This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

R

Total No of Pages: 13 Referred: www.google.com www.wikipedia.org

[This document is prepared only for read only purpose and this document should not be copied or recycled with prior permission. This document is created while preparing for paper presentation and National Conference – Theni.]

9790680719 [17.09.2008]

All Copyrights are reserved © 2008

**An Efficient Operator based Unicode cryptography Algorithm for Text, Audio and Video Files
**

R.Sumathi *, R.Sundarrajan **

ABSTRACT There are many aspects to security and many applications, ranging from secure commerce and payments to private The same plaintext will encrypt to different cipher text in a stream cipher .This algorithm increases the complexity of solving the cipher text when handled by intruders. Thereby it provides extremely better security for all type of files. INTRODUCTION Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. In modern times, cryptography is considered a branch of both mathematics and computer science, and is affiliated closely with information theory, computer security, and engineering. Cryptography is used in applications present in technologically advanced

communications and protecting passwords. One essential aspect for secure

communications is that of secret key cryptography, which the focus of this paper. With secret key cryptography, a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. The key selection mechanism and the encoding methodology express the efficiency of the cipher text generated. In this paper, a new method of encoding technique using the mathematical operators over Unicode character set facilitates better encoding algorithm.

societies; examples include the security of ATM cards, computer passwords, and * Assistant Professor,Dept of CSE, J.J.College of Engg.& Tech.,Trichy-09. Email ID: sumathi_rajmohan@yahoo.com ** Pre Final Year Student, Dept of CSE, J.J College of Engg & Tech., Trichy-09 the electronic commerce, which all depend on cryptography. Cryptography refers to encryption, process of converting ordinary

information (plaintext) into unintelligible cipher text Decryption is the reverse, moving from unintelligible cipher text to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms which creates the encryption and the reversing decryption. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and, in each instance, by a key. This is a secret parameter for a specific message exchange context. Keys are important, as ciphers without variable keys are trivially breakable and therefore less than useful for most purposes. Historically, ciphers were often used directly for

Integrity: Assuring the receiver that the received message has not been altered in any way from the original. Non-repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender really sent this message. Any new design of Cryptographic technique must accomplish the above

requisites. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication. CRYPTOGRAPHIC SCHEMES In general, three types of

cryptographic schemes typically used to accomplish these goals: 1. Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption

encryption or decryption, without additional procedures such as authentication or

integrity checks. PRE REQUISITES There are various security requirements for a Cryptographic technique including: Authentication: The process of proving one's identity. (The primary forms of hostto-host authentication on the Internet today are name-based or address-based, both of which are notoriously weak.) Privacy/confidentiality: Ensuring that no one can read the message except the intended receiver.

2. Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption 3. Hash Functions: Uses a mathematical transformation to irreversibly "encrypt" information

are the various cryptographic schemes available depending upon their

whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different cipher text in a stream cipher. Block ciphers can operate in one of several modes; the following four are the most important: Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode is the simplest, most obvious application: the secret key is used to encrypt the plaintext block to form a cipher text block. Two identical plaintext blocks, then, will always generate the same cipher text block. Although this is the most common mode of block ciphers, it is susceptible to a variety of brute-force attacks. Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode adds a feedback mechanism to the encryption scheme. In CBC, Red the plaintext with prior is the to

application and ease of use. SECRET KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY: With secret key cryptography, a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. As shown in Figure 1A, the sender uses the key (or some set of rules) to encrypt the plaintext and sends the cipher text to the receiver. The receiver applies the same key (or rule set) to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. Because a single key is used for both functions, secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption. Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block ciphers. Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. A block cipher is socalled because the scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the same key on each block. In general, the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same cipher text when using the same key in a block cipher

exclusively-O previous

(XORed) block

cipher

text

encryption. In this mode, two identical blocks of plaintext never encrypt to the same cipher text.

Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode is a block cipher implementation as a self-

synchronizing stream cipher. CFB mode allows data to be encrypted in units smaller than the block size, which might be useful in some applications such as encrypting

interactive terminal input. If we were using 1-byte CFB mode, for example, each incoming character is placed into a shift register the same size as the block, encrypted, and the block transmitted. At the receiving side, the cipher text is decrypted and the extra bits in the block (i.e., everything above and beyond the one byte) are discarded. Output Feedback (OFB) mode is a block cipher implementation conceptually similar to a synchronous stream cipher. OFB prevents the same plaintext block from generating the same cipher text block by using an internal feedback mechanism that is independent of both the plaintext and cipher text bit streams. Secret key cryptography algorithms that are in use today include Data Encryption Standard (DES): DES is a block-cipher employing a 56-bit key that operates on 64-bit blocks. DES has a complex set of rules and transformations that were designed specifically to yield fast hardware implementations and slow

block; 3DES is also described in FIPS 46-3 and is the recommended replacement to DES. DESX: A variant devised by Ron Rivets. By combining 64 additional key bits to the plaintext prior to encryption, effectively increases the key length to 120 bits. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES):This algorithm use a variable block length and key length; the latest specification allowed any combination of keys lengths of 128, 192, or 256 bits and blocks of length 128, 192, or 256 bits. Similarly, there are Several Algorithms like Blowfish, International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA),Two fish, Camellia, Secure and Fast Encryption Routine (SAFER),SEED, Skipjack. These are algorithms are designed extending the ideas already available.

PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY Public-key cryptography has been said to be the most significant new development in secure communication over

software implementations Triple-DES (3DES): A variant of DES that employs up to three 56-bit keys and makes three encryption/decryption passes over the

a

non-secure

communications

channel

without having to share a secret key.

Public Key Cryptography or Asymmetric cryptography provides the same message security guarantees as symmetric

PKC depends upon the existence of socalled one-way functions, or mathematical functions that are easy to computer whereas their inverse function is relatively difficult to compute. Let me give you two simple examples: In public-key cryptosystems, the public key may be freely distributed, while its paired private key must remain secret. The public key is typically used for encryption, while the private or secret key is used for decryption. Diffie and Hellman showed that public-key cryptography was possible by presenting the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol In addition to encryption, public-key cryptography can be used to implement digital signature schemes. A digital

cryptography, but additionally provides the non-repudiation guarantee. ‘Asymmetric’ refers to the fact that different keys are used for encryption and decryption. One key is kept secret (‘secret key’) and the other is made public (‘public key’), and are both unique. The recipient’s public key should be used during the encryption process to ensure message confidentiality as only the recipient has the necessary secret key to decrypt the message. If, however, the message is encrypted using the sender’s private key the sender cannot deny sending the message as his private key is unique and is only known to him. Typical include RSA, asymmetric ElGamal algorithms and is DSA.

signature is reminiscent of an ordinary signature; they both have the characteristic that they are easy for a user to produce, but difficult for anyone else to forge. Digital signatures can also be permanently tied to the content of the message being signed; they cannot then be 'moved' from one document to another, for any attempt will be detectable. In digital signature schemes, there are two algorithms: one for signing, in which a secret key is used to process the message (or a hash of the message, or both),

Asymmetric

cryptography

extremely

powerful, but this comes at a cost. Especially for longer messages and keys, it is much slower than its symmetric

cryptography counterparts. This is due in part to the fact that, in order to achieve comparable security, asymmetric keys are generally around an order of magnitude longer than symmetric keys.

and one for verification, in which the matching public key is used with the message to check the validity of the signature. RSA and DSA are two of the most popular digital signature schemes. Digital signatures are central to the

message, but encrypted using a public-key algorithm. Similarly, hybrid signature

schemes are often used, in which a cryptographic hash function is computed, and only the resulting hash is digitally signed. HASH FUNCTIONS Hash functions, also called message digests and one-way encryption, and are algorithms that, in some sense, use no key. Instead, a fixed-length hash value is computed based upon the plaintext that makes it impossible for either the contents or length of the plaintext to be recovered.

operation of public key infrastructures and many network security schemes (e.g., SSL/TLS, many VPNs, etc). Public-key algorithms are most often based on the computational complexity of "hard" problems, often from number theory. For example, the hardness of RSA is related to the integer factorization problem. More recently, elliptic in curve which

cryptography has

developed

Hash algorithms are typically used to provide a digital fingerprint of a file's contents often used to ensure that the file has not been altered by an intruder or virus. Hash functions are also commonly

security is based on number theoretic problems involving elliptic curves. Because of the difficulty of the underlying problems, most public-key algorithms involve

operations such as modular multiplication and exponentiation, which are much more computationally expensive than the

employed by many operating systems to encrypt passwords. Hash functions, then, provide a measure of the integrity of a file. Hash functions are sometimes

techniques used in most block ciphers, especially with typical key sizes. As a result, public-key cryptosystems are commonly hybrid cryptosystems, in which a fast highquality symmetric-key encryption algorithm is used for the message itself, while the relevant symmetric key is sent with the

misunderstood and some sources claim that no two files can have the same hash value. This is, in fact, not correct. Consider a hash function that provides a 128-bit hash value. There are, obviously, 2128 possible hash values. But there are a lot more than 2128

possible files. Therefore, there have to be multiple files in fact; there have to be an infinite number of files. By the above basics about the

considered. This similarity can be depicted pictorial as follows.

Cryptography and the study is about the Cryptographic Schemes available and their methodology of handling keys and way of Encoding Techniques. PROPOSED ALGORITHM: After discussed elaborately about the various cryptographic schemes available and the structure about the algorithms for the schemes, the paper is concerned towards the new design of “Operator based Encoding Technique with Unicode Character Set Support”. OPERATORS IN ENCODING: This algorithm is designed generated each class of

VALUE 1

*

VALUE 2

VALUE X

The value x is definitely different from the value of value 1 and value 2 depending upon the * operation and the values. Similarly in the Cryptography the plain Text must be encoded into Cipher text which must different from the original text to ensure the security of the data transacted.

PLAIN TEXT ENCODING

considering the fact that “Every input plain text can be converted into numeric value whatever may be its magnitude”. When Numeric values are resulted they can be used for mathematical operators resulting in a different solution than that of the origin. This concept seems too analogous to the Cryptography operation that we

CIPHER TEXT

In the above for the encoding operation performed, the plain text must be converted into cipher text which cannot be recognized or more precisely the text which is different from the original text.

Therefore from this we can define the cipher text in cryptography as the text that is different from the original text where the difference needs elongated complex procedures to be followed. Hence we have proved that an operator based algorithm can be used as Encoding technique to generate the required cipher text. UNICODE SUPPORT: Now we established that the

It is 16 bit based character set which encompasses every character available in all the formats of files available. Therefore we came across two basic steps in this design which includes, 1. Converting any given plain text into numeric values based on Unicode mapping. 2. After numeric mapping the Text input is in operable form which is operated through different

mathematical operators can be used for encoding. Such encoding is possible if and only if the given plain text (any text) must be converted into operable manner. Operable manner means that the plain text must be converted into numbers for operation over them.

operators and the required result once again mapped using

Unicode character set. Hence the algorithm basic design is completed using Unicode support over operators. PLAIN TEXT CIPHER TEXT

Such a mapping for every character into a numeric value is possible only in Unicode character set. In order to convert any text into number Unicode character set support is needed. In Unicode character set, there are 65536 characters available and is a common standard worldwide independent of the languages used. SECURITY BY FEED-BACK: One of the major properties of the cryptography is the key providing concept UNICODE FORM OPERATOR F(x)

which

provides

security

as

well

as

of

Feedback based Security the

authorization. From the above, the Unicode

algorithm is designed as, 1. The First character alone is added directly with the security key. 2. The following by character is

mapping and operator based encoding favors the generation of cipher text but the security is not discussed. In order to provide security we shall bind a numeric key as security with the cipher text generated in the above method. Here we have multiple ways for key binding with the cipher text to be generated. 1. Entire Text Binding: Due to usage of numeric values to generate the cipher text the usage of key in numbers is possible. It is possible to add each character with key. But it yields a worst method of security since the key will be spread over the text uniformly which cannot be efficient which is similar to X-shifting the numeric value bonded with the cipher text. Hence this method of key binding can be mostly avoided. 2. Feed Back based Security: Analyzing the failure of the Entire Text Binding, in the method

operated

above

designed

method over the first and then the result is made operated towards the next and soon. 3. This kind of Feedback based security illustrates that the same character is mapped into different cipher text depending on the presence of the character at various positions in Plain Text. 4. It is called Feed Back based security because the key for the current character under process of encoding depends on the previous input character. Indirectly in this kind of Security, we have built the security for whole cipher text This algorithm since provides a key it comes under the mechanism of Secret Key Cryptography discussed in the basics of this paper.

FIRST INPUT FROM FILE TO BE ENCODED

SECRET

CURRENT INPUT FROM FILE

NEXT INPUT FROM FILE TO BE ENCODED

OPERATOR BASED ALGORITH M FOR GENERATI NG CIPHER TEXT UNICODE CHARACTER SET

FILE TO BE

Mapped to respective Cipher Text

OUTPUT FILE – CIPHER

ALGORITHM FOR ENCODING: No Repetition: In this algorithm, no

Operatebasedencode () { Read currentin from input file Add secretkey with currentin // any other operator can be employed Start loop until endof inputfile Pastcharin=currentin

repetition of cipher text for the same character throughout the plain text occurs, which is considered to be a demerit of the secret key cryptography which we have cleared in this algorithm. The algorithm is designed as follows based on the statements concluded above.

Read currentin from input file Precipherchar=pastcharin * currentin Place Mapoverunicode( precipherchar) in Outputfile End loop

Hence it is working fine for all the set of files since it uses Unicode support for character mapping. Now the secret key applied by applied in this algorithm is feedback based which undergo following criteria 1. The key applied will be a numeric

**} Mapoverunicode(precipherchar) { Search given precipherchar in Unicode Character Set Return the appropriate character }
**

This algorithm uses feedback based secret key in which the key is bonded with the cipher text indirectly and so no repetition is allowed. VALIDITY OF SECRET KEY: The above algorithm is tested so many times and it is working fine for the input files of various types like text files, documents, and even mp3 files (Audio Files) and video files.

value

which

must

be

unique

considered upon user. 2. Since it uses Unicode character set support the no of unique values will be from 0-65536. 3. The number of keys used in the algorithm range is small and is possible to exceed over 65536 but it recycles within the range.(without using modulus operator) SERIAL DIGIT SECRET KEY: Now in order to clear these criteria the key can be applied to cipher text in blocks by blocks. The operation needs a range of numbers where every figure in the key provided will be added in blocks to the entire cipher text. Suppose that for a text

“COMPUTER” for certain encoding it may

result in “2we45r6/” and the key provided while encoding is “1532”.then the operation of encoding can simply depicted as,

in the scheme is the key can be any range larger. 3. Since simple users of encoding in this method have to memorize a

2

w

e

4

5

r

6 /

series of digits without fail to obtain the document clearly.

1

5

3

2

1

5

3

2

**STRING STRUCTURE KEY BIND:
**

CIPHER TEXT

In order to increase the difference of key bonded with the cipher text which is only 0-9 arrived a solution as

Depending on the * operator used, the key is added with the cipher text in blocks and hence the range of Unicode is different which is better than feedback system. Here we can note that the key size can range from 0 – size of the file. Hence by this method the user can add key to the cipher text up to a larger range when compared to feed back based system. Limitations in this method:

follows in this method namely “STRING STRUCTURE KEY BIND”. 1. The key here handled may be a series of characters instead of

numbers. 2. The string binded can have Unicode equivalent values that are larger than the range 0-9. 3. The characters each in the key string can range from 0-65536 each. 4. The length of the key can be large

1. Even though the key is a series of digits, the numeric value added with each character range from 0-9. 5. 2. This mild difference again checks the security and needs further study and the advantage

enough equivalent to the size of the input file which is the maximum value. Even though the key can be severely large, the optimal performance can

be maintained by the user’s decision over the peak value to be handled. 6. Since it is a series of characters i.e. string, a meaningful string for

average users can help them to remember enough to recover their documents. Hence upon the various schemes of key binding discussed the string structure secret key again using Unicode support is better and even best of the key binding techniques discussed. Here using various schemes for secret key does not mean the congestion of ideas in illustrating the secret key but it is a real time derivation for deciding the best secret key technique. Once again we can notice that the string structure secret key holding the property “no repetition”.

Latest Cryptographic Trend for having effective small size cryptographic content
Effectively applied in Mobiles

Latest Cryptographic Trend for having effective small size cryptographic content

Effectively applied in Mobiles

Effectively applied in Mobiles

- Research Papers on Cryptography
- CRYPTOGRAPHY REPORT
- Cryptography
- Types of Cryptography
- Network Security Research Paper
- An Efficient Operator based Unicode cryptography Algorithm for Text
- cryptography
- Cryptography Report
- Cryptography
- cryptography
- Cryptography and Network Security Paper Presentation
- Data Security & Cryptographic Techniques - A Review
- PAPER PRESENTATION
- Cryptography
- cryptography
- cryptography
- Network Security ResearchPaper
- Visual Cryptography
- Ieee Paper 1
- Hill Cipher
- RC4 Cryptography
- Cryptography
- Copy of Cryptography Ppt[1]
- Cryptography
- cryptography
- Application Area of Cryptography
- Class Diagram for Example ATM System
- Pervasive Computing
- abstract on Network Security and Cryptography
- CS2060 Notes

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd