Stages Of Growth & Development

Stage / Age
Toddler (12 to 36 months)

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Freud/Erickson
(Psychosexual)
Autonomy vs. sense of Shame & doubt (ages 1-3) Newfound sense of independence as a result of having learned some basic self-care skills— walking, feeding, and toileting.

Piaget
(Cognitive)
Sensorimotor & Preconceptual Phase - Appear mature but are really primitive; - Differentiation of self from objects—increased tolerance of separation from parents - Object permanence has advanced—increasingly aware of existence of objects of objects behind doors, in drawers, etc. - Domestic mimicry - Embryonic concept of time —a vagus concept - “Why?” and “How?’ predominate language. Preoperational Phase (2-7) - A shift from totally egocentric thought to social awareness occurs—ability to consider another’s viewpoint begins. Egocentricity is still evident. - Play is this child’s way of understanding, adjusting to, and working out life’s experiences - Magical thinking—thoughts are powerful—guilt may result from bad thoughts or wishes - Words are accepted literally —“you are bad” means that “I am a bad person,” not merely that my actions were bad.

Kohlberg
Spiritual/moral
Kohlberg said nothing. - Associate God with something special - Assimilate behaviors (folding hands in prayer) associated with God - Comforted by spiritual routines (bedtime prayers - Near end of toddler- hood, religious teachings such as reward and fear of punishment may influence their behavior

Play
- Parallel play—the toddler plays alongside, not with other children - Inspects toys; talks to toys; tests its strength and durability - Invents uses for toys - Imitation is a distinguishing characteristic of play—engages in fantasy

Common Problems/Concerns
- Temper tantrums - Toilet training – voluntary sphincter control is achieved between 18 & 24 months of age. NOTE: bowel training is usually accomplished before bladder training because of its greater regularity and predictability. - Negativism—persistent “no” answers

Preschool (4 to 7 years)

Initiative vs. Guilt (ages 3-6) Child develops the ability to initiate and direct own activities. Because they are developing a super ego (conscience), conflicts arise from their desire to explore and the limits placed upon them by caregivers—leads to feeling of frustration and guilt

Preconventional/Premoral - Moral judgment is at its most basic level—little concern for why something is wrong. - Actions are directed toward fulfilling their needs and less frequently the need of others. - These children have a very concrete sense of justice - fairness involves the philosophy of “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours, “ with no thought of loyalty or gratitude. -Development of conscious is strongly linked to spiritual; development. Behave correctly to avoid punishment, guilt.

- Associative play—group play in similar or identical activities, but without rigid organization or rules. Provides physical, social, and mental development, with refinement of motor skills. Includes: jumping, running, and climbing, as well as the use of tricycles, sports equipment, constructive and creative toys, etc. - Imitative, imaginative and dramatic play – probably the most characteristic & persuasive preschool activity. For self expression; involves the reproduction of adult behavior. Toward the end of the preschool period children want to do adult activities not just pretend.

- May begin to ask questions about sex. - Fear: of the dark; being alone; of animals; pain (and the objects or persons associated with pain); ghosts; sexual matters; etc. - Inability to separate reality from fantasy may lead to fears and anxieties—television programs may lead to animism. BY 5 or 6 they usually relinquish these fears. - Susceptible to the effects of excess stress because of their inability to cope. - Some preschoolers are prone to acts of aggression; reinforcement can shape aggressive behavior— to get attention—neg. or pos. - Modeling the behavior of significant others—this can be good or bad

Stages Of Growth & Development
Stage/Age
School age (6-12 years)

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Freud/Erickson
(Psychosexual)
Industry vs. Inferiority (ages 6-11) Learning to achieve, compete, perform and developing a sense of self confidence because of successes. Thrive on accomplishments and praise. May develop a sense of inferiority when tasks are too difficult, thus producing failure—need support.

Piaget
(Cognitive)
Conceptual thinking. (concrete operations) These children are able to use thought processes to experience events and actions —to understand relationships between things and ideas (reasoning); their mental processes allow them to see things from another’s point of view. Learn to master skills such as: conservation, classification, reasoning, comprehension, and reading . Abstract thinking. The period of formal operations. These people now think in the realm of what is possible —beyond the present and concrete. They are concerned with future events such as marriage, college, and vocations. Their thoughts are influenced by logical principles rather than their own perceptions and experiences. They are able to understand that few concepts are absolute or independent of other influencing factors.

Kohlberg
Spiritual/moral
- Reward and punishment guide their judgment—they adopt and internalize the moral values of their parents; they learn standards for acceptable behavior, act accordingly & feel guilty when they violate them. However, they do not understand the reasons behind the rules. - These children view God as a human; they are fascinated with the concepts of heaven and hell and may fear hell as punishment. Adolescents, to gain autonomy from adults, often substitute their own set of morals and values. They seek to establish and internalize a set of morals and values that they have tested and found to be worthy of living by—this often means questioning and sometimes abandoning existing morals and values. Often when adults merely ascribe to a code of morals and values verbally, without actually adhering to the codes, adolescents will be inclined to abandon such codes.

Play
Play takes on a group or clique form (team play) —it involves increased physical skill, intellectual ability, and fantasy. A sense of belonging to a team is important. - Games have fixed, rigid rules; Conformity and ritual permeate their play; - School-aged children gain a sense of power from playing games where they can use fantasy and imagination to gain mastery over others who otherwise dominate them. While the parents of adolescents remain their primary influence, they are ever moving away from parental dependency and toward autonomy. Their peers play an ever increasing role in terms of significance. To belong is of utmost importance. Their play is group (peer) oriented and is more about relationships than play. Sexual activity and romance preoccupy many adolescents. The leisure-time activities amongst adolescents assist in the development of their social, physical, and cognitive skills.

Common Problems/Concerns
- Peer influence and pressure becomes a contending factor for parental influence. - School-aged children seek greater autonomy with increasing age—leads to family conflict. - Antisocial behavior may develop—lying, stealing, and cheating - Stress can mount from pressures such as those to excel academically, peer pressures, and family conflicts, etc. - Destructive behavior - Sexual experimentation There is great pressure on adolescents to become sexually active. Adolescents often experiment in sexual activities—petting, fondling, heterosexual intercourse, homosexual (oral and anal ). Few are aware of the dangers associated with sexual experimentation. - Adolescents have a sense of indestructibility. This often leads them to destructive behavior such as drinking and driving in a manner that is dangerous. Auto accidents are the number one killer of adolescent males.

Adolescence (12 to 18 or 20)

Identity vs. Role confusion (group identity vs. alienationage 12-20) Stage is marked by dramatic physiological changes associated with sexual maturation that leads to marked preoccupation with appearance and body image. Identity development takes place in this stage as the youth seeks autonomy, group identity, and to answer the question, “Who am I?” This is essential for making adult decisions—marriage, vocation. Failure to develop a sense of self identity can lead to isolation and inability to develop lasting attachments in future.

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