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that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals. What is a Network? A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and media such as modems, cables, telephone lines, and satellites. Uses of the Internet • Access a wealth of information, news, and research material • Communicate with others around the world • Bank and investment • Shop for goods and services • Download and listen to music or download and watch movies • Take a course or access other educational material • Access sources of entertainment and leisure such as online games, magazines, and vacation planning guides • Access other computers and exchange files • Share and edit documents with others • Provide information, photographs, audio clips, or video clips History of the Internet • It all started in a networking project by the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense. ARPA’s goals were to build a network that: • Allowed scientist at different locations to share information and work together on military and scientific projects; and • Could function even if part of the network were disabled or destroyed by a disaster such as a nuclear attack. That network, called ARPANET, became functional in September 1969, linking scientific and academic researchers in the United States. • The original ARPANET was a wide area network ( WAN) consisting of four main computers – one each located at the UCLA, UC at Santa Barbara, the Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah. Each of these computers served as the network’s host nodes. • a host or node is any computer that directly connects to the network. • a host often stores and transfers data and messages on high-speed communications lines and provides network connections for other computers. In 1984, ARPANET underwent phenomenal growth, it had more than 1,000 individuals linked as hosts. Today, more than 100 million hosts connect to the Internet. How has the Internet grown? • Today - More than 350 million host nodes • 1984 - More than 1,000 host nodes • 1969 - Four host nodes • • In 1986, the National Science Foundation, connected its huge network of five supercomputer centers, called NSFnet, to ARPANET. This configuration of complex networks and hosts became known as the Internet. In 1995, NSFnet terminated its network on the Internet and returned its status to a research network.
Who controls the Internet? No one – it is a public, cooperative, and independent network Several organizations set standards World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the group that oversees research and sets standards and guidelines for many areas of the Internet. Internet2 (I2) is a not-for-profit Internet-related research and development project. It develops and tests advanced Internet technologies for research, teaching, and learning. 1
google. An IP Address is number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to Internet. etc). Wireless Internet Service Provider – is a company that provides wireless Internet access to users with wireless modems (like notebooks) or Web-enabled handheld computers or devices (like cellular telephones. High speed connection Digital subscriber line (DSL). games and travel guides. 2 . How Data Travels the Internet A server is a computer that manages the resources on a network and provides a central storage area for resources such as programs and data. organizations. the telephone number you dial connects you to an access point on the Internet. cable modem. lawyers and accountants Aviation community members Business cooperatives such as credit unions and rural electric coops 216.239. legal information. OSP (On-Line Service Provider) . A client is a computer that can access the contents of the storage area on a server. National – a larger business that provides local telephone numbers in major cities and towns nationwide. 2. and satellite modems Connection is always on—whenever the computer is running How the Internet Works Service Providers 1.How can you connect to the Internet? Slow speed technology Dial-up access – modem in your computer uses a standard telephone line to connect to the Internet Connection must be established each time you log on. hardware and software guides. weather. Examples are America Online (AOL) and The Microsoft Network (MSN). If you use a telephone line to access the Internet. Regional – provides access to one or more telephone numbers local to a specific geographic area. Internet Addresses The Internet relies on an addressing system much like the postal service to send data to a computer at a specific destination. An Internet service provider (ISP) is a business that has a permanent Internet connection and offers temporary connections to individuals and companies free or for a fee. called Point of Presence (POP).99 www. financial data. but an OSP also has many members-only features that offer a variety of special content and services such as news. 3. Some ISPs of this kind provide a toll-free telephone numbers.com top-level domain Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – the group that assigns and controls TLDs. Slow but inexpensive. Domain Name System (DNS) is the system on the Internet that stores the domain names and their corresponding IP addresses. businesses and companies Educational institutions Government agencies Military organizations Network provider Nonprofit organizations Newer top-level domains museum biz info name pro aero coop Type of Domain Accredited museums Business of all sizes Businesses.supplies Internet access. IP Address Domain Name Examples of Top-level Domains Original Top-level Domains com edu gov mil net org Type of Domain Commercial organizations.39. cable telephone Internet services (CATV). or individuals providing general information Individuals or families Certified professionals such as doctors. two-way pagers. fixed wireless. What is a domain name? A domain name is the text version of Internet Protocol (IP) address and every domain name contains a top-level domain (TLD) abbreviation that identifies the type of organization that is associated with the domain. A backbone is the communications lines that carry the heaviest amount of traffic on the Internet.
com lycos. is a digital representation of information such as a drawing. The more widely used Web browsers for personal computers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape.com WebCrawler webcrawler. Surfing the Web is the process of jumping from one Web page to another.com Google google. Opera. directory. filename Searching for Information on the Web a.com overture. Navigating Web Pages A hyperlink. Animation is the appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence. sound. d. A Web site is a collection of related Web pages. is similar to a book cover or a table of contents for a Web site. graphics. which stands Graphics Interchange Format. single-color borders or cartoons. Animated GIF. A microbrowser. or graphical image. domain name. is a built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page. GIF file. Web pages. A Web browser. also called a Web address.asp Protocol Host Computer Address (domain) path. sound. also uses compression techniques to reduce file sizes.intel. onto your computer from a server on the Internet. A graphic. which stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. video. Search text or keywords are word or phrase that you enter in the search engine’s text box.com Multimedia on the Web Multimedia refers to any application that integrates text with one or more of the following elements: graphics. Using the Uniform Resource Locator Uniform Resource Locator (URL).com/pressroom/index. A spider. Links allow you to obtain information in a nonlinear way. 3 .com HotBot hotbot. Downloading is the process of receiving information.com Yahoo. Firefox. as well as built-in connection to other documents. also called a crawler or bot. or index. also called a link. A search engine is a software program you can use to find Web sites. A thumbnail is a small version of a larger graphical image you usually can click. http or hypertext transfer protocol. is a software program that allows you to access and view Web pages. is a program that reads pages on Web sites in order to create a catalog. is a Web page’s unique address. also called a minibrowser. is one of the popular animation and graphics software that combine several images into a single GIF file. which is the starting page for a browser. virtual reality. A URL consists of a protocol. b.com Excite Lycos Yahoo! Overture excite. or photograph. A Web server is a computer that delivers (serves) Web pages you request. and video. A hit is any Web page name that lists as the result of a search. URL: http://www. is the communications standard that enables pages to transfer on the Web.com LookSmart looksmart. It tells the browser where to locate the documents. is a graphical image that uses compression techniques to reduce the file size. Widely used search engines: AltaVista altavista. and Safari. and Internet files. of hits. and sometimes the path to a specific Web page. is a software program that accesses and displays Web pages that contain mostly text. Two of the most common file formats for graphical images on the Web are: JPEG file. Web page is the electronic documents on the Web which contain text. c. or other media elements. such as line drawings. It best works on images with only a few distinct colors. such as a Web page. or browser.The World Wide Web (WWW) The World Wide Web (WWW) or Web consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents. Other browsers include Mozilla. To display the full-sized image. A home page. chart.
Web page maintained by private individual.jpg .Graphic formats used on the Internet Acronym Name File Extension GIF BMP PNG Graphics Interchange Format Bit Map Portable Network Graphics . video. e-mail. weather. Authority 7. and the weather. or feeds. Content aggregator . modify. Netiquette includes rules for all aspects of the Internet. Audience 2. some colleges offer online classes and degrees. Netiquette. opinions. created by organizations and government agencies. Web communities (Web sites that join people with similar interests) 2.Contains content that promotes products or services. Portal . convenient location. Advocacy . 4. 3. A user name. E-mail program is used to create. and instant messaging. Types of Websites 1. Educational .Offers an interactive and engaging environment featuring music. Currency 3.tif E-mail (Electronic Mail) E-mail is the transmission of messages and files via a computer network. or idea. video. sports. Business/marketing . games. Some companies’ offer online training for employees. or user-ID. Instant Messenger is a software from an instant messaging software needed to be installed onto the computer with which to use IM.pcx . sports. TCP does the packeting and reassembling of the message. 11. and delete messages. An address book contains a list of names and e-mail addresses. such as letters of the alphabet or numbers.A Web site that offers a variety of services from one.Uses a regularly updated journal format to reflect the interests. including the World Wide Web.offers avenues for formal and informal teaching and learning. Instant Messaging (IM) is a real-time Internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online and then allows to exchange messages or files or join a private chat room with them. the conduct expected of individuals while online. An FTP site is a collection of files including text.Collaborative Web site that allows users to add to. 7.png Acronym JPEG PCX TIFF Name Joint Photographic Experts Group PC Paintbrush Tagged Image File Format File Extension . is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet. which is short for Internet etiquette. A mailbox is a storage location usually residing on the computer that connects you to the Internet.Contains content that describes a cause. 5. receive. Wiki . send. graphics. or delete the Web site content via their Web browser. 6. that identifies you. Reasons: sharing life experience with the world or job hunting. Guidelines for evaluating the value of a Web site 1. news. An FTP server is a computer that allows users to upload and download files using FTP. An e-mail address is a combination of a user name and a domain name that identifies a user. chat rooms. print. POP (Post Office Protocol) is a communications technology for retrieving e-mail from a mail server. The software that takes care of the packets is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). FTP. auctions. Affiliation 4. Entertainment . and program files that reside on an FTP server.Contains factual information. seeing to it that packets are routed across multiple computers. so he or she can receive Internet e-mail. enabling scientists and researchers working on governmentsponsored projects to communicate with colleagues at other locations. Content 5. Searching. store. News . The IP part of the protocol handles the addressing. is a unique combination of characters. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an Internet standard that allows you to upload and download files with other computers on the Internet. usually for free. life.Business that gathers and organizes Web content and then distributes. Informational . audio. opinion. Allows you to purchase products or services online. the content to subscribers for free or a fee. The newest version of POP is POP3. It was one of the original services on the Internet.bmp . Objectivity 6. 10. Personal . Stories and articles relating to current events. money. e-mail. forward. and personalities of the author and sometimes site visitors. Blog . newsgroups and message boards.Contains newsworthy material. 8. The server that contains the mailboxes often is called a mail server. Design 4 . sports. and more. 9. or Post Office Protocol 3.gif .
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