;jf]{Rr cbfnt, ;+o'Qm Ohnf;

;DdfggLo k|wfg GofofwLz >L /fdk|;fb >]i7
dfggLo GofofwLz >L lvn/fh /]UdL
km};nf
@)^! ;fnsf] kmf}=k'=g+=M #!&#
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf cg';Gwfg clws[t
bLkss'df/ >]i7sf] k|ltj]bgn] g]kfn ;/sf/ ==============================
lj?4
uf]/vf lhNnf a'ªsf]6 3/ eO{ xfn sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf=d=g=kf=
j8f g+=& rfalxn a:g] tTsfnLg dGqL lr/l~hjL jfUn] ============ !
P]=P]=a:g] lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn] ========================== !

k'g/fj]bs÷jfbL

k|ToyL{÷k|ltjfbL

@)^! ;fnsf] kmf}=k'=g+=M #!*%
uf]/vf lhNnf a'ªsf]6 3/ eO{ xfn sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf=d=g=kf=
j8f g+=& rfalxn a:g] lr/l~hjL jfUn] =============================== k'g/fj]bs÷k|ltjfbL
lj?4
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf cg';Gwfg clws[t
bLkss'df/ >]i7sf] k|ltj]bgn] g]kfn ;/sf/ ==========================
k|ToyL{÷jfbL
@)^! ;fnsf] kmf}=k'=g+=M #!*&
uf]/vf lhNnf a'ªsf]6 3/ eO{ xfn sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf=d=g=kf=
j8f g+=& rfalxn a:g] b]j]Gb| jfUn] ==================================== k'g/fj]bs÷k|ltjfbL
lj?4
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf cg';Gwfg clws[t
bLkss'df/ >]i7sf] k|ltj]bgn] g]kfn ;/sf/ ==========================
k|ToyL{÷jfbL
@)^! ;fnsf] kmf}=k'=g+=M #!**
uf]/vf lhNnf a'ªsf]6 3/ eO{ xfn sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf=d=g=kf=
j8f g+=& rfalxn a:g] c~h' zdf{ jfUn] ============================== k'g/fj]bs÷k|ltjfbL
lj?4
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf cg';Gwfg clws[t

bLkss'df/ >]i7sf] k|ltj]bgn] g]kfn ;/sf/ ==========================

k|ToyL{÷jfbL

@)^! ;fnsf] kmf}=k'=g+=M #!*(
uf]/vf lhNnf a'ªsf]6 3/ eO{ xfn sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf=d=g=kf=
j8f g+=& rfalxn a:g] zfGtfb]jL jfUn] ================================ k'g/fj]bs÷k|ltjfbL
lj?4
clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]usf cg';Gwfg clws[t
bLkss'df/ >]i7sf] k|ltj]bgn] g]kfn ;/sf/ ==========================
k|ToyL{÷jfbL
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o; cl3 km};nf ug]{ M
dfggLo GofofwLz >L tkaxfb'/ du/ –
dfggLo GofofwLz >L uf]ljGbk|;fb k/fh'nL –
dfggLo GofofwLz >L e"kWjh clwsf/L –
ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+
km};nf ldlt M @)^!.$.&

cWoIf
;b:o
;b:o

ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] ldlt @)^!.$.& sf] km};nf pk/ ljz]if cbfnt
P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf !& jdf]lhd o; cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg k/L k]z x'g cfPsf]
k|:t't d'2fsf] ;+lIfKt tYo / 7x/ o; k|sf/ 5 M
ph"/L lgj]bg
@)$* sf] cfdlgjf{rgdf g]kfnL sf+u|];sf] ax'dtsf] ;/sf/df @)%!,
;fnsf] dWofjlw lgjf{rg kZrft ul7t ldnLh'nL ;/sf/df / @)%^ ;fnsf]
dWofjlw lgjf{rg kZrft ul7t dlGqd08ndf / @)%* ;fndf ul7t
dlGqd08ndf ;d]t u/L k6s k6s jl/i7 dGqLsf] x}]l;otn] sfo{ef/ ;DxfNbf
kbLo b'?kof]u u/L u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cs"t ;DklQ cfh{g u/L cfkm"n] ca}w tj/af6
sdfPsf] s/f]8f}+ ;DklQ Psf3/sf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /fvL pQm ca}w
;DklQnfO{ a}wtf lbnfpg b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf ;~rflnt 6«]lsª Ph]G;Laf6 cfh{g
u/]sf] egL ljleGg a}+sdf /sd hDdf u/]sf]n] 5fgljg u/L sf/jfxL xf];\ egL]]
2

clwjQmf gGb'/fh cfrfo{sf] cfof]u ;dIf kg{ cfPsf] ph"/L tyf lgh lr/l~hjL
jfUn] tyf lghsf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfpdf kbLo b'?kof]u u/L cfh{g u/]sf]
;DklQ a}+s ckm sf7df8f}+ 7d]n, lxdfnog a}+s 7d]n, glan a}+sdf ;d]t gub
hDdf u/]sf] / sf7df8f}+ tyf lrtjgdf s/f]8f+} a/fa/sf] 3/ 38]/L vl/b u/]sf]
x'+bf sf/afxL u/L kfpm egL hglxt ;+/If0f d~rsf cWoIf 8f= >Ls[i0f >]i7sf]
ph"/L tyf cGo a]gfdL ljleGg ph"/L lgj]bg .
lr/~hLjL jfUn] / lghsf Psf3/sf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] u}/sfg"gL lsl;dn]
;DklQ cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] eGg] ;DaGwdf plNnlvt ph"/Lx?sf cnfjf
ljleGg ;|f]tx?af6 k|fKt ePsf] hfgsf/Lsf cfwf/df ;f] ;DaGwdf cfof]un]
cg';Gwfg txlssft ug{ cfwf/e"t k|df0f k|fKt u/L ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf
lgh tTsfnLg dGqL lr/l~hjL jfUn] ;d]tn] u}/sfg"gL ;DklQ cfh{g u/L
e|i6frf/sf] ck/fw u/]sf] 5 egL ljZjf; ug'{kg]{ dgfl;j sf/0f eO{ k|rlnt sfg"g
Pj+ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u P]g, @)$* ;d]t adf]lhd sf/afxL
yfngL u/]sf] .
kfl/jfl/s ljj/0f
tfTsfnLg dGqL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] xfn ;uf]n kl/jf/df lgh lr/l~hjL
jfUn], >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn], 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn], a'xf/L c~h' zdf{ jfUn] tyf gftL
c;Ld jfUn] / 5f]/Lx? aGbgf jfUn] / pkf;gf jfUn] u/L & hgfsf] kl/jf/ /x]sf] .
lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn] tyf zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sL h]7L 5f]/L nIdL jfUn] ljjfx
eO;s]sf] / lgh 5f]/Lsf gfddf u}/sfg"gL ;DklQ xfn b]vf gk/]sf] .
cfof]]u ;dIf k|ltjfbLx?n] u/]sf] aofg sfuhsf] ;+lIfKt Joxf]/f
k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]
d}n] @)$* / @)%# ;fndf dGqL x'+bf cfkm\gf] ;DklQ ljj/0f k]z u/]sf] 5' .
d]/f] kl/jf/df bfh' efO{ 5'6[L] leGg ePsf 5f}+ . t/ d]/f] kl/jf/leqsf 5f]/f, 5f]/L,
kTgL ;uf]ndf g} 5f}+ . d}n] cfof]u ;dIf k]z u/]sf] ;DklQ ljj/0fdf 5f]/f a''xf/Ln]
Jofkf/ Joj;fo u/L sdfPsf] ;DklQ ;dfj]z 5}g . sf7df8f}+ rfjlxndf ag]sf] #
tn] 3/ d]/L >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]]sf] gfddf /x]sf] / pQm 3/ @)%!.%@ df
agfpg z'? u/]sf] xf] . 3/ lgdf{0fdf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] g]kfn lehg 6]«S;sf]
3

d]/f] / g/]Gb| ah|frfo{sf] . cfdfsf]] gfddf a'na'n] rfalxnsf] hUuf v/Lb ubf{ @)%) .foaf6 cflh{t /sd xf]] .DklQ hUuf v/Lb P+j uf8L v/Lbsf nflu 5f]/fnfO{ lbPsf] 5}g .df d}n] sdfPsf] s'g} klg .d]tsf hUufx? klg 5f]/f b]j]Gb|n] cfkm\gf] Jofkf/af6 sdfPsf] /sdaf6 v/Lb u/]sf] / ljleGg a}+sdf 5f]/f b]j]Gb|sf gfddf /x]sf]] a}+s vftf klg lghn] Jofkf/af6} cfh{g u/]sf] /sdaf6 hDdf u/]sf] / k|f8f] uf8L d]/f gfddf btf{ ePsf] / @ j6f dfl6{h / :ofG6f] uf8L 5f]/fsf] gfddf 5 .+o'Qm gfddf :ofG6«f] uf8L @ j6f *—* nfvdf v/Lb u/]sf]] xf] .|f]t d]/f] Jofkf/ Jofj.sf] .}sf] /xg]] x'+bf o.}u/L @)%& .^. h'6kfgLdf !) s7\7f d]/f]] gfddf 5 .fosf] . gljn a}+s.g 4 .fndf dfl6{h / s'df/ ?kfv]tL . 5f]/f Jofkf/ u5{. :of06«f] uf8L v/Lb ubf{ d]/f] efudf % nfv k/]sf] 5 . To.s]sf] 5f]/f / d]/f]] sfo{ k|s[lt g} km/s 5 . a}+s vftfx? a}+s ckm sf7df8f}+.+u . g]kfn lehg 6]«S.@& df / @)%# df v/Lb u/]sf] / Jofkf/ Joj. tL vftfdf /x]sf] /sdsf] .))). :6f088{ rf6{8{ a}+sx?df vftf 5 .fk6 dfu]/ lbPsf] x'+ .DaGwdf 38]/L @)%).Jofkf/af6 sdfPsf] /sd ?= !%.)). O{Ge]i6d]06 a}+s. lxdfnog a}+s.@* df v/Lb u/]sf]] xf] .fndf %) b]lv &) xhf/ /sd lbPsf] lyP+ . p.DaGwdf 5f]/fnfO{ g} yfxf 5 xfdL . pQm /sd d}n] Jofkf/af6 sdfP/ lbPsf]] xf] . 3/. k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] xfdL . h'6kfgLdf !) s6\7f . lktf lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf]] gfddf /x]sf] hLk -k|f8f]_ !^ nfvdf @)%#. tL tLgj6} uf8L 5f]/fn] Jofkf/af6 cfPsf] /sdaf6 v/Lb u/]sf] xf] . 3/ agfpgsf nflu ?=!& nfv / uf8L v/Lbsf nflu ? !^ nfv d}n] lbPsf]] xf] . plNnlvt hUuf..o'+Qm gfddf /x]sf] sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf jf8{ g+=@! 7d]ndf s/La !% cfgf hUuf / 7d]ns} )— @—#—@ cfgf hUuf k'/fgf] hL0f{ cj:yfdf d]/f] gfddf /x]sf] 3/ / lrtjgsf] /Tggu/df ( s7\7f. pQm /sd d}n] d]/f] .d]tsf] . P08 PS.uf]n kl/jf/df g} 5f}+ .'/f 8f=/fdk|.Dk"0f{ bfloTj klg p.fb zdf{ 1jfnL.fo sfg"g adf]lhd s/ ltg]]{ / To. uf8L cflb v/Lb u/]sf]] . v}/xgLdf #) s6\7f. v}/xgLdf #) s7\7f.n] u/]sf] Jofkf/ Joj.lk8L.uf]ndf g} eP tfklg jflnu eO.*.– vr{ ePsf] 5 / hUuf v/Lb klg 5f]/fn] g}] Jofkf/af6 sdfPsf] /sdaf6 v/Lb u/]sf] xf] . sf7df8f}+sf] 7d]ndf /x]sf] s/Lj !% cfgf hUuf tyf lrtjgsf] /Tggu/df /x]sf] ( s6\7f.

fo cGtu{t g]kfn lehg 6]«S.lSbg . Ph]G.+usf] sf/f]jf/ ubf{sf] cfDbfgL -Gross income_ ?=#@. d}n] @)%) . plNnlvt .&%. o'lgs Ps]8]dLdf z]o/ 5 . d]/f] sDkgL .fndf >L % sf] .+rfng u/]]b]lv ljb]zL d'b|fsf] sf/f]jf/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5' . s'df/L sn]hdf ?= !. P08 Pl:k8L.DaGwdf lghnfO{ .))).+u 8n/sf] sf/f]jf/ u/]sf] 5}g .L xf]6ndf ?=$@. cf]/n P8e/6fO{lhª.(^!.g lbPsf lyP . s'df/L sn]h DofUgLlkm.]G6 6«feN. >LdtLsf] gfddf nufgL u/]sf] z]o/ DofUgLlkm.k|f=ln=sf gfddf @)%)÷%! .))). cNkfOg 6«feN.– z]o/ nufgL 5 .|f]t v'nfpg gkg]{ / gvf]lhg] lglt cg'. o'lgs Ps]8]dL jf]l8{8 :s"ndf k6s k6s u/L $ nfv.%(@. l6s6 sf/f]jf/af6 dnfO{ @) b]lv @% k|ltztsf] aLrdf sld. cGo a}+sx?.!@ dfq ePsf]n] lghn] k]z u/]sf] .df ?=#.DklQ ljj/0f d]n gvfPsf]] .DaGwdf @ j6f vftf /fVg] ub{y]+ .))).+u qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t .+rfng ug{ / . d]/f]] Joj.]G6 6«feN.— kfNkf OlGhgLol/+u sn]hdf ?=&%.— tf/fufp+ l/h]G. Pd=Pg=O{G6/g]zgn df ?=@ nfv.L. lxdfn /]O{lhg.Dd gfkmf x'G5 .%* b]lvPsf] / cNkfO{g 6«feN. Pd=Pg= O{G6/g]zgn.f/ VDIS lt/]sf] x'+ .f]xL adf]lhd jf:tljs cfDbfgLsf] @)%* .Dd Business sf] Nature x]/]/ gfkmf x'G5 ./sf/n] cfkm\gf] .))).f]wgL ubf{ 5 .DklQ :jo+ 3f]if0ff ug]{ gLlt cg'?k cfkm\gf] . lxdfnog a}+s / gljn a}+sdf ljb]zL d'b|fsf] sf/f]jf/ ub}{ cfPsf] 5' .4fy{ dN6Lkn OlG:6Ro"6df ?= !%. kfNkfsf] O{lGhlgo/Lª sn]hsf] z]o/ klg d]/L >LdtL c~h' zdf{sf] gfddf 5 .f/ s/ ltg{ Ps / jf:tljs cfDbfgLsf] csf]{ u/L @ j6f vftf x''Gy] .fdfGotof @% b]lv $) k|ltzt .(*.fo g} xf] . Jofkf/ ubf{sf] sf/f]jf/ .%$ u/L ?=&*.^#).))).(^.—.g.df d]/L >LdtL c~h' zdf{sf] gfddf z]o/ 5 .DklQ 3f]if0ff u/L sf]8 g+=^%$$%#* / %*&)$! jf6 VDIS lt/L cfo .a} vr{ s6fP/ dnfO{ @% b]]lv #) k|ltzt.]G6 6'/ P08 6«fen. t/ xfn cfP/ *—( k|ltzt dfq lbg] gLlt agfPsf 5g\ .%).fndf gljn a}+sdf vftf vf]nL oL b'a} a}+sdf cd]l/sL 8n/df Psfp06 / s/]06 Psfp06 5g\ .+:yfx?dWo] cf]/n P8e/6fO{lhªdf ?=! nfv. oL nufgL u/]sf /sdx?sf] .fnb]lv Jofkf/ u/]sf] x'+. DofUgLlkm. d}n] 6]«lsª Joj.fndf lxdfnog a}+s 7d]n zfvf / @)%( ..+u qm]l86 sf8{dfkm{t u/]sf] sf/f]jf/df ?=$%.L.(&.|f]t klg Jofkf/ Joj.fo . P]h]G. . t/ olt g} eGg .– l. s/ k|of]hgsf nflu n]vf k/LIf0f k|ltj]bgcg'.

d}n] /fi6« a}+saf6 ljb]zL d'b|f sf/f]jf/ ug]{ O{hfht lnO{ ljb]zL d'b|f hlt .b klg lng] u/]sf] lyP+ . d]/f]] cfDbfgL cg'. hldg. hlt a}+sdf hDdf u/]sf] /sd xf] To.a} /sd a}+sdf hDdf u/L VDIS gLlt cGtu{t s/ lt/]sf] 5' .lghn] plNnlvt Joj.f]]xLaf6 ePsf] sdfO{ . o. To.f hlt hUuf / pQm hUufdf ag]sf]] .fn b]lv d]/f]] sDkgL gfkmfdf uPsf] lyof] .dIf k]z u/]sf] cfly{s jif{ @)%^÷%&.a} sfuhft.6 d}n] cfkm\gf] hfgsf/Lsf nflu dfq tof/ u/]sf] x'+ . k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] d]/f]] gfddf sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf jf8{ g+= & df s/Lj ! /f]kgL & k}. d]/f]] rfalxnsf] 3/ lgdf{0f ug{ s/Lj $ jif{ hlt nfu]sf] lyof] . uf8L.a} /sd 5f]/f b]a]Gb| jfUn]n] g} Jofkf/ Joj. 8n/af6 x'g] sf/f]jf/x? 8n/d} e''QmfgL ul/GYof] .a} a}+sdf g} hDdf u/]sf] x'+ . ljb]zL.DjGwdf d}n] cfof]u . To.sf] .DklQ d]/f]] gfddf 6 .fk6 klg u/]sf] lyP+ ./. .dWo] s]xL hUuf @)%)÷)%! . s] slt /sd nfUof] dnfO{ yfxf ePg . To. . .dfj]z u/L @)%* df :jo+ cfo 3f]if0ff u/L !) k|ltzt s/ lt/]kl5 To.d]tnfO{ .fj{hlgs ePkl5 . @)%&÷%*.faf6 v/Lb tyf lgdf{0f u/]sf]] xf] .f/ @) nfveGbf a9Lsf] sf/f]jf/ ubf{ VAT df btf{ x'g' kg]{df sf/f]jf/ sd b]vfO{ VAT gltg{sf nflu VAT df btf{ gu/]sf]] x+' .fO{6 l. kl5Nnf # jif{df s/f]8f}+ s/f]8f}+sf] Jofkf/ e} s/La # s/f]8 @) nfveGbf a9L cfDbfgL ePsf] lyof] . hj VDIS gLlt .l. a}+s Jofn]G.sf nflu s]xL/sd .6 tof/ ubf{ .|f]t vf]lhg]] 5}g eg]]sfn] VDIS lt/]kl5 .dflji6 ul/Psf sfuhftx? cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/] kZrft\ /fVg gkg]{ 7fgL g/fv]sf] xf] .b klg VDIS lt/]kl5 gi6 u/]+ . hUuf v/Lb tyf 3/ lgdf{0fsf nflu .f6]sf] /l.fndf v/Lb u/]sf] / af+sL hUufx? qmdzM kl5 kl5 v/Lb u/]sf] xf] .a} d]/f] Jofkf/sf] cfDbfgLaf6 hf]l8Psf] xf] .fo afx]s 6]«lsª /\ofk\ml6ª xf]6n a'ls8. klxnf cfDbfgL u/]sf] /sd 3/df g} /fv]sf] lyP+ .eGbf c? s]xL rn tyf crn .} jfkt d}n] 3/ hUuf. n]h/ a'sx? d}n] gi6 u/]sf] x'+ . pQm /l. @)%*÷%( sf] O{G6/gn Jofn]G.l.fo u/L sdfPsf] k}.g cflb klg /x]sf] / . d]/f] sf/f]jf/sf] .g\ !((( df dfq s/La ()) b]lv !))) hgfnfO{ 6]«lsËdf k7fPsf]n] @)%^ . jfktsf] s/ klg lt/]sf] lyO{g. pQm Jofn]G.+u d}n] g]kfnL ?k}oF+ ln+bf klg ljb]zL ?k}of .f9] tLg tNnfsf] kSsL 3/ 5 .

f/ /x]sf] M– .* .@( .!) . cg'.!% b]lv @)$*. 7 .@ b]lv @)%(.(.!* .@.#. sDkgLdf s/La ?= !&÷!* xhf/ hlt /sd hDdf u/]sf] 5' . k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn] d]/f] gfddf s]xL .&.4fy{ dN6Lkn O{G:6LRo"6df d]/f]] ljjfxdf kfPsf] /sd dWo]af6 nufgL u/]sf] xf] .nl.!@.+:yfx?df z]o/ nufgL 5 .^.Dd @)%%.!.otn] sfo{ef/ .DklQafx]s k|fKt ePsf] rn crn . dlxnf tyf .n .DklQ ljj/0f ldl.DklQ ljj/0f ldl.!!.DxfNbf ldtL @)$*. d]/f] gfddf /x]sf * j6f .fd]n /x]sf] .!^ b]lv @)%^. lr/~hLjL jfUn] dGqL kbdf axfn /x]sf] .!% .nfdf lr/l~hjL jfUn] / lghsf Psf3/ kl/jf/sf gfp+df k}t[s .!) .fy k]z u/]sf]] .@.'wf/ tyf Joj:yf / jfl0fHo ^= :yfgLo ljsf. lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] cfof]u .DklQ ljj/0f / .!& b]lv @)%^.Dd @)%^.n .!) b]lv @)%%.dofjlwsf] ljj/0f dGqfnosf] gfd != cfk"lt{ @= .@* / @)%#.* b]lv @)%%.#. d}n] /f]on dr]{06 kmfO{gfG.DklQsf] d"Nof+sg a}+s Jofn]G.%.@ df dlGqkl/ifb\ .$.5}g . Tof] eGbf a9L d]/f] gfp+df rn crn .Gwfgsf] l.+:yfsf]] z]o/dWo] l.^.!^ .Dd k|ltjfbLx?sf] .f]sf] d"Nof+sg lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] dGqLsf x}l.^ b]lv @)%#.dfh sNof0f &= ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f cjlw @)$*.Dd @)%@.Dd @)%*.'wf/ tyf Joj:yf %= e"ld . t/ Tof] nufgL d]/f]] >Ldfg b]]j]Gb| jfUn]n] g} ug'{ ePsf]n] s'gdf slt 5 dnfO{ osLg ePg .DklQ 5}g .%.~rf/ #= e"ld.dIf pkl:yt eO{ lgj]bg ..(."rgf tyf .DklQsf] ljj/0f lgDgfg'.Dd @)%%.lrjfnnodf k]z u/]sf] .@.fd]n /x]sf] .Dd @)%^.'wf/ tyf Joj:yf / jfl0fHo $= e"ld.

.%@ !. ... )—!%—)—) s'n d"NofÍg &% nfv dWo]] b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lx:...gfd k|= lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] gfp+df ljleGg a}+sdf /x]sf] ?= k|= b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfp+df ljleGg a}+sdf /x]sf] ?= hDdf ?= /sd ^.%)))).*.*# hUufsf] ljj/0f s= hUufwgL sf7df8f}+ sf] gfd . . @%) )—@—$ %.*.* @!&# )—!)—!—! @)%&.*#..# .. . g/]Gb| ah|frfo{ 3= b]j]Gb| jfUn] lrtjg h'6kflg .*%.#&%)). .!$*.. zfGtfb]jL .%).. . @)%#. uf=lj=.(. .!@%)).!( @)%&. . )—@—#—@ !$.!@.$..!..))).(.. .(. jf8{ g+=& 3 .!.= .(!. ..#! !.(*.@^ @)%&.^^. . ls g+ $$$ $$@ $)* $$! $$# #!& @( !^$* @( @( If]qkmn d"Nof+sg )—@—!—) /sd )—#—!—) )—$—)—! )—)—#—) )—)—!—) )—&—)—) !—!—@—! #%.* #&.* @!&@ )—$—@—# @)%&.@# @)%&..*.!.# #)^ )—)—!) @)%#. .!( @)%*.. jfUn].# )—!)—@ 8 . .. .(. .. v= b]j]Gb| jfUn] sf7df8f}+ sf=d=g=kf= u= b]j]Gb| . . .... sf7df8f}+ d=g=kf= ..@^ @)%).. $$% )—^—!* @)%#. Vl/b ldlt @)%*..fdf k/]sf] %)% %-s_ #)& )—)—!) @)%#..@^ @)%&. jfUn] .(!!..# .$..)%(.

..%). .@( @)%^.@( @)%&.@( )—@—# Á )—#—@ À )—)—@ À )—!—@ Â )—)—!) )—!—! À *.= j8f g+=& / * l:yt b]j]Gb| 9 .!(. . .@( @)%^. $$% / @%) sf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfd btf{sf] hUufsf] Psd'i6 ?=%.= j8f g+=% l:yt ls=g+=#)^.@( @)%&.@( @)%&. .#%))).– kg]{ eGg] d"NofÍg eO{ cfPsf] / sf=d=gkf= j8f g+=@( l:yt b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfd btf{sf] ls=g+=!^$* tyf b]j]Gb| jfUn] / g/]Gb| ah|frfo{sf] gfd btf{sf] P]=j8f l:yt ls=g+=@!&@ / @!&# sf] hUufsf] k|lt cfgf %.))). . P]= v}/xgL uf=lj=. .. $)*. . uf=lj=. $$!.!@.))).. * -s_ &!* & -u_ $&# & -u_ $&) lrtjg k+rsGof * -s_ . #)&.. . .@( @)%&... *$! *$# *$% *$& *$( *%! ^^% )—!—* )—!#—@ )—!^—) !—!)—!) @)%^. v}/xgL .#))))..–.f/ lrtjg lhNnf h'6kflg uf=lj=.@( !*. @)%&.....g sfof{no. $$@.!@..))).g sfof{no lrtjgsf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] cWoIftfdf ul7t d"NofÍg ..))).!@. )—&—) )—*—( À hDdf ?=– !.!@. ..= .!@..!@.ldltsf] d"NofÍg d'r'Nsf cg'.!@. .!@.!@. . lhNnf k|zf. .f/ lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf gfp+df sf7df8f}+ lhNnf sf=d=g=kf= j8f g+= & rfjlxn l:yt ls=g+= $$$.. sf7df8f}+sf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] cWoIftfdf ul7t d"NofÍg .– kg]{ egL n]vL cfPsf] b]lvPsf] .ldltsf] d"NofÍg d'r'Nsf cg'. ..ª= b]j]Gb| jfUn] r= b]j]Gb| jfUn] lrtjg ..@( @)%&.. ..@( @)%&.)).– hUufsf] d"NofÍg lhNnf k|zf.)).!@.*%. $$# / #!& g+= sf hUufx?sf] k|lt cfgf ?=@.

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d]tsf dfgjLo cfwf/df .'ljwf / ljb]z e|d0faf6 klg s]xL df}lb|s cfo k|fKt ePsf] lhls/ lnPsf].f/ lgh lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] efudf k/]sf] uf]/vf / lrtjgsf .(!!.%%.|fª / a'ª\sf]6df hUuf /f]kgL @)–#–!–) tyf lrtjgsf] k~rsGofdf h=la= * s6\7f .f] a}+s df}HbftnfO{ >f]t v'n]sf] .|f]t v'n]sf] cflh{t ?= ^). dGqLsf] .DklQ .DklQ ?=#.)). .%^^. 11 .%@ a/fa/sf] .– bfOhf]af6 k|fKt ePsf] b]lv+bf s'n ?= ^&.d]t vr{ eO{ gaRg] eP tfklg . lghsf] ?= #.))).DklQsf] ljj/0f dfly plNnlvt ljj/0fcg'?k lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] .– #= b]j]Gb| jfUn] / s'df/ ?kfv]tL jf=#=r ^#@) -:ofG6«f]_ ?=%.|f]t v'n]sf] . ug]{ cfwf/ .DklQ k}t[s ePaf6 . tna eQf kfl/>lds . ldlt @)%!.+u .))).))).b:ox?sf] gfpdf /x]sf] s'n rn crn .^^ sf crn . of] hUufsf] afnL cfo:tf vfg nfpg k|of]u ePsf] dfgL lgh @)$* .*$ dWo]] lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] gfpdf /x]sf] g]kfn a}+s lnld6]8 sf7df8f}+df ?=%.f]tkm{ s'g} dfubfaL lnOPsf] 5}g .))).%!.)).f] dWo]sf] s/La $ jif{ & dlxgf dGqL kbdf axfn .uf]n kl/jf/sf .^^^.f/ lghsf] lx:.^^.)( / g]kfn O{Ge]i6d]G6 a}+s vftfdf ?=!.DklQsf] .– -b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lx:.)).%$(.d]t hDdf ?=^.@= b]j]Gb| jfUn] jf=#=r %%(! -dfl6{h_ ?=*.– tyf k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf] z]o/ nufgLdWo]] l.fdf k/]sf]_ hDdf M @(.f]xL j08fkqcg'.f] k}t[s .#(@.!%.%@ a/fj/sf] .f9] .^^^.bjf6 k|fKt /sd lab]z e|d0f tyf dGqL ePkl5 Joj:yfkgsf] nflu k|fKt /sdaf6 hDdf u/]sf] / lghsf 5f]/f k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Jofkf/ Joj.4fy{ dlN6kn OlG:6Ro'6sf] ?= !%.fdf k/]sf] ?= #.d]t /x]sf].$# .DklQ x]l/+bf uf]/vfsf] cf.+.!^.DklQ dflgPsf] 5 .DklQ klg b]lvPsf].foaf6 .$ sf] dfnkf]t sfof{no lrtjgaf6 kfl/t c+zj08f kq cg'.^^ a/fa/sf] k}t[s .– .fnb]lv nuftf/ .!*.ft w'/ tyf uf]/vf a'ª\sf]6df efO ef]h/fh.(^.+o'Qm gfddf hUuf /f]kgL @!–!%–#–! af6 s'g} .DklQ a9] a9fPsf] lhls/ lgh lr/~hLjL jfUn]n] glnPsf] .f] ar]sf] ljZjf.|f]t v'n]sf] b]lvG5 .b /xL .d]t vfg nfpg .%!(.!^.!.f+.$&&.)).

@#.faaf6 ?= ^).+:yfx?df :ynut lg/LIf0f .(^.xof]u lnO{ rf6{8{ Psf06]06 .##(.DklQ ljj/0fdf klg o.$% ePsf] s'/f .%^^. .flos sf/f]af/. ljz]if1sf] k|ltj]bgsf] Joxf]/f cg'.} k|sf/ lxdfno /]Ohg k|f=ln=af6 l6s]l6ªsf] sfdaf6 ?= !$.le{.nfO{ a'xf/Lsf] bfOhf] egL v'nfPaf6 of] /sdsf] z]o/.DalGwt sfuhft Pj+ cg'.DklQnfO{ a}wflgs b]vfpg 5f]/fsf] Jofkf/ Joj.{sf] cfof]unfO{ k|fKt kq.@)&. P08 6'.} k|sf/ lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cNkfOg 6«feN.d]t u/L k|fKt sfuhftx? pk/ cfof]usf tkm{jf6 ljz]if1sf] .{af6 l6s]l6ª sfdaf6 k|fKt sld.fy} o.fo .f]nfO{ >f]t v'n]sf] cfh{g dflgPsf] xf] . .fojf6 cflh{t . P08 PS.g ?= !*.%%.f] 6'.(^ k|fKt u/L tLgj6} sDkgLaf6 s'n ?= &%.'gL/s'df/ 9'Ë]nn] k]z u/]sf] k|ltj]bg cg'?k b]xfoadf]lhd eP u/]sf] b]lvg cfof] M– s'n sf/f]af/ 12 .fsf] lx.+ul7t .Gwfg txlssftsf] qmddf tTsfnLg dGqL lr/~hLjL jfUn]]n] .%# k|fKt ePsf] k|dfl0ft eof] .g ?= @(.+rfng vr{ s6fO{ v'b sld.+u .g k|f=ln=df /x]sf] *) k|ltzt z]o/ lx:. lgh lr/~hLjL jfUn]sL a'xf/L cGh' zdf{ jfUn]n] ?= !%.– bfOhf] egL cfof]udf aofg u/]sLdf olt /sd ljjflxtf lgh cGh' zdf{sf] bfOhf] x'g' :jfefljs x'g'sf cltl/Qm lr/~hLjL jfUn]n] k|:t't u/]sf] .(!(.DklQ egL lhls/ lnPsf] / tt\ . k|f=ln= . o.lk8L.*^&.$( k|fKt u/]sf] dWo] b]j]Gb| jfUn] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.Gwfg txlssftsf qmddf lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfof]]u .– lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfh{g u/]sf] dfly plNnlvt cfwf/ k|df0fsf cltl/Qm ljz]if1sf] /fo .dIf k]z u/]sf] sfuhftsf] cfwf/df lghsf] Jofj.Da4 /x]sf .]G6 6«feN.DdnfO{ >f]t v'n]sf] cfh{g dflgPsf] 5 .Gwfgaf6 b]lvof] .))).DaGwdf 5f]/fsf] Jofkf/ Joj.d]taf6 k|dfl0ft eO{ .^&.+u u/]sf] qm]l86 sf8{ sf/f]af/ :j?k ?= $%.&!!.)).+u .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] calwdf cfkm"n] kbLo b'?kof]u u/L sdfPsf] cs"t . o. /sdaf6 !) k|ltzt sfof{no .!*.b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] Joj.!# sld.fo DoflUglkm.d]tsf cg'.g k|fKt u/]sf] pk/f]Qm cfwf/af6 b]lvof] .

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g jfktsf] s'n cfDbfgL !*.$).Dd sfof{no .##(.@(.!% !&.*^&.(&.f/ /x]sf] b]lvG5 M ljj/0f s'n cfDbfgL DofUgLlkm.]G6 6«feN.#! -!) k|ltztn] _* !. P08 6'.%^^.$% lxdfno /]O{hg k|f=ln=7d]n.&!!.(^ @(.+rfng vr{ /xg] x'bf+ o.lk8L.^#).b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf cg'.!*.Sg] clwstd gfkmf #) k|ltztsf b/n] x'g cfpg] v'b /sd ?= bkmf -s_ adf]lhd g]kfn lehg 6]«S.!# 14 sfof{no . P08 PS.g k|f=ln=sf] s'n cfo ?=#@.@#.fn] x'g] v''b cfDbfgL ?= &%.+u l6s]l6ª ubf{sf] sld.(! !@.@)&.+rfng ÷ cGo vr{ -!)k|ltztn]_* v'b cfDbfgL !.+u l6s]l6ª ubf{sf]] sld.(!(.*@&. lzif{sdf Go"gtd !) k|ltztsf b/n] x'g cfpg] ?=#.*(.)&.f/ pk/f]Qm sf/f]jf/df x'g . s''n cfDbfgL.)).(^.lk8L.)% s6fpbf+ v''b cfDbfgL ?= $%.$( ^).g k|f=ln = sf] v'b cfDbfgL ?= b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] g]kfn lehg 6]«S.^).%# g]kfn lehg 6]«S.lk8L.{ k|f=ln=.^&!.&^#. v'b cfDbfgL lgDgfg'.— g]kfn lehg 6]«S.@@ .lk8L.%%.g k|f=ln =sf]] s''n sf/f]]jf/.g k|f=ln= df /x]sf *) k|ltzt z]o/ lx:.fdfGotof !) b]lv !% k|ltzt.%* dWo]] Jofj. P08 PS.)(!.flos k|lti7fgdf .^&. P08 PS.)$).g jfktsf] s'n cfDbfgL !$. P08 PS.

*$. g]kfn lehg 6]«S./b/ lalgdo b/ &@=%& – g]kfnL d'b|fdf ^(.+usf] sf/f]jf/sf] v'b cfDbfgL ?= &%.@#.)^.**(.lk8L.f *) k|ltztn] u0fgf ubf{ klg b]xfo adf]lhdsf] v''b cfDbfgL /x]sf] b]lvG5 elg cfof]un] k].{ k|f=ln=.fodf &) k|ltzt ko{6sx?sf nflu vr{ x'g] / #) k|ltzt v'b cfDbfgL x'g] egL eg]] adf]]lhd v''b cfDbfgL sfod ul/Psf]] .%^^.fn k"j{ pNn]vgLo sf/f]jf/ g/x]sf] / v'b cfDbfgLsf]] 7"nf] lx:. .+/rgf cWoog ubf{ b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf]] @)%! . ^).%& $%.%*.fGt. P08 6'.@# s'n hDdf M— !. k|ltztn] x'g] v'b cfDbfgL ?=– lxdfno /]O{hg k|f=ln= / cNkfO{g 6«feN.@)&.+rfng vr{ eGgfn] sf]7f ef8f.f /x]sf] b]lvG5 .fn b]lv @)%% cfiff9 d.!! -&) k|ltztn] _* !.+u 6]«lsª tkm{ qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{tsf] s''n sf/f]jf/ M !.@(.fd]n /x]sf] .*@.)(&. P08 PS.le{.!@^.%%.Dd $) k|ltzt / @)%% b]lv xfn. 6]lnkmf]g.Ddsf] sf/f]jf/sf] pknJw ljj/0fsf] cfwf/df b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] z]o/ lx:.)(.!#.%!*$$^^.!*.@#.]G6 6«feN.%# – cd]]l/sL 8n/df !.fo k|f/De u/]b]lv !$ cS6'a/ #).##(.g k|f=ln=n] b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] z]o/ lx:.fnkl5sf] sf/f]]jf/n] cf]u6]sf]] x'+bf Joj.n . pQm sDkgLsf] @)%% .g k|f=ln =sf] z]o/ .f *) DofUgLlkm. u/]sf] lja/0f ldl.lk8L.$( 15 . k|f=ln=.^# &%. * b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] aofgsf] qmddf 6]«lsª Joj.le{. @))@ .Dd *) k|ltzt z]o/ lx:.$( * sfof{no . tna eQf cflb sfo{ eGg] a'lemG5 .!&.. b]]j]Gb| jfUn]sf]] v''b cfDbfgL g]kfn lehg 6]«S. P08 PS.(^!.cNkfO{g 6«feN.(^ !.f @)%% .(!)=&* sf] .@)&.— . aQL.

@.DklQ qmdzM 5f]/f / kltn] /flvlbPsf] egL o.f] ljifodf cfkm"nfO{ hfgsf/L gePsf] eGg] em"6f syg cfof]udf JoQm u/]sf] k|dfl0ft x'g cfof] .Dd ljleGg ldltdf ljleGg dGqfnox?df >L % af6 lgo'Qm dGqLsf x}l.DklQnfO{ k|= lr/~hLjL jfUn]n] 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Jofj.DklQ lgh.d]t % hgfsf] nufgLdf ?= % nfv a/fa/sf] clws[t k"+hLdf g]kfn lehg 6«]S.(^.^.foaf6 cfh{g ePsf] eGg] k|ltjfb u/L ck/fw 5Ng vf]h]sf] kfOof] .%%. o.DklQ /x]sf] ljifodf .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf /fi6«.fndf dGqL kbdf axfn /xL .lrjfnodf k]z u/]sf] .fj{hlgs kbdf axfn /xL cfPsf] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g .)&@.DklQ ljifodf s'g} bfaL lnOPsf] 5}g .DklQ dGqLsf] .f/ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Jofkf/ Joj.]js k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]n] dgfl.#@ d"Nosf] .*$ d"Nosf] rn crn .f]nfO{ 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] cfh{g xf]. of] . P08 PS.DklQdf cTolws / ck|Toflzt j[l4 b]lvPsf] 5 . s]jn ck/fw 5Ng . k|= lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] e|i6frf/ u/L cfh{g u/]sf] rn crn . cfof]u . k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] / cGh' zdf{ jfUn]n] cfkm\gf .%! 16 .uf]n kl/jf/sf] gfddf /x]sf] .DklQ j}w agfpg] ablgotn] 5f]/fsf] Joj. lgh / lghsf Ps3/ .dIf aofg u/]sf] eO{ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf syg em"7f b]lvg' g} .%%.]jssf ?kdf .%$(.foaf6 cfh{g u/]sf] eGg] Ps dfq k|ltjfb cfkm\gf] :jx:tfIf/af6 o. cleof]u kqdf lghsf] k}t[s .!% b]lv @)%(.fndf btf{ u/fPsf] / pQm k|f=ln=sf] cf=j= @)%).@(.j sf/0f lagf cldNbf] / c:jfefljs pRr hLjg:t/ ofkg u/]af6 u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] xf] eGg] :ki6 b]lvG5 .dIf k]z u/]sf sfuhftaf6 lgh.d]t s'g} ljjfb 5}g .DklQ ljj/0fsf] t'ngfdf xfn lghsf] .lk8L.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] .ot / lghn] @)$* / @)%# .dodf dlGqkl/ifb\ .fotkm{ 5fgjLg ubf{ lghn]] cfof]u .+u dGqL kb k|fKt u/]kl5 k|fKt ePsf] s'/f klg lnvt k|df0faf6 lglj{jfb :yflkt 5 .cfof]uaf6 ul/Psf] tYo ljZn]if0f tTsfnLg dGqL lr/~hLjL jfUn] @)$*.f] .g k|f=ln= @)%) . cfof]udf n]vfOlbPsf] kfOof] . t/ bfaL lnOPsf] ?= #.!* . k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] egfO{ cg'. 5f]/f / a'xf/Lsf gfddf ?= #. ljutdf lgh k|= lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] x}l.uf]nsf >LdtL.otn] /fi6«. .

"rL ^ sf] bkmf $@ n] s]jn cfos/ k|of]hgsf nflu lbPsf] ./sf/L sfof{nodf /x]sf >]:tfk|df0fnfO{ To.f] sfuhftdf sf]xL s.f]xL . cf=j= @)%#.%@ gfkmf b]lvPsf] 5 . To.%( sf] O{G6/gn Jofn]]G. )%&.f] Jofn]G.%$ b]lv cf=j= @)%&.s]sf].nfO{ k'li6 ug]{ cGo >]:tf x'g' kg]{df . o.d]t To.Dddf s'n ?= #.%* / @)%*. ePsf] t/ To.d]t gu/]sf] / VDIS s/ ltl/.^).Dd s]jn ?= #.^).6 elgPsf] sfuhft cfkm\gf] hfgsf/Lsf] nflu dfq tof/ u/]sf] egL aofgsf] qmddf eg]sf] x'b+f pQm sfuhft lghn] cfof]unfO{ e|ddf kfg{sf]] nflu sfNklgs ?kdf v8f u/]sf] b]lvg cfof] . l.*)#.dIf k]z u/]sf] cf=j=@)%^. ko{6saf6 k|fKt ePsf] egL b]vfOPsf] /sd g]kfnL ?k}oFdf / lghn] .)%$ b]lv % jif{.nft .6 elgPsf] sfuhft k|df0fLt ug]{ s'g} lnvt >]:tfx? k]z ug{ g.f/ cf= j= @)%!.d]t b]vfpg g.kl5 PsfPs s/f]8f}+ d'gfkmf ug]{ l:yltdf k'u]sf] lhls/df s'g} .s]kl5 To.%( sf] cf+s8f . e|i6frf/ u/L u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] .dfj].Totf 5}g .%# .fo hf] @)%@.f] kZrft cf=j=@)%*.+ut b]lv+b}g . cfof]u . :jo+ s/ 3f]if0ffdf ?= #%.Ddsf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bgcg'.)%# . @)%) .|f]t vf]Hg gkfOg] k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lhls/ sfg"g. lgh k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] o.df .%* .(@.Dd 3f6f b]lvPsf]. l.nfO{ .s]sf] tyf ./sf/L sfof{nodf k]z u/]sf] egfO klg k|df0faf6 k'li6 x'g g.– s/ bflvn u/]af6 cfkm\gf] .b]lv cf=j= @)%&. d"ntM lagf s'g} lan ef}r/ k|df0f s'g} klg sfuhftn] dfGotf kfpg] l:ylt x'b}g .dy{g ug]{ sfuhft hnfPsf] eg] tfklg .sL s/ sfof{no tyf sDkgL /lhi6«f/ sfof{nodf k]z ePsf] ljj/0f g} jf:tljs /x]sf] b]lvof] .}n] k|df0fLt .%@ b]lv cf=j= @)%@.'ljwfnfO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]gsf] k|of]hgsf nflu klg xf] eGg] cy{ ug]{ s'g} 7fp+ 5}g .df klg k|= n] g} . d'n'ssf] ko{6g Joj. 17 .f]] .fndf :yflkt Joj. . cfly{s P]g @)%* sf] cg'.%@ d'gfkmf ub{5.|]:tf /fv]sf] s/ ltg]{ k|of]hgsf nflu dfq cfkm\gf] cjf:tljs jf.*)#.}u/L cfkm"n] bf]xf]/f] .DklQnfO{ s'g} 5'6 k|fKt 5}g .%&.fosf] vl:sbf] cj:yf Goflos hfgsf/Ldf lng'kg]{ ljifo xf] .DklQsf] .%* .$^).dodf k|:t't u/]sf eO{ ltgnfO{ cfof]un] hfgsf/Ldf lnPsf] 5 .Dd 3f6fdf uPsf] 5. @)%#.

foaf6 cflh{t .@ b]lv @)%(.ko{6g Joj.Dk"0f{ clen]v gi6 u/]sf] lhls/ s'g} klg ?kdf k|dfl0ft x'g .}u/L @)%^.– lbPsf] b]lvg cfPsf]n] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.d]t vl/b u/]sf].)).f] clen]v g]kfn /fi6« a}+sdf /xg] .Dd dGqL kbdf /x+bf sf7df8f}+sf] rfalxndf >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf gfpdf hUuf vl/b u/]sf] / .otn] .+u ePsf] sf/f]af/ .L.fndf hUuf vl/b tyf )%@. lgh k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Jofkf/ Joj.– a/fa/sf] uf8L tyf 3/ lgdf{0fdf nufgL ePsf] b]lv+bf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Jofkf/ Joj.f/sf] rn crn .&. ef}r/. g]lan a}+sdf ?= !@.lk8L.fo ljb]zL d'b|fdf x'g] / .* .d]t u/L hDdf ?= *).xof]udf 5fgjLg x'+bf lgh k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] k]z u/]sf] sfuhft Pj+ .))).^.!& b]lv @)%^. cfkm\gf] # s/f]8 @) nfveGbf a9L d'gfkmf ePsf elgPsf] s'/f k'li6 ug]{ lan.d]tsf] .%). n]h/ / jf.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f ubf{sf] cj:yfdf 5f]/f tyf >LdtLsf gfddf lrtjg / sf7df8f}df 3/ 38]/L / k|f8f] uf8L.))))).+:yfsf] 18 .DklQ b]lvPsf] / pQm Joj. pQm cjlwdf lghsf lktf k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn] dGqL /x]sf] b]lvG5 .))).))).Da4 .fndf afa' lr/~hLjL jfUn]nfO{ uf8L vl/bsf nflu ?= !^.fndf dGqLsf x}l.))))).– k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf hDdf ePsf] a}+s :6]6d]06af6 b]lvG5 .%# df 3/ lgdf{0fsf nflu ?= !&.xdt x'g .DaGwdf ljz]if1.– / )%# .DklQsf ?kdf lng . pk/f]Qm cg'.dodf k|ToIf ?kdf ?= ##.g k|f=ln= 3f6fdf uPsf] . P08 PS.DklQaf6 vl/b u/]sf] eGg] lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] egfOdf .nft nufotsf .–.)).– a}+s ckm sf7df8f}+df #).foaf6 cflh{t .s]g .DaGwdf lghn] cfof]u .Sg] ljifo xf] .!@.))))). k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn] @)%# .DklQ vl/b tkm{ x]bf{ lghsL cfdf k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf gfpdf @)%) .Sg] cfwf/ ePg .!* .– . rn crn .%).dIf lbPsf] lnlvt aofgdf lghsf] sf/f]af/ cGo 6«fen Ph]G.+u klg ePsf] egL pNn]v u/] cg'?k cGo 6«fen Ph]G.g\ @))@ sf] hgj/L Ps} dlxgfdf :6\ofG88{ rf6{8{ a}+sdf ?= #*.))).@.DklQ afa'n] e|i6frf/ u/L cfh{g u/]sf] dfGg' afx]s csf]{ ljsNk b]lv+b}g .Dd dGqL kbdf /x+bf lrtjgdf k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpdf hUuf vl/b u/]sf] / @)%*. To.L.lsg] s'g} cfwf/ gb]lvPsf] .d]tsf cfwf/df k|dfl0ft x'g .fosf]] jf:tljs sf/f]af/sf] cg'kftdf cTolws a9L .

foaf6 cflh{t .]G6 6«feN.^#).+u u/]sf] sf/f]af/tkm{ x]bf{ .%# /x]sf] / lgh b]j]Gb| jfUnn] aofgsf qmddf o.Fu /x]sf sfuhft gi6 u/]sf] eP .!).le{.$( a/fa/sf] cfDbfgL b]lvPsf]n] lghsf] Joj.{ k|f=ln= 7d]n.– s/ lt/] kZrft\ cflwsfl/s sfuhft gi6 u/]sf] egL lnlvt aofg lbPsf]df lghsf] egfO ljZj.gn] cNkfOg 6«feN. P08 PS.+usf] sf/f]af/df v'b cfDbfgL ?= $%.##(.b:ox?sf] gfpdf /x]sf] xfnsf] rn crn .Ddsf] sf/f]af/af6 ?= !*.fodf xfn *) k|ltzt z]o/ lx:.(!(.lk8L.– df b]lvg cfPsf] o.s]sf] / o.cflwsfl/s kqfg'.!).f/ DofUgLlkm.fndf ?= #.+u .foaf6 cfh{g u/]sf] / >L % sf] .+u .t #) k|ltztsf b/n] gfkmf sfod ubf{ cNkfOg 6«feN.DklQ .Sg] cfwf/ tyf k|df0fx? s]xL b]lv+b}g .d]t b]vfpg g.(&.%* /x]sf]df .nft elgPsf sfuhftdf plNnlvt ljj/0f k'li6 19 .d]t gb]lvPsf] / lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf .uf]n kl/jf/sf .(^.)#.g k|f=ln=sf] jf:tljs s'n sf/f]af/af6 ?= &%.d]t x]bf{ lghsf] Jofkf/ Joj. .^)).@))) b]lv !( d] @))@ .@))@ .Gwfg txlssftsf] qmddf aofgdf pNn]v u/]cg'?k .df lghn] cfof]u .f] s/ lt/]kl5 o.DklQ xf] egL eGg .Ddsf] sf/f]af/df s'n ?= !.fdfGotof sfof{no .%# / To.g\ @&./sf/sf] lg0f{ocg'.!). P08 PS. P08 6'.+rfng u/]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.g\ !@.@$.*^&.+u .DklQ.Sg] egL pNn]v u/]cg'?k cf}.lk8L. cfof]udf lghn] k]z u/]sf jf.lk8L.%^^.+rfng k|of]hgsf nflu x'g] vr{ !) k|ltzt .Dd /xg] ePsf]n] !) k|ltzt s§L ubf{ hDdf ?= @(.)).(^ b]lvPsf]n] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.(@.Dd gfkmf x'g .Lx?.!# u/L s'n ?= #@.!((^ b]lv #!.foaf6 cfh{g u/]sf] xf] eGg] k|dfl0ft sfuhft .dIf cg'.%!.!*.$^).gLo g/x]sf].!*.g k|f=ln=n] cGo 6«fen Ph]G.^&.%(. eGbf cGo Jofkf/ Joj.f/ @)%* .– cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L ?= #%.!((( b]lv #). k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] .$%./L x'g] sf/f]af/df @% b]lv $) k|ltzt.%^^.g\ !%..$^^. lxdfno /]Ohg k|f=ln= 7d]n.Ddsf] sf/f]af/af6 ?= !$.%%.– cfDbfgL ePsf] b]lvg cfPsf]n] k|f/Dedf vl/b u/]sf k|f8f] uf8L tyf 3/ lgdf{0fdf nufgL u/]sf] .!!.&!!.d]t dfly plNnlvt kl5Nnf jif{sf cfDbfgLaf6 ePsf] eGg] cfwf/ .Dk"0f{ /sd d}n] Jofkf/ Joj.*$. P08 PS..d]t lghsf] cfDbfgL ?= ^).@#.@)&.@))@ . cfkm".}u/L g]kfn lehg 6«]S.f /x]sf] x'+bf s'n cfDbfgLsf] *) k|ltztn] x'g cfpg] ?= ^).

4fy{ dN6Lkn O{lGi6Ro"6sf] bfO{hf]af6 k|fKt ?=!%.|f]t b]lvg . ?k}of rf}/f.%^^.DaGwL ljj/0f .f/ s]jn cfos/ k|of]hgsf] nflu dfq cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L s/ ltg'{ kg]{ Joj:yf ePjf6 cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L s/ ltb}{df sfg"gtM cGo ck/fwaf6 pGd'lQm kfpg . k}.@(.DklQsf] .Lx?.foaf6 cflh{t .DklQ lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL 20 .*$ -tLg s/f]8 5ofGgJa] nfv krkGg xhf/ kfFr .^^.%%.DaGwdf g]kfn lehg 6«]S./ lb+bf klg g.|f]t gv''n]sf] .Fu u/]sf] sf/f]af/ / tt\ .#@ -tLg s/f]8 pgGtL.d]t ca cfOGbf lgodfg'.lk8L.(^.d]t gb]lvPsf]]n] o.@(.%@ sf] dfq .Sg] cj:yf . P08 PS.L k}.+:yfx?af6 k|fKt sf/f]af/."lr ^ sf] bkmf $@ cg'.%%.DaGwL cflwsfl/s sfuhftx? Jojl:yt ?kdf /x] ePsf] gkfOPsf]n] tt\ .f_ a/fj/sf] .Sg] cfwf/ k|df0f gb]lvPsf].DaGwdf k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] aofgsf qmddf .%%.f/ sfuhft /fVg]5' egL cfof]u .DklQ k|ltjfbL b]a]Gb| jfUn]s} Jofkf/ Joj.dIf lnlvt aofg .o pgfGrf.$&&.DaGwL clen]v / sf/f]af/.d]t lbPaf6 cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L s/ lt/] kZrft\ .f_ df s6\6L ubf{ a+FsL ?=#.DklQ ?=^).d]tnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ lghn] gi6 ul/Psf] elgPsf sfuhftx?af6 s'g} yk .DaGwL >]:tf.— afj' lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf] a}+s Jofn]G.s]kZrft klg pQm k|f=ln=sf] sf/f]af/./L .Sg] / /xg] cj:yf./L .dIf lnlvt aofg .)&@.fo af6 cfh{g u/]sf] egL cfof]u .d]t lbPaf6 lghsf] Jofkf/ Joj.%@ / a'xf/L c+h' zdf{ jfUn]sf] gfpdf /x]sf] z]o/ dWo]] l.d]t xfnsf lbgx?df klg VDIS s/ lt/L .#@ -tLg s/f]8 pgGtL. k}.Sg] cj:yf . lghn] cGo 6«fen Ph]G.|f]t . nfv krkGg xhf/ axQ/ ?k}of aQL.(!!.f_ sf] . nfv krkGg xhf/ axQ/ ?k}of aQL.|f]t gv'n]sf]] ?= #.g k|f=ln=df cfof]uaf6 :ynut lg/LIf0f ubf{ .))).%$(.d]t gb]lvPsf]n] lghsf] sf/f]af/ .d]t g/x]sf] k|i6 x'G5 .d]tsf sf/0faf6 .DklQsf] .DklQ ?= #.s]sf] .|f]t v'n]sf] b]lvg cfPsf]n] pQm /sd xfn b]lvg cfPsf] rn crn . sd{rf/L.Sg] cflwsfl/s sfuhft x'g . lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn] tyf >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] / a'xf/L cGh' zdf{ jfUn] .)&@.— u/L s'n ?= ^&.ug]{ sfuhft k]z ug{ cj.DklQsf] xsdf cfly{s P]g @)%* sf] cg'. ?= ^.Sg] cj:yf gb]lvPsf] x'+bf o.)).!*.xdt x'g .d]tn] . 8] a's.|f]t gv''n]sf] / cGo sxL st}af6 cfh{g x'g .DaGwL sfuhft gi6 u/]sf] x'g .a} rn crn .

afa'nfO{ lbg] / cfkm"n] lng] b'/fzoo'Qm sfo{ u/]sf] x'+bf lghn] . bkmf !%.DklQ cfkm\gf] Jofkf/ Joj.DklQ cfh{g ul/ e|i6frf/ u/]sf]n] ?= #.]js ePaf6 plNnlvt s}b jif{ @ sf cltl/Qm .%%.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g @)!& sf] bkmf !$-s_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.!* .fj{hlgs kbdf /x]sf /fi6«.hfo u/L kfpm .DklQ dWo #.@(.*$ -tLg s/f]8 5ofGgJa] nfv krkGg xhf/ k+Fr .f] .@(.Dd s}b tyf lgh lr/~hLjL jfUn] >L % af6 lgo'Qm dGqL eO{ .foaf6 cfh{g u/]sf] egL sfg"gaf6 aRgsf nflu k|k+r ldnfPsf] b]lvG5 .!% b]lv @)%(. 5f]/f / a'xf/Lsf gfddf ?= #.foaf6 cfh{g u/]sf] .b:ox?sf gfddf hDdf u/L Jofkf/ Joj. @)%( sf] bkmf @@ sf] k|ltaGwfTds jfSof+z cg'?k dltof/sf] s.%%. @)%( sf] bkmf @$ cg'?k xb}.Dd ljleGg ldltdf ljleGg dGqfnox?df >L % af6 lgo'Qm dGqLsf x}l."/ ug]{ k|ltjfbL 21 .%%. bkmf !^-u_ / xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQ xf] egL e'm7[f s'/f JoQm u/L .f_ a/fj/sf] ."/ u/]sf] x'+bf lghnfO{ . @ jif{ xb}.]jssf ?kdf .#@ -tLg s/f]8 pgGtL. lgh / lghsf Psf3/ . @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{t s. k}. @)!& sf] bkmf !%. ?k}of rf}/f. cleof]u dfu bfjL dfly plNnlvt ljj/0f Pj+ sfuhftx?af6 lgh k|ltjfbL tTsfnLg dGqL lr/~hLjL jfUn]n]@)$*.d]tsf]] .@.uf]nsf >LdtL.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g @)!& sf] bkmf & sf] pkbkmf -!_.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. @)!& sf] bkmf !^ -s_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.)&@.fj{hlgs kbdf axfn /xL cfPsf]. nfv krkGg xhf/ axQ/ ?k}of aQL.jfUn]n] dGqL kbdf axfn /xbf clwsf/sf] b'?kof]u u/L u}/sfg"gL ?kdf . bkmf !^ -u_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.fy} lgh tTsfnLg dGqL lr/~hLjL jfUn]sf Psf3/sf Psdfq 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] afa'n] kbLo x}l.Dd s}b jif{ # .d]t s'n % jif{ s}b yk .'ljwf.^.otn] /fi6«.#@ -tLg s/f]8 pgGtL. k}.DklQ cfh{g u/L cfkm\gf kl/jf/sf .L k}. .f_ d"Nosf] rn crn .otsf] b'?kof]u u/L e|i6frf/åf/f cflh{t u}/sfg"gL .%$(.o pgfGrf.DklQnfO{ cfkm\gf] gfddf /fvL . nfe. nfv krkGg xhf/ axQ/ ?k}of aQL.f_ a/fj/sf] lauf] adf]lhd hl/jfgf.(^.)&@. @)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ / bkmf @)-@_ adf]lhd u}/sfg"gL ?kdf .

/x xb}.DklQ dWo] cf/f]k kqdf plNnlvt .+lIfKt Joxf]/f k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn] d}n] u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf s'g} klg rn crn . @)%( sf] bkmf $& tyf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.DklQ hkmt u/L kfpg .j} .– dfq xf]Og .flas e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g @)!& sf] bkmf !^-u_.DklQ .%^^. k}. eQf. d}n] sfg"g jdf]lhd kfl/>lds. @)$* sf] bkmf @(-v_ adf]lhd .g k|f=ln= .!%.b:o 5f]/f j'xf/L / >Ldlt .f]xL bkmf cg'?k d"n sf/0fL .d]tsf gfddf /x]sf] . cleof]u bfjL cg'.lk8L.d]tsf xb}.|+f]t gv'n]sf u}/sfg"gL rn crn . j}b]lzs e|d0fjf6 kfPsf] /sd d]/f] gfdsf] g]=j}=ln= / g]kfn OGe]i6d]G6 j}+s b/jf/ dfu{df /x]sf] s/Lj ^ nfv vftfdf /fv]sf] 5' .DklQ jfx]s c? crn .|f]t v'n]sf] ?= ^). d]/f] gfddf c+zjf6 kfPsf] crn .f/sf] sf/afxL ul/ kfp / lgh k|ltjfbL lr/~hLjL jfUn]n] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cflh{t . .DklQsf] :jo+ s/ 3f]if0ff cGtu{t sl/j # s/f]8 ^) nfv hltsf] .Gwfg cfof]u P]g.lr/~hLjL jfUn] .DklQsf] bz k|ltztn] x'g] s/ /sd j'emfPsf]n] . nfv krkGg xhf/ axQ/ ?k}of aQL.DklQ hkmt u/L kfpmF .DklQ tyf p. P08 PS.!*.f/b]j]Gb|sf] cfo ^).DklQ cfh{g u/]sf] 5}g.d]t sf] Jofkf/ Joj.DklQ b]j]Gb|sf] cfh{gsf] .'/bf/ dltof/ b]lvg cfPsf] x'bf lghnfO{ .Gwfg cfof]u P]g.fojf6 cfh{g ePsf] .Dd . ljz]if cbfnt . kl/jf/sf .f] sf] >f]t v'nfO{ 22 . xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQ 5}g .f_ hl/jfgf . @)%( sf] bkmf $& tyf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.)&@.DklQ xf].%%.sf] cfdfsf] gfddf /fv]sf] crn . @)$* sf] bkmf #) adf]lhd sf/afxL u/L bkmf @(-v_ adf]lhd .DklQ / d]/f] gfddf /x]sf] uf8L .d]t b]j]Gb|sf] Jofkf/sf] cGo cfh{gjf6 hf]l8Psf] .DklQ .DklQ Psf3/sf >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] tyf a'xf/L c+h' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfpdf /flvPsf .DklQ / 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6]«S.@(.f]xL P]gsf] bkmf #) cg'.Ddsf] @ jif{ s}b / lauf] ?= #.f] .– afx]s cGo rn crn .%^^.DklQ xf].DklQsf] >f]t v'n]sf] 5 / ./x k|yd bhf{sf] s.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. @)!& sf] bkmf !^-u_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.dIf k|ltjfbLx?n] u/]sf] jofgsf] .#@ -tLg s/f]8 pgGtL. 5f]/f b]j]Gb|n] cfh{g u/]sf] .hfo x'g tyf lghsf gfpdf /x]sf] .Dk"0f{ .

DklQ b]vfpg vf]lhPsf] 5. 6«]lsË cjlw !% lbg x'g] k|ltlbg #).$^).$&&. e'QmfgL cg'/f]w stf{ g]kfn lehgn] g} kfPsf] xf].#) df ?=^(&%)).(^).@))@ .f/ d. k|i6 n]v]sf] .dIf cfj]bg j'emfPsf] lyof] .%%.Dddf @&@& hgf ko{6ssf] e|d0f ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfPsf] k|ltj]bg ko{6g dGqfno cGtu{t pBf]u dxfzfvf .)! j/fj/sf] sf/f]jf/ u/]sf] k|i6 5 . tL dWo] #%*@ hgf gfd. cfly{s P]g .))).+nUgtf s'g} lnlvt k|df0f jf cGo slxF st}af6 gb]lvg] cj:yfdf d]/f] Joj.. g]kfn lehg Eof6df btf{ gePsf] / cfk\mgf] .fGt leq} @*.@^ / ldlt @)%*.!#. cNkfOg 6«feN.#)&=(# g]kfnL ?k}of &^.s]sf] 5.DklQ j}w x'+bf cf/f]kkq jdf]lhd .flos sf/f]jf/sf] ljifodf gfkmf gf]S. g]kfn lehgn] k|jGw ldnfPsf] ko{6sx? dWo] #*)$ hgfn] .DjGwL .%@ nfO{ >f]t v'n]sf] / .– 8n/ cfo u/]sf] b]lvG5 ./sf/nfO{ s/ lt/L . k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] d]/f] Jofj.s]sf] x'+bf d]/f] .flos sf/f]jf/df lktfsf] .($. @)%* sf] cg'./sf/nfO{ s/ lt/]sf] 5' .f/ d]/f] >Ldltsf] gfddf /x]sf] hUufdf ejg ljefun] jgfPsf] uf8{ Sjf6/nfO{ . ?=^&.DklQdf >f]t v'nfO{ .hfo kfpg' kg]{ xf]Og .! b]lv @)%( c.'emfj k'l:tsfdf pNn]v u/]sf 5g .)).!).g\ !((* / !((( df ()) b]lv !))) hgf ko{6snfO{ 6«]lsË u/fPsf]. d dGqL kbdf /x+bf dGqL kl/ifbsf] lg0f{o cg'.!)./sf/nfO{ s/ .d]t d"NofÍg u/L j9L .@(.– u/L hDdf ?=#%. d]/f gfddf /x]sf] rn crn 23 .]jf .!((^ b]lv #!.Dk"0f{ .%&) 8n/ g]kfn lehgn] 5'§} cfDbfgL u/]sf] 5 .f] jfx]s c? .fgdf zt k|ltzt lhDd]jf/L d]/f] dfq 5 .!). b]z.(. d]/f] sDkgLn] @)%!.– 8n/n] d}n] (.+Vofn] dfq 6]«lsË u/]sf] dfGbf klg ! lbgdf .n] pBf]unfO{ hfgsf/L u/fO{ g]kfn lehgn] q]ml86 sf8{sf] rfh{ kmd{ e/L e"QmfgL dfu u/] cg'.sf gfpFdf !%.DklQsf] >f]t gv'n]sf]] elg bfjL lnPsf] ePklg d]/f] ."rL ^ sf] bkmf $@ jdf]lhd d}n] @)%* df3 d. d]/f] sDkgL g]kfn lehgn] .f] k|f=ln= / cGo xf]6n.Dej ePsf] xf] ./b/ #) 8n/n] rfh{ ubf{ #)×!%×#%*@ n] x'g] !^!!()) 8n/sf] #) k|ltzt gfkmf x'+bf $.Dd cd]l/sL 8n/ $.)#.fGt .Dk"0f{ oyfy{ sf/f]jf/ b]vfPdf Eof6sf] kl/lw leq kg]{ x'+bf k|ToIf sf/f]jf/sf] ck|ToIf e"QmfgL lng] sfo{ .f/ .(@.Dk"0f{ .– >L % sf] .*#.– ldlt @)%*.d]t lt/L.%!%. 6«feN.

f] dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . hUuf vl/b ubf{ / 3/ agfpFbf s] slt /sd vr{ eof] .ft cfgf hUuf @)%) . cGo . kmlg{r/ tyf kmlg{l..DklQ hkmt x'g'kg]{ xf]Og . OZj/L e§/fO{ tyf jfbL kIfjf6 ljz]if1 rf6{8{ PsfpG6]G6 .|f]t gv'n]sf] . cleof]u bfjL unt ePsf]n] dfubfjL jdf]lhd d]/f] gfddf ePsf] .fojf6 cfh{g u/]sf] x'F .DklQ d}n] Jofkf/ Joj.DklQ tyf 3/ kl/jf/sf] gfp+df /x]sf] 3/ hUuf .fwg.Ësf hoGt s'df/ /fhj+zL.DklQ eGg ldNb}g .fojf6 sdfPsf] .()$. O{lGhlgo/ zDe" s]=.jf/L. lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] z]o/ nufgL u/]sf] s'/f unt xf] . z]o/ vl/b ljqmL hlt ?k}of k}. w'|j vgfn. . j'l4dfg >]i7.L= hfx]/jfnf gGb'/fh cfrfo{n] u/]sf] jskq ldl.fndf xl/axfb'/ yfkfjf6 js.nf k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] /fi6«.DklQ hkmt x'g'kg]{ xf]Og .DklQ hkmt x'g'kg]{ xf]Og .fn b]lv Jofkf/ Joj.^$.DklQ jf6 d]/f] gfddf z]o/ vl/b ug'{ ePsf] xf]. . .fo ug'{ x'G5 .DklQ ?=&).]jssf] ?kdf .s]sfn] 3/ hUuf lnvtdf pNn]v u/]s} d"Nodf vl/b ePsf] j}wflgs >f]tjf6 cflh{t s/ lt/]sf] ./sf/nfO{ j'emfO .DklQaf6 g} lbPsf] xf] / lghn] j'emfpg' kg]{ s/ . cleof]u bfjLjdf]lhd . lji0f' 1jfnL.&! sf] dfq 24 . k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn] d]/f] klt b]j]Gb| jfUn] @)%) .fGt leq s/ lt/]sf]n] .fd]n /x]sf] . To.sf] >f]t Jofkf/ Joj.]7. OlGhlgo/ hfu]Zj/ dxf.fj{hlgs hjfkmb]xLsf] kbdf /x]sf jvt cfh{g u/]sf] b]lvPsf] rn crn .Dk"0f{ .fo xf] .DklQsf] @)%* df3 d.'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]n.f nufgL u/LPsf] 5.sf cltl/Qm k|ltjfbL tk{maf6 /fh s'df/ yfkf.hfo+ e} . o.fo u/L sdfPsf] . s'df/ ?kfv]tL.Dk"0f{ . k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] d]/f] gfpFdf /x]sf] ls=g+= #!& sf] .Dk"0f{ hUuf vl/b ug]{ / 3/ jgfp+bf vr{ ePsf] /sd 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfk\mgf] Jofkf/ Joj. rGb|nfn hf]zL. px+fn] sfg"g jdf]lhd s/ lt/L Jofkf/ Joj.n . kfPsL x'F . gub.d]t >L % sf] . ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] km}.

DklQ cfh{g ubf{ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] .DklQ / .))).&@. @)%( sf] bkmf @)-@_ tyf $& adf]lhd hkmt e} k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ e|i6frf/ lgj/0f P]g.f] af6 a9] a9fPsf] . k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] gfpFsf] af=@ r (@(^ sf] ?=!^.%*. @)%( sf] bkmf @)-@_ adf]lhd ljuf] cg'.%@.DklQ afx]]s cf/f]kkqdf bfjL lnPsf] k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn] tyf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] z]o/ nufgL.(!!.–sf hUUff / ls=g++ #!& .– sf] z]o/.(@&.f/ ?=@.+o'Qm gfpFsf] %.^^.& sf] km}.DklQ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf b]lvP tfklg . lghsf] gfpFsf] hUufx? . cbfntdf kg{ cfPsf] k'g/fj]bgkq jfbL g]kfn .|f]t v'n]sf] k'i6L x'g cfPsf] x'Fbf . o.(!.#@).hfo u/L kfpFm eGg] lgh k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] pk/sf] bfjL gk'Ug] 7x5{ . kfn]3/ / 3/df /x]sf] kmlg{r/ tyf kmlg{l.@^(.&! sf] rn crn .*! hl/jfgf / ! jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b tyf P]=P]gsf] bkmf @$ ad]flhd ! jif{ yk s}b . k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf] gfpFsf] l.)).f] 7xgf{n] k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf gfpFdf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft ?=^."/ u/]sf] 7x/ eP pk/ / .xdt / . u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] .)). Uof/]h. .– sf] k|f8f] uf8L / jf=# r ^#@) g++ sf] b]j]Gb| jfUn] ."/ u/]sf] 7x5{ .d]tsf] dt .$$@ / $$$ sf] zflGt b]jLsf] gfpFsf] ?=#.()$.|f]t v'n]sf] ?=&).|f]t v'Ng g. $$!.DklQ hkmt ug]{ 25 .^( d"Nof+lst 3/x?.$. lghsf] gfpFsf] a}+s df}Hbft.(@&.nf . 6x/f.d]tsf gfpFdf /fvL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.+nUgtf /x]sf] eGg] ldl.DklQ cf/f]]kkq dfubfjL adf]lhd u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/L cfkm\gf kl/jf/ b]j]Gb| jfUn] / c~h' zd{f jfUn] .$)#.n .4fy{ dN6Lkn OlG:6Ro'6sf] ?=!%.$$#.d]tsf] .*#./sf/sf] k'g/fj]bgkq k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] s.@)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ cGtu{tsf] s. k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft ?=!. k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]s]f gfpFsf] jf= # r= %%(! sf] dfl6{h uf8L.$*.*! sf] rn crn .f] afx]s .f] .d]tsf] .d]tdf ag]sf] hDdf ?=#$.)@.]G6«f] uf8L .d]t e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.#! dWo]sf] ?=%.))).– sf] .))).&@. On]lS6«sn tyf O{n]S6«f]lgs .s]sf] ?=@.#@.fdfgx?.d]t rn crn .d]t hDdf @ jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b x'G5 eGg] ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] ldlt @)^!. $)*. sf=lh=sf=d=g=kf= & -3_ l:yt ls=g+= #!&.!$*.%*.DklQ ..^$.+nUg k|df0faf6 k'i6L x'g g.s]sf]n] dltof/df .ª.%).

k|of]hgsf] nflu k|ltjfbL agfOPsf zfGtfb]jL jfUn] / c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfdsf
;DklQ hkmt ug]{ u/L km};nf eP ;DaGwdf s'g} lhls/ lnPsf] 5}g . k|ltjfbL
b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ ;kmfO{ lbPsf] / lauf] sfod ;DaGwdf ljz]if cbfntsf] km};nfdf
lrQ a'em]g . s;"/ ug]{ cleo'QmnfO{ s;"/ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf ;fy lbg] jf kl/aGb
ldnfO{ lbg] JolQmnfO{ g} s;"/sf] dltof/ dfGg' kg]{ x'G5 . k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f
P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf @@ sf] p2]Zo klg ;f]xL s;"/ ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf kl/aGb
ldnfpg]nfO{ ;hfo ug]{ g} xf] . s;"/ u/L cfh{g u/]sf] ;DklQ lghsf] gfddf /x]sf
sf/0fn] dfq dltof/ agfOPsf] xf]Og . dltof/sf] e"ldsf ;a} s;"/df Ps}
k|s[ltsf] x'Fb}g, s;"/sf] k|s[lt cg';f/ km/s x'g ;S5 . cf/f]ksf] ;DaGwdf g} vf;
sfo{;uF gePkl5 ;f]xL cg'?k dltof/sf] e"ldsf klg lglb{i6 / ls6fg ug{ ;lsg]
k|s[ltsf] x'g g;Sg' :jfefljs xf] . k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] afa' lr/l~hjL jfUn];Fu
Psf;uf]ndf /x]sf], afa'nfO{ uf8L / cfdfsf gfdsf] 3/hUuf cfˆg} cfh{gsf] egL
bfjL u/]sf]af6 cj}w ;DklQ cfh{g ug{ lghn] ;lqmo ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] tyf
kl/aGb ldnfPsf] k'li6 x'G5 . lghsf] cj:yf cGo k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL tyf c~h'
zdf{ jfUn]sf] eGbf leGg 5 .
To;}u/L k|:t't d'2f ;fj{hlgs kbflwsf/Ln] kbdf /xFbf cfh{g u/]sf] a}w
cfo >f]t;Fu gldNbf] ;DklQ;Fu ;DalGwt ePsf] tyf s'g ldltdf cfh{g u/]sf]
s'g ;DklQdf ;|f]t k'li6 eof] s'gdf ePg eGg] ls6fg ge} ;fj{hlgs kbdf
/xFbfsf] ;Dk"0f{ cjlw e/ cfh{g u/]sf] ;Fu ;DaGw ePsf] x'Fbf hUuf vl/b ubf{sf]
lnvtdf c+lst d'No;Fu ;f] sf] ;DaGw 5}g . cg';Gwfg ubf{ sfod ePsf] d'Nos}
cfwf/df lghsf] jt{dfg cfly{s x}l;ot t'ngf u/L c:jfefljs cfh{g xf] jf xf]Og
egL osLg ug{' kg]{ ljifo ePsfn] rng rNtLsf] lauf]nfO{ g} e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f
P]g, @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ sf] k|of]hgsf] nflu lauf] dfGg' sfg"g
;+ut / ts{;+ut x'G5 . pQm P]gsf] bkmf $& df e|i6frf/ u/]sf] dflgg] s'g} sfo{
u/L cfh{g u/]sf] ;dklQ / ;f] af6 a9] a9fPsf] ;DklQ hkmt x'g] k|fjwfg 5 .
a9] a9fPsf] ;DklQ eGgfn] ;DklQaf6 k|fKt x'g] Jofh, nfef+z, z]o/ cflbsf] a9]sf]
d"No, 3/ axfn tyf ;dosf k|efjn] a9]sf] b/ efp ;d]tnfO{ dfGg' kg]{ x'G5 .
;fljsdf cfh{g ubf{ sfod ePsf] d"NonfO{ dfq lauf] dfGg] xf] eg] ;f]af6 a9]
a9fPsf], a9]sf] d"Nosf] nfe jf kmfObf u}/sfg'gL sfo{ ug]{ JolQmn] kfpg] cj:yf
26

kb{5 . t;y{ ljz]if cbfntsf] km};nf ;f] xb;Dd ab/ u/L cf/f]kkqdf pNn]v u/]
adf]lhd lauf] sfod u/L k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ lauf] adf]lhd g} hl/jfgf
tyf k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ cleof]u dfu bfjL adf]lhd ;hfoF u/L kfpFm .
k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] k'g/fj]bgkq
ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] km};nfdf lrQ a'em]g . e|i6«frf/ lgjf/0f P]g,
@)%( n] ;fljs e|i6«frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)!& nfO{ vf/]h u/]sf] 5 . vf/]h eO{
;s]sf] P]g / vf/]h ug]{ P]g b'j}sf] cl:tTj Ps} ;fy sfod /xg ;Qm}g . ;f] b'j}
P]g Ps};fy nufPsf] cf/f]kkq k|yd b[li6d} q'l6k"0f{ x'Fbf To:tf] q'l6k"0f{ cf/f]ksf
cfwf/df dnfO{ s;"/bf/ 7x/ u/]sf] km};nf Gofo;+ut 5}g . ;f] km};nf g]=sf=k=
@)@(, k[i7 #*%, lg=g+= &!! df k|ltkflbt l;4fGt Pj+ ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !$-!_
k|lts"n ePsfn] d]/f lj?4df d'2f rNg} g;Sg] egL d]/f sfg"g Jofj;foLn] ug{'
ePsf] ax; lhls/ cg'Ql/t g} 5fl8Psf] 5 . e|i6«frf/ lgjf/0f P]g, @)!& sf] bkmf
!% sf] k"j{zt{df e|i6frf/df d'2f nfUg} kg]{ clg dfq bkmf !% cGtu{t cg'dflgt
s;"/ cfslif{t x'g] xf] . xfnsf] P]gsf bkmf @)-!_ eg] :jtGq ?kdf /x]sf] 5 .
vf/]h e};s]sf] P]gsf] bkmf !% / xfnsf] P]gsf] bkmf @)-!_ Ps} vfnsf] egL
;fb[iotf b]vfpg' q'l6k"0f{ 5 . ljz]if cbfntn] ef/tLo ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6
k|ltkflbt l;4fGt cg';f/ kZrft\bzL{ c;/ gx'g] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf] 5 . t/ d]/f
tkm{sf sfg"g Jofj;foLn] k|:t't ug{' ePsf] g]kfnL sfg"g k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t
sfg'gL l;4fGtnfO{ ljj]rgf ul/Psf] 5}g . ljb]zL d'n'ssf km};nf cflwsfl/s
ghL/sf] ?kdf ge} cg'gofTds ghL/sf] x}l;ot;Dd /fVg] xf] . o;/L ljb]zL
ghL/nfO{ dfGotf lbO{ ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] ghL/nfO{ ck|f;+flus 7x¥ofPsf] ljz]if
cbfntsf] km};nf ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f (^ tyf g]=sf=k= @)%!, k[i7 !$#, lg=g+=
$*&% df k|ltkflbt l;4fGtsf] k|lts"n 5 . ljz]if cbfntn] km};nfdf pNn]v
u/]sf] Maxwell on the Interpretation of statutes, 12th Edition p. 217 df
pNn]lvt s'/fnfO{ lg0f{ofwf/ agfPsf] k|f;+lus 5}g . sfo{ljlw sfg"gsf] ;Dd
kZrftbzL{ k|of]u x'g ;S5, ;f/jfg sfg"gsf] x'g ;Qm}g . ljBflosfn] g} :ki6
zAbdf P]gsf] e"tnIfL k|of]u x'g] Joj:yf u/]sf] l:yltdf afx]s cGo cj:yfdf
e"tnIfL k|of]u ug{ ldNb}g . Gofofno sfg"g lgdf{tf ge} AofVoftf dfq x'g] xf] .
27

Gofofnon] ljwflosL sfg"g k|i6 ePsf] cj:yfdf ;f]xL cg'?k JofVof ug{'k5{ .
hxfF ljlw :ki6 5, ToxfF ljlwdf Go"gtf /x]sf] eGg] cfTdut lgisif{sf] cfwf/df
ljlwsf] Go"gtfnfO{ k"lt{ ug]{ sfd ubf{ ljwflosL ljj]sdf cgflwsf/ x:tfIf]k x'g
hfG5 . o; ;DaGwdf cgluGtL zfZjt l;4fGtx?nfO{ j]jf:tf u/L kZrft\bzL{
c;/sf ;DaGwdf u|x0f ul/Psf] lg0f{ofwf/ dfGo l;4fGtsf] k|lts"n 5 . bfjL
lnPsf ;a} ;DklQ P]g nfu" x'g' cufj} 5f]/fsf] Jofkf/ Jofj;foaf6 cflh{t ;DklQ
xf] eGg] ldl;naf6 b]lvPs} 5 . ljz]if cbfntn] 5f]/f b]j]Gb|n] VDIS cGtu{t
cfos/ lt/] a'emfPsf] ljifonfO{ gltg{' kg]{ s/ lt/] a'emfPsf] eGg ;s]sf] 5}g / ;f]
cfos/ lt/]sf] /sdnfO{ cGoyf 7x/ u/]sf] 5}g . s'g}klg ;DklQ a}w xf] eGg]
s'/fsf] e/kbf]{ / ljZj;gLo k|df0f g} cfos/ lt/]sf] k|df0f xf] . cfo u/] afkt
lt/]sf] s/ ;b/ / dfGo x'g], t/ h] h'g cfo afkt s/ lt/] a'emfPsf] xf] ;f] cfo
eg] cGoyf 7x/ u/]sf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km};nf cfly{s P]g, @)%* sf] bkmf !) sf]
cg';"rL ^ sf] bkmf $@ sf] k|lts"n 5 .
d ;fj{hlgs kb wf/0f ug]{ JolQmsf] lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] 5f]/f ePs} sf/0f
;+ljwfgtM k|fKt k]zf /f]huf/ / Jofj;fo ug{ kfpg] :jtGqtfaf6 lghn] jl~rt
x'g' kg]{ xf]Og . d}n] ljleGg lgsfodf a'emfPsf] ;DklQ ljj/0fdf 5f]/f a'xf/L
Jofkf/ Jofj;fo u5{g\, lghx?sf] ;DklQ ;dfj]z u/]sf] 5}g egL pNn]v u/]sf]
5' . lghx?n] s/ glt/L 5n]sf] eP /fhZj r'xfj6 -cg';Gwfg / lgoGq0f_ P]g,
@)%@ ;d]tsf sfg'g lqmofzLn x'g]df e|i6frf/df bfjf u/]sf] q'l6k"0f{ 5 . d !)
jif{ $ dxLgf # lbg;Dd ;f+;b tyf dGqL kbdf axfn /x]sf]df pQm cjlwdf
cflwsfl/s clen]vaf6} k|dfl0ft tna eQf ?= %^,(!,@%!.*% d}n] k|fKt u/]sf]
tYo d}n] ljz]if cbfnt ;dIf lgj]bg ;fy k]z u/]sf]df ;DalGwt lgsfo a'emL
cfo osLg ug{'kg]{df d]/f] a}+sdf /x]sf] ?= ^,^^,(!!.%@ nfO{ dfq tna eQf kfPsf]
7x/ u/]sf] sfg'g;Ddt 5}g . ljz]if cbfntsf] km};nfdf ko{6s ljj/0fdf pNn]v
ePsf] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof, sd]06 n]lvlbg] eg]sf ko{6ssf] ;+Vof / g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn]
k|sfzg u/]sf] Income and Employment Generation in Nepal, 1989 sf]
k':tssf] cfwf/df dfq g]kfn lehg 6]«S; P08 PS;kLl8;g k|f=ln= sf] jf:tljs
gfkmf sfod x'g g;Sg] lg0f{ofwf/ lnPsf] 5 . b]j]Gb|sf] aofg, ax;gf]6 ;d]tdf
pNn]v eP cg';f/ ;d]t k|df0f P]g, @)#! sf] bkmf !#, !$ ;d]t adf]lhd ;f]
28

s]kl5 lghsf] gfddf /x]sf] .fk6L jf as.DklQ d]/f] cfh{gsf] s./L jfbL kIfn] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] cj:yfdf .f]wvf]h} gu/L xtf/df km}.DaGwL -sG:6]«8_ si6 .f/ d"NofÍg u/L ul/Psf] k|ltj]bgsf cfwf/df ePsf] km}.s]sf] 5}g . bfjLsf] d"n cfwf/ d}n] n]v] b]vfPsf] . tyf 6]«lsË lgodfjnL. kfPsf] hUufnfO{ klg af]nL rfnLsf] efiffdf vl/b u/]sf] eg]sf] eGg] cfwf/df s'g} dxTj glbO{ h] h.f] . rGbf.Demg ldNb}g . pkxf/. cj:yf. cfof]un] cfGtl/s sfo{ ljz]ifsf nflu lgo'Qm / dgf]gog u/L lbPsf] lglZrt lgb]{zg kfng ug]{ .s]sf] s'/f ljz]if cbfntsf] km}. @)## sf] bkmf !@ tyf hLp df:g] a]Rg] sfo{ -lgoGq0f_ P]g.f] s'/fnfO{ dfq b[i6fGtsf] ?kdf lnPsf] egL tYo ljk/Lt cfTdut JofVof u/]sf] 5 .f]w vf]h gu/L lgb]{zfg'. cbfntn] b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ dltof/ xf]Og elg.f/ k|]lift ljj/0f k|df0f u|fXo 5 .DalGwt lgsfo a'emL km}. @)$# sf] bkmf & df em}+ lg/k]If k|df0fsf] ef/ k|ltjfbLdf /xg] pQm sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] dd{ / dg. @)#& sf] lgod !!-@_ cg'.DklQ ljj/0f cldNbf] tyf c:jfefljs b]lvg cfPsf]. zfGtfb]jLn] as.}nfO{ bfg.ot eGbf a9L s. cldNbf] / c:jfefljs pRr hLjg:t/ ofkg u/]sf] jf x}l. P]gsf] bkmf @)-!_ n] k|ydtM jfbL kIfn] . .DklQ ljj/0f.Fu .nf ePsf] 5 ./L x'G5 s.|f]t v'n]sf] / gv'n]sf] egL bfjL ug{ g.nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 ."/bf/ 7x¥ofO{ 5f8\g] gsf/fTds dgl:yltaf6 km}.DklQ .s]sf] g'vnfPsf] ljifodf cfTdut ?kdf cbfntn] 7x/ ug{' Gofo ge} bof xf].'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]n .nf ePsf] 5 ./sf/L lgodfg'. ctM ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] km}.nf 29 . .tkm{ .d]t ubf{ aL.nfn] k'i6\ofO{ ug{ .d]tnfO{ s'g} cy{ / cj:yfdf klg :jtGq x}l. .f/ klg cf]e/x]8 / k|f]lkm6 Pj+ lgdf{0f . k|ltzt 36\g] Joj:yfnfO{ j]jf:tf ul/Psf] 5 . cleof]hg kIfn] s] s'g . t/ ljz]if cbfntn] jfbL bfjL eGbf km/s 9+un] . d}n] bof x}g Gofo dfu]sf] x'F . d"No cflbsf af/]df xfdL./L x'G5 < km}.|f]t b]vfpg] ef/ k|ltjfbL kIfn] axg ug{' kg]{ Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .ot /fVg] ljz]if1 dfGg.d]tsf] u'0f. jfbL kIfn] g} v'nfpg g. 3/sf] d"NofÍg ubf{ cfly{s jif{ @)%!÷%@ sf nflu lgwf{l/t b//]6 cg'. bftJo.DaGwdf . hft. cGo ljB'tLo pks/0f tyf kmlg{r/ .sDkgLn] 6«feN.fo xf]Og .nf ug{'kg]{df To. nfu" cf}ifw -lgoGq0f_ P]g.4 eO{ /x]sf] 5 . lbPsf] k|dfl0ft ug{' kg]{ / To.Fusf] t'ngf xf] eGg] s'/f cf/f]kkqaf6} l.nfdf :jLsf/ ul/Psf] 5 .f/ x'g' kg]{ / .

]jsnfO{ dfq z+sfsf] bfo/fdf /fv]sf] 5 .lsGYof] .ft gu/]sf] Pj+ kl/jf/sf . vf/]h e}."/df cleof]u nfu]sf] x'g' kg]{ / /fi6«.b:ox? afx]s s]an /fi6«. lg=g+= &!!./f]sf/ g} g/x]sf] cGo b]zsf] ghL/ -h'g aGwgsf/L .s]sf] P]g .kmfO{ kfpFm . .Fu .% b]lv nfu" ePsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] agf]6n] of] bkmf kZrft\bzL{ k|efj lbg] u/L nfu" x'g] eGg] s'/f O{+lut u/]sf] 5}g ."/af6 . d"n k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] gfdsf] .DklQdf s'g} vf]6 gnufO{ .nfsf] k|d'v cfwf/ agfPsf] ef/tLo .d]tsf] /f]xdf k|:t't d'2f rNg .hfoF x'g] s'g} s.+ljwfg Pj+ sfg"g adf]lhd lghL cfh{g ul//x]sf] d b]j]Gb| jfUn].d]t x'Fb}g_ sf] k|of]u u/L ef/tLo .f/ To:tf] cg'dfg ug{ k"j{zt{sf] ?kdf pQm P]g cGtu{t ./L :ki6tM sfg"gn] kZrft\bzL{ c.d]t gePsfn] pN6L u/L .#.Ddsf] cfDbfgLsf] .d]tsf] .4fGt / Gofo .nfsf] unt cy{ nufO{ u/]sf] km}. jt{dfg P]gsf] bkmf @) .b:ox?sf] yfxf eP. .+ut . hf] slxNo} klg .|f]tnfO{ .d]t To:tf] cg'dfgsf] bfo/fleq kf/]sf] 5 . k[i7 #*% df k|ltkflbt l.4fGt .DaGwL P]g.fljs P]gsf] bkmf !% cg'.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f gu/]sf] k[ys JolQmn] cfh{g u/]sf] .4fGt sfg"gdf k|rlnt /x]sf] 5 . @)$@ sf] bkmf !!-@_ df h:tf] P]g kZrft\bzL{ k|of]u x'g] s'/fsf] :ki6 Joj:yf ug{ .hfoFsf] dfubfjL lnO{ cf/f]kkq k|:t't ePsfn] g]kfn sfg"g JofVof . @)!) sf] bkmf $-ª_ Pj+ g]=sf=k= @)@(.Qm}g ./ x'g] egL Joj:yf gu/]sf] cj:yfdf P]gsf] k|of]u eljionIoL (prospective) x'G5 eGg] l./ lbg vf]h]sf] eP ljWj+zfTds ck/fw lgoGq0f P]g. pQm bkmf @) df ljlwstf{n] kZrft\bzL{ c. k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] k'g/fj]bgkq dnfO{ dltof/sf] s.fljs P]gsf] bkmf !% :jtGq g/x]sf] / xfnsf] P]gsf] bkmf @) :jtGq /x]sfn] oL bkmfx? aLr df}lns leGgtf 5 . o.sfg"g.DklQnfO{ cGoyf cy{ 30 .]jssf] kl/jf/sf .Dd ljz]if cbfntsf] km}. ldlt @)%(. ljz]if cbfntn] km}. k|rlnt P]gsf] bkmf @)-!_ n] oL b'j} s'/fnfO{ cfTd. State of Punjab ePsf] d'2fsf] tYout l:ylt k|:t't d'2fsf] eGbf leGg 5 .nf ldn]sf] 5}g . sfg'gL l.jf]{Rr cbfntsf] km}.kmfO{ lbPsf] xb.DklQ lktfhLsf] cfh{gsf] 7x/ u/]sf]df lrQ a'em]g .nfdf lrQ a'em] tfklg d]/f] .jf]{Rr cbfntåf/f lg0f{o ePsf] Sajjan Singh Vs.

|f]taf6 k|fKt u/]sf] cfo ePklg :jo+ s/ 3f]if0ffåf/f cfos/ lt/]df To:tf] .4 sfg"gljb\ sf]ssf] egfO{ /x]sf] 5 . cfly{s P]g. hf] . @)%* sf] bkmf $@-!_ n] h:tf].DklQ Goflos hfFra'em cfof]u . @)%( sf] bkmf @-3_ sf] v08 -!_-@_-#_-$_ adf]lhd d /fi6«.f/ pkl:yt x'g gcfPsf]af6 kmut Jofkf/ Jofj.f/ d"n sf/0fL . d}n] sl/a # s/f]8 ^) nfv a/fa/sf] x'g] s/ ?= #%.]js . k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] gfpFdf Pp6f uf8L afx]s cGo .Gwfg cfof]u P]g.f] ljifodf k'gM 5fgljg gug]{ /fHon] sa"n u/]sf] of]hgf cGtu{t d}n] a'emfPsf] /fhZjnfO{ c:jLsf/ u/L ePsf] km}.|f]tsf] af/] s'g} klg k|of]hgsf] nflu 5fgljg ul/g] 5}g egL /fHon] cfˆgf] gful/s .f] jdf]lhdsf] sfo{n] k"0f{tf k|fKt ul/.'s} . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.dIf lbPsf] .} u/L e|i6«frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. k|df0f lbg g. @)%( sf] bkmf @@ cg'.Gwfgsf] nflu af]nfpg' eGbf sl/a & dlxgf cl3 lghn] .DklQ d]/} 7xg{' kg]{df d]/f] Jofj.$^).d]t kfPsf] cj:yfdf d]/f] . @)$* sf] bkmf @-3_.d]t ldNb}g .|f]tsf] af/]df /fHosf] g} s'g} c+un] 5fgljg ug{ k|df0f P]g.DklQsf] .DklQ ljj/0fdf :jtGq Jofkf/ Jofj.fo ug]{ 5f]/f a'xf/Lsf] gfdsf] . jt{dfg e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g nfu" x'g' k"j{sf] .DklQnfO{ 5fgljg ug{ ldNb}g .flos cfh{gnfO{ lktfhLsf] u}/sfg'gL cfo 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] km}. k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ k|:t't d'2fdf cg'.– df}s}df bflvn u/L . ægofF sfg"g cfufdL lbgsf] nflu ul/g] Joj:yf xf] gsL ljt]sf lbgsf nfluÆ eg] ljZjk|l.kmfO{ .ug{ ldNb}g . @)#! sf] bkmf #$ / Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel n] .Sg] :ki6 eO{ d}n] . cbfntdf pkl:yt e} askq ug]{ ph"/stf{n] kqklqsfdf n]lvPsf s'/fsf cfwf/df ph"/L lbPsf] egL 7f]. To. nfO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. cfly{s P]g. -em_ Pj+ bkmf $ sf] cfwf/df q'l6k"0f{ 5 .f] VDIS of]hgfsf] cjlw 31 . lghn] of] o:tf] cfk/flws lqmofu/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] egL ls6fgL cleof]u gnufPsf].(@.fo ug]{ d b]j]Gb| jfUn].DklQsf] . @)%* sf] bkmf $@ adf]lhd cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L bzk|ltzt s/ a'emfPkl5 .s]sf]./L 3f]lift .DklQnfO{ cfˆgf] eGbf cnUu} /fVg dfu u/]sf].fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQm xf]Og. csf{ ph"/stf{ cbfntsf] cfb]zfg'.dIf k|lt1f u/L .nf lj/f]wfefifk"0f{ 5 . @)%( sf] k|:tfjgfaf6} pQm P]g e"tnIfL geO{ eljionIfL /x]sf] k|i6 5 .DklQ g/x]sf].s]sf] cj:yfdf To.d]t gx'Fbf d]/f xsdf pk/f]Qm b'j} P]gx? cfslif{t x'g g./x dfu bfjL lnPsf] cf/f]kkq clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.nf ldn]sf] 5}g .

4fGtsf] k|lts"n cGoyf egL ePsf] km}.nf d]/f xsdf cfslif{t g} x'g] xf]Og ..d]tsf] nufgLdf ldlt @)%).Fu sf/f]af/ z'? x'g' cl3 g} @)%!.– sf] 6]«lsË sf/f]af/ ePsf] b]lvg'sf .'emfj k'l:tsfdf .(!.'–:ki6 /x]sf] 5 .Fu sf/f]af/ z'? x'g' cl3sf] sf/f]af/ dfq $.– .*)).– cfo cfh{g u/]sf] s'/f dfg]sfn] klg d Ps ko{6g Jofj. g]kfn lehgn] .#&.&$. k|sfzd0fL zdf{ lj?4 dlGqkl/ifb\ .! b]lv @)%# cfiff9 d.d]t ePsf] l/6 lgj]bgdf ePsf] km}.g k|f=ln= sf] cfly{s jif{ @)%!÷%@ b]lv @)%@÷%# .&%).$&.d]t cNkfOg 6«feN.*)).lrjfno .d]tsf] /f]xdf .foL /xL d]/f] sf/f]af/ b]vfOPsf] n]vf k/LIf0f k|ltj]bg eGbf a9L / a]Un} /x]sf] tYo d]/f] aofg .+Vof -hf] .*%&.fy} g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] @)%(.!@.Sg] sfg'gL l.dfKt ePsf] sl/a & dlxgfkl5 cfPsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.fGt.^).Dddf g]kfn lehgn] #(@ hgf ko{6snfO{ .f/sf] sf/f]af/nfO{ xfn To.%@ gfkmf b]lvPsf] egL bfjL ug]{ jfbLn] cfˆg} bfjLsf] v08g ub}{ pQm sDkgLsf] cNkfOg 6«feN.Gwfg cfof]u P]g.^. @)%( nfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ cufj} eP u/]sf] sfd s'/fnfO{ c.a} .&@.#@ x'g cfpF5 ..nf ab/efuL 5 .!% sf] kqfg'.#.%^./b/ z'Nssf cfwf/df x]bf{ d]/f] sDklgn] ?= (.!).df lnPsf] z'Ns v'nfpg] cfwf/ k|df0f gePsfn] g]kfn /fi6« a}+saf6 æIncome and Employment Generation in NepalÆ .Fu dfq sl/a ?= %.e]{ k|ltj]bgsf] k[i7 !)& cg'.lkl8.DaGwdf !(*( df ul/Psf] .((.( ut] k|fOe]6 sDkgLsf] ?kdf btf{ /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6]«S.%^^.Dd 3f6f b]lvPsf] / @)%#÷%$ b]lv @)%&÷%* .$^ sf] sf/f]af/ ePsf] :jLsfb}{ .]jf k'¥ofPsf] . 32 .&.$)&.*$../ kfg{ g.]jf k'¥ofPsf] ko{6g pBf]u dxfzfvfsf] /]s8{ cg'. cNkfOg 6«feN. d .f] afkt ?= ^).fj{hlgs kb wf/0f gu/]sf] JolQmsf xsdf cfslif{t x'g] x'Fb}g .]jf k'¥ofPsf ko{6sx? dWo] sDkgLsf] .*)#.#@ / cWofudg ljefusf] ldlt @)%(.(%.]G6 / lxdfn /]Ohg. P08 PlS.+Vof xf]Og_ #%*@ sf] pQm k|ltj]bgsf] .Dd ?= #.– sf] sf/f]af/ u/]sf] k|i6 5 .'emfj lbg]sf] .. DoflUglkm.f/sf] b/sf cfwf/df Reference lnFbf klg nueu ?= (!.^^%.!*. @)%( / clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.!& sf] kqdf pNn]lvt ($% hgf ko{6snfO{ 6]«lsËdf k7fPsf] s/f]af/ g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] pQm b/sf cfwf/df hf]8\bf x'g] ?= @.f/ cfly{s jif{ @)%#÷%$ sf] g]kfn lehgsf] s"n sf/f]af/ ?= &(. @)$* d .

.() b]vfPsf]df cfslif{t gx'g] sDkgL P]g.Fu laNs"n c.DklQ . . VDIS lt/]kl5 sfuhft gi6 u/]sf] egL k|i6 u/]sf] cj:yfdf kl/l:ylthGo k|df0fsf] ?kdf /x]sf] Aofn]G.fadf u0fgfu/L cfo dflgPsf] 5 . ef/t. 3/sf] d"NofÍg ubf{ @)$*÷)$( sf] b//]6 nfUg]df lauf] a9fpg] b"lift dg. @)%# sf] bkmf *@-!_ / -@_ sf] xjfnf lb+b} n]vf g/fv]sf] ljifo sf]6\ofO{ ePsf] km}.f] bkmf alv{nfk 5 .fon] @)%@÷)%# sf] b//]6 nufOPsf] 5 .)$.6 df # jif{sf] sf/f]af/ ?= !#.d}n] aofgsf] qmddf k]z u/]sf] cfGtl/s Jofn]G. d"NofÍg ug]{ .Fu s/f/ u/L clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f gu/]sf] d]/f] lghL cfh{gsf] .DaGwdf 5fgljg u/L lbPsf] slyt k|ltj]bgnfO{ cfslif{t g} gx'g] k|df0f P]g./x? / j]a.af6 lkmtf{ kfPsf] k'/} /sdnfO{ g]kfn lehgsf] cfDbfgL dfGg'kg]{df #) k|ltzt /sdnfO{ dfq lx..^#&. ePsfn] ltgLx?n] lbPsf] k|ltj]bgn] ljz]if1sf] k|ltj]bgsf] x}l.)%.DaGwdf v'nfpg' kg]{ egL pNn]v ePsf]n] d .fo.Gwfg cfof]usf] sfo{df .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f gu/]sf] JolQmsf] .L6 nfO{ Verify g} ul/Pg .l.'lg/ s'df/ 9'Ë]nnfO{ cfof]un] lgo'lQm glbPsf] s'/f lghsf] askqaf6 . 3/sf] d"NofÍg ubf{ cf]e/ x]8 s:6 gs6fO{ d"NofÍg ul/Psf] 5 . ctM dfly pNn]lvt a'Fbfx?sf cfwf/df d slxNo} s'g} .ot /fVb}g .DalGwt . d]/f] k|f=ln=sf] ko{6g Jofj.fdfu|Lsf] d"NofÍg ug]{ ljz]if1 elgPsf JolQmx?nfO{ P]g adf]lhd lgo'Qm ul/Psf] 5}g .nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 . d}n] aofgsf] qmddf k]z u/]sf] cfGtl/s Jofn]G.x? cfof]usf] k|efjsf dflg. e'6fg.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] d"n sf/0fL 33 . @)#! sf] bkmf @#-!_ adf]lhd ljz]if1sf] /fo .nf ab/efuL 5 .lsg] egL d"NofÍg adf]lhd g} d"No tf]sL ePsf] km}.3fpg v6fPsf] / s/f/sf] zt{ g+= #=!@ df lghn] cfˆgf] sfd lqmofsf] bf}/fgdf . ltAat. g]kfn lehgn] cNkfOg 6«feN. lgh .fO6sf] cfwf/df k|i6 x'G5 .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQmn] kbsf] b'?kof]u u/] gu/]sf] .a} dflg.Dd km}lnPsf] s'/f sDkgLsf] a|f]. 3/ / 3/df ePsf .L6nfO{ s]nfpg' kb{Yof] .dly{t ePsf] 5 . lktf lr/l~hjL jfUn] / d}n] u/]sf] aofgsf cfwf/df 3/sf] d"NofÍg ug{' kg]{df d"NofÍg k|ltj]bg afx]s ljjflbt 3/sf] lgdf{0f nfut lglZrt ug{ g.DklQnfO{ u}/sfg'gL ?kn] lagf s'g} cfwf/ k|df0f d]/f] Jofkf/ Jofj./x k|df0f lnPsf] .fo g]kfn.'lg/ s'df/nfO{ DANIDA n] lgh.

s]hlt n'6L nu]sf] Joxf]/f .Sg]df kZrft\bzL{ c.%*.d]tsf cfwf/df ab/efuL 5 .DklQ . sDKo"6/.DklQ cfˆgf] eGbf cnUu} /fVg dfu u/]sf] cj:yfdf . 6]lnlehg./x]sf lktf k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] u}/ sfg'gL cfo cfh{g 7x¥ofO{ hDdf d'No ?= @. To./L d]/f] kltn] a'emfPsf] /fhZjnfO{ clZjsf/ u/L / cfslif{t gx'g] ghL/ nufO{ ePsf] km}.d]t hfgsf/L u/fpF5' .nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 ..DaGwL l.f/ k|:t't d'2f rNg g.#.d]t 89fP/ v/fgL kf/L gi6 ul/lbPsf] / . @)!& nfO{ vf/]h u/]sfn] hLljt 5}g . k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf] k'g/fj]bgkq d]/f] . .nf kZrft\bzL{ c..%./ .nfdf lrQ a'em]g .f] P]g vf/]h ePsf] ge} pQm P]g vf/]h ePkl5 .(@&. alQ. 6]lnkmf]g. cg'.d]t cg'. @)!) sf] bkmf $-ª_ Pj+ g]=sf=k= @)@(."/f k|= lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] . pQm vf/]h ePsf] P]g adf]lhd tTsfnLg cj:yfdf s'g} sfd sf/jfxL geP gu/]af6 gofF P]gn] lg/Gt/tf Pj+ dfGotf lbg'kg]{ cj:yf 5}g .!^ ut] lgl:sPsf] h'n'.DklQ ljj/0f lbFbf Jofkf/ Jofj.DklQ Goflos hfFra'em cfof]udf . o.4fGt ./ lbO{ ePsf] km}.f] .DklQ hkmt x'g] u/L ePsf] km}.DklQ d]/f] g} sfod u/L kfpFm .nf pN6fO{ d]/f] . sfk]{6.Dk"0f{ nQf sk8f .DaGwL P]g.f/ VDIS cGtu{t !) k|ltzt a'emfPkl5 .fy} O/fsdf dfl/Psf !@ hgf g]kfnLsf] xTofsf] lj/f]wdf sf7df8f}+sf ljleGg :yfgaf6 @)^!. cfly{s P]g. @)%* cg'.Gwfgsf] qmddf af]nfpg' eGbf sl/a & dxLgf cl3 g} .n] xfd|f] 3/df k|j]z u/L af= @ r (@(^ sf] k|f8f] uf8L af= # r %%(! sf] dfl6h sf/ nufot 3/sf . @)%( n] .d]t lghs} 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] km}. lg=g+= &!!. k[= #*% df k|ltkflbt l. @)%(.fo ug]{ 5f]/f a'xf/Lsf] gfdsf] .*! sfod ePsf] d]/f] Jofkfl/s cfh{gsf] .&@.Dk"0f{ kmlg{r/.f] ljifodf k'gM 5fgljg gul/g] egL /fHon] u/]sf] k|lt1f k'/f ug]{ /fHosf] bfloTj xf] .dfklg k|:t't d'2f bfo/ ePkl5 .4fGtsf] /f]xdf q'l6k"0f{ 5 . k|mLh.nf Doctrine of Promissory estoppel . nufpg] tyf cf]5\ofpg] . d]/f] kltsf] n]vf k/LIf0f k|ltj]bgdf b]vfOPsf] eGbf a9L / a]Un} sf/f]af/ 34 ."/fsf] 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.f] P]gsf] bfjL lnO{ cf/f]kkq bfo/ ePsf]n] g]kfn sfg"g JofVof .fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.% b]lv nfu" ePsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQnfO{ .

.4fGt .kq kfPsf] hUufnfO{ vl/b u/]sf] 7x/ u/L ePsf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}."rL ^ sf] v08 $@-#_ 35 .nf ab/ u/L d]/f] z]o/ oyfjt sfod u/L kfpFm . 5f]/f b]j]Gb|sf] sf/f]af/ b]vfPsf] eGbf a9L / a]Un} lyof] ./ lbO{ ePsf] km}.$#.DaGwL P]g.d]tsf] /f]xdf k|:t't d'2f rNg g.d]tsf] /f]xdf ab/efuL /x]sf] 5 .nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 .fo ug]{ 5f]/f a'xf/Lsf] .Sg] :ki6tfsf afah'b kZrft\bzL{ c.DklQnfO{ as.nf a:t'lgi7 geO{ ljBdfg .kqsf] lnvtaf6} d}n] xl/axfb'/ yfkfaf6 as.Fu c.DklQ cfˆgf] eGbf cnUu} /fvL x]g]{ egL klt lr/~hLjL jfUn]]n] dfu u/]sf] cj:yfdf pQm .kq kfPsf] .DalGwt .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf d"n sf/0fL /x]sf . :jtGq Jofkf/ Jofj.d]tsf cfwf/df ab/ efuL 5 .DklQnfO{ vl/b u/]sf] egL 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] km}.fo.DaGwL ghL/ nufO{ ePsf] km}.nf Doctrine of promissory estoppel . kfPsf] :ki6 x'Fbf x'Fb} lnvtsf] y}nLnfO{ :jLsf/ ug]{ t/ lnvts} s}lkmotdf hlgPsf] d}n] as.kq g} sfod ul/kfpFm . ctM slxNo} .kq kfpg' kg]{ sf/0fsf ?kdf /x]sf] Joxf]/fnfO{ c:jLsf/ u/L ePsf] km}. k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf] k'g/fj]bgkq d}n] as.4fGt .%)). cbfntsf] cfb]z o. ctM dfly pNn]lvt a'Fbfx?sf cfwf/df as./ kf/]sfn] q'l6k"0f{ 5 . o.kqsf] .Dk"0f{ .df cfly{s P]g. lg=g+= &!!. vf/]h eO{ .d]t bfjL lnO{ cleof]ukq k|:t't ePsfn] g]kfn sfg"g JofVof . k|:t' ljifodf cfslif{t g} gx'g] k|sfzd0fL zdf{ lj?4 dlGqkl/ifb\ ePsf] VDIS . @)!) sf] bkmf $-ª_ Pj+ g]=sf=k= @)@(.DklQaf6 u/]sf] z]o/ nufgLnfO{ u}/ sfg'gL ?kn] lagf cfwf/ k|df0f d]/f kltsf] Jofkf/ Jofj. @)%* sf] bkmf !) sf] cg'.DklQ 5f]/fs} 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] pQm km}.nfdf lrQ a'em]g . d}n] kfl/t u/fO{ lnPsf] as.nfn] d]/f] xsdf klg c.a"b k|df0f / k|ltkflbt ghL/ l.s]sf] P]gsf] ."/f k|= lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] u}/sfg'gL cfo cfh{g 7x¥ofO{ hDdf d"No ?= *./x]sf] s'/f lghsf] aofg . k[i7 #*% df k|ltkflbt l.– sf] d]/f gfdsf] z]o/x? hkmt x'g] u/L ePsf] km}.nf pN6\ofO{ ab/ u/L d]/f] as.d]taf6 k|i6 /x]sf] 5 .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f gu/]sf d]/f klt k|= b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lghL cfh{gsf] .

!!.d]t b]lvG5 .d]tsf] kl/k|]Iodf km/s kg{ .fy} /fvL lgodfg'.f/ k]z ug"{ eGg] Joxf]/fsf] o.Sg] b]lvFbf c=j+=@)@ g+= sf] k|of]hgfy{ 5nkmnsf] .#! sf] cfb]z . :6\of088{ rf6{8{ a}+s -a=lx=g+= !)@)%)%*%$@)!_. a}+s ckm sf7df08' -a=lx=g+= )&)!)))&)#@@_ / glan a}+s -a=lx=g+= )!!))!#(%(#)!_ df /x]sf a}+s vftfx?df vftf vf]n]b]lv ldlt @)%(.DklQ . cbfntsf] ldlt @)^&.f/ u/L k]z ug"{ eGg] Joxf]/fsf] o.d]t bfjL lnOPsf]df .Ddsf] sf/f]af/sf] a}+s :6]6d]06 -/sd hDdf u/]sf] / /sd lems]sf] Joxf]/f v'Ng] u/L_ kq k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] # lbgleq k7fpg' egL .DklQsf] d"Nof+sg ubf{ km}.d]t ldlt @)^&.df k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfpFdf g]kfn OGe]:6d]06 a}+s -a=lx=g+= !^#@%$)_. @)#! sf] bkmf %$ .n lemsfO{ cfPkl5 nufpsf kmf}=k'=g+=#!*%.f/ k]z ug"[{ eGg] Joxf]/fsf] o.fb kf]v/]n lj?4 g]kfn .d]t hkmt u/]sf]n] pQm bkmf !) cg'. @)%( nfu" ePkl5sf] cj:yfdf vf/]h ePsf] P]gsf] .DklQnfO{ hkmt ug]{ u/]sf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.(. 36 .DalGwt a}+ssf s]Gb|Lo sfof{nox?nfO{ kqfrf/ u/L dufO{ k|:t't d'2f / nufpsf] d'2fx? . #!*&.nfdf lnOPsf cfwf/ / k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] .nf k|df0f P]g.# .@.nf ePsf] ."rgf b'a} kIfnfO{ lbO{ lgodfg'.DaGwL sfg"gL k|Zg pkl:yt eO/x]sf] 5 eg] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.s]sf] . To.nfdf k|ltjfbLx?sf] .d]t .jdf]lhd VDIS cGtu{tsf] cfos/ k|ltjfbLn] lt/L .} cbfntdf bfo/ ePsf] k'g/fj]bs O{Zj/k|.d]tsf k|ltjfbLx?sf] gfddf /x]sf] .d]tnfO{ dltof/ tkm{ bfjL ePsf]df lghx?nfO{ dltof/sf] bfjLaf6 .! sf] cfb]z ."/af6 .} u/L k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] .DklQ hkmt ug]{ t/ s. o.(.s]sf] .!$ sf] cfb]z .df o. cbfntsf] ldlt @)^&.s]sf]df VDIS lt/L .@.! df x]bf{x]b}{df /fvL lgodfg'. cbfntsf] ldlt @)^%.f] vf/]h ePsf] P]gnfO{ dfGotf lbO{ ljz]if cbfntaf6 km}. @)!& vf/]h eO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. o.kmfO{ lbg] u/]sf] tyf k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] xsdf bfjL jdf]lhdsf] ljuf] sfod gu/L sd ljuf] sfod u/L ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+af6 ePsf] km}./sf/ ePsf] e|i6frf/ d'2fsf] ldl.(."rL ^.kmfO{ lbPklg lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] VDIS cGtu{tsf] cfos/ lt/L . v08 $@-#_ sf] JofVof . #!** / #!*( sf d'2f . lxdfnog a}+s -a=lx=g+= !@(#*)J_.

o.DklQ cfk\mgf] Jofkf/ Joj.dodf clVtof/sf] b'?kof]u u/L u}/sfg"gL tj/jf6 cfh{g u/]sf] -c+z j08fjf6 k|fKt rn crn .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] . bkmf !%.DklQ hkmt u/L ?= #..|f]t v'n]sf] ?=^).f] .foaf6 cfh{gu/]sf] . cbfntsf] 7x/ lgod jdf]lhd k]zL .Dd yk s}b ./x k|yd bhf{sf] s.#@ j/fj/sf] . @)%( sf] bkmf @$ cg'?k xb}. @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{t s.DklQ.)&@. uf8L vl/b tyf z]o/ nufgL u/]sf] x'Fbf lgh k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] .Ddsf] s}b / ljuf] ?=#. lghsf] 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Jofkf/ Joj.%^^."/ ug]{ k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn] .%%.dodf u}/sfg"gL tj/af6 cldNbf] tyf c:jfefljs . @)!& sf] bkmf !$-s_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. @)%( sf] bkmf @@ sf] k|ltjGwfTds jfSo+fz cg'?k dltof/sf] s.)&@.4fy{ dlN6kn OlGi6Ro"6sf] z]o/ jfx]s_ ?=#.DklQ dWo] cf/f]kkqdf plNnlvt .'/bf/ dltof/ b]lvg cfPsf]n] lghnfO{ .'ljwf.f]xL bkmf cg'?k d"n sf/0fL .!*. nfe jfj'nfO{ lbg] / cfk"mn] lng] b'/fzoo'Qm sfo{ u/]sf] x'Fbf lghn] .fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.fojf6 cflh{t >f]t v'n]sf] .otsf] b'?kof]u u/L e|i6frf/åf/f cflh{t u}/sfg"gL ./x xb}. a}+s Jofn]G.DklQ cfo cfh{g u/]sf] b]lvg cfPsfn] k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] . Psf3/sf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn] tyf j'xf/L cGh' zdf{ jfUn] .DklQ xf] egL e'm7\7f s'/f JoQm u/L .hfo x'g tyf lghsf gfpFdf /x]sf] .fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. @)!& sf] bkmf & sf] pkbkmf -!_. . @)!& sf] bkmf !^-s_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. .@(.%%.@(.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.%%."/ u/]sf] x'Fbf lghnfO{ . @)!& sf] bkmf !%. @)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ / bkmf @)-@_ jdf]lhd u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] pk/f]Qm .@(.fy} k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] jfj'n] kbLo x}l.DklQ / j'xf/L cGh' zdf{ jfUn]sf] z]o/dWo] l. lghsf] j}+s df}Hbft. bkmf !^-u_ / xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.#@ hl/jfgf . xb}.– afx]s cGo rn crn .dIf k]z x'g cfPsf] k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] ."rLdf r9L Ohnf.Dd s}b tyf . bkmf !^-u_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] .#@ j/fj/sf] ljuf] jdf]lhd hl/jfgf.d]tsf] .DklQ tyf lgh k|ltjfbL 37 .d]tsf] .DklQ >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn].hfo u/L kfpmF .d]tsf gfpFdf 3/ 38]/L.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQnfO{ cfk\mgf] gfddf /fvL .)&@.

@)%( sf] bkmf ^% cg'.dIf ePsf] .}u/L k|ltjfbLx? tkm{af6 pkl:yt ljåfg jl/i7 clwjQmfåo >L dxfb]jk|. >L s'df/ /]UdL / >L k/z'/fd sf]O/fnfn] jx.f] . @)%( s} lg/Gt/tf xf] eGg] b]lvG5 . ck/fw x'g' eGbf cl3 38 .DklQ Psf3/sf >LdtL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] tyf j'xf/L cGh' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfpFdf /flvPsf :f|f]t gv'n]sf u}/sfg"gL rn crn .s]sf] ?=@.fb /]UdLn] jx.d]tsf] cWoog ubf{ jxfFx?n] d'Vo ?kdf b]xfosf a'Fbfx? pNn]v ug'{ ePsf] b]lvG5 M jfbL g]kfn .fj{hlgs hjfkmb]xLsf] kbdf /x]sf jvt cfh{g u/]sf] b]lvPsf] rn crn .^$.nf pk/ jfbL k|ltjfbL b'j} tkm{af6 o.lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cflh{t . a'Fbf  e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. . @)!& e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.nfdf jfbL g]kfn .DklQ cfh{g ubf{ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] .fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g./sf/sf tkm{af6 /xg' ePsf ljåfg pk–GofoflwjQmfåo >L wd{/fh kf}8]n / >L xl/k|. @)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ cGtu{tsf] s.f] afx]s .s]sf]n] dltof/df . Ohnf.DklQ .d]t Joxf]/fsf] d'Vo c/f]k dfubfjL /x]sf] b]lvG5 .|f]t v'n]sf] k'i6L x'g cfPsf] / . b'a} tkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g Joj.+nUg k|df0faf6 k'i6L x'g g.&@. .+nUgtf /x]sf] eGg] ldl.nl.&! sf] dfq .Gwfg cfof]u P]g."/ u/]sf] 7x¥ofO{ u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] .%*.n .foLx?n] ug'{ ePsf] jx.+nUgtf ck/fw x'Fbfsf] r/0fdf dfq xf]Og.()$.]jssf] ?kdf .DklQ cf/f]]kkq dfubfjL adf]lhd u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/L cfkm\gf kl/jf/ b]j]Gb| jfUn] / cGh' zd{f jfUn] .|f]t v'Ng g.'g'jfOsf l. @)%( sf] bkmf $& tyf clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'./sf/sf tkm{af6 pkl:yt ljåfgx?n] k]z ug'{ ePsf] jx. cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg kg{ cfPsf] 5 .gf]6 .xdt / .fb ofbj / >L xl/x/ bfxfnsf .DklQ ?=&).d]t . z'? ljz]if cbfntaf6 k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] /fi6«.d]tsf] dt. @)$* sf] bkmf #) jdf]lhd sf/jfxL u/L bkmf @(-v_ jd]flhd hkmt u/L kfpmF eGg] .*! sf] rn crn . ug'{ ePsf] lyof] .d]tsf gfpFdf /fvL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.  dltof/sf] .hfo+ u/L kfpFm eGg] lgh k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] pk/sf] bfjL gk'Ug] 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] km}.DklQ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf b]lvP tfklg . tyf jxfFx?n] k]z ug'{ ePsf] lnlvt jx.fy} clwjQmfx? >L clgns'df/ l.Gxf.(@&.f/ klg e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. ug'{ ePsf] lyof] . To. @)!& sf] bkmf !^-u_ tyf xfn k|rlnt e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.

DklQ j}w cfo cGtu{tsf] xf] egL k|dfl0ft ug'{ kb{5 . afa' lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] e|i6frf/ u/L sdfPsf] /sd cfkm\gf] gfpFdf cfpFb}5 eGg] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ cfkm\gf] gfpFdf /x]sf] a}+s vftfdf /sd hDdf ubf{ x'g] g} x'G5.lsg] Joj:yf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.Gwfg cffo]u P]gn] g} k|i6 u/]sf] 5 .Gwfg cfof]un] cg'. t/ .df k|Zg ug{ ldNg] cj:yf 5}g .DklQ ljj/0fsf cfwf/df klg ck|Toflzt ?kdf .'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nnfO{ b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.s]sf] cj:yf 5}g . zfGtfb]jL jfUn]n] ljz]if cbfntdf jofg ubf{ lsQf g+= #!& sf] hUuf 39 .f] eGbf c? /sd g/x]sf] egL pNn]v u/]sf] cj:yfdf ljjGwgsf] l.flos sf/f]af/ / .DklQ a9\b} uPsf] b]lvPsf] 5 .DklQ ljj/0f c:jfefljs b]lvPdf To.kmfO{ lbg] u/L ePsf] km}. P]gn] k|bfg u/]sf] clwsf/ cGtu{t g} .Sg] s'/fnfO{ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg''. e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.b tyf dGqL kbdf jxfn /xFbf tnj eQf . u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf .f+.       jf ck/fw ePkl5sf] r/0fdf klg x'g .S5 . lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] @)$*.hfo x'g' kb{5 .]jf lng .fndf k]z u/]sf] . @)%( sf] bkmf @) n] u/]sf] 5 . @)%( sf] bkmf @@ sf] k|ltaGwfTds afSof+z cg'.4fGtn] klg cGoyf c'gdfg ug{ ldNb}g . @)%# / @)%* .}n] lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ dltof/sf ?kdf .GwfgnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg ljz]if1sf] .d]taf6 %^ nfv ?k}of k|fKt u/]sf] eGg] lhsL/ lnPklg lgh :jo+n] cbfntdf jofg ubf{ ^ nfv ?k}of a}+sdf /x]sf] / .f] bfloTj k|ltjfbL kIfn] k"/f ug{ . @)!& sf] bkmf !% / e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] .nf q'l6k"0f{ /x]sf] 5 .y{ ljz]if cbfntn] dltof/sf] JofVof u/L k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ cleof]u bfjLaf6 .sf cfwf/df sf/afxL ug{ .f] af6 ePsf] cfo olsg ug{ lhDd]jf/L k|bfg ul/P x'Fbf To. To. To:tf] . clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.hfo x'g' kb{5 .DklQ cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] d'2fdf k|df0fsf] ef/ k|ltjfbLdf /xg] x'Fbf k|ltjfbLn] g} cfkm\gf] ./x . t.f/ dltof/nfO{ klg d'VonfO{ .

fo u/L sdfPsf] .f] sDkgLaf6 sDkgL /lhi6«f/sf] sfof{ndf a'emfPsf] n]vfk/LIf0f k|ltj]bgaf6 b]lvPsf] 5 .xl/axfb'/ yfkfaf6 as.d]t b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf ljleGg a}+sdf 7"nf] kl/0ffddf a}+s art /x]sf] b]lvG5 eg] .dIf u/]sf] jofg tyf lr/l~hjL jfUn] / b]j]Gb| jfUn] .hfo / .fn.Sb}g .~rfng u/]sf] g]kfn lehgaf6 hDdf !* nfv cfDbfgL u/]sf] eGg] s'/f .kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] eg]tfklg lgh :jo+n] clwsf/k|fKt clwsf/L .  b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] .g\ @))@ sf] hgj/L dlxgfdf dfq b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] JolQmut vftfdf *) nfv eGbf a9L a}+s bflvnf ePsf] b]lvPaf6 klg e|i6frf/ ePsf] tYo k'i6L x'G5 .f]xL calwdf uf8L lsGg.|f]t gv'n]sf] .Gwfg cfof]un] .fn b]lv @)%$ .d]tn] u/]sf] jofgaf6 . t. lbg' kg]{ gftfsf JolQm .d]t gePsf] x'Fbf pQm hUufnfO{ js.Dd b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] .~rfng u/]sf] Joj. a'Fbf  e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. t/ To.fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] JolQm afx]s c?nfO{ d'2f bfo/ ug{ . @)!& sf] bkmf !% e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.y{ cf/f]kkq bfjL jdf]lhd k|ltjfbLx?nfO{ . To. @)%( sf] bkmf @) b'a}nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ cleof]u nufOPsf] x'Fbf Restrospective effect x'g] u/L cleof]u nufOPsf] :ki6 x'G5 .DklQ hkmt x'g' kb{5 . k|ltjfbLx?sf tkm{af6 pkl:yt ljåfgx?n] k]z ug'{ ePsf] jx.  clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'. 40 .f] hUuf vl/b u/L lnPsf] eGg] b]lvPsf] / xl/axfb'/ yfkf js.  5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] Joj.kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] dfgL afx]s ug{ ldNg] cj:yf 5}g . hUuf lsGg / 3/ agfpg /sd lbOPsf] eGg] jofg Joxf]/f /x]sf] 5 .DklQnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ afa' lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ bf]ifL 7x/ ug{ ldNb}g . calwdf .  .fo 3f6fdf lyof] eGg] b]lvPsf] 5 .  b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] jofgaf6} @)%) .af6 klg afa' lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] e|i6frf/ u/]sf] /sd b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf /flvPsf] eGg] k'i6L x'G5 .

kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] hUufnfO{ ..nfO{ cbfntn] Gofof]lrt cg'dfg ug{ .tkm{ k|of.  Pp6f k|s[ltsf] Jofkf/ Joj.fo / .df k/L k|ltjfbL dWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] s/ 41 .DaGwdf s}lkmotdf v'nfPsf] cj:yf x'Fbf . cbfntaf6 k|ltkflbt l.nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 .s] klg To.  ljz]if cbfntaf6 a'em\g' kg]{ k|df0fx? .nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 .fn b]lv @)%( . o.DaGwdf klg ljj]s.  .d]t ePsf lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] s] slt kfl/>lds nufotsf] /sd k|fKt u/] eGg] s'/fsf] cflwsfl/s lgsfoaf6 hfgsf/L lng . lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] kfl/>lds.DklQnfO{ lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] .DklQ s]nfO{ dfGg] eGg] .d]t ga'emL km}. s]an 5f]/fsf] gfddf /x]sf] . .lsg]df ljz]if cbfntn] To.f] s}lkmot Joxf]/fnfO{ klg cfwf/ agfOg' kb{5 . @)%* n] :jo+ 3f]if0ffåf/f cfos/ lt/]df o:tf] .f] km}.f]xL ljZjf.DklQ cfof]u .nf ul/Psf] x'Fbf . b}lgs tyf e|d0feQf .foaf6 ePsf] cfonfO{ klg k|df0fdf u|x0f ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 .DaGwL :ki6 k|df0f k]z x'g g.DklQsf .Dd lg/Gt/ ?kdf k|ltlglw.  lr/l~hjL jfUnn] of] of] e|i6frf/hGo lqmof u/]sf] eGg] slxF st} ph"/L k/]sf] klg 5}g .Ddt cfwf/ agfOPsf] 5}g .dIf k]z u/]sf] ljj/0fdf 5f]/f a'xf/Lsf] .nf pN6L x'g' kg]{ cj:yf 5 .4fGtsf] /f]xdf klg .  cfly{s P]g.fn.DklQsf] >f]tsf] jf/]df s'g}klg k|of]hgsf nflu 5fgljg gul/g] egL k|lta4tf JoQm u/]sf] cfwf/df .f].efsf] .f] km}.DalGwt cGo Jofkf/ Joj.d]taf6 %^ nfv (! xhf/ eGbf a9L /sd k|fKt u/]sf] egL ljj/0f k]z x'Fbf x'Fb} To.|f]t v'n]sf] / gv'n]sf] .dfj]z u/L ljuf] sfod ul/Psf] 5 .  lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] .f] .Dd klg u/]sf] 5}g .d]t . @)$* .b:o /x]sf / k6s k6s dGqL .Sg] x'G5 .DklQ dfgL e|i6frf/ u/]sf] eGg] cf/f]kdf d'2f rnfOPsf] x'Fbf cf/f]kkq :jo+df k"jf{u|xk|]l/t /x]sf] 5 .nfO{ j}w cfosf ?kdf dfGotf glbO{ a}+sdf /x]sf] df}HbftnfO{ dfq lghsf] cfo dfgL ePsf] km}.  zfGtfb]jL jfUn]n] js.Fu .

t/ j}w sf/f]af/af6 ePsf] cfonfO{ cg'dfgsf e/df cGoyf k|dfl0ft ug{ vf]lhg' b'/fu|xk"0f{ x'G5 .|f]t vf]Hg . kmf}hbf/L cleof]u cGtu{t JolQmaf6 ePsf] s. olb b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] /fhZj 5n]sf] eP . clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'Gwfg cfof]uaf6 ljz]if1sf ?kdf lgo'Qm rf6{8{ Psfp06]06 .DaGwdf .Fu hf]8]/ x]g{ ldNg] x'Fb}g . To.df x'g] e'QmfgLdWo] cNkfOg 6«fen .DaGwdf 5'6[} cg'. .fy{s .lsG5.'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nnfO{ e|i6frf/ k|s[ltsf] ljjfbdf cg'. t/ b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] known source of income . To.fo cGtu{t ul/Psf sf/f]af/x?sf ljleGg cfofdx?nfO{ k|ltj]bgn] .df k|Zg p7fpg' x'Fb}g ."/nfO{ :ki6 ?kdf linkage gb]lvFbf.+ljwfgn] k|Tofe"t u/]sf] 5 .        bflvnf u/]sf] x'Fbf lghsf] sf/f]af/ / lghn] u/]sf] cfo j}w xf] eGg] k'i6L ePsf] 5 .s]sf] cj:yf 5}g . 5fgljgsf] bfo/fdf kfg{ . o:tf] s/ .lsG5 .|f]t b]vfP/ s/ bflvn u/]sf] 5 .|f]t b]vfpg . k]zf Joj. tflnd / cg'ejsf ljifodf cleof]hg kIfn] :ki6 ug{ g. c+s *_ df VDIS Pay ug]{n] cfos/ P]g cGtu{tsf] known .Gwfg u/L sf/afxL ug{ .DaGw b]lvPkl5 To.b:o. t/ To.sf] .dfj]z ul/Psf] 5}g .DaGwL scheme eg]sf] dishonesty nfO{ qmlds ?kdf honesty df abNg] pkfo ePsfn] of] /fHosf] gLlt cGtu{t kb{5 .Djf]wg u/]sf] 5}g .le{.f] k|ltj]bgdf l6s]l6ª / xf]6naf6 cfpg] sldzgnfO{ k"0f{tM .lsG5.fb kf]v/]nsf] d'2f -g]=sf=k=@)^^. o:tf] scheme NofpFbf /fHon] JoQm u/]sf] k|lta4tf k"/f ug'{ /fHosf] bfloTj xf] . 6]«lsª Joj./L bflvn u/]sf] s/ / lghsf] sf/f]af/sf aLrdf . b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] sf/f]af/ olsg ug]{ .Dd kl/jf/sf cGo . O{Zj/k|. 42 .Gwfg ug]{ of]Uotf. sf/f]jf/sf ljleGg k|s[lt / To.lsFb}g .'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]naf6 k]z ul/Psf] k|ltj]bg cfkm}+df k"0f{ 5}g .s]sf] x'Fbf lghsf] k|ltj]bgnfO{ k|df0fdf u|x0f ug{ ldNb}g .nfO{ e|i6frf/sf] ljifoj:t' dfgL hfoh / j}w cfonfO{ OGsf/ ug{ .fo ug{ kfpg] xs .f] . b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] u/]sf] sf/f]af/nfO{ klg ToxL .+j}wflgs k|Tofe"lt cGtu{t x]l/g' kb{5 .

lsgeg] Pp6} .Lx?dWo] s'g}af6 sldzg kfpg] / s'g}af6 sldzg gkfpg] eGg] x'Fb}g .Dk"0f{ ljj/0f k|:t't ul/Psf] 5. a'Fbf .=h= % dxTjk"0f{ 5.dIf jofgsf qmddf cfkm\gf] cfo egL pNn]v u/]sf] /sd / lghn] j}wflgs .DklQsf] .|f]tsf] j}wtf cbfntaf6 k/LIf0f ug{ ldNg] x'G5 jf x'Fb}g < #= k|ltjfbL dWo]sf lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.|f]t dflgPaf6 klg k|ltj]bg ck"0f{ /x]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . zfGtfb]jL jfUn] / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] 43 . To.'gfpg] tf/]v tf]lsPsf]df .Gwfg cfof]usf] lgb]{zgdf tof/ kfl/Psf] xf].  ./L s/ a'emfPsf] .+:yf dfkm{t ePsf sfd sf/afxLsf] .n cWoog u/L b'j} tkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g Joj.nf ldn] gldn]sf] s] /x]5 eGg] . To:tf] q'l6k"0f{ k|ltj]bgsf cfwf/df cfo sfod u/L ePsf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.'lg/ s'df/ 9'+u]nsf] k|ltj]bg ck"0f{ / k"jf{u|x k|]l/t . @)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ .f] k|ltj]bg clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.f q]ml86 sf8{ tkm{sf] e'QmfgLnfO{ dfq sf/f]af/ dfgL cfosf] .d]tsf cfwf/df x]bf{ d'Vo ?kdf b]xfosf k|Zgx?sf] lg/f]k0f u/L ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] ldlt @)^!.DaGwdf lg0f{o lbg' kg]{ ePsf] 5 M != e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.$.dfkm{t ePsf] le.  ljz]if cbfntdf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] jofgsf] . To. k|:t't d'2fdf cfh lg0f{o .foLx?n] p7fpg' ePsf] ax.nf :jtM q'l6k"0f{ x'Fbf pN6L u/L k|ltjfbLx?n] cleof]u bfjLaf6 . h'g s'/f lgh 9'+u]nn] u/]sf] askqaf6 klg k'i6L x'G5 .& sf] km}.|f]taf6 k|fKt u/]sf] egL k]z u/]sf sfuhftx?af6 b]lvPsf] kfl/>lds nufotsf] cfosf aLrdf cGt/ /x]sf] cj:yfdf lghsf] jf:tljs cfo lgwf{/0f ubf{ s'g s'/fnfO{ cfwf/ agfpg' kg]{ x'G5 < $= k|ltjfbLx? dWo] lr/l~hjL jfUn].nfO{ .df lghsf] .+:yfn] sfd u/]sf ljleGg Ph]G.Dk"0f{ ldl.Gwfg cfof]u / ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+ . @)!& sf] bkmf !% sf] lg/Gt/tf xf] xf]Og < @= lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] :jo+ cfo 3f]if0ff ug]{ -VDIS_ Joj:yf cGtu{t cfo 3f]if0ff u/L s/ a'emfPsf] cj:yfdf To.kmfO{ kfpg' kb{5 .Djf]wg gu/]sf] .d]t 5 .

"/df k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] .+of]hsTjdf /x]sf] d"Nof+sg .Gbe{df lnvtdf pNn]v ePsf] d"No jf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] .|f]t gv'n]sf] .j{k|yd.% b]lv nfu" ePsf] pQm P]gsf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ df /x]sf] sfg"gL Joj:yf / .DklQ / . @)!& sf] bkmf !% df /x]sf] sfg"gL Joj:yf b]xfo jdf]lhd /x]sf] 5 M 44 .Gbe{df k|ltjfbLsf] .Gwfg cfof]u . @)!& nfO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] egL lghL cfh{g cGtu{tsf] dfgL afx]s ug{ ldNg] x'G5 jf x'Fb}g < ^= k|ltjfbL dWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn] .foaf6 ePsf] sf/f]jf/ / lghsf] v'b cfo lglZrt ug]{ .DaGwL tYox?nfO{ .Gwfg cfof]u. @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ .DklQ olsg ug]{ cfwf/af6 lgisif{ lgsfNb} lg0f{odf k'Ug' kg]{ b]lvg cfpF5 .gfddf /x]sf] hUufsf] ljuf] sfod ug]{ .+nUg /x]sf] Joj.'lg/ s'df/ 9'+u]nåf/f clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'. .du| Joj.kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] eGg] lnvtaf6 b]lvPsf] cj:yfdf To:tf] hUufnfO{ js. ldlt @)%(.fljssf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.dIf k|:t't ul/Psf] k|ltj]bgn] .d]6]/ ljZn]if0f u/L lgisif{df k'u]sf] cj:yf b]lvG5 jf b]lvFb}g < / lghsf] v'b cfo s] slt sfod x'g] x'G5 < &= k|ltjfbL dWo]sf lr/l~hjL jfUn]af6 ePsf] elgPsf] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf . @)%( n] vf/]h u/]sf] 5 .ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] d"No dWo] s'g d"NonfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ ljuf] sfod ug'{ kg]{ xf] < %= k|ltjfbL dWo]sL zfGtf jfUn]n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.#.flos sf/f]jf/ . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.dIf jofgsf qmddf lsQf g+= #!& sf] hUuf vl/b u/]sf] egL pNn]v u/]sf] t/ .DaGwdf cfwf/ agfOPsf] .f] hUuf js.|f]t v'n]sf] . @)!& sf] bkmf !% sf] lg/Gt/tf xf] xf]Og < eGg] k|Zgsf] lg?k0f ul/g' kg]{ b]lvG5 . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.+nUgtf b]lvG5 jf b]lvFb}g / lghnfO{ dltof/sf] ?kdf lng ldNg] cj:yfsf] ljBdfgtf 5 jf 5}g < log} k|Zgx?sf] .fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQ cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] eGg] s.

'v.s]df afx]s u}/sfg"gL ?kn] l/. rGbf jf as.DklQ ljj/0f cldNbf] tyf c:jfefljs b]lvg cfPdf jf lghn] dgfl.j sf/0f lagf cldNbf] / c:jfefljs pRr hLjg:t/ ofkg u/]df jf cfkm\gf] x}l. To.Ddsf] cfDbfgLsf] >f]tsf] cg'kftdf gldNbf] cfly{s ./L gldNbf] pRr hLjg:t/ agfPsf] jf c? s.go'Qm .'zf.}nfO{ bfg.fljs P]gnfO{ lj:yflkt ug]{ xfnsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]gsf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ n] u/]sf] Joj:yf .}nfO{ 7"nf] bfg bftJo as. g}ltstf / .e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.sf] sf/0f / To.j{.Gtf]ifhgs x'g] . @)%( sf] k|:tfjgfn] klg k'i6L ub{5 .bfrf/ sfod /fVg e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fsf 45 . s'g} klg sfg"gsf] JofVof ubf{ To.fydf /x]sf] lghsf] / lghsf] kl/jf/sf .fk6L.DklQ ePsf] jf lghn] To. pQm P]gsf] k|:tfjgfdf :ki6 ?kdf æ.DalGwt ljwfog lgdf{0fsf] cfjZostf.DklQ u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] dflgg]5 . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.f/e"t ?kdf g} km/s /x]sf] eGg] k|ltjfbL kIfsf] egfO{ /x]sf] 5 . @)%( sf] bkmf @)= u}/sfg"gL ?kdf . bftJo.nf ab/ x'g .fljs P]gsf] bkmf !% sf] Joj:yf eGbf ."/bf/ 7x¥ofO{ cbfntaf6 km}.g. o.fwg jf .{g ldNb}g .DklQ s] s:tf] >f]taf6 cfh{g u/]sf] xf] eGg] s'/fsf] lghn] k|dfl0ft ug'{kg]{5 / gu/]df To:tf] . . pkxf/.Gbe{df e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. jf:tjdf sfg"gsf] JofVof eg]s} ljwflosL dg.fwf/0fsf] .oteGbf a9L s.hfo x'g] s'g} s. k|:t't d'2fsf . @)!& sf] bkmf !%= cg'dflgt s.fo cyf{t\ .f] km}."/ M of] P]g cGtu{t .n] u|x0f u/]sf] p2]Zo kQf nufpg' xf] . lbPsf] km]nf k/]df lghn] cbfntnfO{ To. zflGt / cfly{s lxtsf] lgldQ .dfhdf cfly{s cg'zf. . s'/fnfO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.b:ox?sf] yfxf eP.]jssf] .fj{hlgs kb wf/0f u/]sf] dflgg] /fi6«. @)%( sf] k|f/Desf] p2]Zo eg]sf] b]zdf JofKt x'Fb} uPsf] e|i6frf/sf] hfnf]nfO{ tf]8\g] / .]jsn] k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd k]z u/]sf] .sf] .nf ePsf] 5 eGb}df .j'b lbg ."/df cleof]u nfu]sf] /fi6«. lbPsf] k|dfl0ft ePdf To:tf] . @)!& sf] vf/]hL / e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQ cfh{g u/]sf] dflgg]M -!_ k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd .sf] p2]ZonfO{ klg ljrf/ k'¥ofOg' kb{5 eGg] s'/fnfO{ lj.dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ g} xf] .Sb}g .jt lnPsf] cg'dfg ul/g]5 / s]jn cg'dfgsf] cfwf/df s.

@)!& sf] bkmf !% df cg'dflgt s. . lbPsf] ljifo.DaGwdf .fk6L.d]t ePsf] u}x| sfg"gL .fwg jf . c+s *.d]t 46 .DklQ cfh{g u/]sf] dflgg] Joj:yf u/]sf] kfOG5 ."/ .DklQ cfh{g u/]sf] dflgg] Joj:yfsf] d"n dd{ eg]sf] tL b'a} sfg"gL Joj:yf /fi6«.fljs / xfnsf b'a} sfg"gL Joj:yfnfO{ tflTjs ?kdf km/s /x]sf] egL cy{ ug{ / dfGg ldNg] cj:yf b]lvFb}g ."/sf ?kdf kl/eflift u/]sf].fk6L."/sf ?kdf kl/eflift ub}{ .dfofg's"n sfg"gL Joj:yf ug{ jf~5gLo ePsf]Æ s'/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .DklQ ePsf] jf gldNbf] pRr hLjg:t/ agfPsf] jf c? s.f.d:ofnfO{ .}nfO{ cfkm\gf] x}l.. sfg"gsf] JofVof ubf{ klg of] kIfnfO{ Wofg lbg} kb{5 .DalGwt /x]sf] / ljjflbt b'a} sfg"gL Joj:yfn] cfDbfgLsf] >f]tsf] cg'kftdf gldNbf] cfly{s . rGbf jf as. pkxf/.dfhdf cfly{s cg'.ot eGbf a9L bfg.af6 g]kfn . g}ltstf / .hfo . rGbf jf as.fwg jf .s]sf] 5 . s'g} klg gofF aGg] sfg"gn] ljutsf sdL sdhf]/LnfO{ x6fpg] p2]Zo /fv]sf] x'G5.Fu gldNbf] cfly{s .fb kf]v/]n . lbPsf] ljifo.]jssf] cfDbfgLsf] >f]tsf] cg'kftdf lgh. .s]sf] eGg] :ki6 x'G5 .Fu gldNbf] cfly{s .dofg's"n sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] cfjZostfjf]w ul/Paf6 g} tTsfnLg sfg"gL Joj:yfn] . ljutdf ePsf ck/fwhGo lqmofnfO{ pGd"lQm lbg] u/L .fljs P]gsf] bkmf !% df ul/Psf] cg'dflgt s.df æe|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQ /fv]sf] jf cfDbfgLsf] t'ngfdf gldNbf] pRr hLjg:t/ agfPsf] jf c? s.Fu . bftJo. h.Djf]wg ug{ g.fdfGotof sfg"gx? aGb}gg\ .f] .hfo .}nfO{ cfkm\gf] x}l."/ .DklQ cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] d'2f -g]=sf=k=@)^^.DaGwdf o. oL b'a} sfg"gL Joj:yf /fi6«./sf/ lj= O{Zj/k|. lg=g+=*@)).bfrf/ sfod /fVg . o.]jssf] cfDbfgLsf] >f]tsf] cg'kftdf lgh.}nfO{ 7"nf] bfg.fwg jf . pkxf/. bftJo.fk6L.DaGwL Joj:yf / jt{dfg P]gsf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ n] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf . pkxf/. lbPsf] sfo{nfO{ s. b'a}sf nflu . bftJo.DalGwt /x]sf] / To:tf] sfo{nfO{ s. . .ot eGbf a9L bfg. k[i7 !@#%_ df klg lj:t[t ?kdf ljj]rgf e} . .g.Fu .DklQ ePsf] jf gldNbf] pRr hLjg:t/ agfPsf] jf c? s. .d]t tf]lsPsf] / b'a}df k|df0f k'¥ofpg' kg]{ ef/ k|ltjfbLdf g} /flvPsf] l:yltdf .DaGwL Joj:yf /x]sf] b]lvG5 eg] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. @)%( sf] bkmf @) n] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf . rGbf jf as. cbfntsf] a[xt\ k"0f{ Ohnf.

@)#! tyf .DklQsf] .Fu .s]sf] x'Fbf ./L cfly{s P]gn] cfos/ k|of]hgsf nflu To:tf] Joj:yf u/]sf] / To.dfg -Equal Footing_ sf xf]Ogg\ / kl5Nnf] P]gsf] bkmf @)-!_ sf] Joj:yf klxnf] P]gsf] bkmf !% sf] lg/Gt/tf xf]Og egL eGg' sfg"g JofVof .DklQsf] >f]tsf] jf/]df s'g}klg k|of]hgsf nflu 5fgljg ul/g] 5}g .lsPg .DaGwL Joj:yf ul/Psf] kfOG5 .DklQsf] @)%* >fj0f ! df /x]sf] d"Nosf] !) k|ltztn] :jo+ 3f]if0ffåf/f cfos/ lt/]df o:tf] .y{ o. bf]./L cfos/ lt/]sf] cj:yfdf :jo+ 3f]if0ff ul/Psf] .d]tsf] lhsL/ u/]sf] kfOG5 . cg'.#) df . To."/sf .$^).d]tn] cg'dlt k|bfg gug]{ eGg] . pQm cfly{s P]g. .Gbe{df .Dd cfh{g u/]sf] t/ o:tf] cfodf nfUg] s/ glt/]sf] JolQmn] @)%* kf}if leq o:tf] . Ohnf. @)!& sf] bkmf !% sf] lg/Gt/tf xf]Æ egL JofVof e}.fljs e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.d]tsf cfwf/df xfnsf] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. .DaGwdf xfn cfP/ k|Zg p7fpg gldNg] eGg] .xdt x'g ."rL ^ sf] bkmf $@-!_ df cfosf] :jo+s/ 3f]if0ff . @)%* sf] bkmf bkmf !) cGtu{tsf] cg'.f]xL sfg"gL Joj:yfsf cfwf/df s'g} 5fgljg gul/g] ljZjf.'s} >f]taf6 k|fKt u/]sf] cfo ePklg cfos/ P]g.fljsdf k|rlnt g]kfn sfg"g adf]lhd cfos/ nfUg] @)%& cfiff9 d. h.fGt.s]sf] .– cfos/ bflvn u/]sf] eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g . @)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ sf] Joj:yf .(@.DaGwdf cfwf/ agfPsf] sfg"gL Joj:yfnfO{ x]g'{ kg]{ x'G5 . t. @)%* nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ cfos/ bflvn u/]sf] eGg] b]lvG5 .tf]lsPsf] / k|df0f k'¥ofpg' kg]{ ef/ k|ltjfbLdf /flvPsf] l:yltdf oL b'a}nfO{ Ps} .|f] k|Zg cyf{t\ lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] :jo+ cfo 3f]if0ff ug]{ -VDIS_ Joj:yf cGtu{t cfo 3f]if0ff u/L s/ a'emfPsf] cj:yfdf To. o. lghn] cfly{s P]g.f/ – h:tf].af6 yk ljj]rgf / JofVof ug]{ cfjZostf / cj:yf b]lvPg .4fGt tyf e|i6frf/ h:tf s7f]/ bfloTjo'Qm s.@^ / ldlt @)%*.!).DaGwdf k|ltjfbLx?af6 lnOPsf] lhsL/.DaGwdf x]bf{ k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbLdWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] ldlt @)%*. ca.DklQsf] >f]tsf] 47 .df k/L cfkm"n] cfkm\gf] cfDbfgL ljj/0f v'Ng] .DaGwL l.f] .d]t u/L hDdf ?= #%. o.a} sfuhftx? gi6 u/L . .|f]tsf] j}wtf cbfntaf6 k/LIf0f ug{ ldNg] x'G5 jf x'Fb}g < eGg] .(.DaGwdf ljrf/ ubf{ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L s/ ltg]{ ./L s/ a'emfPsf] .DaGwdf cjnDjg ul/Fb} cfPsf] Goflos cEof.f] eGbf km/s ?kdf o./L s/ a'emfPsf] cj:yfdf .

f/sf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'. o:t} ljifo .+emg / dfGg ldNg] cj:yf gb]lvg]Æ egL l.@& df 48 . @)!& / e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.af6 ldlt @)^).jf/]df s'g}klg k|of]hgsf nflu 5fgljg gul/g] elgPsf] s'/fnfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ cfos/ afx]s cGo s'g} klg k|of]hgsf nflu .lsg] x'Fb}g .lrjfno .d]t ePsf] e|i6frf/ d'2fdf o.]js afx]ssf cGo JolQm ./sf/ lj= O{Zj/k|.+ljwfgsf] wf/f (*-!_ cg'.+/If0f d~rsf tkm{af6 clwsf/k|fKt clwjQmf k|sfzd0fL zdf{ .s]sf] b]lvG5 .d]t lt/L . plNnlvt JofVof eGbf klg cem km/s ?kdf clwjQmf sdn]z låj]bLsf] d'2f -)^%–WS–))!(_ df o.d]tnfO{ cg'.Fu To.Sb}g .Fu aflemPsf] egL lgj]bs hglxt .Dat\ @)%( .dflxt u/]sf] kl/k|]Iodf /fi6«.af6 ldlt @)^&. cGo k|of]hg.DaGwL o:tf] vfnsf] gLltut Joj:yfaf6 . @)%* sf] pQm sfg"gL Joj:yf s/ Joj:yfkg. lsgeg] cfly{s P]g."rL ^ sf] bkmf $@ sf] pkbkmf -!_ / -#_ sf] Joj:yfnfO{ . st{Jo / clwsf/ k|bfg ul/Psf] x'Fbf cGo .+s'lrt / lgolGqt u/]sf] eGg g. hxfF.$.fdfGo sfg"gn] .Gwfg cfof]un] cg'. cl3 g} cfly{s P]g.d]t 5fgljgsf] bfo/fdf Nofpg gldNg] egL .! df æVDIS .DaGw 5}g / x'g klg .@.+ljwfg cg'?k ul7t ePsf] / cfof]unfO{ .]js afx]ssf cGo JolQmn] VDIS sfo{qmd dfkm{t cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L s/ .fb kf]v/]nsL Psf3/sL >LdtL piff kf]v/]nn] VDIS sfo{qmd dfkm{t cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L s/ lt/]s} cfwf/df lghnfO{ k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbL agfpg jf lghsf] gfddf /x]sf] .Sg] cj:yf klg x'Fb}g . @)%* sf] bkmf !) cGtu{tsf] cg'.Gwfgsf] bfo/fleq .DklQsf] .y{ k|:t't d'2fsf d'Vo k|ltjfbL O{Zj/k|.s]sf] 5 eg] To.+s'lrt t'Nofpg .d]t .DklQsf] .af6 æe|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.dfj]z ePsf] k"j{ p4[t g]kfn .lsg]Æ egL JofVof e} .Dd clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.lsg] u/L lj:tf/ ug{ . @)%( b'a}n] /fi6«.DklQsf] >f]t v'nfpg' kg]{ jfWotf gx'g] egL pGd'lQm lbg' kg]{ s'g} cfwf/ / sf/0f b]lvFb}g .Fu dfq . cbfntsf] ljz]if Ohnf.sf] .+ljwfgåf/f g} sfd.DalGwt 5 .+j}wflgs c+usf] clwsf/ If]qnfO{ . pQm cfof]u . cbfntsf] j[xt\ k"0f{ Ohnf.s]kl5 lghnfO{ cGo k|rlnt sfg"g adf]lhd . t. cbfntsf] ljz]if Ohnf.+ljwfg.fnsf] l/6 g+= *$ sf] l/6 lgj]bgdf o.Gbe{ cfpF5.d]t ePsf] .Gwfg ug]{ .|f]t vf]Hg g.d]t lj?4 dlGqkl/ifb\ .fb kf]v/]n .4fGt sfod e}.Gwfg cfof]usf] clwsf/nfO{ .|f]t vf]Hg jf lghnfO{ .

# sf] g]kfn /fhkqdf k|sflzt . .DklQdf cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds eQf nufotsf .DalGwt lgsfo.%@ nfO{ dfq cfo dfgL u/]sf] km}. k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] ljz]if cbfntaf6 cfkm\gf] j}w cfonfO{ .|f]taf6 k|fKt u/]sf] egL k]z u/]sf sfuhftx?af6 b]lvPsf] kfl/>lds nufotsf] cfosf aLrdf cGt/ /x]sf] cj:yfdf lghsf] jf:tljs cfo lgwf{/0f ubf{ s'g s'/fnfO{ cfwf/ agfpg' kg]{ x'G5 < eGg] k|Zg p7\g' :jfefljs 5 .'s} .@)^%.%@ dfq xf] eGg] b]lvg cfPsf] / cleof]ukqdf .(!!.b tyf dGqL kbdf /xFbf tnj eQf ?=%^.4fGtx?sf] kl/k|]Iodf klg cfos/ a'emfPsf] eGg] dfq cfwf/df k|ltjfbL dWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] .do .f] tkm{sf] k|ltjfbLx?sf] lhsL/.|f]taf6 cfh{g u/]sf] .DklQsf] .d]t u0fgf gul/Psf] egL lhsL/ lnPsf] .DklQsf] .xdt x'g .|f]t af/]df 5fgljg ug{ gkfpg]. o. ljifodf k|j]z u/L cbfntn] lg?k0f ug{ gldNg] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf] b]lvG5 . k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn] :jo+n] 49 .lsPg . k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] o.|f]taf6 cflh{t /sd k/]sf] 5 egL k|ltjfbLn] lhsL/ lng g.lsg] 5}g eGg] Joj:yfnfO{ ab/ x'g] 7x¥ofPsf] 5 .Fu klg . s'g} klg lgsfon] x]g{ jf k|df0fdf lng gkfpg] Pj+ tL sfuhftsf] cfwf/df 3f]ifs pk/ s'g} klg P]g jdf]lhd d'2f rnfpg / .^^.*% k|fKt u/]sf] egL k]z u/]sf] ljj/0fsf .@%!.f] tkm{ ljrf/ ubf{ ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+n] :jo+ k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]s} jofgaf6 lghsf] kfl/>lds tyf eQf .hfo ug{af6} /f]s nfuPsf] b]lvPsf] eGg] .DaGwdf ljz]if cbfntn] . t/. cbfnt .s]sf] x'Fbf To.nf q'l6k"0f{ 5 egL lhsL/ lnPsf] kfOG5 .^.(!.DaGwdf 5fgljg jf k/LIf0f ug{ gldNg] eGg] cj:yf b]lvPg .d]tsf cfwf/df bkmf #$ df plNnlvt h'g.|f]tsf] j}wflgstfsf . .(!!. t.hfo ug{ ."rgfsf] bkmf #$ sf] Joj:yfn] cfk/flws jf u}/sfg"gL ?kaf6 cfh{g u/L pQm cfb]z jdf]lhd :jo+ 3f]if0ff u/L /fHonfO{ s/ ltl/Psf] . To.dIf k'g/fj]bg ubf{ cfkm"n] !) jif{eGbf a9L .d]tsf] art ?=^.dIf jofgsf qmddf cfkm\gf] cfo egL pNn]v u/]sf] /sd / lghn] j}wflgs .f+.Gbe{df k|ltjfbL dWo]sf lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'. cbfntaf6 k|ltkflbt plNnlvt l.^^.DklQsf] .y{ .DaGwL sfuhftx? uf]Ko /xg].Gwfg cfof]u / ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+ .Fu a'emL cfo olsg ug'{ kg]{df a}+sdf /x]sf] ?=^.|f]tsf af/]df a'em\g / .|f]t gv'n]sf] egL bfjL lnPsf .

c? .DklQsf] .d]t 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.DklQsf] .nfO{ cd's .^^.|f]t eg]sf] 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.=h=$ / ^_ df :ki6 ?kdf cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds.DklQ 5f]/f b]j]Gb|sf] cfh{gsf] .foaf6 cflh{t /sd g} xf] egL k6s k6s pNn]v u/]sf] cj:yfdf cfkm\gf] cGo cfo klg /x]sf] egL lhsL/ lnFb}df To.DklQnfO{ cfkm\gf] cfo. cfkm\gf] gfddf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft afx]s cfkm\gf] tyf kl/jf/sf cGo .dIf u/]sf] jofg -.af6 k6s k6s . t/ of] k|Zgsf] .s]sf] kfO{+b}g .(!!./L lgoldt ?kdf kfl/>lds nufotsf] . j}b]lzs e|d0faf6 kfPsf] /sd g]kfn a}+s ln= / g]kfn OGe]i6d]G6 a}+sdf ^ nfv /fv]sf] 5'.d]t uPsf] eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g .b kbdf jxfn /xL lar lardf dGqLsf] lhDd]jf/L .DklQdf k/]sf] 5 egL v'nfpg .f] .sf qmddf .DklQsf] . To.@%!. jx.d]t jxg u/]sf] / k6s k6s ljb]z e|d0fdf .DaGwdf :ki6 ug{ cfu|x ubf{ k|ltjfbL tkm{sf ljåfg sfg"g Joj.DklQsf] .f+.s]sf] / b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] klg cfkm\gf] tyf kl/jf/sf cGo .cbfnt . k/Gt' lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] jofgsf qmddf cfkm\gf] gfddf a}+sdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ dfq cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds.DklQdWo] s] s'g .b:osf] gfddf /x]sf] . eQf.'ljwf kfpg] kbdf 50 .foaf6 ePsf] cfoaf6 vl/b u/]sf] egL lhsL/ lng] lyPgg\ egL :jfefljs cg'dfg ug{ . eQf nufotaf6 ePsf] cfDbfgL ?=%^.Gtf]ifhgs / j:t'k/s hjfkm k|ltjfbL :jo+n] lbg g.foLn] k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf gfdsf] a}+s vftfdf /x]sf] ?=^.|f]tsf ?kdf lghsf] kfl/>lds nufotsf] olt /sd k/]sf] 5 egL v'nfpg .d]t Ohnf.|f]tsf ?kdf dfGotf lbg ldNg] b]lvPg . eQf nufotsf] /sd dfg]tfklg lgh @)$* .'ljwfdf vl/b u/]sf] uf8L .|f]t.lsG5 .=h= ^ df_ x'Fbf cbfntn] cGoyf JofVof u/L lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] yk cfo sfod ug{ / To.dIf u/]sf] k'g/fj]bgdf klg cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds nufotsf] .Dk"0f{ .a} .b:osf gfdsf] .(!. cbfnt .|f]taf6 k|fKt cfo lgh tyf kl/jf/sf .*% /x]sf] cj:yf lyof] eg] lghn] cfkm\g} kTgL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] 3/ hUuf / cfkm"n] .b:osf] gfddf /x]sf] rn crn .DklQ xf].%@ afx]ssf] cGo rn crn .|f]t dfGg] eGg] k|Zg p7\g' :jfefljs x'G5 .fnb]lv lg/Gt/ ?kdf .Fu cGof]Gofl>t u/fO{ jofg u/]sf] -.d]t b]j]Gb|sf] Jofkf/sf] cfh{gaf6 hf]l8Psf] xf] egL n]vfPsf] / o.nfO{ s'g . cfkm\gf gfddf /x]sf] uf8L . olb lghsf] j}w cfo cyf{t\ kfl/>lds.Sg' ePg .

zfGtf jfUn] / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] hUufsf] ljuf] sfod ug]{ . ljz]if cbfntn] kfl/t lnvtsf cfwf/df hUufsf] hDdf d"No ?=^&.ldltsf] d"Nof+sg d'r'NsfnfO{ cfwf/ agfOPsf] 5 .L .DaGwdf cGo k|df0f sfuhn] cGoyf k|dfl0ft ePdf afx]s /lhi6«]zg kfl/t lnvt d"NonfO{ g} hUuf hldgsf] vl/b÷ljqmLsf] d"No dflgg] s'/f pNn]v ePsf] .fdfGo dfGotfx? -General Norms_ nfO{ .nfO{ 5'6[} cl:tTj k|bfg ug{ ldNg] cfwf/ b]lvg cfPg .dIf ldlt @)^&.Hhf / kmlg{r/ afx]ssf] cGo .Gwfg cfof]un] cldNbf] tyf c:jfefljs hLjg ofkg .DaGwdf cjnDjg u/]sf .DaGwdf ljrf/ ubf{ jfbL kIfsf] k'g/fj]bgdf d'VotM cg'.Gbe{df k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] o.L cfjZostfsf cfwf/df 3/fo. kl/jf/sf] b}lgs hLljsf]kfh{g / cGo e}k/L cfpg] vr{df .ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] d"No dWo] s'g d"NonfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ ljuf] sfod ug'{ kg]{ xf] < eGg] .*@.Gbe{df lnvtdf pNn]v ePsf] d"No jf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] .– dfq ljuf] sfod u/]sf] 5 .fh.%). .ot t'ngf u/L c:jfefljs cfh{g xf] jf xf]Og egL olsg ug'{ kg]{.+of]hsTjdf /x]sf] d"Nof+sg . cbfnt .*^(.fy k]z u/]sf] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.+efjgfnfO{ klg OGsf/ ug{ ldNb}g . cleof]ukq./x]sf JolQmn] 3/fo. lnvtsf] d"NonfO{ .Gbe{df ljz]if cbfntaf6 .fdfgx? hf]8\b} hfg] :jfefljs .+efjgfnfO{ gsfg{ .!(.y{ lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds nufotsf] .DklQ.|f]taf6 cflh{t /sdsf .Fu hf]8]/ To.Gwfg ubf{ sfod ePsf] d"Nos} cfwf/df lghsf] jt{dfg cfly{s x}l.fy k|:t't ul/Psf] ljj/0f cg'.DaGwdf lghsf] gfddf a}+sdf /x]sf] /sd afx]s 3/sf] cfGtl/s .%.– sfod ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . t.Sg] .! df k|df0f a'emL kfpmF eGg] Joxf]/fsf] lgj]bg . a}+sdf hDdf ePsf] afx]ssf] /sd To:t} 3/fo.L .!).DklQsf] d"No dfGg gldNg] egL lhsL/ lnOPsf] b]lvG5 .f/ zfGtfb]jL jfUn] / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf sf7df8f}+ / lrtjg lhNnfdf /x]sf hUufx?sf] s"n d"No ?=!./L d"No sfod ubf{ sf7df8f}+sf] xsdf sf7df8f}+sf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/L / lrtjgsf] xsdf ToxfFsf k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] cWoIftfdf ul7t d"Nof+sg . To.!( sf] lg0f{oaf6 ljsl.))).d]t k|of]u ePsf] x'g .f] Norms df hUuf hldgsf] vl/b÷ljqmLsf] d"No .fdu|Lx?.d]t Ohnf. k|ltjfbLx? dWo] lr/l~hjL jfUn]. o.lsFb}g .af6 cWoog ul/Psf] lyof] .f] Norms eGbf km/s ?kdf d"Nof+sg u/]sf] eGg] klg b]lvFb}g .t ul/Psf] 51 .} . pQm Norms cfof]usf] ldlt @)^).

kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] egL lghL cfh{g cGtu{tsf] dfgL afx]s ug{ ldNg] x'G5 52 . hxfF. jfbL kIfaf6 d"Nof+sg .lsG5 .ldltsf] d"Nof+sg d'r'NsfnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL hUufsf] d"Nof+sg k|:t't u/]tfklg lnvt d"NonfO{ cGoyf xf] egL k'i6L ug]{ k|oTg slxF st} u/]sf] kfO{+b}g . lrtjg v}/xgL *s l:yt lsQf g+= &!* P]=&u l:yt lsQf g+= $&#.dIf jofgsf qmddf lsQf g+= #!& sf] hUuf vl/b u/]sf] egL pNn]v u/]sf] t/ . k|ltjfbL dWo]sL zfGtf jfUn]n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'. $$!. @)%) . cl3 g} bfo/ ePsf] k|:t't d'2fdf cfslif{t x'g] cj:yf klg 5}g .f] xb. *$&.fndf :jefjtM a9L g} x'G5.Gbe{ cfpF5.nf .d]6\g .d]t a'emfO{ kfl/t u/L lnPsf] lnvtnfO{ ck|dfl0ft bfjLs} e/df cGoyf .Dd ljleGg ldltdf vl/b ul/Psf] eGg] s'/f cleof]ukqdf pNn]v ePsf] ljj/0faf6} b]lvg cfpF5 .fsf] dfq_ tyf lrtjg h'6kfgL %s l:yt lsQf g+= #)&. lsgeg] k|d'v lhNnf clwsf/Lsf] cWoIftfdf ul7t d"Nof+sg .fndf vl/b ul/lng] JolQmn] ToxL . $&). @!&@.fndf vl/b ul/Psf] hUufsf] ahf/ d"No @)%( .fn.sf] . @%). $$@. Tof] :jefjtM vl/b jf k|fKt ul/Ps} .*^(. *$%. *$#.ldltn] xfnsf] ahf/ d"No .*@. t. hUuf hldgsf] d"No .Gwfg cfof]u.dodf k|rlnt d"No xfnL hUuf vl/b ul/lnPsf] lyof] egL :jfefljs cg'dfg ug{ .Dd ljjflbt lsQf hUufx?sf] d"No / To.f] hUuf js.Dd ldn]s} b]lvg cfof] . $)*. $$%.doqmddf kl/jt{g x'g' :jfefljs} b]lvG5 .|f]tsf] klxrfg ug]{ . #!& / b]j]Gb| jfUn] gfdsf sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= @( l:yt lsQf g+=!^$*.+1f lbg klg ldNb}g .b]lvFbf To. *$(. ljjflbt hUufx? @)%) . #)^. $$#.y{ lnvt d"NonfO{ cfwf/ dfgL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] gfdsf sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= &3 l:yt lsQf g+= $$$.kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] eGg] lnvtaf6 b]lvPsf] cj:yfdf To:tf] hUufnfO{ js.– ljuf] sfod u/]sf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.d]tnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL d"No sfod ug]{ x'Fbf vl/b÷ljqmLsf] .Sb}g . *%! / ^^% sf hUufx?sf] lnvt d"Nosf cfwf/df hDdf d"No ?=^&.dosf] d"NonfO{ To.dosf] d"Nodf cfwfl/t x'g' kb{5 .n] . cflwsfl/s lgsfodf l/tk"j{s /lhi6«]zg b:t'/ . t/ @)%) .fnb]lv @)%* . lrtjg k+rsGof *s l:yt lsQf g+= *$!. @!&# -lsQf g+=@!&@ / @!&# sf] xsdf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lx:.

nfO{ /sd vr{ gu/L k|fKt ePsf] .dIf k|:t't ul/Psf] k|ltj]bgn] .nf q'l6k"0f{ /x]sf] 5 egL lhls/ lnPsf] kfOG5 .Gwfg cfof]u .kqaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] egL lhsL/ lnPsf] ePtfklg k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] jofgsf] .'lg/ s'df/ 9'+u]nåf/f clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.DklQnfO{ b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] cfo.d]tn] vl/b u/]sf] egL :jLsf/ u/]sf] / bftf xl/axfb'/ yfkf.j g} b]lvof] .b:o .DaGw Pj+ l/emfPsf] ljifo cfkm}+df c:ki6 / b'ljwfhgs /x]sf] l:yltdf lnvtdf js.=h= $ df sl/a ! /f]kgL & k}. ljz]if cbfntn] d'Vo ?kdf k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn] / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] jofgdf zfGtfb]jL / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf .Fusf] gftf .+nUg /x]sf] Joj.f] xb. pQm lsQf g+= #!& sf] hUuf as.S5 .Dd dgfl. k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbL dWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn] .dIf jofg ubf{ .DaGwL tYox?nfO{ .kq lnvtsf] s}lkmot Joxf]/fdf tkfO{ zfGtf b]jLn] dnfO{ k/L cfPsf] sfd sfhdf d2t ug'{ ePsf] x'gfn] l/emfP jfkt pQm hUuf xf=j= ul/lbPF egL n]lvPsf] kfOG5 .dfj]z u/L ljuf] sfod u/]sf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}. t.=h= $ df / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] jofgsf] . lghn] ljz]if cbfnt .kqjf6 kfPsf] cj:yfdf To.du| Joj.Gwfg cfof]u . bftf xl/axfb'/ yfkf /x]sf] ldlt @)%).S5 .a} /sd 5f]/fn] g} lbPsf] xf] . To.flos sf/f]jf/ ./L cfkm" / cfkm\gf Psf3/sf kl/jf/sf cGo .d]6]/ ljZn]if0f u/L lgisif{df 53 .foaf6 sdfPsf] /sdaf6 vl/b u/]sf] egL pNn]v u/]sf] b]lvG5 .nf .d]tsf] hUuf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.a} . k|ltjfbL zfGtf b]jL :jo+n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.kq pNn]v ePs} e/df To.=h= ^ df . yfxf ePg egL pNn]v u/]sf] cj:yf 5 . pQm hUuf vl/b ubf{ .f] hUuf .*.DklQ dfgL k|:t't d'2fsf] kl/lwaf6 afx]s ug{ ldNg] b]lvPg .kqsf] lnvtaf6 k|FKt ePsf] eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g . s] slt /sdaf6 vl/b u/]sf] xf].foaf6 ePsf] sf/f]jf/ / lghsf] v'b cfo lglZrt ug]{ .f] .DaGwdf cfwf/ agfOPsf] .d]t .dIf jofg ubf{ .f hUuf dWo] & cfgf hlt @)%)÷)%! lt/ vl/b u/]sf] x'g . To.@# sf] kfl/t js.d]t /sd lng' lbg' u/L vl/b ul/Psf] eGg] lgisif{ lgsfn]sf] kfOG5 .Fu hf]l8Psf] x'Fbf .jf x'Fb}g < eGg] k|Zgdf ljrf/ ubf{ k|ltjfbLx?n] ls=g+= #!& sf] hUuf k|ltjfbL zfGtf b]jL jfUn]n] js.kl5 afFsL hUufx? qmdzM kl5 kl5 vl/b u/]sf] x'g .y{ zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] lsQf g+= #!& sf] pQm hUufnfO{ .nfO{ dfGotf glbg] u/L ePsf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.=h= % df pQm lsQf g+= #!& sf] hUuf js.

af6 ePsf] v'b cfosf] lgwf{/0fsf nflu clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.]jf k|bfg ug]{ rf6{8{ PsfpG6]G6 .{ k|f=ln=.f] .le{.DalGwt lan ef}r/x? Pj+ vftfjxL .Fu ljb]zL ko{6sx?n] qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t e'QmfgL u/]sf] sf/f]af/x?sf] ljj/0f -Account Statement_ .flos kmd{sf ?kdf /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S. P08 PS.fosf] cfDbfgLnfO{ b]vfPsf] eGg] cfwf/df cleof]hg kIfåf/f k|ltjfbL dWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn] .Fu u/]sf] sf/f]af/nfO{ k|d'v ?kdf cfwf/ agfOPsf] b]lvG5 ."rL .'lg/s'df/ 9'+unn] k]z u/]sf] k|ltj]bgdf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj. k|f=ln=b/af/dfu{. %= g]kfn lehg 6]«S.Fu .lkl8.k'u]sf] cj:yf b]lvG5 jf b]lvFb}g < / lghsf] v'b cfo s] slt sfod x'g] x'G5 < eGg] k|Zg pkl:yt x'g cfPsf] 5 . .gn] cNkfOg 6«fen .f/ ljz]if1 .g k|f=ln=n] DoflUglkm.DklQsf] . P08 PS. $= # g+= a'Fbf. @)$* sf] bkmf @! cg'.DaGwdf b]xfosf sfuhftx?sf] cWoog ul/Psf] egL k|ltj]bgdf .lkl8. #= g]kfn lehg 6]«S. .sf] sf/f]jf/ olsg ug]{ .f/ To:tf] ljz]if1 . cleof]ukqdf pNn]v ul/P cg'.lkl8.Fu . P08 6'.+nUg /x]sf] Joj. lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.g k|f=ln=n] cfkm\gf] sf/f]af/ calwdf cfh{g u/]sf] ljb]zL d'b|fsf] ljj/0f .lkl8.g k|f=ln= n] u/]sf] sf/f]af/x?sf] lan ef}r/ tyf cGo sfuhftx? .Fu g]kfn lehg 6«]S.|f]tsf ?kdf cfkm\gf] 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]åf/f . P08 PS.g k|f=ln=sf] a}+s vftfx?sf] ljj/0f 54 .d]t k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 M != b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] k]z ug'{ ePsf] DoflUglkm. k|f=ln=. lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln= / cNkfOg 6«feN.{_ . ^= g]kfn lehg 6]«S.lkl8.]06 6«feN.{ k|f=ln=7d]n Pjd\ lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln=-6«fen P08 6'. P08 PS.b:osf gfddf /x]sf] rn crn .~rflnt Joj.fo / To.fo / To.DaGwdf x]bf{ k|:t't d'2fsf k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] cfkm" pk/sf] e|i6frf/sf] cleof]uaf6 aRgsf nflu cfkm" / cfkm\gf] kl/jf/sf .le{. @= ! g+= a'Fbfsf] lan ef}r/x?.xof]u lnOPsf] eGg] s'/f cleof]ukqaf6 b]lvg cfpF5 .DalGwt vftfjxL tyf vftfsf] ljj/0f -Account Statement_ .DaGwL g]kfn /fi6« a}+s Pjd\ ko{6g pBf]u dxfzfvfsf] clen]v .]G6 6«fen P08 6'.Gwfg cfof]u P]g.d]tsf] . P08 PS.

f sfod /x]sf] sfuhft .nfdf DoflUglkm.Fusf] sf/f]jf/nfO{ g} cfwf/ agfOPsf] b]lvG5 .]G6 6«fen P08 6'.L.{ k|f=ln= 7d]n.f] k|ltj]bgsf] k|s/0f -s_ df b]j]Gb| jfUn] .lkl8.-Bank Statement_ .DalGwt DofUgLlkm.g k|f=ln=sf] z]o/ .lkl8./sf/nfO{ lt/]sf] cg'dlt z'Ns / .@))) . .]G6 6«fen P08 6'.+nUg /x]sf] g]kfn lehgsf] Jofj. P08 PS. (= g]kfn lehg 6]«S. P08 PS. k|f=ln=b/af/dfu{.nl.g k|f=ln=n] cNkfOg 6«fen .Fu u/]sf] s"n sf/f]jf/sf af/]df pNn]v ul/Psf] kfOG5 .le{. .Fu qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t u/]sf] hDdf sf/f]af/ k|dfl0ft ug]{ cflwsfl/s kq .le{.g k|f=ln=n] qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t cNkfOg 6«fen .]G6 6«fen P08 6'.lkl8.f] dWo] k|s/0f -s_ df g]kfn lehgn] u/]sf] l6s]l6ª sf/f]af/ / .g k|f=ln=n] u/]sf] sf/f]af/ Pjd\ cfh{g u/]sf] sldzg cfDbfgLsf] .lkl8. lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln= / cNkfOg 6«fen .le{.g k|f=ln=n] ldlt @*.{_ n] pknAw u/fPsf] cflwsfl/s kq .Fusf] !((( gf]e]Da/ @& b]lv @))@ cS6f]a/ #) 55 .!@.!((* b]lv @&.lkl8.+/rgf / z]o/ xf]N8/x?sf] z]o/ lx:. P08 PS. P08 PS.f]sf] lan g+= pNn]v ePsf] sfuhft .Dd hDdf &() ljb]zL ko{6sx?nfO{ kbofqfdf k7fPsf] ljj/0fsf] cWofudg ljefun] k|dfl0ft u/]sf] k|ltlnlkdf ljb]zL ko{6sx?n] kbofqf u/] jfkt >L % sf] . *= g]kfn lehg 6]«S.{ k|f=ln= / lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln=-6«fen P08 6'./L ljleGg sfuhftx?sf] cWoog. k|ltj]bgdf DoflUglkm.{ k|f=ln= / lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln= . 5fgljg / cg'.Fusf] sf/f]af/nfO{ pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .Fusf] s"n sf/f]af/ / s"n cfDbfgL -Gross Income_ sf af/]df / k|s/0f -v_ df b]j]Gb| jfUn] . k|f=ln=b/af/dfu{.!).+nUg /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S. !) sDkgL /lhi6«f/sf] sfof{nodf sDkgL btf{ ubf{ g]kfn lehg 6]«S.flos sf/f]jf/ olsg ug]{ l.Gwfgsf] qmddf lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] . o.f] af6 ePsf] s"n cfDbfgLsf] ljj/0f k|:t't ub}{ DoflUglkm.{ k|f=ln=.+nUg /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S. P08 6'.g k|f=ln=n] l6s]l6ª sf/f]jf/df u/]sf] 6«fen Ph]G. k|f=ln=.]G6 6«feN.lkl8. &= g]kfn lehg 6]«S. P08 PS. P08 PS.

f] jfkt hDdf ?=#@.!%.%!%. To.(%.le{.(%.L.*% / g]kfnL d'b|f ?=!@. xf]6n cflbnfO{ uPsf] e'QmfgL egL cd]l/sL 8n/ #.!#.%(*. .g k|f=ln=n] qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t cNkfOg 6«fen .&*.fo tkm{sf] sf/f]af/nfO{ lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] .^#).&* / g]kfnL d'b|f ?=^(.fy} k|ltj]bgsf] k|s/0f -v_ df g]kfn lehgsf] 6]«lsª Joj.)%.$##.@) -cd]l/sL 8n/ !. P08 PS.(& / g]kfnL d'b|f ?=!*. . o.f] cg'.(^!.(&.#(&.nfO{ k|ltj]bgn] .Fusf] s"n sf/f]af/ ?=!.%% -cd]l/sL 8n/ !.$!. To.!# sldzg cfDbfgL ePsf] Joxf]/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .Fu u/]sf] l6s]l6ª Joj.&(* .@(.s]sf] cj:yf x'Fbf To.fo / .)).&)#.Fu u/]sf] l6s]l6ª Joj.@).(!). o.}u/L lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln= 6«fen P08 6'.(^. To.*$$.Fu .(!(.lkl8.Fu .d]t dfGotf k|bfg u/]sf] / k|ltjfbL kIfaf6 .df yk ljj]rgf ug'{ kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvPg .#*.le{.(# / g]kfnL d'b|f ?=&^.Fu u/]sf] s"n sf/f]jf/ lzif{s cGtu{t k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 . k|ltj]bgsf] a'Fbf g+= @ df ælgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] k]z u/]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.k|df0f cGoyf bfjL lng g. .!#.lkl8.Ddsf] sf/f]af/ egL ?=(%. k|f=ln=b/af/dfu{.%* sldzg cfDbfgL ePsf] eGg] tYo k|ltj]bgaf6 b]lvg cfPsf] 5 .n] u/]sf] s"n e'QmfgL egL cd]l/sL 8n/ $.!% / g]kfnL d'b|f ?=^.Ddsf] sf/f]af/ egL ?=!.{ k|f=ln=Pj+ lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln=-6«fen P08 6'. P08 PS.fo.{_ .&* pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .+nUg /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.!$!.f] jfkt hDdf ?=!*.f] jfkt k|fKt ePsf] cfosf .)! pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .d]t_ sf] sf/f]af/ k|:t't ub}{ .Ldf uO{ hfFr ubf{ .f]xL clen]v.f] jfkt hDdf ?=!$.&!!.DalGwt clen]vx? .f]xL /sdsf] lj:t[t ljj/0f k|:t't ub}{ tflnsfdf g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf cGo 6«fen Ph]G.*^.*$!.d]t_ sf] sf/f]af/ k|:t't ub}{ .)#. of] tYonfO{ k|ltj]bgsf] a'Fbf g+= @ n] klg k'i6L u/]sf] 5 .Fusf] @))) cS6f]a/ !@ b]lv @))@ d] !( .xL ePsf] kfOof]]Æ elgPaf6 g]kfn lehgn] tL 6«fen Ph]G.@@^.L.L./L b'a} 6«fen Ph]G.}u/L g]kfn lehg cfkm}+n] e'QmfgL k|fKt u/]sf] /sd egL cd]l/sL 8n/ !.)).&% e} .f/ cNkfOg 6«fen .DaGwdf s'g} b'ljwfsf] l:ylt b]lvFb}g .#)&.!&..)% .oG6 6«fen P08 6'.DalGwt 6«fen Ph]G.g k|f=ln=n] DoflUglkml./L g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf e'QmfgL ePsf] elgPsf] / g]kfn lehgn] k|fKt u/]sf] elgPsf] 56 .$% sldzg cfDbfgL ePsf] Joxf]/f pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .{_ 7d]n.@# pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .

ljb]zL ko{6sx?nfO{ kbofqf u/fPsf] .+nUgtf /x]sf] sf/f]af/ xf] eGg] tYonfO{ :jLsfg'{ kg]{ x'G5 . o. o. afx]s k|ltj]bg k|:t'tstf{ .n] u/]sf] s"n e'QmfgL lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] .le{.L.le{.sf .Fu . xf]6nx?nfO{ ePsf] e'QmfgL b'a} g]kfn lehg.f] PS.^*.Fu qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t u/]sf] s"n sf/f]af/sf] ljj/0f .le{.=h=!& df ækbofqf u/fpFbf k|fKt x'g] /sd qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t k|fKt x'g] u/]sf] k|df0f sfuhftx?af6 b]lvg cfPsf]./sdsf] of]u g} cNkfOg 6«fen .le{.lkl8.n] u/]sf] s"n e'QmfgLdf g]kfn lehgsf] .dofalw tyf cNkfOg 6«fen .n] u/]sf] s"n e'QmfgL eGg' g} g]kfn lehg :jo+n] k|fKt u/]sf] / g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf e'QmfgL ePsf] /sd xf] eGg] b]lvG5 .le{.*&.le{.'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nn] ljz]if cbfnt.DalGwt ef}r/x?sf] cWoog ubf{ . o.af6 cNkfOg 6«fen .Fusf] sf/f]af/sf] ..le{.gn] kbofqf u/fO{ cfh{g u/]sf] cfo lgwf{/0f ubf{ cNkfOg 6«fen .le{.f] 6«fen ..df /x]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S.dIf u/]sf] askqsf] .af6 g]kfn lehgs} gfddf ePsf] e'QmfgL / g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf cGo 6«fen Ph]G.lkl8.le{.df /x]sf] s"n sf/f]af/ dWo] clwsf+z /sdsf] e'QmfgL cGo 6«fen Ph]G.+nUg /x]sf] g]kfn lehgn] cNkfOg 6«fen .g k|f=ln=n] cNkfOg 6«fen .Fu .Fu g]kfn lehgn] s"n sf/f]af/x? Pj+ e'QmfgLsf] ljj/0f egL k|:t't ul/Psf] tflnsfdf klg hDdf sf/f]af/ /sd ?=#.DalGwt clen]vx? .. plNnlvt tYoaf6 cNkfOg 6«fen . P08 PS.L.DalGwt cNkfOg 6«fen .Fu u/]sf] s"n sf/f]af/.dofalw ldNg cfPsf] / . xf]6n cflbnfO{ ePsf] kfOof]Æ elgPsf] 5 .le{.DalGwt sf/f]af/ xf] eGg] tYosf] k'gk'{i6L ePsf] 5 .df ælgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] k]z u/]sf] g]kfn lehg 6«]S. g]kfn lehgn] ko{6g tyf gful/s p•og dGqfno cGtu{tsf] ko{6g pBf]u 57 .fy} a'Fbf g+= # df cNkfOg 6«fen . k|f=ln=df g} uO{ hfFr ubf{ .DalGwt /x]sf] eGg] tYo :yflkt x'g cfpF5 .lkl8. h.$* g} pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .}u/L pQm 6«fen .le{. h.. k|f=ln=b/af/dfu{.$#^.Fu . of] tYonfO{ k|ltj]bgsf] a'Fbf g+= # n] klg k'i6L ub{5 .g k|f=ln=.Fusf] sf/f]af/nfO{ cfwf/ dflgPsf]Æ egL pNn]v u/]af6 klg cNkfOg 6«fen . P08 PS.xL ePsf] kfOof] .le{.

g]kfn lehgn] cg'/f]w ug]{ / cNkfOg 6«fen . h+un .L / xf]6nx?nfO{ ePsf] e'QmfgL g]kfn lehgsf] sf/f]af/ gePsf] eP To. @)%( df pknAw u/fPsf] kqdf To. lgoldt ?kdf k]z ul/Psf] .nl.le{. Po/nfOG. .le{.f/ .dfj]z ePsf] b]lvPsf] x'Fbf g]kfn lehgn] .f] ljj/0fdf klg 6]«lsª..Gwfg cfof]unfO{ sflt{s @!.Fu . dfkm{t cGo 6«fen Ph]G. ¥oflkm\6ª.le{.Fusf] sf/f]af/nfO{ g]kfn lehgsf] s"n sf/f]af/ egL cleJoQm ul/Psf] :jsyg / v'b cfo lgwf{/0f ug]{ l. l/e/ P8\e]Gr/. olb g]kfn lehg.+nUg ul/Psf g]kfn lehgsf] cNkfOg 6«fen .fy .le{. jfON8 nfOkm SofDk .nfdf cGo 6«fen Ph]G.af6 klg pQm k|ltj]bgdf cNkfOg 6«fen .flos lqmofsnfkdf .Lx?.d]t . o.le{.+:yfx?nfO{ e'QmfgL ug]{ cj:yf klg cfpFb}g .le{. o.d]tnfO{ ePsf] e'QmfgLsf] ljj/0f . dfly ul/Psf] ljZn]if0faf6 g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf cNkfOg 6«fen .DaGwdf :jfefljs ?kdf ug{ .f] k|f=ln=n] hDdf @&#* hgf ko{6snfO{ .+nUg sfuhftx?sf aLrdf tfbfDotf sfod x'g k'u]sf] 5 . dfkm{t ePsf] g]kfn lehgsf] sf/f]af/sf] ljifo :ki6 x'G5 .Fusf] sf/f]af/ laa/0fdf klg ljleGg 6«fen Ph]G.+:yfaLrsf] sf/f]af/nfO{ b]vfpF5 .Ddsf] k|ltj]bgsf] lgisif{.dxfzfvfdf cfalws ?kdf -^÷^ dlxgfdf_ k]z u/]sf] ljj/0f cg'.lsg] ts{ s] klg x'g .]jf k'¥ofPsf] eGg] b]lvG5 .lsg] eGg] xb. t/ cNkfOg 6«fen .dIf k]z u/]sf] cfalws ljj/0f / ljz]if1sf] k|ltj]bgdf .Fu cNkfOg 6«fensf] sf/f]af/ gx'Fbf] xf] t s]an cg'/f]ws} e/df Tolt 7"nf] /sd cGo . xf]6n. nh.L / xf]6nx?nfO{ 58 .n] e'QmfgL lbg] lqmofn] g} tL b'O{ ./L ePsf] e'QmfgLnfO{ cNkfOg 6«fen ..+nUg /x]sf] eGg] b]lvPsf] 5 . l/.'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nsf] k|ltj]bg./L s}lkmot hgfOPsf] jf g]kfn lehgaf6 kfpg' kg]{ egL pNn]v ul/Psf] b]lvFb}g .flwsf/ lgsfo .f]6{.kmf/L. . k|ltj]bgdf k6s k6s cNkfOg 6«fen . l6s]l6ª.lsg] cj:yf b]lvg cfPg .L / xf]6nx?nfO{ e'QmfgL uPsf] /sdnfO{ g]kfn lehgn] cfo k|fKt ug]{ sf/f]jf/ dfGg g.S5 eg] olb g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf cGo 6«fen Ph]G. b[Zofjnf]sg nufotsf Joj.n] g]kfn lehgaf6 kfpg' kg]{ egL s}lkmot hgfPsf] x'g'kYof]{ ..le{.n] clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.xdt x'g .

fwf/0ftof @% b]lv #) k|ltzt.!#.fodf ## k|ltzt gfkmf x'g] -.dIf jofg ubf{ cNkfOg 6«fen . o.*&.+:yfdf lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] *) k|ltzt z]o/ lx:.^*.le{.. t/ lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cg'.f]xL cfwf/df lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfkm\gf] Joj.(# / g]kfnL d'b|f ?=&^.foaf6 cfh{g u/]sf] v'b cfo lgwf{/0f ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] .Gbe{df ljrf/ ubf{ .f/ l6s]l6ª Joj.'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nåf/f k|:t't k|ltj]bg / lghsf] askq .e'QmfgL ePsf] /sdnfO{ afx]s ug]{ lqmof cfkm}+df la/f]wfefifk"0f{ b]lvg cfof] .y{ .dIf u/]sf] jofgdf 6«]lsª Joj.Gwfg clwsf/L.fodf .fdfGotof !) k|ltzt vr{ x'g] dfGotfnfO{ u|x0f u/L !) k|ltzt vr{ s6fO{ v'b cfo sfod ul/Psf] 5 .f /x]sf] x'Fbf . h. dfkm{t k|fKt u/]sf] e'QmfgL .df x'g] gfkmf olsg ePsf] cj:yfdf .Dd gfkmf x'g] Joxf]/f -.le{. cg'.d]t_ g]kfn lehgsf] sf/f]af/ cGtu{t g} kg]{ b]lvof] .d]tsf cfwf/df x]bf{ k|ltj]bgdf pNn]v ul/Psf] g]kfn lehgsf] cg'/f]wdf cNkfOg 6«fen .d]t p7fPsf] eGg] .DaGwdf km/s km/s dfkb08 lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] b]lvG5 ./L g]kfn lehgsf] s"n sf/f]af/ / To.=h=#&_ pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ eg] ljz]if cbfnt.Fu qm]l86 sf8{ dfkm{t sf/f]af/ ubf{ @% b]lv $) k|ltzt.=h= %_ atfPsf 5g\ .~rfng vr{ jfkt .flos k|lti7fgdf sfof{no .)! . dfkm{t cGo xf]6nx?nfO{ uPsf] e'QmfgL tyf g]kfn lehgn] cNkfOg 6«fen .$#^. k|sf/sf] Joj.foaf6 k|fKt ePsf] sldzg ?=#@.Gbe{ .t #@=% k|ltzt x'g cfpg] / lghn] ## k|ltzt gfkmf x'g] .f] .}u/L 6]«]lsª Joj.Dd gfkmf x'g] eGg] cfwf/df #) k|ltztsf] dfkb08 lgwf{/0f u/]sf] b]lvG5 .DaGwdf lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] jofg Joxf]/f p4[t ub}{ o.f] .d]tsf cfwf/df ljz]if cbfntaf6 ## k|ltztnfO{ dfkb08 sfod u/]sf] b]lvFbf .%!%.le{.^#).f] dfkb08 Gofof]lrt g} b]lvg cfpF5 . t.%* dWo] Jofj.@(.d]tsf] s"n /sd ?=#.#)&.(&. To.$* -cd]l/sL 8n/– $./L k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] jofgsf qmddf pNn]v u/]sf] @% b]lv $) k|ltztsf] cf}.d]tsf] 59 .fotkm{sf] cfo sfod ug]{ .'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nsf] k|ltj]bgdf l6s]l6ª sf/f]af/af6 g]kfn lehgnfO{ k|fKt ePsf] sldzg / / 6]«lsª sf/f]af/af6 x'g] cfDbfgLsf . plNnlvt l6s]l6ª / 6]«lsª sf/f]af/af6 lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] v'b cfo sfod ug]{ . To.

hxfF.foaf6 lghn] cfh{g u/]sf] v'b cfo /sd ?=!.s]sf] cj:yfdf k'g/fj]bg lhsL/ / jx.!^!.Ldf uO{ hfFr .)(.f] .^&. P08 PS. lgh :jo+n] k]z u/]sf] sfuhft tyf lan e/kfO{ .%# !.lkl8.DalGwt 6«fen Ph]G.)$ ?= !.d]6]sf] b]lvG5 .DaGwdf klg tYok/s 9+un] ljj/0f pknAw u/fpg g.@(.dy{g u/]s} x'g' kb{5 .af6 s] slt cfDbfgL eof] eGg] .d]t u/L DoflUglkm.f] sf] ## k|ltztn] x'g cfpg] gfkmf /sd u= v08 s / v sf cfwf/df g]kfn lehg 6«]S.Lx?.+rfng u/]sf] 6]«lsª Joj.fo .Gbe{ 5. k|f=ln= .]jf k|bfg ul/Psf ko{6sx?sf] .*^&.d]t Gofof]lrt cg'dfgsf cfwf/df cfkm\gf] cfo lgwf{/0f ul/g' kg]{ eGg] lhsL/ k|:t't u/]sf] kfOG5 .fj ubf{ b]xfosf] tYof+s b]lvg cfpF5 M s= DoflUglkm.nfdf lgh tkm{sf sfg"g Joj.f] /sddf sfof{no .@^ plNnlvt tflnsfsf cfwf/df lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] . g]kfn lehgaf6 .@&.)% s6fpFbf x'g] v'b cfDbfgL /sd v= cNkfOg 6«fen .lsg] x'Fb}g .@&.d]tnfO{ .f/sf] /sdsf] *) k|ltztn] x'g cfpg] /sd ?= #@. .nl.~rfng vr{ jfktsf] !) k|ltztsf b/n] x'g cfpg] ?=#.)(.%&.g k|f=ln=sf] v'b cfDbfgL -?=@(.@^.%*$.^!. P08 PS.$%!.lkl8.Fu g]kfn lehg 6«]S. ubf{ . P08 PS.*^&.%# ?=#.le{.nfO{ s'g} g s'g} tYon] .]G6 6«fen / lxdfn /]Ohg.fo cGtu{t cGo 6«fen Ph]G.g k|f=ln=n] u/]sf] sf/f]jf/af6 k|fKt sldzg /sd .@^ b]lvg cfof] .(#.Fusf] sf/f]jf/ olsg ul/Psf] eGg] 60 .^#).fo / .$#^.]G6 6«fen P08 6'.} .{ k|f=ln= / lxdfn /]Ohg k|f=ln= . lhsL/s} e/df cg'dfg u/L cfo lglZrt ug{ .Da4 l6s]l6ª Joj.(&.%& ?= !.(#.$* ?=!.lkl8. o.foLx?n] jx.g k|f=ln=n] u/]sf] s"n sf/f]jf/ /sd .lx.'g'jfOsf l.)$_ 3= g]kfn lehg 6«]S.+VofTds ljj/0fsf .^*.lkl8.^&.DaGwdf k|ltjfbL kIfaf6 km/s km/s bfjL k|:t't ul/Psf] / To. P08 PS.*&.%* ?= @(.Gbe{df lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] o.Fu g]kfn lehg 6«]S.g k|f=ln=df b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] z]o/ lx:. t/ Gofof]lrt cg'dfg klg z"Gotfsf] pkh geO{ To.Dd l6s]l6ª Joj.+nUg /x]sf] Joj.&^#.!^!.%*$. cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg ubf{ / k|:t't d'2fsf] .d]tsf cfwf/df .@^.'lg/s'df/ 9'+u]nsf] k|ltj]bgdf klg lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] .f *) k|ltzt /x]sf] x'Fbf v08 u cg'.Fu klg sf/f]af/ ePsf] eGg] lhsL/sf] .

kmf/L.~rfng u/]b]lv g} l6s]l6ª Joj.Fu of] of] ldltdf olt kl/df0fsf] sf/f]af/ ePsf] egL :ki6 ?kdf bfjL k|:t't x'g g.DalGwt eP klg k|To]s 6«]lsª Ph]G.Joxf]/f k|ltj]bgdf . lsgeg] l6s]l6ª eg]sf] ko{6g Joj.Fusf] .Sg] ePklg of] of] 6«fen Ph]G.nfO{ support ug]{ lnvt.+nUg ePsf] b]lvPsf]df 61 . g]kfn /fi6« a}+saf6 k|sflzt Income and Employment Generation in Nepal df pNn]v ePsf ljifo .+nUg /x]sf] g]kfn lehgn] ko{6g pBf]u dxfzfvfdf cfalws ?kdf k]z u/]sf] ljj/0fdf pNn]v eP cg'. lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] . 6«]lsª Ph]G.fo Ps cfk.DalGwt .nfO{ 6«fen Ph]G. l6s]l6ª. .Sb}g .sf] lgSof}{n x'g' kg]{ vfnsf] ck]Iff ug{ ldNb}g .L / 6«fen Ph]G.fosf] Pp6f 5'6[} ljwf xf]. To.~rfng u/]sf] 5 / tbg'?k cfo cfh{g klg u/]sf] 5 egL lhsL/ lng ldNg] x'Fb}g . b[Zofjnf]sg nufotsf Joj.Sg' kb{5 . k|ltjfbL kIfaf6 cfkm\gf] Joj.Ln] 6]«]lsª Joj.flos lqmofsnfkdf .f/ 6]«lsª.d]t pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . To. t/ k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbL kIfaf6 h] hlt k|df0fx? k]z ul/Psf] 5.afx]ssf s'g s'g 6«fen Ph]G.L.L.fo cGtu{tsf] l6s]l6ª sf/f]af/df DoflUglkm. h+un .sf cfwf/df .nfO{ cGoyf eGg klg ldNb}g . .Sbf. t/.fo .f] ljj/0f cg'. To.Gwfgsf qmddf cfPsf s'/fx? / k|ltjfbLn] k|df0f k'¥ofpg] u/L cfPsf s'/f afx]s cGo k|df0fx?sf] vf]hL ug]{ sfo{ k'g/fj]bg txaf6 x'g klg .fo .d]t a'emL k|ltj]bgdf sf/f]af/ olsg ul/Psf] x'Fbf To.+:yfsf nflu lg/k]If ?kdf cfwf/ agfpg ldNg] ljifo aGb}g .]jf k'¥ofPsf] eGg] b]lvG5 .+:yf.sf :ki6 cfwf/x? v'nfpg . ¥oflkm\6ª.Fusf] tfbfDotf b]lvg} kb{5 .~rfng u/]sf x'G5g\ . cg'. l6s]l6ª sf/f]af/ / 6]«lsª Joj.f] k|ltj]bg ck"0f{ /x]sf] eGg] klg lhsL/ lnOPsf] b]lvG5 .Dd cg'dfgsf e/df To.a} .Fu s] slt sf/f]af/ ePsf] xf] eGg] .Fu.dfj]z ul/Psf] x'Fbf .DaGwdf b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] j:t'ut cfwf/x? k|:t't u/]sf] klg kfO{+b}g .]G6 6«fen / lxdfn /]Ohg.Fu . clen]v jf j}1flgs / j:t'ut ljj/0fx?.+slnt tYo Pj+ k|df0fx?af6 k|dfl0ft x'g' kg]{ / olsg ul/g'kg]{ ljifodf sf]/f cg'dfgaf6 lgSof}{ndf k'Ug .Lldt calwsf] sf/f]af/nfO{ dfq .Lx?n] 5'6[} ?kdf .f/ hDdf @&#* ko{6snfO{ . To.du| /fli6«o lqmofsnfk / tYof+sdf cfwfl/t ePsfn] Tof] tYof+s .lsFb}g .Fu} .nfO{ cfwf/ agfpg' kg]{ eGg] bfjL ubf{ cfkm\gf lqmofsnfk / To.df . Gofof]lrt cg'dfgsf] lhsL/ lng]n] To.Lsf aLrdf sf/f]af/ x'g .

f]xL bfjLsf cfwf/df cfly{s P]g.+VofnfO{ k'gM cg'dfgsf] ljifo agfpg ldNg] x'Fb}g .dfj]z ePsf] / To.– cfos/ e'QmfgL u/]sf] eGg] dfq cfwf/df lghn] b]vfPsf] . @))@ df #) nfv hDdf ePsf]_ af6 k|fKt a}+s :6]6d]G6x?af6 b]lvPsf] 5 .Dk"0f{ cfo ljj/0fnfO{ a}w cfosf ?kdf u0fgf ug{ ldNg] cj:yf b]lvPg .$^). lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] a}+s df}HbftnfO{ cWoog ubf{ .d]t tL ljifox? .g\ @))@ hgj/L dlxgfdf dfq *) nfv %@ xhf/ a}+s bflvnf u/]sf] eGg] tYo :6f088{ rf6{8{ a}+s -&÷* hgj/L.(@. @))@ df !@ nfv %) xhf/ hDdf ePsf]_ / a}+s ckm sf7df08' -hgj/L *.DaGwL Joj:yf cGtu{t @)%* .y{ lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfkm\gf] Joj.aLrsf] sf/f]af/df .foaf6 k|fKt u/]sf] cfo .nfO{ of] k|.Sg] .s]sf] kl/k|]Iodf lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] a}+s Psfp06sf] :6]6d]06x?af6 b]lvg] a}+s bflvnfsf] ljj/0f / . @))@ df #* nfv @ xhf/ hDdf ePsf]_.d]t u/L hDdf ?=#%. @)%* n] u/]sf] cfosf] :jo+s/ 3f]if0ff . glan a}+s -#) hgj/L.af6 x'g] :jfefljs cfo. k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj. tL ko{6sx?nfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] ljleGg lsl.Defljt /sdsf lardf cldNbf] cj:yf b]lvPdf klg Gofof]lrt cg'dfg .nfO{ g]kfn lehgsf] sf/f]af/ cGtu{t . lghn] 6]«]lsª Joj.]jf / To.af6 ePsf] j}w cfo sfod ug]{ .dsf .}sf cfwf/df b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] v'b cfo sfod ul/.sf cfwf/df :jfefljs / j:t'k/s ?kdf cfo lgwf{/0f e}. cl3 lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.le{.DaGwL lhsL/x?sf] ljZj.foaf6 cflh{t x'g .Fu hf]8]/ x]g]{ / Gofof]lrt cg'dfg egL a}+s bflvnf ePsf] /sdnfO{ lg/k]If 9+un] j}wtf k|bfg ug{ ldNg] b]lvFb}g .+Vof.lsPsf] x'Fbf a}+s bflvnf ePsf] /sdsf cfwf/df To.Fu t'ngf u/]/ x]bf{ Tolt 7"nf] kl/df0fdf /sd k|fKt e} a}+s bflvnf x'g] cfwf/ b]lvg cfpFb}g .foaf6 cfo cfh{g u/]sf] egL lnPsf] bfjL / .d]t u/L To.'lg/ s'df/ 9'+u]nsf] ljz]if1tf.DalGwt Joj. of]Uotf / lghn] k]z u/]sf] k|ltj]bgsf] j}wtf dfly klg k|ltjfbL kIfaf6 k|Zg p7fOPsf] 62 . t.g]kfn lehg / cNkfOg 6«fen .lsPsf] 5 / b]vfO{ .lgotfdf k|Zg p7\g hfG5 .Gbe{df ljz]if1 . t/ lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn] :jo+n] cfalws ?kdf k]z u/]sf] ljj/0fdf pNn]v ePsf] ko{6s .lsPsf] x'Fbf .flos sf/f]af/ / To.flos sf/f]af/sf] ljZn]if0f .f]xL . o.dfj]z u/L To.DaGwdf dfly g} af]nL .fn kf}if @^ ut] / df3 #) ut] .]jf k|bfg ug]{ .+u.

Gwfg / txlssft tyf tT. .f] bkmfdf s] s:tf] sfo{ u/]df dltof/ dflgg] eGg] .hfo x'g' kg]{ egL lhsL/ lnOPsf] 5 .n] dltof/nfO{ .DaGwdf pNn]v ul/Psf] kfO{+b}g .DaGwdf x]bf{ jfbL kIfsf] k'g/fj]bgkqdf s.5 .fy} sfg"g jdf]lhd k/fdz{ ."/ ug]{ cleo'QmnfO{ s."/df csf{ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] . k|ltjfbL dWo]sf lr/l~hjL jfUn]af6 ePsf] elgPsf] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf .d]tn] To:tf ljz]if1åf/f k|:t't ul/Psf] k|ltj]bgnfO{ k|df0fdf lng ldNg] g} b]lvFbf o.b:osf .DalGwt sfg"gdf kl/eflift gePsf] zAbnfO{ kl/eflift ug]{ . of] tYonfO{ k|ltjfbL kIfaf6 k]z ul/Psf] jx.]jf k|bfg ug]{ cg'dlt k|fKt JolQm x'g\ eGg] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g .#."/sf] dltof/ dfGg' kg]{ / e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.+nUg cfof]usf] ldlt @)^)."/sf] dltof/nfO{ x'g] .+:yfsf] .Gwfg cfof]uaf6 clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.Gbe{df e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g./L .xof]u ug]{ jf .fy .d]taf6 b]lvPsf] 5 . .Gbe{df ljz]if cbfntaf6 ljleGg eflifs Pj+ sfg"gL 63 .DaGwdf k|ltjfbL kIfn] p7fPsf] k|Zg sfg"gL cfwf/df klg u|fXo b]lvg cfPg . e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]gdf dltof/sf] kl/efiff pNn]v ul/Psf] 5}g .hfo x'g] s'g} s.Sg] clwsf/ cfof]unfO{ k|bfg u/]sf] / k|df0f P]g.DaGwL cGo sf/afxL ubf{ cfjZostfg'.f]xL of]Uotf / ljz]if1tfnfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'.]jf k|fKt ug{ .Gwfg cfof]u P]g.hfo eGg] lzif{sdf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g cGtu{t .DaGwdf x]bf{ lgh .f/ . To. . .Gwfgstf{sf ?kdf lgo'Qm u/]sf] eGg] tYo jfbL kIfaf6 k]z ul/Psf] jx. @)$* sf] bkmf @! n] :ki6 ?kdf cfof]un] cg'.DklQ cfh{g u/L e|i6frf/ u/]sf] eGg] s. @)#! sf] bkmf @) . o.Gwfg cfof]u P]g.+nUgtf b]lvG5 jf b]lvFb}g / lghnfO{ dltof/sf] ?kdf lng ldNg] cj:yfsf] ljBdfgtf 5 jf 5}g < eGg] . lghsf] . @)%( sf] bkmf @@ nfO{ cfwf/ agfOPsf] b]lvG5 . @)%( sf] bkmf @@ sf] p2]Zo klg ToxL /x]sf]n] cfkm\gf afa' lr/l~hjL jfUn]af6 ePsf] e|i6frf/nfO{ n'sfpg] lgotn] b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] sfo{ u/]sf] cj:yfdf lghnfO{ dltof/ dfgL . o.DalGwt ljifosf] ljz]if1 jf ljlzi6Ls[t lgsfosf] .hfo . clVtof/ b'?kof]u cg'."/ ug{ . pQm bkmf @@ nfO{ cWoog ubf{ To. @)$* sf] bkmf @! jdf]lhd lghnfO{ cfof]un] cg'. gf]6df klg :jLsf/ g} ul/Psf] b]lvG5 .fy lbg] jf kl/jGb ldnfO{ lbg] JolQmnfO{ g} s.!& sf] lg0f{o .DaGwL Joj:yf u/]sf] 5 .gf]6 .'lg/ s'df/ 9'+u]n g]kfn rf6{8{ PsfpG6]G6 .

"/ u/L cfh{g u/]sf] .DklQ egL e'm7f] Joxf]/f pNn]v u/]sf] egL cf/f]lkt ul/Psf] b]lvG5 .foaf6 cflh{t xf] egL cfk\mgf ."/df dltof/ dfGgsf nfuL p.s]sf] b]lvFb}g .d]t gfpFdf /fVg'nfO{ pQm P]gsf] bkmf @@ cGtu{tsf] 64 .DklQnfO{ cfkm\gf] Jofkf/ Joj.Dd /x]sf] cj:yf b]lvPsf] ePtfklg lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] cj}w . zAbsf]ifx?df pNn]v eP cg'. k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] jfj' lr/l~hjL jfUn]jf6 cflh{t .DklQ cfh{g ug]{ sfo{.fy cleof]ukqdf cf/f]k nufOPsf] b]lvG5 .Sg] x}l.~rfng ub}{ cfPsf] s'/fdf ljjfb 5}g eg] lr/l~hjL jfUn]s} klg kfl/>lds.flxt u/]sf].zAbsf]ifx?nfO{ .xof]u k'¥ofPsf] x'g'kg]{ eGg] b]lvG5 .d]t u/] egL :ki6 ?kdf bfjL lng .xof]u / k|f]T./L . lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] afa'nfO{ s.sf] k'i6\ofO{sf] s'g} cfwf/ gePsf] l:yltdf lghnfO{ dltof/ sfod ug{ ldNg] b]lvPg .y{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.DklQ ."/hGo lqmof ePsf] s'/fsf] :ki6 hfgsf/L lghnfO{ ePsf] x'g' k5{ / To:tf] lqmof .fo .uf]ndf /x]sf afa' 5f]/faLr Psaf6 cflh{t .dn] .lsFb}g . eQf nufotsf] lgoldt ?kdf cfo cfh{g ePsf] cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 .foaf6 cflh{t .DklQ 5f]/fsf] gfddf /fVbf 5f]/fnfO{ . @)%( sf] bkmf @)-!_ cGtu{tsf] s. To:tf] sfo{df lgh . dltof/ sfod x'gsf nflu s./L j}w ?kdf g} cfo cfh{g ug{.f] s. TolQs} e/df Pssf] ck/flws lqmofdf csf]{ klg .xof]u /x]sf] eGg] j:t'lgi7 k|df0f jfbL kIfaf6 k]z x'g .DkGg ug{sf nflu d'Vo cleo'QmnfO{ k|f]T.d]t cfwf/ agfOPsf] 5 . t.f] cfosf] j}wtf cj}wtfsf] hfgsf/L x'G5 g} egL dfGg klg .s]sf] 5}g .f/ s'g} JolQmnfO{ e|i6frf/sf] s.xof]u u/]sf] jf ."/hGo sfo{df k|ToIf ?kdf .+nUg lyP / lghn] of] o.Fu lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] . t/ cfkm\gf afa' lr/l~hjL jfUn]af6 ePsf] e|i6frf/hGo lqmofsf] af/]df lghnfO{ . o.Nnfx lbPsf] jf cGo s'g} klg lsl.otdf /x]sf cfkm\gf afa'n] cfh{g u/]sf] .n] . Psf. b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cfkm\gf] 5'6[} Joj.fy lbPsf] jf kl/jGb ldnfPsf] eGg] jfbL bfjL afx]s To.DklQ b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] eGg] dfq cfwf/sf ."/ ug{ ./L b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf jfj'jf6 cflh{t .DklQ cfk\mgf] gfddf /fv]sf] / . .DklQnfO{ cfk\mgf] Jofkf/ Joj.flxt .DklQ csf]{sf] gfddf /fVg] jf /xg] k|lqmof cGoGt :jfefljs dflgG5."/sf] d'Vo cleo'Qmåf/f ePsf] s.+nUg lyof] egL :jtM cg'dfg ug{ ldNb}g .+nUgtf jf . To.d]t . s]an afa'af6 cflh{t .dod} hfgsf/L lyof].3fPsf] b]lvg' k5{ .

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lxtsf kmlg{r/sf .lsg] ljifo x'Fbf ?=&.d]t . sfk]{6.'ljwf /sdaf6 cfjZostfg''.nfO{ cGoyf eGg ldNg] cj:yf b]lvFb}g . 3/ lgdf{0f ePsf] ldltsf .!!@.]7 / hoGts'df/ /fhj+zLsf] k|ltj]bgnfO{ cfwf/ agfO{ 6]lnlehg.Fu cbfntaf6 ePsf] askq . .fdfgx?sf] k|s[lt x]bf{ Ps}rf]6L vl/b ul/Psf] ge} qmlds ?kdf hf]l8Psf] h:tf] b]lvg cfpF5 . /]lk|mh]/]6/.@&.f]nf/ lx6/.Dd jxfn /xFbf kfl/>lds / .s]sf] cj:yfdf ljz]if cbfntaf6 lgdf{0f ePsf] jif{sf] b//]6 .@&. knª. 8«]l. 6]k /]s8{/. 8]s.dodf 3/fo.lsG5 .ª 6]an.d]t k|:t't u/]sf] . To:tf .df pNn]v ul/Psf kmlg{r/ / ljB'tLo pks/0fx? c:jfefljs / ljnf.fh.!!@.^( dfq ljuf] sfod ul/Psf] b]lvG5 .fy k]z ul/Psf] k|ltj]bg / k|ltj]bg k|:'ttstf{ hfu]Zj/ dxf.f/ vl/b ub}{ hf]8hfd u/]sf] x'g .d]t uPsf] eGg] b]lvPsf] l:yltdf b]zleq / ljb]z e|d0fsf qmddf .]7 / hoGt /fhj+zL. slkm 6]an.f] /sdsf] pkof]u To:t} 3/fo. ljB'tLo pks/0f.– . .L .lsg] b]lvG5 .d]tnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL 3/.dIf cfkm"n] kfl/>lds. Uof/]h.Sg] s'/f :jfefljs ?kdf cg'dfg ug{ .#@. cleof]ukq. ?d lx6/.fdfgx?sf] d"No ?=&. sDKo'6/ 6]an nufotsf .Gbe{ 5.f] k|ltj]bgnfO{ ulxl/P/ cWoog ubf{ To.fdfGo vfnsf kmlg{r/ / ljB'tLo pks/0f nufotsf cfGtl/s .Lo'Qm eGg] b]lvFb}gg\ . Knfli6s r]o/.f+.– d"No sfod ul/Psf 66 .f+.d]t u/L hDdf ?=#$.do. hxfF.fdfgx? hf]8\b} hfg] lqmofnfO{ cToGt :jfefljs lqmofsf ?kdf lng . eQf / j}b]lzs e|d0f . kmlg{r/ / cGo Interior Decoration sf .do . . 8fOlgª 6]an.L cfjZostfsf .fh.Hhf tyf kmlg{r/x?sf] 5'6[} d"Nof+sg u/L ljuf] sfod ul/Psf] .fdfgx? .fdfg egL cleof]hgkIfaf6 O{= hfu]Zj/ dxf.b / dGqL kbdf nfdf] .Dd 3/sf] cfGtl/s . lgh lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] a}+sdf /x]sf] /sdnfO{ cfkm\gf] kfl/>lds nufotsf] cfosf ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf] kfOPsf] / ljz]if cbfnt .b / dGqL h:tf] lgoldt ?kdf kfl/>lds / eQf a'em\g] kbdf /xL k6s k6s ljb]z e|d0fdf .Hhfsf .f]kmf.fdfgx?sf] ljj/0f k|:t't ul/Psf] kfOG5 .d]tnfO{ cfwf/ agfOPsf] b]lvPtfklg .Gbe{df . lr/l~hjL jfUn] .fdfgdf ePsf] dfGg ./ .d]taf6 k|fKt u/]sf] egL ljj/0f . kfn]3/ / 6x/fsf] ljuf] sfod ubf{ j:t'k/s 9+uaf6 g} sfod ul/Psf] x'Fbf To. .$)#.fwf/0f kbf{.DaGwdf jfbL kIfaf6 km/s lhsL/ lng g.. kmfOn Sofljg]6.

–.4fy{ dlN6kn OlG:6Ro"6df ?= !%. k|:t't d'2fdf k|ltjfbLx?sf gfddf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft / z]o/sf .!$*. cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg ubf{ lghsf gfdaf6 ePsf] z]o/ nufgLnfO{ cfkm\gf klt b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] cfo cfh{g.%).d]t u/L hDdf ?= %. To.Dd dgfl.^^.)).+3 .nfO{ j}w cfosf ?kdf pNn]v u/]afx]s cGoyf lhsL/ lng .))).(!!.%)).]G6 6«fen P08 6'.– DoflUglkm.))). a}+s df}Hbft tkm{ ldl.L xf]6ndf ?=$@.–.nf .)).&%. t/ ljleGg a}+s tyf ljQLo .df .– .fdfgx?nfO{ lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] lgoldt cfo cfh{gleq gkf/L 5'6[} cl:tTj k|bfg u/L ljuf] sfod ul/Psf] xb. oyfjt\ ?kdf g} /x]sf] x'Fbf To.))).))). tf/f ufpF l/h]G. a}+s df}Hbft / z]o/ nufgL .s]sf] kfO{+b}g .Ldf ?= !.DaGwL plNnlvt ljj/0fnfO{ k|ltjfbL kIfn] klg c:jLsf/ ug{ .f] xb.sf] yk d"Nof+sg / ljj]rgf ul//xg' kg]{ ePg .– nfO{ lgh :jo+n] ljjfxdf kfPsf] /sdaf6 nufgL u/]sf] egL lhsL/ lnPsf] cfwf/df cleof]ukqdf g} bfOhf] egL afx]s ul/Psf] b]lvG5 . k|ltjfbLx?sf gfddf /x]sf] .{ k|f=ln=df ?= #.d]t u/L hDdf ?= *.+:yfsf] z]o/ d"Nof+sg ul//xg' gkg]{ k|s[ltsf] ePsfn] / ltgLx? hxfF h'g cj:yfdf 5g\.)).+3 . kfNkf OlGhlgol/ª sh]hdf ?=&%.–.))).)).))).– / c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfpFdf g]kfn dr]{G6 a}+s P08 kmfOgfG.– . lgh cGh' zdf{ jfUn]n] o.DaGwdf klg ljrf/ ug'{ kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] 5 .DklQsf] d"Nof+sg ubf{ To. l.))).nf ldn]sf] b]lvPg .%*.s]sf] cj:yf b]lvFb}g .))).%@ /x]sf] b]lvG5 eg] b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf ljleGg a}+sdf hDdf ?= !.#! /x]sf] b]lvG5 .– / s'df/L sn]h hf]/kf6Ldf ?=!.fwgnfO{ 67 .Fu hf]8]/ To.jf/L . /Tggu/ lrtjgdf ?=$.j g} b]lvg cfpF5 .(#.+:yfdf ePsf] z]o/ nufgL tkm{ b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf o'lgs Ps]8]lds jf]l8{ª :s"n.– z]o/ nufgL /x]sf] b]lvG5 .df ?=!.tL .%)).Ddsf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}. To.4fy{ dlN6kn OlG:6Ro"6df /x]sf] z]o/ nufgL ?= !%.dWo] cGh' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfddf l.n .– / cf]/n P8e/6fOh Ph]G.+:yfx?df /x]sf df}Hbft /sd / ljleGg .*#. Pd=Pg= OG6/g]zgndf ?=@.–.))).+nUg ljleGg a}+ssf :6]6d]G6x?af6 k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf gfddf ljleGg a}+sdf hDdf ?= ^.))). t.y{ a}+s df}Hbft / z]o/ nufgL tkm{ cleof]ukq jdf]lhd ljuf] sfod u/]sf] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.}u/L ljleGg .

)) !.*@.– nufgL ePsf] b]lvG5 .Dk"0f{ rn crn .^^. k|ltjfbLx?sf gfddf /x]sf] 68 ./L dfly ul/Psf] .fh.)%(.DklQdWo] lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft ?=^.4fy{ dlN6kn OlG:6Ro"6df /x]sf] c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf] z]o/ nufgL afx]s .jf/L .$). Uof/]h.=g+= .DklQ b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.)(.!*.$#.jf/L .fwgsf] ljuf] tkm{ k|ltjfbLx?n] cGoyf lhsL/ lnPsf] cj:yf klg g/x]sf] x'Fbf .d]t u/L hDdf ?=!.foaf6 cflh{t /sdaf6 hf]l8Psf] eGg] b]lvg cfPsf] kl/k|]Iodf lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] .jf/L .f dfq_ hDdf ?=@(.d != hUuf hldg @= 3/.– d"Nosf 3/leqsf kmlg{r/.d]t u/L hDdf # j6f .*^(.fwgsf] xsdf lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf gfddf dGqL .fwg /x]sf] b]lvG5 .@#.DklQsf ?kdf lng' kg]{ b]lvof] . b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] Joj.fdfgx?.&* dfq .@^ / c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfddf l.@(!.fwg $= a}+s df}Hbft %= z]o/ nufgL hDdf sfod ePsf] d"No -ljuf]_ ?= ^&. 3/leqsf kmlg{r/.|f]t v'n]sf] j}w cfosf ?kdf /x]sf] kfOof] .Hhfsf .@^.jf/L .!!@.)) ?= ?= ?= ?= @(. ?= &. .b:ox?sf] gfddf /fv]sf] .(!!.)).^( ?= &.$#.)).*#@. ljB'tLo pks/0f .)) ?= @&.)%.f] .@&.DklQnfO{ k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/L cfkm\gf kl/jf/sf .))).!^!.'ljwfdf vl/b ul/Psf] 6f]of]6f k|f8f] uf8L– ! / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf dfl6{h uf8L–! tyf b]j]Gb| jfUn] / s'df/ ?kfv]tLsf] .))).%@ plNnlvt . ljB'tLo pks/0f / cfGtl/s .DaGwdf klg ljz]if cbfntsf] km}. l.)) #.– .4fy{ dlN6kn OlG:6Ro"6df /x]sf] z]o/ nufgL ?=!%.DklQsf] s"n d"No ?= #.nf ldn]s} b]lvg cfpF5 .foaf6 cflh{t /sd ?=!.!^!.fwgdf -:ofG6«f] uf8Lsf] xsdf b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lx:.)(.|f]t v'n]sf] j}w cfosf ?kdf dfGotf k|fKt ?=!.d]t #= kmlg{r/.+o'Qm gfddf :ofG6«f] uf8L– ! .!*$. o. vl/b d"NonfO{ cfwf/ agfpFbf tL .dfj]z ug'{ kg]{ x'G5 .fdfg / l.klg .@^. .(*.%)).fdu|L .%@ sfod x'g cfpg] b]lvof] .jf/L .d]tsf .@^ dWo]af6 s] s'g .%*.du| ljZn]if0faf6 k|ltjfbLx?sf] gfddf /x]sf] b]xfosf rn crn .*#@.%@.DklQsf] lsl.))).@#.DklQ hf]l8Psf] xf] egL 5'6\ofO{ afFsL . kfn]3/ . ljB'tLo pks/0f / cfGtl/s .hfj6sf . lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft.*# !#.!!@.%).d]t #= .@&.

%@ ?= &.|f]t v'n]sf] .DklQ / of] of] .!!@.y{ k|ltjfbLx?sf gfddf /x]sf] .*#.)%.DklQsf] lsl..)) ?= !%.DklQ .%& s6[f u/L afFsL x'g cfpg] a}+s df}Hbft ?=!.&* .%)).)) ?= ^&.$#.)) ?= @&.f dfq_ .^$&.DklQ .|f]t v'n]sf] ?=!.!$*.4fy{ dlN6kn OlG:6Ro"6df /x]sf] z]o/ nufgL $= k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn] / b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] hUuf hldg %= k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= & l:yt 3/ ^= k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] hDdf a}+s df}Hbft ?=!. ljB'tLo pks/0f / cfGtl/s .%& ?= *.|f]t gv'n]sf] afFsL .|f]t v'n]sf] hDdf .d]tsf] .^^.!*.d ljuf] != k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft ?= !.@(!. t.|f]t v'n]sf] .*#.&&.|f]t v'n]sf] / gv'n]sf] .$).d]t #= k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfddf l.(!.(!!.))).=g+= .().!$*.)).))).DklQ cGtu{t jlu{s/0f ubf{ b]xfo jdf]lhd ug'{ Gofof]lrt x'g cfpF5 M .*@.DklQ ?= /sd ^.^( ?= !.))).)) ?= !^.DklQ dWo] of] of] .)) ?=!.&$ 69 .@&.DklQ l.)%.DklQ l.&&.#! dWo] .DklQnfO{ ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.%)).|f]t gv'n]sf] cj}w .*^(.%)).nf .DklQ xf] egL cleof]hg kIfn] v'nfpg .)) ?= %.+o'Qm gfddf /x]sf] af=# r ^#@) g+= sf] :ofG6«f] uf8L -b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] lx:.d != k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] gfddf /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft @= k|ltjfbL zfGtfb]jL jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] sf7df8f}+ dxfgu/kflnsf j8f g+= & l:yt 3/leqsf kmlg{r/.Dk"0f{ rn crn .fdu|Lx? .)).hfj6sf .s]sf] kfO{+b}g .d]tnfO{ cfwf/ dfgL .(!.#! dWo] &= k|ltjfbL c~h' zdf{ jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] z]o/ nufgL *= k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] af=@ r (@(^ g+= sf] k|f8f] uf8L (= k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] .=g+= .!*$.DklQsf] lsl.

Dk"0f{ z]o/ nufgL / b]j]Gb| jfUn]s} gfpFdf /x]sf] .)#.d]tsf] rn crn .)).&$ a/fa/sf] .DklQsf] ljuf]sf] dfqf cg'./L cfh{g u/]sf] .@= #= k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf /x]sf] z]o/ nufgL ?= %. /Tggu/ lrtjg tyf cf]/n P8e/6fOh Ph]G.)%.d]t b[li6ut ug'{ kg]{ x'g cfpF5 .DklQ / . ljz]if cbfntn] k'g/fj]bs k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] .^$&.jf/L .|f]t v'n]sf] j}w cfosf ?kdf dfGotf kfpg] b]lvg cfPsf] ?=!.Ldf ?=!.|f]t v'n]sf] .*#@.DklQ . .&$ dfly ul/Psf] ljZn]if0f tyf plNnlvt tYout ljj/0f .f]af6 a9] a9fPsf] .)).))). k|sf/ k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+af6 7x/ ePsf] ljuf]sf] c+s km/s kg]{ b]lvPsf] l:yltdf e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. . cbfntaf6 dfly 70 .DklQ afx]s cf/f]kkqdf bfjL lnPsf] k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf] gfpFsf] .DklQsf] ljuf] cg'.$#.d]t pNn]v ePsf] b]lvG5 .)).%@ sf] .f/ b'O{ jif{. o.Dd k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] cf/f]kkq jdf]lhd u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/L cfkm\gf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf /fvL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.)) -o'lgs Ps]8]lds af]l8{ª :s"n.Ldf /x]sf] .$).|f]t gv'n]sf] hDdf .)) .().*! o.!*.%*.&* s6fpFbf afFsL x'g cfpg] ?=@.!*$.)). @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{tsf] s. @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ sf] sfg"gL Joj:yf .))).sL u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] 7x¥ofPsf] ljuf] ?=@.)) .)) / cf]/n P8e/6fOh Ph]G.d]tsf cfwf/df k|ltjfbLx?sf gfddf /x]sf] s"n ?=#.d]t e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. /Tggu/ lrtjgdf ?= $.&@.Dk"0f{ a}+s df}HbftdWo] ?=!. lgh b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFsf] o'lgs Ps]8]lds af]l8{ª :s"n.DklQ ?=@.(@&. pQm bkmf @)-@_ df u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] k|dfl0ft ePdf To.@#.|f]t v'nfpg g.fwg -af=# r %%(! g+= sf] dfl6{h uf8L_ .^$&.d]t_ k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf /x]sf] af=# r %%(! g+= sf] dfl6{h uf8L ?= *.Dd s}b / hl/jfgf u/L cfh{g u/]sf] u}/sfg"gL .f/ g} .)%.))).DklQ.f] sfg"gL Joj:yfaf6 u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] . @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ tyf bkmf $& jdf]lhd hkmt x'g] cj:yf b]lvg cfof] .)#.))).f] b]lvgfn] .^$&.DklQaf6 .DklQ hkmt ul/g]5 eGg] .)%."/ u/]sf] b]lvof] .&$.hfosf] xbklg 36L a9L sfod ug'{ Gofof]lrt / :jfefljs x'g cfPsf] 5 .

"/ u/]sf] 7x¥ofO{ ePsf] xb.DklQsf ?kdf b]lvg cfPsf] ?=@.)%.d]t sfod u/L kfpmF eGg] jfbL g]kfn . @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ jdf]lhd ljuf] cg'.Ddsf] km}.DklQ cfh{g u/L cfkm\gf 5f]/f b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfddf /fvL e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g. sf7df8f}+sf] km}.f] ljuf] hkmt e} ljuf] jdf]lhd hl/jfgf / . @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -!_ cGtu{tsf] s.j x'g cfpg] e} hDdf ! jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b x'g] b]lvof] . tk.^$&./sf/sf] / .*! ljuf] sfod u/L ljuf] jdf]lhd hl/jfgf / ! jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b tyf P]=P]gsf] bkmf @$ ad]flhd ! jif{ yk s}b .&$ dfq ljuf] sfod x'g] b]lvPsf]n] .flos sf/f]af/af6 u/]sf] .d]tsf] k'g/fj]bg lhsL/ k'Ug .d]t u/L hDdf ! jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b x'g] 7x5{ . @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ jdf]lhd ! jif{ s}b tyf bkmf @$ jdf]lhd yk ^ dlxgf.f/ ?=@. k|df0f.4fGt .Dk"0f{ cleof]u bfjLaf6 .Dk"0f{ cfonfO{ dfGotf lbg' kg]{ eGg] k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn] .)%.nf dgfl.DklQ hkmt x'g] tyf lgh k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.)#.%*.kmfO{ kfpg' kg]{ eGg] k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn] tyf b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] Jojf.(@&.nf ljuf]sf] xsdf s]xL km/s kg{ cfO{ .)#.)%.$.&$ ljuf] sfod x'g cfPsf] kl/k|]Iodf ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+sf] ldlt @)^!.hfo u/L cleof]u bfjL jdf]lhd lauf] .nf s]xL pN6L e} u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/]sf] pQm .Dd s}b ug'{ dgfl.&@.^$&.fkm v08df n]lvP jdf]lhd ljz]if cbfnt.|f]t gv'n]sf] . c? tk.& sf] km}.^$&.&$ hl/jfgf / ! -Ps_ jif{ s}b tyf P]=P]gsf] bkmf @$ jdf]lhd yk ^ -5_ dlxgf s}b .Ln jdf]lhd ug"{ .ul/Psf] ljZn]if0f jdf]lhd s]xL 36\g hfg] e} ?=@.f]xL ljuf] tyf hl/jfgfsf] c+ssf] cfwf/df ljrf/ ubf{ s}bsf] xsdf klg Gofof]lrt ?kn] x]l/Fbf km/s ul/g' pko'Qm b]lvPsf]n] e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.Ln dfly OG.j b]lvPtfklg P]=P]gsf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ jdf]lhd ?.d]t hDdf @ jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b x'g] 7x¥ofPsf] km}. sfg"gL Joj:yf / k|ltkflbt l.Sb}g .d]tsf] ljZn]if0faf6 ljz]if cbfnt sf7df8f}+n] k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] u}/ sfg"gL ?kdf .nf s]xL pN6L e} k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ hDdf ! jif{ ^ dlxgf s}b x'g] 7x/]sf]n] ljz]if 71 . t.)#. k|ltjfbL dWo]sf b]j]Gb| jfUn]nfO{ dltof/df .y{ dfly k|s/0f k|s/0fdf ul/Psf] tYo.@.

Ln v08 $ 72 .(!.nfsf] tk.f/ hkmt x'g] 7x/]sf]n] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.)).!) .Dd cg'."n pk/ ug{ h]yf hdfgtsf] ljj/0f .lxt sf7df8f}+ lhNnf cbfntdf nut lbg" =============================================================================== @ dfly OG.d]taf6 sfg"g jdf]lhd c.Ln v08 @ jdf]lhdsf] nut sfod g/xg] x'Fbf .|f]t v'n]sf] ?=!.DklQ e|i6frf/ lgjf/0f P]g.– dfly OG.^$&.Gwfgsf qmddf lx/f. sf7df8f}+sf] km}.DklQ sfg"g jdf]lhd lnnfd tyf laqmL u/L .)%.cbfntsf] km}.!$*.&&.fkm v08df n]lvP jdf]lhd ljz]if cbfnt.))).nfsf] tk.– #= k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf /x]sf] o'lgs Ps]8]lds af]l8{ª :s"n.tdf /x]sf] b]lvFbf pQm calw )÷!÷% -Ps dlxgf kfFr lbg_ s6fO{ afFsL s}b ! jif{ $ dlxgf @% lbgsf] nut s.nfsf] tk.*.f] s6[f u/L b]xfodf n]lvP jdf]lhdsf . @)%( sf] bkmf @) sf] pkbkmf -@_ / bkmf $& cg'.fkm v08df n]lvP jdf]lhd k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf b]xfosf a}+sx?df /x]sf] hDdf a}+s df}Hbft ?=!.&$ hl/jfgf x'g] 7x/]sf]n] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.^$&.nfsf] tk.– d"Nosf] af=# r %%(! g+= sf] dfl6{h uf8L – ! @= k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf /x]sf] cf]/n P8\e/6fOh Ph]G.$ b]lv @)%(.)).Ln v08 # jdf]lhdsf] nut sfod g/xg] x'Fbf .%& s6[f u/L afFsL x'g cfpg] ?=!.nf s]xL pN6L e} b]xfosf k|ltjfbLx?sf gfddf /x]sf] b]xfosf] .*#.Lsf] z]o/ nufgL ?=!.L sfg"g jdf]lhd c.f] s6[f u/L lgh k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] pQm hl/jfgf a'emfP h]yf hdfgt km's'jf ul/lbg' / ga'emfP o.#! dWo] . cbfntdf k'g/fj]bg ubf{ /fv]sf] h]yf hdfgt .j{.&$ a}+s df}Hbft k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]n] u}/sfg"gL ?kdf cfh{g u/L b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf /fv]sf] 7x/L hkmt x'g] ePsfn] ljz]if cbfntsf] km}.%)).l~rt sf]ifdf bflvnf ug{ .)%. sf7df8f}+sf] km}.DklQ /x]sf] lhNnfsf] lhNnf cbfntdf nut lbg" ===================================================================================================== # != k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]sf gfpFdf /x]sf] ?=*.))).f] s6[f u/L lgh k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]sf] xsdf lgh ldlt @)%(.Ln v08 ! jdf]lhdsf] nut sfod g/xg] x'Fbf .().fkm v08df n]lvP jdf]lhd ljz]if cbfnt.)).(.)#."n ug'{ egL sf7df8f}+ lhNnf cbfntdf nut lbg" ==================================== ! dfly OG.nf s]xL pN6L e} k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ ?=@. /Tggu/ lrjgsf] z]o/ nufgL ?=$.))).

j{. GofofwLz Olt.!@!.f/ u/L a'emfOlbg" ========= & k|wfg GofofwLz pQm /fodf d .)) $= a}+s ckm sf7df8f}+df /x]sf] a}+s Jofn]G.))^. ?= ================ $!.#! dWo] .DalGwt sfof{nodf n]vL k7fpg" ========================================================================================= % k|ltjfbL lr/l~hjL jfUn]nfO{ km}.&$ @= :6f088{ rf6{8{ a}+s.fn r}q @ ut] /f]h $ z'ed\ ============================================= .|f]t v'n]sf] /sd s6[f u/L afFsL /sd cfjZos k|lqmof k"/f u/L . sflGtkydf /x]sf] a}+s Jofn]G.#*%.f] s6[f u/L b]xfosf a}+sx?df /x]sf] a}+s df}Hbft dWo] .)). ?= === %&.)) #= lxdfnog a}+s.DalGwt sfof{nodf n]vL k7fpg" ========================================================================== ^ k|:t't d'2fsf] bfo/Lsf] nut s6[f u/L ldl.##.%& afx]ssf] afFsL a}+s Jofn]G. ?= ======= ##.DklQsf] /f]Ssf km's'jf ul/lbg' egL .@^#. ?=@).kmfO kfpg] 7x/]sf] x'Fbf lghn] ljz]if cbfntsf] cfb]z jdf]lhd /fv]sf] w/f}6 jfktsf] h]yf hdfgtsf] .n lgodfg'.)) %= gljn a}sdf /x]sf] a}+s Jofn]G. ?= =========================== $).%^. Ohnf. clws[t M pd]z sf]O/fnf 73 .!@.|f]t v'n]sf] .)) dfly OG.xdt 5' .*&@.jdf]lhdsf] nut sfod g/xg] x'Fbf .&^$.DklQsf] /f]Ssf km's'jfsf] nflu .%)).nfn] nfu]sf] s}b tyf hl/jfgf c.fkm v08df n]lvP jdf]lhd k|ltjfbL b]j]Gb| jfUn]n] cleof]u bfjLaf6 .#$.|f]t v'n]sf] ?=!.Djt\ @)^& .&&.l~rt sf]ifdf bflvnf ug{ sf7df8f}+ lhNnf cbfntdf nut lbg" ============== $ != g]kfn O{Ge]i6d]G6 a}+sdf /x]sf] a}+s Jofn]G. lqb]jL dfu{df /x]sf] a}s Jofn]G.)@."n ePkl5 7x/ v08df n]lvP jdf]lhdsf] . ?= =========================================================== !*.