perfectly suits to the joined skulls as
archaeological remains for Androgynous Religion.

PIE-Pronouns in Afghanistan
In his work “Kite Runner” (2003) Khaled Hosseini uses a lot of
Afghan expressions. Most of these are Arabian words. Looking
for Indo-european equivalents I found Padar (father), Madar
(mother) and Tu (identical to the French word "you").
The personal pronoun "Tu" (confidential you) is being used for
confidential relations (e.g. husband and spouse), whereas
"shoma" (respectful you) is signifying a more distant and
respectful relation (even between parents and children).
Originally the confidential word Tu may very well exclusively
have been reserved for conversations between husband and
spouse to symbolize the divine matrimonial relation between
husband and spouse in a married couple.

132

15 Colours, Twining and Runes
Violet and purple
In ancient, androgynous religions the colours violet-blue and
red symbolized the male respectively female antipodes,
whereas the mixed colour-combination purple expresses the
divine idea of merging / joining the male and female elements.
Merging however requires a genuine purple-mixture of red and
blue. The human eye however cannot easily identify the
difference between violet and genuine purple (as a mixture of
red and blue). Obviously these confusions did lead to the idea
of generating a purple colour as a divine symbol by high
density weaving of Byssos as described in the Bible. Two
embroideres, Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, from the tribe of
Dan and Huram are named as the specialists for generating the
divine symbols of purple from red and violet-blue.
Now before we start discussing the religious symbolism of the
colours red and light we will need to study some physical facts
in the field of colours and light. A special attention will be
devoted to the colours violet and purple. Violet is a spectral
colour (approximately 380-420 nm), of a shorter wavelength
than blue, while purple is a combination of red and blue or
violet light. The purples are colours that are not spectral
colours – purples are extra-spectral colours. In fact, purple was
not present on Newton's colour wheel (which went directly
from violet to red), though it is on modern ones, between red
and violet. There is no such thing as the "wavelength of purple
light"; it only exists as a combination.

133

On the CIE xy chromaticity diagram, violet is on the curved
edge in the lower left, while purples are the straight line
connecting the extreme colours red and violet; this line is
known as the line of purples, or the purple line.

Fig. 29: CIE xy chromaticity diagram
One interesting psychophysical feature of the two colours that
can be used to separate them is their appearance with increase
of light intensity. Violet, as light intensity increases, appears to
take on a far more blue hue as a result of what is known as the
Bezold-Brücke shift. The same increase in blueness is not
noted in purples.
134

Violet cannot be reproduced by a Red-Green-Blue (RGB)
colour system, and must be simulated by a mixture of red and
blue (purple). The shade of violet simulated in the colour box
above is just over halfway between magenta and blue on the
colour wheel.

The Seal of Solomon
The double triangle, the Seal of Solomon, also called the
hexagram , is of great interest as a symbol of androgyny. This
seal, known as the Magen David of the Jews, is actually
composed of two triangles, superimposed on each other. One
triangle pointed upward represents the flesh or material matter
and the male generative act; the other, pointed downward,
signifies female sexuality and the spiritual plane.

Fig. 30: Seal of Solomon
Therefore we have a masculine and a feminine triangle
integrated. This indicates sexual union, the sex act, and the
reconciliation of opposites, yin and yang, or male and female in
a union. The merging area's colour is a superimposed purple as
the divine mixture of red and blue.
135

Having lost the religious, androgynous symbolism the Seal of
Solomon turned into the hexagram , as a symbol for sexuality
in witchcraft.

The Celtic burial tomb at Hochdorf
A fine museum at Hochdorf / Enz near Stuttgart-Germany is
guarding an important Celtic religious symbol. At the time of
discovery the grave already is a sensational finding in 1968,
being the untouched tomb92 for an early Celtic king. Looking
back the real sensation however must be seen in an violetpurple coloured, long coat, symbolizing the religious
fundamentals of the Celts.

Fig. 31: The Celtic burial tomb at Hochdorf
92:

Located at Hochdorf near Stuttgart, Germany, approx. 500 b. C.

136

Hochdorf is a burial tomb assigned to the nearby Celtic
Oppidum High-Asperg, which must be considered as one of the
main Celtic trading stations in central Germany. Archaeologists
discovered a dozen equivalent partner trading-stations in
southern-Germany, including the Heuneburg, a trading centre
for approximately 5000 inhabitants and surrounded by a
sophisticated wall of bricks, located at the border of the
Danube-river. The Heuneburg93 has been an important Celtic
trading station 2500 years ago.
The tomb at Hochdorf / Enz with its famous technical
instruments and their archaeological and historical details are
the main topics for the museum. Artisans reconstructed the
grave and the ceremonial gifts using original workmanship and
tools, clearly demonstrating life and the burial ceremony 2500
years ago. The tomb symbolizes a Symposium at the king’s
palace and the banquet must be seen as a highlight in the life of
the buried person, quite similar to the Symposium in Plato’s
Banquet. A fine copper barrel, filled with mead, seems to have
been imported from Greece and transported from Marseilles
towards Germany. The real miracles however are the towels
and clothes in the grave. The museum’s guide explains how all
gifts in the tomb were wrapped in sheets.
Most sheets are coloured in red and blue, which must have
been most expensive dyes at the time of the burial ceremony.
The orator explicitly demonstrates the manufacturing
procedure for the violet-purple-coloured, royal coat of the
sovereign. In fact, she explains, the material is woven with fine
red and blue dyed threads at an extremely high density of up to
80 threads/cm.
93:

(Probably) Herodot's “Pyrene” at the sources of the Danube

137

Religious Symbolism in Colours
In ancient Europe the red dye has been extracted from lice
living on the Kermes-oak trees (Quercus coccifera L.), named
Coccus ilicis or Kermes vermilio Planchon. Alternatively the
red dye may also be drawn from lices (Porphyrophora hameli
Brandt), living on certain grasses.
The blue dye has been extracted from a herb called European
Indigo (Isatis tinctoria, German: “Waid”). In De Bello Gallico
Julius Caesar documents the British Pict-warriors painting their
bodies and faces with blue European Indigo, in order to
frighten their enemies. However we will now be able to explain
these blue indigo colours as symbols of the male members in
an androgynous religion.
In China the bride wears a red bridal dress and is to be carried
to the matrimonial ceremony in a red sedan. The bridegroom is
waiting for her and walking a red carpet he will welcome the
bride by lifting her red veil.
In modern times we welcome our new-born daughters with
light-red and our new-born sons with light-blue coloured
dresses and furniture, which must be considered ancient
androgynous symbols as well. In early traditions the dark red
colour of blood used to symbolize the female and the blue
colour the male element. “Mother Earth” was known to spend
the red ochre in the Stone Age civilization. Japanese culture is
still associating red to the female element. In contrast “Father
Sky” symbolizes the blue colour for the male antipodes.

138

The human eye sees a mixture of red and blue as purple-violet,
which has been a royal colour at all times. Mediterranean
civilizations did preserve purple clothes for members of the
royal family, prohibiting subjects to wear these ornaments.
The Mediterranean weavers used a special, purple dye, which
was manufactured by boiling huge amounts of snails in the
Phoenician city of Tyros.
It would have been easy for the Celts to import the Tyrian
purple dye, but instead they preferred to interweave the finest
red- and blue-coloured threads to create the purple coat. The
museum in Hochdorf clearly demonstrates the expensive
interweaving technique and the coat must be seen as a religious
symbol, which even may be understood in modern times. Red
is the female and blue is still the male symbol, in which we
celebrate the arrival of our newborn babies. At his burial
ceremony at Hochdorf the sovereign did wear the same red and
blue symbols in his coat.
Red and (violet-)blue are the long-wave, respectively shortwave colours at the very edges of the visible spectrum and they
are spectral antipodes. Mixing the colours red and blue will
yield purple, which is the only colour, which cannot be found
in the rainbow. A colour absent in the divine rainbow however
is a divine attribute. In this context we may consider the
concept of the rainbow's border-colours red and blue to
symbolize the androgynous poles in early religions. Basically
the ancient Hebrews must have been considering the rainbow’s
bordering colours red and blue and the mixture-colour purple
as fundamental symbols for the Covenant between God and
His children instead of the rainbow itself.
139

The Sephiroth
The Sephiroth94 are organized into 3 different columns or gimel
kavim ("three lines" in Hebrew):

The central column Kether
Kether95 heads the central column of the tree, which
metaphorically speaking is known as the "Pillar of Mildness"
and is associated with the Hebrew letter Aleph, "the breath",
and the air element. It is a neutral pole, a balance between the
two opposing forces of male and female tendencies.
Some teachings describe the Sephiroth on the centre pillar as
gender-neutral, while others say that the Sephiroth vary in their
sexual attributions. This central column does contain Purple
and the mixed colours.
Kether produces96 a male Sephira named Chokhmah and a
female Sephira named Binah. As a trio they are named “the
three heads”, containing all other Sephiroth.

The right column Chokhmah
Chokhmah (Nr. 2) heads the right column of the tree,
metaphorically speaking the "Pillar of Mercy", associated with
the Hebrew letter Shin, the fire element, and the male aspect;
This right column does contain Blue and generally the blueish
colours.
94:

Image from Wikipedia-Commons
Nr. 1 in the figure
96:
De Philonische Geheime Leer – De Kabbala van Philo van Alexandrië
by H.J. Spierenburg. ISBN: 90 202 8558 0, Ankh-Hermes (2001) referring
to the Zohar 3, 288b, 291a.
95:

140

The left column Binah
The left column is headed by Binah (Nr. 3) and is called the
"Pillar of Severity". It is associated with Hebrew letter Mem,
the water element and the female aspect. This right column
does contain Red and the reddish colours.

Fig. 32: The Qabalistic Tree of Life

141

Even if the pillars are each given a sexual attribution, this does
not mean that every sephirah on a given pillar has the same
sexual attribution as the pillar on which they are located.
In Hebrew Kabbalah, of all the Sephiroth only Binah and
Malkuth are considered female, while all the other Sephiroth
are male. Additionally (and this applies to both Jewish and
Hermetic Kabbalah), each sephirah is seen as male in relation
to the following sephirah in succession on the tree, and female
in relation to the foregoing sephirah.
Alternative traditions consider the grammatical genders of the
words involved. Thus, Gevurah is feminine because it has an
atonal finial Heh. Thus, Severity or Justice becomes a feminine
attribute while Chesed (Mercy or Loving kindness) becomes a
masculine one, despite the modern Western tendency to
genderize these terms in reverse manner97.

The colouring Codes in the Zohar
Zohar98

Purple

Blue

Red

Zeir Anpin

Malchut

Zohar

99

Tiferet

Malchut

Gvurah

Zohar

100

Tiferet

Malchut

Gvurah

Chesed

Gvurah

Carla
Yesod
101
Randel
97:

fine linen

Chesed

Info from Wikipedia
Sohar, Verse 164 in 26. Pekudei : 20. Sacred robes
99:
Sohar, Verse 247 in 26. Pekudei : 26. Measuring line and measuring reed
100:
Sohar, Verse 132 26. Pekudei : 17. Each order contains three
101:
Model accoding to Carla Randell in Cabbala by Franjo Terhart (ISBN
978-1-4054-7978-3)
98:

142

A typical definition of the sacred colours scarlet red, purple and
blue may be interpreted in the following quotation of the
Zohar102:
“Verse 247. He explains: Since the former measurement
is sacred, with the sacred colours 'of fine twined linen,
and blue, and purple, and scarlet' (shemot 36:8).
These are sacred colours, alluding to chesed, gvurah,
tiferet and malchut, linen being chesed; scarlet, gvurah;
purple, tiferet; and blue, malchut. its whole sum
amounts to 32, 28 in length and four in breadth,
altogether 32...”
Zeir Anpin103, called Microprosopus in the Kabbala Denudata
of Christian Knorr von Rosenroth, is the apprehensible portion
of God associated with Chesed, Geburah, Tiphereth, Netzach,
Hod and Yesod in the Zohar, and is the microscopic equivalent
of Macroprosopus in the Sephirotic tree of life. The Siphra
Dtzenioutha portrays it as the revealed face of God, and the
Idra Rabba elaborates on the Kabbalistic significance of its
several attributes.
The different definitions in the colouring attributes to the
Sephiroth Tree may indicate the keys already have been lost at
the writing of these books. The only unambiguous codings
seem to be a scarlet-red, female Gebura-column and a blue
male Chesed column.

102:
103:

found at 26. Pekudei : 26. Measuring line and measuring reed
see Wikipedia

143

Fig. 33: Sephiroth Tree according to Carla Randel

144

The Adonis-Cult
Along with Paphos at the Island of Cyprus the city Byblos at
the coastline of Syria used to be a centre for Aphrodite's
respectively Astarte's cult. Byblos was renowned as the oldest
Phoenician city ever since foundation by the great God "El",
who had been called Chronos by the Greeks and Saturn by the
Romans. In ancient eras Byblos was the venerated location for
the ceremonies of the Adonis cult104. At the south-side of
Byblos the river Nahr Ibrahim mouthed into the Mediterranean
Sea and in antiquity the river used to be called "Adonis".
The last king Cinyras of Byblos has been decapitated by
Pompeius Maximus. The source for the Adonis river is located
in Aphaca, a village at a day's distance from Byblos,
surrounded by sacred forests and a temple area for Astarte,
which has been destroyed by Constantine.
The temple is situated near the village Afka, surrounded by
walnut-trees. The river springs from an elevated territory and
the creek runs down towards a high waterfall. At this location
Adonis is said to have met Aphrodite for the first and last time
and right here we will find his grave, where his deadly
wounded corpse had to be buried.
Every year at Eastern the young Adonis however will have to
repeat his accidental death, revealing nature's bleeding,
colouring the Adonis river in the Spring. Admirers mournfully
observe the red waters of the Adonis flowing between the
flowering anemones and red roses into the blue Mediterranean
Sea, where an inland-wind produces a purple band of coloured
water near the estuary of the river.
104:

Information from: "The Golden Bough" (1890) by James George Frazer

145

Aphrodite's respectively Astarte's idol has been a white cone or
a pyramid. The anemone's name probably has been derived
from Naaman ("the loved one"), a nickname for Adonis.
The Adonis-cult has been practised among the Semitic peoples
of Babylonia and Syria. The Greeks accepted the cult as early
as the seventh century before Christ. The real name for the
deity was Tammuz. The name Adonis refers to the Semitic title
"Adon", "Lord". Tammuz was the young lover for Ischtar and
had to die each year. The mournings were to be held over the
idol of the dead deity, which had been washed in clear water,
embalmed with oil and covered by a red robe.
These colourings in the red water of the river, the blue water of
the sea and the purple mixture certainly have been considered
another symbolism of androgynous religion. Although the
symbolic character (red for the male Adonis and blue for the
sea) had been reversed the androgynous symbolism in the
purple mixture may clearly be identified.
Another example of reversed colouring symbolism may be
identified in Roman history. From early times the Roman kings
always represented Jupiter himself. The Romans hailed their
victorious generals after dressing them in Jupiter's purple
cloths, to be borrowed from the statue in Jupiter's temple at the
Capitol hill. However the (male) victorious generals painted
their faces in scarlet red colours.

146

Yin and Yang
Red and blue are also elementary symbols in the banners of
several countries with a Celtic history, such as Great-Britain,
the U.S.A., France and the Netherlands. Are these colours the
old symbols for androgynous antipodes?
There is a strange coincidence: both the classic yin/yangsymbol and the oldest flag in history (the Dutch banner) are
using symbolic colours orange and blue. The first Dutch
banner also preferred the colour orange instead of red.

Fig. 34: The Prince's Flag
(1572)

147

Some of the Yin/Yang-symbols have been painted in red
(earth/female) and blue (sky/male). They represent the polarity
of everything: the double manifestation of the Tao.

Fig. 35: The Yin/Yang-symbol
in the Korean banner
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica:
“In Eastern thought, the two complementary forces, or
principles make up all aspects and phenomena of life.
Yin is conceived of as earth, female, dark, passive, and
absorbing; it is present in even numbers, in valleys and
streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour
orange, and a broken line.
Yang is conceived of as heaven, male, light, active, and
penetrating; it is present in odd numbers, in mountains,
and is represented by the dragon, the colour azure, and
an unbroken line.

148

The two are both said to proceed from the Supreme
Ultimate (T'ai Chi), their interplay on one another (as
one increases the other decreases) being a description of
the actual process of the universe and all that is in it.
In harmony, the two are depicted as the light and dark
halves of a circle”.

The History of the US-banner
Surprisingly little is known about the origins of that familiar
symbol, says Marc Leepson. Historians are not sure who made
the first one -- despite a popular tradition that it was a
Philadelphia seamstress named Betsy Ross. Nor are they
certain why it consists of white stars set on a blue background,
flanked by red and white stripes. Most believe the colours were
inspired by the British flag. As for the stars and stripes, Marc
Leepson says stars and heraldry have always stood for trying to
attain greatness.
"The other thing is that nearly all the Founding Fathers
were Masons," he notes, "and stars have a very strong
place in Masonic iconography. The stripes? We don't
have a clue. The Dutch owned part of the United States
in the beginning and the Dutch flag has three broad
stripes, but we just don't know where they came from."
In 1777, the Continental Congress issued a resolution calling
for a national banner of red, white and blue, with 13 stripes and
13 stars. More stars were added as states joined the Union,
until the flag assumed its current form -- 13 stripes and 50
stars.
149

There is some evidence the colours red, white and blue have
been chosen by Templars and Freemasons in a great number of
countries, namely Holland, France, England, Scotland and the
USA. At the time of defining a banner the leading intelligentsia
in most of these countries are known to have been influenced
by Templar-or Freemason-symbolism.
A great number of US-presidents are known to have been
Freemasons: Washington, Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Polk,
Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, Garfield, Theodore Roosevelt,
Taft, Harding, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Truman and Ford.
As Freemasons they certainly were aware of the Biblical
sources for the fundamental border colours red and blue of the
rainbow - even if they were unaware of the androgynous
symbolism.

Hiram in Freemasonry
Traditionally the Freemasons follow the ancient rules of holy
geometries, which have been defined in the Bible (in Exodus,
in Kings and in Chronicles) and in Pythagoranian, Vitruvian,
Hermetic, New-Platonic, Hebrew and Islamic philosophies. As
a first fundamental level the Freemasons rely on the craftsman
and/or king Hiram in the Bible.
Hiram (often spelled Huram), a craftsman of great skill sent
from Tyre. 2 Chronicles 2:13-14 relates a formal request from
King Solomon of Jerusalem to King Hiram I of Tyre, for
workers and for materials to build a new temple; King Hiram
responds:

150

"And now I have sent a skillful man, endowed with
understanding, Huram my master craftsman (the son of
a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a
man of Tyre), skilled to work in gold and silver, bronze
and iron, stone and wood, purple and blue, fine linen
and crimson, and to make any engraving and to
accomplish any plan which may be given to him, with
your skillful men and with the skillful men of my lord
David your father."

Red and Blue in Exodus
In the original Hebrew version of 2 Chronicles 2:13, the phrase
translated above as "Huram my master craftsman" is "ChVUrM
'aBY," Hiram Abi.
According to the Bible Hiram Abiff has been chosen to fullfill
God's orders to build the Temple in purple and blue and
crimson. However God's order to King Solomon had not been
the initiating order for applying purple, red and blue. Solomon
received the orders as God's orders from his father David, but
In fact we will have to read the book Exodus to find the first
divine order for using these colours as given to Mozes, where
another workman from the tribe of Dan is a skillful
embroiderer in blue, in purple, in scarlet:
"With him was Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the
tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a skillful workman, and
an embroiderer in blue, in purple, in scarlet, and in fine
linen".

151

And although the Bible does not specify the symbolism for
purple, red and blue have been applied to symbolize the male
and female pillars in the Sephiroth system. We may also
identify the couple of (iron) pillars named B=Bohaz (Strength
as a male element) and J=Jakin (Stability as a female element)
as the temple's basic elements in the Freemason-system.
In this symbolism the divine order to apply red and blue as
fundamental colours refers to the male and female components
in an androgynous religion.

Byssus
In the Celtic grave at Hochdorf in Germany the king's purple
clothes have been proven to be woven in Byssus- or twiningtechnology using the finest threads of blue and red at densities
of 80 threads / cm. The high density weaving of red and blue
colours cannot be identified without optical tools and the
clothes look like a homogeneous purple material. The same
technology Byssus respectively twining applying the colours
red, blue and purple is found in the Bible.
Of course the elementary colours red, blue and purple may
refer to androgynous deities, symbolizing male (blue colours)
and female (red colours) or divine symbols (purple). Red and
blue are the clearly visible border-colours for the rainbow,
whereas purple is a mixture of red and blue, which fails to be
found in the rainbow's spectre.
The English word "twining" referring to "twins", "two",
"twilight" and "Tuisco" may be symbolizing matrimony, which
may be considered as a religious act in "becoming immortal by
making children".
152

Runic alphabets
The Proto-European language already includes the principal
androgynous deity (Dyæus , Zeus, Tyr,... probably Tuisco as
well) and additionally a common god from 3000 b. C. Nordic
people defined special runes Tyr and Ansuz for these elements.
In Icelandic language Tiur / Tyr is a big, wild animal (a bull,
German: -> (S)tier). In English a steer is a male bovine animal
castrated before sexual maturity (an ox). Of course Tyr and the
"steer" may eventually refer to the ancient bovine cult in the
Indo-European area.
Especially the Tyr-Rune and the three basic105 vocals A, U, I
may symbolize religious, androgynous elements:

↑ is the symbol for the skygod "Tyr“ - teiwaz, tīwaz
│ is the male symbol ("I") for eisa-, īsan („ice“)

is the female symbol ("U") for ūruz ("aurochs" or
*ûram "water")
The A-rune is the symbol for a common god "ansuz"
(„Ase“).
Graphical insertion of the vocal I into the graphically mirrored
vocal U results in the androgynous divine Tyr-symbol: ↑
105:

The dictionary of Runes - Das Runen-Wörterbuch (1844) by Udo
Waldemar Dieterich

153

A similar symbolic fusion may occur in the Etruscan and/or
Roman alphabet by joining (a 90-degree rotated) letter "U" (or
"V") and an "I" to the letter "D".

Written androgynous symbolism
In The Sacred Symbols of Mu colonel James Churchward
documents several inscriptions found in Mexico and Brazil,
which may reveal androgynous creation legends.

The dual Principle in Mexico
Quotation106:
The Mexican Tablet No. 1584 reads:--"Man was
created with the dual principle, male and female.
The Creator caused this man to pass into a sleep (our
death) and while he slept, the principles were severed
by Cosmic Forces. When he awoke (born again) he was
two--man and woman."

The Kara-Inscriptions in Brazil
Quotation107:
On a large prairie-like plain in the northeastern part of
Brazil near the boundary of British Guiana stands an
immense rock with many smooth faces which are
literally covered with very old inscriptions in the
characters of the ancient Karas or Carians. A
reconstructed version of the legend is:
106:
107:

The Sacred Symbols of Mu , page 58, labelled Mexican Tablet No. 1584
The Sacred Symbols of Mu , page 63

154

“One became two. Two produced three. From these
three the life was continued on”.
The continuation is shown in the glyph for numeral 3
where the ends of the bars are left open. The ancients
designated by unattached ends that unfinished work
was being carried on.
It may be well to note here that the Cara glyph for 1, an
enclosed bar, was the Naga glyph for 5. All Naga
counts were made up of 5's; thus ten would be two or
twice five. Ten being the numeral symbol of the Infinite,
was never used. As the symbol of the Infinite it was
looked upon as being too sacred.
In China we find Lao Tzu in Tao te King, using virtually
the same words about 600 B. C. which he took from the
Sacred Writings of the Motherland.
This legend “One became two. Two produced three. From
these three the life was continued on” corresponds to the
standard creation legend.

155

156

16 Religious Symbolism in Traditions
Saying Hello
A correlation between Saying Hello may be found by
comparing the standard greetings for several languages:






Goedendag (-> "Good day", standard Dutch)
Tag (-> "Good day", northern German)
Gutentag (-> "Good day", standard German)
Gruß Gott (-> "Good day", southern German)
Buenos Dias (-> "Good day", Spanish)
Adieu ("Good-bye", standard French)
Doei (-> "Good day" or "Good-bye", standard Dutch)

Wishing "Day" obviously correlates to "Deus" or "Dyæus " and
refers to the common Sky-God for the passers-by.
"Dui" or "Doei" correlates to the twilight (Tui-light) or
darkness, which prevailed over daylight for the Celtic and
Germanic society. In fact "Dui" or "Doei" may be translated as
"Good-evening" or "Good-twilight".
German language clearly demonstrates the dominance of the
night-time in the names for festivities like Midsommernight,
“Walpurgusnacht”, "Weihnacht” = "Christmas", "Fastnacht" =
"Carnival", etc. All timings and dates referred to the night-time
and the ancient Germans avoided to date any important
appointments at daylight.
157

Darkness as opposed to daylight has been symbolized by
reversing the inner characters "IU" in the daylight name "Dius"
to "UI" in "Duis"108. The Dutch word for darkness is
"Duisternis".
Caesar indirectly describes Tui’s nature as a dark god DisPater, emperor over the dark areas of the underworld.
For this reason the Dutch goodbye-greeting formula "Doei" or
equivalent "Dui" (the French → adieu) probably is a remnant
from androgynous Tuisco-oriented religion at the Lower Rhine
valley, centring around the Tuiscoburgs between Doesburg and
Bonn (Doesburg-Netherlands and Duisburg, Deutz and
Duisdorf-Bonn in Germany).

Maypoles as androgynous symbols
The maypole is a tall wooden pole, traditionally of maple,
hawthorn or birch, sometimes erected with several long
coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with
flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular
wreaths, depending on local and regional variances109.

108:

this thesis has been proposed in The Secret Doctrine by Helena Blavatsky

109:

Information from Wikipedia

158

Fig. 36: German Maypole (2008)
One of the earliest illustrations of a maypole was made in
1590. It can be seen on a fresco by Hans Donauer in the
Antiquarium of the "Münchner Residenz". Erecting a maypole
occurred in nearly all other European countries. The tradition
reaches from erecting the Maien to May-dances around a
decorated pole which was put up in a village square. Erecting a
maypole must follow certain rules and is accompanied by
traditional customs.
Work is traditionally divided between the men and women.
Men take care of choosing, cutting down and transporting the
159

tree pole, while young women are responsible for the garlands,
collecting donations and other decorations. With roots in
Germanic paganism, the maypole traditionally appears in most
Germanic countries.
In Greece people do the maypole dance. Maypole is referred as
Mayoksylo ( Μαγιόξυλο) and it also has a phallic symbolism.
The Maypole must also be considered an androgynous symbol.
To may (German: maien) originally indicates to make love and
the maypole is an ancient marriage-symbol for joining a
male/female-couple. The erected and towering pole symbolizes
the male element in this union. The large circular wreaths
represent the female element, which must be considered to be
the stabilizing and passive pole (the O-rings, respectively the
"You" in the union).
Most maypoles reveal an upper half-pole (male symbol)
completely hidden inside a covering yoni (female symbol),
which may be considered as a perfect symbol for a unified
couple. The Germans called the nighttime following the first
May the "Freinacht" / "mai-night", or the "lover's night".
At a distance modern maypoles may often be dominated by the
ego-"centred" male element, but if you are able to read the
story you will be able to identify the truly androgynous
religious symbolism, which in Germany may have been
devoted to the androgynous creator God Tuisco.
In ancient manuscripts bishops complain the barbaric scenes of
pagan people and report how they are trying to replace these
rites by Christian habits. Each year the cults are still being
activated as the so-called Walpurgis-rites in which young
people are having fun in the night-time.
160

The Djed-pillar as an androgynous symbol
In analogy to the Maypole the Egyptian Djed-pillar is a
fertility-symbol and a phallic symbol as well. Well known in
ancient Egypt it may have been originated from a papyrusbundle in which a man had been sacrificed (by fastening and
beating to death) at the end of the harvest period110.

Fig. 37: Djed-pillar

110:

Geheimlehre by Will-Erich Peuckert, page 501, Nikol (1988), ISBN 3933203-66-X.

161

Basically the Djed-pillar (with it's male pillar and it's female
ring-symbols) is quite similar to the maypole, especially if we
consider the following Wikipedia-entry for Djed:
“The Djed symbol is a pillar-like ancient Egyptian
symbol representing stability. It has been interpreted as
the backbone of the Egyptian god Osiris, especially in
the form Banebdjedet (the ba of the lord of the Djedet).
Djedu is the Egyptian name for Busiris, a centre of the
cult of Osiris. During the Renewal Festival, the djed
would be ceremonially raised as a phallic symbol
symbolising the "potency and duration of the pharaoh's
rule". It has been compared to the Sumerian concept of
temen. The hieroglyph for "djed" may have given rise to
the letter Samekh”.

The Need-fire or Wild-fire
Need-fire or Wild-fire (Ger. Notfeuer, O. Ger. nodfyr), is a term
used in folklore to denote a curious superstition which survived
in the Scottish Highlands until a recent date. Like the firechurning still customary in India for kindling the sacrificial
fire, the need- or wild-fire is made by the friction of one piece
of wood on another, or of a rope upon a stake.
According to one account, in the Highlands of Scotland the
rule that all common fires must be previously extinguished
applied only to the houses situated between the two nearest
running streams111.

111:

Kelly, Curiosities of Judo-European Tradition and Folklore, p. 53 seq.

162

In Caithness the men who kindled the need-fire had previously
to divest themselves of all metal. In some of the Hebrides the
men who made the fire had to be eighty-one in number and all
married.
In the Halberstadt district in Germany, the rope which was
wound round the stake, must be pulled by two chaste boys;
while at Wolfenbüttel, contrary to usual custom, it is said that
the need-fire had to be struck out of the cold anvil by the smith.
In England the need-fire is said to have been lit at Birtley
within the last half of the 18th century. The superstition had its
origin in the early ideas of the purifying nature of fire.
In Bulgaria even smoking during need-fire is forbidden. Two
naked men produce the fire by rubbing dry branches together in
the forest, and with the flame they light two fires, one on each
side of a cross-road haunted by wolves. The cattle will then be
driven between the two fires, from which glowing embers are
taken to rekindle the cold hearths in the houses112.
Jacob Grimm documents the Need-fire113 as follows:
“To kindle a fire the Arabs use two wooden elements
March and Aphar, the former is male, the latter female”
and he explains in the appendix to German Mythology114:

The Nuod-Fire is made by friction of a male and a
female piece of wood.

112:

A Strauss, Die Bulgaren, p. 198

113:

at Page 502-510 in Deutsche Mythologie under XX. Notfeuer

114:

at page 175 in the appendix to German Mythology under XX. Elements

163


In the Rigveda it will be churned from Arani (premna
spinosa)
The Arabs call the old-fashioned fire-rubbing sticks
zend and zendet, the first being the upper and male
element, the second the female or lower element with
the hole ...
Churning a fire by striking steel to a stone is a barbaric
method for making a fire.

From these details we obviously may define the Nuod-Fire
(from Skrt. nuod, churning) or fire-churning as an
androgynous Symbol.

Fig. 38: Androgynous -Married- Couple
(Oil-painting by Joannes Richter, 30x24cm)

164

Veiling and Unveiling the Bride
Androgynous creator-deities obviously did split the first
androgynous creature "Adam" into a man and a woman.
According to the Zohar they decorated the woman "as a bride",
probably by a veil, and they did lead her in front of the man,
face to face, eyes to eyes...
And how did the Almighty react? He did saw the man
and took the female part from him, as has been written
down: “and He took one of his ribs” (1. Moses 2,21).
How is this to be understood: one. This is his female
half, in the same sense as in the Song of Songs 6-9
My dove, my perfect one, is unique.
She is her mother’s only daughter.
She is the favourite to the one who bore her.
And so He did lead her in front of Adam (1. Moses
2,22). He dressed her like a bride and unveiled her to
her husband’s brightened eyes: face-to-face, eyes to
eyes.
That's how the Creator God unveiled the bride and ordered the
couple to rejoin to an androgynous couple, to be fertile and to
cover the earth. Religious ceremonies will have developed into
traditional wedding ceremonies in which the veiling and
unveiling of the bride plays a major role.

165

Androgynous creation legends (Plato's Symposium and the
Zohar's legend) generally claim the male and the female halves
of the first-born androgynous creature called "man" had been
unable to see each other's faces. They felt lonely although they
had been linked together and in an idea of compassion the
Hebrew God decided to split them. Plato however claims Zeus
had split them in fear for too much power...
Either way the Creator-God had to separate their skulls and
corpses by splitting the androgynous „man“-unity ("Adam")
and leading the female half (the "ornamented" bride) in front of
the male half (the groom). Face-to-face they were allowed to
see each other for the very first time. The legend seems to
symbolize a marriage in which the bride is "to be unveiled" at
the wedding ceremony.
The lifting of the veil was often a part of ancient wedding
ritual. In many cultures, the lifting of the wedding veil
symbolized the groom taking possession of the wife, either as
lover or as property, or the revelation of the bride to the groom
by her parents for approval. In androgynous religion lifting the
veil symbolized the first creation of man by splitting and reuniting the male and female partners to divine-like oneness in a
wedding-ceremony by a Creator-God in Genesis.
The ancient androgynous religion considered a single
individual male or female person as incomplete halves of
"man". As a marital couple the individual persons at
consummation would be transformed to androgynous man as
an image of the androgynous creator-god. Matrimony must be
considered as a repeated act of creating "man".

166

English language preserves some remains of this androgynous
symbolism as the word "man" may be applied for both male
and female persons.
Veiling certainly does not guarantee free choice for partners in
matrimony and veiling seems to have been unknown in Nordic
societies. The veiling tradition may have been added in later
eras in Mediterranean areas.

Divorces and widowhood
As in the Christian tradition the ancient androgynous religion
would judge a divorce in analogy to the Gospel passage, "What
therefore God has joined together, let no man put asunder" (Mt.
19:6). In androgynous religion a divorce must have been
considered as a religious catastrophe, in which the deity's
image of the couple had to be destroyed. For this reason most
societies tried to prevent a divorce as long as the androgynous
symbolism was widely acknowledged.
The clothing worn by the widow (vidua) was a black tunic,
bound with a cingulum tied in a nodus Herculaneus, beneath
the recinium (a square veil with a purple stripe along one edge,
worn by women in times of mourning; men wear the pulla, a
dark-coloured toga). The colour purple for a widow indicates
an androgynous symbol allowing her to symbolically feel
"united with her husband".

167

Roman weddings
Wedding veils always had religious background, especially in
the West. Veils had been used in the ancient West for weddings
and the Roman brides wore an intensely flame-coloured (red,
orange or yellow) veil, called the flammeum115.
Pliny says the bride's hairnet was egg-yolk coloured and dyed
with luteum (it yields a deep yellow dye) and that the
flammeum was also dyed with luteum; however, a scholiast on
Juvenal likens the flammeum to the bride's blush.
The second meaning is confirmed by the perpetual wearing of
the flammeum by the wife of a flamen (a Roman priest), who
was not allowed by law to divorce, for any reason whatsoever.
The Limes-museum at Aalen, Germany refers to yellow clothes
for the Roman brides, whereas the flammeum's colour is said to
have been orange. Even today Greek, Albanian and Armenian
brides may wear a traditional flammeum.
Etymology may explain another background of veiling
traditions. In fact the Latin verb used of the woman marrying,
nubo, is related to nubes, a cloud, and means literally 'I veil
myself'. The idea leads to nupta, a married woman, nova nupta,
a bride, and nuptiae, the wedding. The event turns on the bride
and her veiling. The veil was oblong, transparent and matched
her lutei socci, shoes. The veil left her face uncovered. She also
wore an amaracus wreath. Her gown consisted of a tunica
recta, a white flannel or muslim tunic that had been made on an
old-fashioned upright loom, and a cingulum, girdle. There was
a knot at the waist of her dress to avert ill fortune.
115:

See: Wikipedia and various other web-sources

168

These details reveal the idea of re-creating and re-uniting two
individuals to the androgynous man “Adam”.

Ancient Hebrew weddings
In ancient Judaism the lifting of the veil took place just prior to
the consummation of the marriage in sexual union. The
uncovering or unveiling that takes place in the marriage
ceremony is a symbol of what will take place in the marriage
bed. Just as the two become one through their words spoken in
wedding vows, so these words are a sign of the physical
oneness that they will consummate later on. The lifting of the
veil is a symbol and an anticipation of this.
In the story of Jacob in the Old Testament (found in the Book
of Genesis), his father-in-law, Laban, tricks Jacob into
marrying the wrong woman. Because of the heavily masked
veil that was not raised until after the union was complete,
Jacob married the older and homelier Leah instead of the
young and beautiful Rachel. Rachel was his one true love, and
the deceit resulted in Jacob eventually having both as his
wives. The story also resulted in the Jewish practice where a
groom lowers the veil before the ceremony and lifts the veil
before the kiss. This practice is known as Bedeken116.

Victorian England
History dates white wedding gowns back to 1840, when Queen
Victoria made white the bridal colour of choice when she wed
Prince Albert. In the 17th century red has been the favourite
wedding-colour in Europe.
116:

from Wikipedia - entry: veil

169

The missionary position
The missionary position is a male-superior (man on top) sex
position in which the woman lies on her back and the partners
face each other. The missionary position was advocated by
Thomas Aquinas and other authorities in medieval Europe. It
appears in ancient artwork of the Romans, Peruvians, Indians,
Chinese and Japanese. A common myth states that the term
"missionary position" arose in response to Christian
missionaries, who taught that the position was the only proper
way to engage in sexual intercourse. However the "missionary
position" may very well refer to androgynous religion and
androgynous creation legends.
Face-to-face-sex (in the missionary position) must have been a
unique human attribute in ancient time. With the exception of a
pair of Congolese gorillas observed doing so, Bonobos were
thought to be the only non-human apes to have been observed
engaging in missionary position respectively face-to-face
genital sex. Bonobos -to be discovered by Ernst Schwarz in
1928- have been unknown in ancient eras.
In ancient eras man must have been considered the only species
to be able to keep eye-contact during copulation and it is quite
normal to find a reference to the eye-contacts in creationlegends such as Genesis. Eye-contacts play an important role in
preparation-phases, e.g. petting and engaging.
What do we observe in the eye-contact to partners? We may
identify the pupilla, which is a small imaginary image in the
other's eyes. The word pupil has been derived from "pupilla", a
orphan-girl, probably already available as the Greek word Kore
("Girl, darling, "the apple of my eye") and equivalent ancient
old-Egyptian words. Traditionally "the apple of my eye" is the
170

dearest possession for human beings. For most parents "the
apple of my eye" is a child and the "pupilla" may very well
refer to the tiny, biblical female puppet, which may have been
observed by the first, newly created bride while looking into
the eyes of her newly created matrimonial partner.

171

172

17 Linguistic Traces of Duality
Linguistic traces of duality in English Language may be
reduced to a set of religious concepts, which have been derived
from androgynous symbolism in early religion.
Dual is a grammatical number that some languages use in
addition to singular and plural and may be preferred for any
objects to be used in pairs or couples: for example a pair of
shoes, or a matrimonial couple.
Although relatively few languages have the dual number and
most have no number or only singular and plural, using
different words for groups of two and groups greater than two
is not uncommon. English has words distinguishing dual
versus plural number, including: both/all, between/among,
latter/last, either/any, and neither/none.
Among living languages, Modern Standard Arabic has a
mandatory dual number, marked on nouns, verbs, adjectives
and pronouns117.
Dual is an ancient relict from the past, vanishing from all
languages as soon as the reminders of religious symbolism are
extinct. Traces of dualism reveal the old religious concepts
referring to matrimony and androgynous fertility-rites. The
basic concept seems to have been a strong interconnection
between man and woman, symbolizing a matrimonial tie.
117:

First-person dual forms, however, do not exist; compare this to the lack
of third-person dual forms in the old Germanic languages (Source:
Wikipedia)

173

List of English word-examples in alphabetic order referring to
duality:
• Couple
from Lat. co-apere = to join;
commonly used to indicate a matrimonial couple
also referring to copula = that which connects, a link
• Dutch (and Duitsch = German)
referring to diutisc = people's language and probably
also referring to the ancient creator-god Tuisco
• Entwine
To twine together or round. See twine.
• Pair (synonyms: couple, twosome)
Two persons united, as by marriage.
• Tuesday
[AS. Tiwesdæg] or Tuisco's Day118.
• Tuisco
Ancient androgynous (-> Hermaphroditic and bi-faced)
German creator-god, probably bi-faced like a Roman
Hermes or Hermes of Roquepertuse, also referring to
Hermaphrodite. Hermaphroditus is a son of Hermes and
Aphrodite, who while bathing became joined in one
body with a nymph.119
• Twice
The word twice (two times or doubly) is a special -dualversion.
118:

Source: from Thomas Clarkson's A Portraiture of Quakerism.

119:

Source:Webster's New College Dictionary.

174

• Twig
A small shoot or branch, to be generated at a branching
position (splitting in two elements).
• Twilight
The transition between both darkness and bright
daylight. The absence of light (darkness) is a female
symbol contrasting to bright daylight as an active, male
symbol. The twilight is a holy transition point joining
both male and female elements.
The Twilight of the Gods is the Ragnarok.
Twilight sleep is a condition of subconsciousness or
anestesia.
• Twin
Two children being born at the same birth;
the word twin is a special -dual-version.
• Twine
An extremely strong thread of basically two strands
twisted together. Twining used to be a religious symbol
for matrimony, which may be considered as a religious
act towards eternity. Using more than two strands in a
thread is common practice, but does not refer to the
basic religious concept. Twining is being quoted in the
Bible as Byssus and is found in a Celtic burial tomb at
Hochdorf near Stuttgart. Both twining methods in
Hochdorf and in the Bible are referring to using the
thread colours blue and red, which indicate
androgynous symbolism in a male symbolic colour blue
and a female colour red.

175

• Twinkle
To open and close rapidly. To shine with an intermittent
light (alternating both dark and bright)
• Twist (or twirl)
Basically twisting is the process of twining, in which
two strands are to be drilled to form a strong thread.
Twining and twisting used to be a symbol for
matrimony, which may be considered as a religious act
towards eternity.
• Two
Two may correlate to twining to symbolize both strands
in a thread.

176

18 Psychoanalysis and Androgyny
In the "The Art of Loving" the psychoanalyst Erich Fromm
documents several forms of love (parental love, erotic love,
etc.) and their influence on human behaviour.
Sound maternal love is an unconditional affection and care of a
mother to her baby in which the mother convinces her child to
love being alive. Characteristically the child cannot earn
maternal love.
On the other hand the child's father represents the world of
thoughts, the world of laws, order and discipline. The father's
job is to guide the child on its road into mature life. In contrast
to maternal love the child will have to earn paternal love by
obedience.
Both loving to be alive and discipline will have to be
experienced for a sound human being. In the end a mature
person will have reached the point to represent her or his own
mother and father. In fact mature persons replace their external
father and mother by internal symbols providing themselves
with maternal and paternal conscience. Creating a maternal
link, switching from maternal to paternal relations and
synthesizing these to a combined parental conscience is a
fundamental process to accomplish a sound spiritual maturity.
Any disturbance in synthesis may cause neurotic symptoms
and diseases.
Erich Fromm describes the analogy between evolving religions
and maturing human beings. In an early phase a maternal deity
develops according to the child's mother, followed by a
paternal god corresponding to the child's father. In the end
maturity will be achieved by synthesizing both parents.
177

These internally synthesized parents obviously correspond to
an androgynous deity. Maternal and paternal religions seem to
be representing developing stages in a ripening society,
whereas androgynous religion represents a mature human
structure. At this stage the revolutionary replacement of a
former androgynous religion by modern paternal religions
cannot be understood.

178

19 Modern androgynous symbolism

Fig. 39: Androgynous face by Marc Chagall
The Albertina museum exposed a lithographic painting 120 name
David & Bethsabée created by Marc Chagall in 1956.
120:

Marc Chagall (1887-1985)

179

Marc Chagall (1887-1985) clearly used the symbolic colours
red and blue to identify the female and male person. However
it remains unclear whether red is a female and blue is a male
symbol. According to the arrangement in the painting Chagall
probably applied the standard modern convention in which the
red colour represents female symbolism and blue represents the
male symbolism.
The following contribution of an androgynous face has been
created 2003 by the author for an exhibition.

Fig. 40: Androgynous face (painting J. Richter, 2003)

180

20 Overview of Androgynous Symbols
A great number of symbols (in the colours red, blue and purple,
May-poles and pillars, twining technology, etymological
elements and traditions) has been listed in an overview of
androgynous symbols. The list implies:


Egyptian kings and Pharaohs have been wearing
crowns, mainly using the colours red, white and blue in
combination with gold (yellow).
The Djed-pillar as a an ancient equivalent fertilitysymbol of the May-pole.
The androgynous version of the Seal of Solomon
consists of the interwoven triangle-symbols ( a male121
and a female122 element).

Fig. 41: Seal of Solomon

121:
122:

Blue triangle pointing upward (male element)
Red triangle pointing downward (female element)

181




The Hebrew Covenant-tent may be described as
coloured in combinations of red and blue and purple
and applying twining as a method for intensely,
symbolic weaving the red and blue.
Solomon's temple contained a veil of blue, and purple,
and crimson, and fine linen.
In the Jewish Sephiroth we find a general basic rule:
the left "Pillar of Severity" is red = female and the right
"Pillar of Mercy" is blue = male whereas the central
"Pillar of Mildness" is purple = neutral, respectively
androgynous.
According to investigations at the British Museum in
London the Parthenon's fries and other temples in the
Mediterranean area originally must have been painted
in red, white and blue.
All British peoples seem to have preferred blue as the
male colour for manifesting the warriors123.
In Hochdorf near Stuttgart (Germany) a Celtic grave
(dated 500 b. C.) reveals a Celtic "king" wearing a robe
of extremely fine woven, twined linen. The coat looks
like a single colour purple, but has been woven in the
colour combination red and blue to symbolize some
religious idea.
In etymology the Dual may be a remnant for
androgynous symbolism.
Veiling traditions seem to prefer red colouring for the
female symbolism. Veiling traditions are still
symbolizing the ancient androgynous creation-legends.

123:

source: Caesar's De Bello Gallico, book V (54 b. C.)

182



The "missionary position" may very well refer to
androgynous religion and to androgynous creation
legends.
The Need-fire and the May-pole are androgynousreligious, symbolic and fertilizing tools for generating
life.
The Dutch banner Tricolours first appearing in 1572 as
the Prince's Flag in orange–white–blue.
Yin/Yang-symbols may be painted in orange-red
(earth/female) and azure-blue (sky/male).
The Dutch good-bye greeting “Doei” seems to be a
remnant to the ancient androgynous religion near the
Lower Rhine valley, centring around the Tuiscoburgs
between Doesburg and Bonn (Doesburg-Netherlands
and Duisburg, Deutz and Duisdorf-Bonn in Germany).
Heraldic signs for the Hansa-trading companies have
been painted in red, white and blue.

183

Fig. 43: Heraldic sign -Hansetrading-era

Fig. 42: Heraldic sign for the
Hansa-City of Bruges

184

21 Credits in for this Study
Studying androgynous symbolism reveals an overwhelming
number of worldwide elements referring to androgynous
deities. Androgynous sculptures may be dated back to as early
as 22,000 years, whereas the eldest religious androgynous
symbols in the name JHVH may be traced backward down to
850 before Christ.
The ancient Kabbalistic literature taught me to understand the
divine names (IHVH, Deus, Zeus, Dieu, dIU-piter, ...) and the
secret, religious coding for blue, red and purple in the Books
Exodus and Chronicles, the idea of twining-symbolism and the
symbolic colours in the Celtic tomb at Hochdorf as an
equivalent to the Bible.
I started searching for my parental Creator-God (Tuisco) and I
ended up at finding a global androgynous Celestial God,
Dyæus.
Most of the results of this study (e.g. the colouring and twining
coding and the symbolism in the pronouns and divine names)
have been published124 previously in 2006.
A major breakthrough however has been powered by the
excellent overview of multi-frons- and Hermaphroditesculptures at the websites Paleolithic Art Magazine125 and The
Museum of Origin of Man126
124:

in German language in "Der Brenner & TUISC Codex"
by Joannes Richter (2006)
125:
provided and managed by Licia Filingeri
126:
provided and managed by Pietro Gaietto.

185

186

22 Conclusion
To me this report does not leave any doubt in the discussion of
androgynous symbolism in the ancient colouring codes for
purple, red & blue. Unclarity remains at the exact genderdefinition for the male and female symbols.
The colouring codes for the garments in ancient oil paintings
seems to be following the wealthy decorations in the medieval
codices, which mainly consist of Bibles. From the intensity of
the decorations we probably may identify the book Genesis as
the most important part of the Bible to the medieval religious
leaders127. The most important identifying religious symbols
are the colours red and blue, probably symbolizing the
androgynous elements in ancient religions. The biblical
decorations clearly follow the divine commands as stated in the
book Exodus for the garments of the earliest Jewish Covenantsanctuaries.
Androgynous religion is to be considered as the predecessor for
most modern religions. From sculptures we may read a
respectable age for androgynous religion and several ancient
androgynous sculptures are aged well over 20,000 years. We
are able to trace detailed informations in written legends for
androgynous creation in the Bible, in the Zohar and in Plato's
dialogue Banquet128 and these legends refer to a standard bipolar deity, whose name already reveals androgynous
symbolism.
127:

The colouring system cannot have been chosen by the copying monks
themselves and probably has been defined by the leading management of
the medieval Church.
128:
"Symposium"

187

A considerable number of these bi-polar names is found in the
Indo-European languages, but it is not restricted to these and
the list includes the Hebrew title IHVH as well.
Bipolarity may be identified by the characters U and I, which
refer to the feminine (U), respectively male (I) religious
elements. The basic characters U and I are still being used for
generating the proto-pronouns ("you", "I" and "we") in the
Anglo-Saxon languages. Etymologists identify these pronouns
as the most important words in any language.
Bipolarity may also be identified by the basic colours red, blue
and purple, which will be traced in the biblical Books Exodus
and Chronicles in God's orders for the priest's clothings and the
construction of the temple.
According to a number of divine commands in the Book
Exodus and the second Book of Chronicles the colours Purple,
Red and Blue must have been religious symbols for a very long
time. Reported findings at Hochdorf, Germany indicate the
symbolism may have been shared or adopted by the
neighbouring peoples (Egyptian, Celtic and German peoples,
Greeks and Romans).
In the Middle Ages Purple, Red and Blue played a major role in
ornamentations and symbolism in the Bible, in religious
paintings and in non-religious books such as Dante's Divina
Commedia. From these manuscripts the symbolism may have
passed to the garments of the French kings and probably other
aristocrats as well.
Subsequently the symbolic colours red and blue transferred to
the flags and banners of a great number of organisations (e.g.
the Freemasons) and nations (the USA, Russia, England,
France, the Netherlands, the Philippines).
188

Oriental iconic paintings may still be following the original
colour codex, but medieval synodical congregations allowed
occidental painters to deviate from the standard colour codex to
create religious paintings according to their own artistic
feelings.
The coding by the basic colours purple, red and blue is to be
identified in the burial findings at the Celtic burial site of
Hochdorf in Germany, in which the clothing reveals a hightechnology in twining towels with red respectively blue threads
at an extremely high density of 80 threads / cm.
The coding in applying the basic colours purple, red and blue is
still being used for contemporary imperial (purple),
respectively female (rosa-red) and male (blue) symbols.
Although androgynous religion must have been a common,
worldwide tradition for thousands of years it seems to have
been lost around 30 centuries ago at the introduction of writing.
Elimination of the feminine component in androgynous
religion disrupted the carefully balanced equality of man and
woman, causing a massive loss of identity for the female half
of the population. The balance between man and woman may
only be restored after understanding, accepting and restoring
the ancient, androgynous roots of religions.
Studying the origins of religion changed my viewpoint to
religion. The magnificent influence of a 25,000 years old
stabilising factor for mankind impressed me and modified my
idea of a paternal God into a parental couple as a divine Being,
creating an androgynous couple as a divine image. This insight
changed my understanding for matrimony as a religious
symbol. Now I understood why the ancient priests had to
condemn divorce as a "destruction of a divine image". The
189

early peoples considered each individual human being as half a
man, who had to be completed by a matrimonial partner to
transform himself respectively herself to the divine image.
The ancient cultures encoded these ideas into the personal
pronouns (U and I and UI ) and into the colouring and twining
system as described in the books Exodus and Chronicles. This
old philosophy ensures a beautiful harmony between the male
and female halves of mankind revealing perfect harmony.

190

23 Appendices (Summaries)
Appendix I - Historical Overview
20,000 b. C.: sculpture found at Gagarino, Ukraine
A number of dual-headed sculptures has been found in
palaeolithic excavations in southern France, Northern Italy,
Germany, Ukrainia and Siberia. The union of the two heads is
certainly connected to the bi-frontism of previous eras, which
continues until the historical and current ages in equatorial
Africa.
Androgynous 2-headed sculptures may be very old. A small
sculpture in ivory of mammoth (extinct hairy elephant) 14.8 cm
high (5.2 cm for the female figurine; and 9.6 cm for the male
figurine), found in a Palaeolithic site (evolved Gravettian,
about 21,800 years ago) at Gagarino, Ukraine, is a rare
example of two human beings joined together by the neck, with
the whole body. Tarassov relates this head-to-head position to
the adolescent double burial at Sungir, in which two individuals
were interred with the tops of their heads touching.

10,000 b. C.: Sky-God Dyaeus in the PIE-language
The Paleolithic Continuity Theory estimates an earliest
possible origin for an European version of PIE at the 10th
millennium BC.

191

4000 b. C. : Proto-Deity in the PIE-language
The Kurgan Period (Fourth millennium b. C.) and the Cordceramic culture (2880 b. C.-2000 b. C.) buried their women
left-sided and their male right-sided inorder to mirror the burial
positions.

3000 b. C. : Proto-Deity in the PIE-language
Only two deities belong to basic common vocabulary: The skyFather (Dyæus , Zeus, Tyr, Ti-Father, etc.) and a deity for the
morning-light. Representing an androgynous deity the skyFather may be considered as a primary common Proto-deity as
early as 3000 b. C.

900 b. C.: Ba' al of Tyrus
The Ba' al of Tyrus that Ahab, king of Israel, introduces in the
9th century b. C. in Samaria, as a result of his wedding with
Izebel, daughter of the king of Syria ( The Kings 16. 29 &
followings) has been described as "four-shaped" by Eustachius
from Antiochia (approximately 300 AD).

850 b. C.: IHVH at the Mesha-Stele
The first characters I (or alternatively Y) and V in the name
IHVH respectively YHVH refer to the male and female
elements in symbolism. The Mesha-Stele is notable because it
is thought to be the earliest known reference to the sacred
Hebrew name of God - YHWH. The inscription of 34 lines is
written in the Moabite language.

192

It was set up by Mesha, about 850 BC, as a record and
memorial of his victories in his revolt against the Kingdom of
Israel during the reign of king Ahaziah after the death of
Israel's king Ahab.

530 b. C.: The Chieftain's Grave at Hochdorf
The symbolic coding-system of the Chieftain's clothing for the
colours purple, red and blue and the twining technology
(equivalent to the Biblical Byssus-technology) may refer to
androgynous religion.

500 b. C.: The Parthenon's fries
The Parthenon, a temple of the Greek goddess Athena, has
been built in the 5th century BC on the Athenian Acropolis.
The Parthenon's fries and other temples in the Mediterranean
area originally must have been painted in red, white and blue.
The colours red and blue may refer to androgynous religion.

450 b. C.: Book Exodus
According to tradition, the Book Exodus and the other four
Books of the Torah were written by Moses in the latter half of
the 2nd millennium BC. Modern biblical scholarship sees it
reaching its final textual form around 450 BC. The symbolic
coding-system for the colours purple, red and blue and the
twining technology (Byssus) may refer to androgynous
religion.

400 b. C.: The Second Book of Chronicles
The symbolic coding-system for the colours purple, red and
blue and the twining technology (Byssus) in Solomon's temple
may refer to androgynous religion.
193

385 b. C.: Symposium
Plato documents a detailed androgynous creation in his famous
dialogue Banquet (Symposium).

300 b. C.: Celtic art
Femininity is yin to masculinity's yang in human relationships.
Even though the principles of yin-yang were used in China in
the fourth or fifth century b. C, there are no known references
to the taijitu there before the eleventh century AD.
However, iconographic forms similar to the taijitu were
recorded in Europe by the fourth or fifth century AD., almost
seven hundred years earlier than the date of its appearance in
China. Symbols with a partial resemblance to the later Taoist
diagram appeared in Celtic art from the 3rd century b. C.
onwards, showing groups of leaves separated by an S-shaped
line.
The flag of South Korea has a white background with a yinyang symbol in blue and red. In Korea, ‘yin’ and ‘yang’ are
referred to as ‘um’ and ‘yang’.

124 b. C.: The Hermes of Roquepertuse
The sculpture's location Roquepertuse has been destroyed 124
b. C. by Consul Gaius Sextius Calvinus. The skulls'
arrangement and a 7-10% size-relation may indicate
androgynous symbolism.

194

30 AD: Pharisees interprete androgynous Adam
In explaining the various views concerning Eve's creation, the
Pharisees taught129 that Adam was created as a man-woman
(androgynos), explaining the Bible-quote (Gen. i. 27) as "male
and female" instead of "man and woman," and that the
separation of the sexes arose from the subsequent operation
upon Adam's body, as related in the Scripture.

98: Tuisco
Tacitus describes Tuisco in Germania130. The divine name
reveals androgynous symbolism131. Caesar and Tacitus compare
the most important deity in Germania to Mercury (Hermes),
which may refer to the standard 2-headed respectively 4headed Hermes-sculptures in the Roman Empire.
In later years several cities (Duisdorf-Bonn, Duisburg and
Doesburg as Tuiscoburgum) have been devoted to Tuisco,
which may indicate a religious central region at the lower
Rhine valley.

150: Androgynous Adam
Jeremiah ben Eleazar132, a Palestinian scholar of the 2nd century,
inferred that Adam was created with two faces, one of a man
and one of a woman, and that God afterwards cleft them
asunder.

129:

From the Jewish Encyclopedia: Adam Kadmon ( Er. 18a, Gen. R. viii.)
Subtitle: De origine et situ Germanorum liber
131:
Source: Jacob Grimm, German Mythology
132:
Info from the website: Jewish Encyclopedia
130:

195

350: The Talmud
In the Talmud the idol of Manasse has four faces, while in the
Syrian "Apocalypses of Baruch" it has five.

900: The Zbruch Idol
The Zbruch-sculpture in the National Museum in Kraków,
Poland represents two bearded males and two beardless
females and may refer to androgyny.

1100: Rashi's Genesis (1040-1105)
“God created the human being, being both male and female,
which was subsequently divided into two beings”133.

1168: Svantevit
The Svantevit temple at Cap Arkona has been destroyed in
1168 and the 4-headed sculpture had to be burnt in the religious
baptising festivities at the conversion to the Christianity. The
comparable 4-headed Zbruch idol reveals androgynous
symbolism in 2 female and 2 male figures.

1240: Colour coding in medieval Bibles
Most medieval Bibles apply colour coding (for purple, red and
blue) in the headlines, initials, garments or backgrounds of the
manuscripts.

133:

Chapter. 27

196

1300: The Zohar
The Zohar is widely considered the most important work of
Kabbalah or Jewish mysticism. The Zohar first appeared in
Spain in the 13th century, and was published by a Jewish writer
named Moses de Leon. The Zohar describes the
Tetragrammaton's (IHVH) androgynous symbolism in detail,
but must be considered to define incorrect androgynous keys.

1358 The Tricolour of France
During the Middle Ages, these colours came to be associated
with the reigning house of France. In 1328, the coat-of-arms of
the House of Valois was blue with gold fleurs-de-lis bordered
in red. From this time on, the kings of France were represented
in vignettes and manuscripts wearing a red gown under a blue
coat decorated with gold fleurs-de-lis.

1572: The Prince's Flag
The Tricolour of The Netherlands is the oldest tricolour, first
appearing in 1572 as the Prince's Flag in orange–white–blue.
The French tricolour's colours red and blue are basing on the
fundamental colours red and blue of the City of Paris (which is
an old Celtic centre).

1660 Russian tricolour flag
The white-blue-red Russian tricolour flag dates back to the
1660s when Czar Alexei Mikhailovich ordered ships to fly a
similar banner for identification. Historians speculate it may
have been inspired by the Dutch flag, the oldest remaining
tricolour national flag, but both tricolours may have a common
religious base.
197

1814: 15-starred banner (USA)
There is some evidence the colours red, white and blue have
been chosen by Templars and Freemasons in a great number of
countries, namely Holland, France, England, Scotland and the
USA. At the time of defining a banner the leading intelligentsia
in most of these countries are known to have been influenced
by Templar-or Freemason-symbolism.

1898: Flag of the Philippines
The flag of the Philippines was officially hoisted for the first
time on 12th of June in 1898. It shows two horizontal stripes in
blue and red with an isosceles white triangle on the leech. The
designing elements of the flag of the Philippines are broadly of
Masonic origin.

198

Appendix II - Androgynous deities134
Language

Androgynous
Proto-deity

Scandinavian

Tivar (Ti-Father)

British

Tui (imported
from Germany)

U (you) and I

German

Tui (Parent for
Tuisco / Tuisto)

Thu and Ih

Dutch

Tui (Parent for
Tuisco / Tuisto)

U and Ic

French

Dieu

Du and Je

Italian

Dios

Tu and io

Spanish

Dios

Tu and yo

Greek

Zeus (Dyæus )

Hittite

Sius (Sius-summa)

Etruscan

Tinia (also: Tin,
Tins or Tina)

Roman

IU-piter

Hebrew

YHVH (from:
IhUh -> IU)

Arab

dUI

Iranian

Zurvan

Proto-pronouns

UI ("I")

Table 6: Overview of Androgynous Deities
134:

in contrast to Blavatzky's concept (1888) in Table 3
this overview includes the deity Tuisco

199

Appendix III – Links to Google-Books
Zohar , Bereshith to Lekh Lekha (1300) published by Forgotten
Books, ISBN 1605067466, 9781605067469
Online document - inaccurate description of androgynous
Kabbala by erroneous interpretation of the female symbolism
by claiming: “The letters yod and he symbolize the father resp.
the mother135. The V in the divine name IHVH is the son or
child of I and H, the Father and the Mother”136.
Der Sohar : Das heilige Buch der Kabbala (ca. 1300)
translated by Ernst Müller. - Publisher: Diederichs (1998),
ISBN 3424014575, 9783424014570, 319 pages.
This German version of the Zohar is more accurate, but
incomplete.
Phallic Worship (1870) by Hodder M. Westropp (1870)
(online) published by Forgotten Books,
ISBN 1606200437, 9781606200438, Size: 14 pages.
Very small booklet (14 pages) describing an overview of
Phallic and Yonic worship.
Phallicism: Celestial and Terrestrial ; (1884)
Subtitle: Heathen and Christian and Its Connection with the
Rosicrucians and the Gnostics and Its Foundation in Buddhism
by Hargrave Jennings, Kessinger Publishing, 1884 & 1996,
ISBN 1564596486, 9781564596482, 324 pages
Exact and correct explanation of the Tetragrammaton's letters
J-E-V-E or JHVH: This process leaves us the two letters I and
V (in another form U);
135:

Source: Zohar - Chapter 7
Source: Zohar - Chapter 12

136:

200

The Secret Doctrine , Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 .
by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky
Published by Forgotten Books, ISBN 1605065455,
9781605065458 and 160620131X, 9781606201312
Overview of ancient Kabbalah (including phallic and
androgynous religions)
Patterns in Comparative Religion (1958)
by Mircea Eliade, Rosemary Sheed, John C. Holt
Reprinted by: U of Nebraska Press, 1996,
ISBN 0803267339, 9780803267336, 484 pages
Documenting a survey of bisexual / androgynous godheads
The Art of Loving137 (1967) by Erich Fromm.
Publisher: Ullstein, 1967
Description of the psycho-analytic role for a father and a
mother in a parental couple
In Search of the Indo-Europeans :
Language, Archaeology and Myth (1973) by J. P. Mallory
illustrated, reprinted: Thames and Hudson, 1991,
ISBN 0500276161, 9780500276167, 288 pages
Archaeology and Language :
The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins by Colin Renfrew
Edition: reprint, illustrated by CUP Archive, 1990,
ISBN 0521386756, 9780521386753, 368 pages
documents the priorities for pronouns (I, You, we) in a PIE-list
(basic core vocabulary) at page 114 in the web-version of the
manuscript.
137:

Die Kunst des Liebens

201

German Mythology138 (1854) by Jacob Grimm
Edition: 3, published by Dieterichsche Buchhandlung, 1854
Der Brenner & TUISC Codex (2006)
Subtitle: über die Bernsteinrouten und die teutsche Religion
by Joannes Richter, published by R.G. Fischer, 2006,
ISBN 3830109652, 9783830109655, 128 pages
Explaining androgynous religion in a synthesis of palaeolithic
sculptures, legends, religion and etymology.
The Kite runner139 ->
by Khaled Hosseini, translated by Angelika Naujokat,
Michael Windgassen. Published at Berlin Verlag, 2008,
ISBN 3827008042, 9783827008046
… documenting modern Afghan matrimonial and veiling
traditions.
The Dictionary of Runes140
by Udo Waldemar Dieterich (1844)
387 pages, Veröffentlicht von Marix, 2004,
ISBN 3937715134, 9783937715131
The Golden Bough: Abridged Edition
by Sir James George Frazer
published by Penguin Classics, 1998
ISBN 0140189319, 9780140189315, 944 pages

138:

Deutsche Mythologie
Drachenläufer
140:
Das Runen-Wörterbuch - Abstammung und Begriffsbildung der ältesten
Sprachdenk-mäler Skandinaviens139:

202

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