This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
NAVNIT KUMAR RESEARCH OFFICER DEPARTMENT OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF SPEECH AND HEARING ISHA MEMBERSHIP NO.: L 12092096 E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
BRAJESH PRIYADARSHI LECTURER IN LINGUISTICS DEPARTMENT OF SPEECH LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF SPEECH AND HEARING E-MAIL:email@example.com
PAPER SUBMITTED FOR 45TH ISHACON POSTER PRESENTATION (LANGUAGE)
Most of the studies looked for the span at different age groups.62. Although. the digit Span test is one of the most commonly used measures of immediate verbal recall. involved the measurement of span. The sample was divided into five groups according to age. Nearly all measures of working memory developed till date.7). SD = 2.25.to-above 80 years.A total of eighty native Hindi speaking adults within the age range of 40-to. which has been reactivated to perform a cognitive task (Baddeley. or shortterm storage and manipulation of previously learned information. SD = 3. DFS and DBS is strongly influenced from aging. Aim of study: The present study attempts to investigate the effect of aging on digit forward and backward span tasks of working memory on native Hindi healthy speakers. Limited studies had focused on the pattern of decline of both these measures along with increased age. SD = 4.12. From the review of previous studies it is clear that age has a significant effect on decline of digit forward and backward span. Group III: aged 61-70 years (M = 65.5). health conditions.5). This test comprises two modalities. 1986). gender. Group II: aged 51-60 years (M = 55. Group IV: aged 71-80 years (M = 75. attentional capacity in neuropsychological research and clinical evaluations (Conway et al.AGING EFFECT ON DIGIT SPAN TASK OF WORKING MEMORYOF HINDI SPEAKING ADULTS Abstract Introduction: Working memory (WM) has been described as a work-space that allows a cognitive system for short-term storage and manipulation of new information.3). 2005).7). The prime objective of the study is to look for the pattern of decline of digit forward and digit backward span tasks performance across the 40. in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. There were eight males and eight females 2 . b) digits backward span (DBS). Amongst span tasks. other variables like level of education language of a person. a) digits forward span (DFS) and.above 80s years were recruited for the study. Group I: aged 40-50 years (M = 45. and Group V: aged above 80 years (M = 84..87. SD = 1. and culture may also influence to some extent. Method: Participants.81. SD = 2.
The interviews were conducted under a neuropsychologist’s guidance. This finding was also similar to some of the previous studies (e.03. Two-tailed paired samples t-test with alpha set at .001.. Instruments. 2004). and for DB span [F (1.59 to 2) (Kaplan et al. Further.The result of present study showed that span for DF task was higher than DB. 77) = 5.. The participants were tested in a quiet. At last. Working memory: Digit Span Test: The sets of digits were taken from the digit forward and digit backward subtest of “Cogni tiveLinguistic Assessment Protocol for Adults” (CLAP) in Kannada (Kamath. However the mean DBS (M = 3. SD = 0. SD = 0. participants underwent digit span tasks so that their working memory may be evaluated. Orsiniet al.9) was within normal range of 5-8 digits (Kaplan et al.31. In the present study. noise free environment at home or clinical setting. 77) = 20. All the data was audio-video recorded with digital camera (Sony 1080). The working memory sub test constitutes DF and DB tasks.6.51. Hester. &Ong. they had to complete sociocultural questionnaire. middle. 1974. lower middle. After that..00 was used for the statistical analysis. Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE): to screen individuals with cognitive impairment. 2004. mean DFS (M = 5.05 explored a significant difference between these tasks with t = 17. across all the age groups. Wilde et al. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed to compare the DFS and DBS tasks across age groups and gender.001]. upper. but pattern 3 . Kinsella. Our results indicated that. revealed a significant group effect for the DF span [F (1. p = ˂ 0. and HMSE.7) approximate towards the lowest value of normal range within 4-5 digits (Botwinick & Storand. 1987). The difference between the DFS and DBS was also found within the normal range (from 0. Procedures-Participation in this study was voluntary.in each group. Finally the 10 percent of the audio-video recorded data were retested by three speech-language pathologists for inter-judge reliability. Lezak et al. MINI. Black. 2001). At first participants signed an informed consent form. 1986. 2004).. poor and very poor / below poverty line status. Result and Discussion: A commercially available statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 16.Scale for measuring the socioeconomic status of a family: to classify the subjects into upper high. 1991)..001]. p = ˂ 0. p = ˂ 0.g.1. The mean DFS and DBS for each age group depict higher DFS than DBS. 1991. high.. although the rate of decline was not uniform with age.
Alternatively. working memory ability declines with a similar rate up to 6070 years. It also suggests that after 70 years. Thirdly.. saturation in span takes place. Conclusion: The results of this study present some important facts. Key words: Working memory. Digit backward span 4 . the present study provides a data base for the memory span of native healthy adult Hindi speaker. (2004) where. gender has a significant effect on working memory. 1986).of decline was found to be similar for both the measures. they assumed that both DFS and DBS tasks uses central executive. the study presents a scope for doing further research on comparing the influences of different languages on WM ability using DS tasks. In the present study. Secondly. Digit forward span. Thus. that leads to greater rate of decline in DFS than DBS tasks. Firstly. The similarity of results between the two studies is because of the fact that an identical protocol was used in both the studies. it was a notion that central executive component of working memory has an important role in the performance of BS tasks. This type of pattern was reported in one of the studies by Hester et al. the study indicates that normal aging affect the working memory abilities for DBS early across life span than DFS. the participant (N =80) is lesser than earlier study (N =1030). 1980. except the number of participants in the studies. Apart from this. Strigler & Lee. There are only a few studies that compare the influence of language on the DS tasks (Ellis & Hennelly.
The neuro-anatomical changes associated with aging are mostly seen in prefrontal cortex of frontal lobe. 2000). Baddely. Just and Carpenter. Hambrick. Shah & Miyake. This coordination is one of the primary functions of executive WM. 1986. psychological. 1988). Developmental research suggests that aging associated decline in WM is a core factor to general cognitive-aging effects (Hasher & Zacks. 1999). much more data are available from these tasks compared to other tasks to measure WM capacity e. The memory span is the maximum number of sequential information an individual can remember accurately (Gathercole. Hambrick. Jarrold. 2003). 1996). Adults above 60 years often reported difficulty to remember recent experiences. Just & Carpenter. & Kramer. 2005). (1992) reported that WM is a cornerstone of higher-order complex cognitive function.Effortful processing needs coordination of storage and processing – coordination. involved the measurement of span. 2003). and cognitive changing in a person (Mungas. 1996. Nearly all measures of working memory developed till date. Executive functions are one of the important components of WM. Kane.g. & Wilhelm. CS task is considered to measure verbal and executive WM. Payne. needed for goal-directed behaviors. & Gunn. A SS task requires only the passive retention of information. counting span and reading span tasks are maximally prefer because these are reliable measure measures of WM (Conway. Baddeley. physiological.INTRODUCTION Working memory (WM) is a work-space that allows a cognitive system for shortterm storage of new or previously learned information and their manipulation to perform a cognitive task (Baddeley. 1992. 2005). spatial WM span tasks (Kane. Wilhelm. Span activities used to quantify the memory span can be classified as either simple span (SS) or complex span (CS) task. Bunting.. 2004. It requires effortful processing of information while trying to retain lists of items for a short interval (Bayliss. presumed to measure phonological short-term memory. The change or decline of this region with normal aging significantly affects the executive functions (West. Clinical 5 . Therefore. whereas. & Engle. 1986). Engle. Aging also leads to several neuro-anatomical. WM also plays a major role in language processing (Baddeley. Reed. Amongst span tasks. Tuholski.
language of a person. Therefore. Henderson (2004) studied the effect of age. which can be measured as digit span task. Elkadi. This test comprised of digits forward span (DFS) and. and culture may also influence to some extent. Therefore. eventually. health conditions. Guthrie. digits backward span (DBS) tasks. Mejia Pineda.to-above 80 years. (1998). in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. Limited studies had focused on the pattern of decline of both these measures along with increased age. The prime objective of the study was to look for the pattern of decline of digit forward and digit backward span tasks performance across the 40. Alvarez. DFS and DBS is strongly influenced from aging. the present study attempts to investigate the effect of aging on DFS and DBS tasks of working memory on native Hindi healthy speakers. education. the study attempts in presenting a deeper insight in the pattern of decline in the working memory of a person as the age progresses. They found that other than age. analyzed the variables influencing memory. Most of the studies looked for the span at different age groups. other variables like level of education.. working history. Bowden. and Ardila. It was concluded that reading and writing ability influences an individual development. To understand the influence of demographic and individual variable on working memory. and gender differences. 2005). physical activity and leisure activities had also a significant effect on aging. Clark Dennerstein. gender. education. it also helps in differential diagnosis between aging associated memory impairment and memory impairment caused due to any pathological reason. Both education level and cultural differences had a significant effect on DFS and DBS in Spanish adults. Although. From the review of previous studies it is clear that aging has a significant effect on decline of digit forward span (DFS) and digit backward span (DBS). and culture differences on DFS and DBS tasks in Australian-born women within the age range of 56-67 years on 2574 Spanish‐speaking subjects.researches most commonly use digit span tasks amongst all span tasks to measure WM capacity (Conway et al. academic history. 6 .
Ratclife. Aggarwal & Rajoura. Group I: aged 40-50 years (M = 45. There were eight males and eight females in each of the age groups. Chandra. SD = 4. SD = 2.3). Bhasin. It was ensured using Hindi Mental State Exam (Ganguli. Chhabra.above 80s years were recruited for the study.62. Mean schooling years for the sample was 11. Bellie. a person (elderly person other than subject) who became familiar with the tasks as experimenter was administering the test on subjects.81. 2002). Participants scoring greater than or equal to 25 on the Hindi Mental State Exam (HMSE) were taken up for the study.5).7).87. Mean sample score was 28. The sample was classified into five groups according to age of participants. Scale for measuring the socioeconomic status of a family: The scale developed by Aggarwal.3). Pandav. 2005). All had education level higher than 9 years in Hindi medium. The scale consists of 22 question based on which the 7 . None of the participants scored less than the cut-off point in the HMSE. SD = 1. was also excluded from the study.25. Gilbey. Instruments I. Group III: aged 61-70 years (M = 65. Sharma.. Group IV: aged 71-80 years (M = 75.5 (SD= 1. (2005).7). SD = 2. A total of eighty native Hindi speaking adults within the age range of 40-to. psychological problems. The participant had no present/past history of any neurological. All the participants belonged to middle socioeconomic status as assessed on scale for measuring the socioeconomic status of family (Aggarwal. Sharma. In addition. presence of dementia. Ryan.METHOD Participants The study was conducted in semi urban area of Patna district in Bihar.08 ( SD= 3. and severe untreated sight and hearing disorders were excluded from the study.5). 1995).12. and Group V: aged above 80 years (M = 84. Group II: aged 51-60 years (M = 55. Individuals with any Axis I psychiatric diagnosis according to the DSMIV-TR (American Psychological Association. All the subjects were formally screened for speech and hearing abilities by the experimenter and those who passed the screening were included in the study.6). India. SD = 3. Baker. Seaberg & Dekosky. et al.
In DFS task participants were asked to verbally repeat a set in same sequence as the examiner. Test was started from a set of 3 digits continuing to a maximum a set of 7 digits. Span was calculated as a set at which two out of three trials were repeated correctly. It consists of a brief structured interview. lower middle. developed by Ganguli et al. Lecrubier. attention and concentration. HMSE consists of 22 test items covering several areas of cognitive functions such as orientation (time and place). Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE): HMSE is a Hindi version of the Mini mental state examination (MMSE). poor and very poor/ below poverty line status.. screens individuals with cognitive impairment. to assess 17 of the most commonly occurring Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases. high. upper. Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI):The MINI is a semi-structured interview developed by Sheehan. 2001). Digits were presented at the rate of one digit per second. The cut-off point set for this sample was ≥ 25 points. Procedures Participation in this study was voluntary. motor functioning and praxis. middle. recognition of objects. memory.. This document aimed at informing the participants about the objectives. and Weiller (1998). IV. 7 5 3 6 1 9 4). III. following diagnostic criteria similar to those found in the DSM-IV and in the ICD-10. Amorim. 8 .. starting from three digits (e. Working memory: Digit Span Test: The digit span test consisted of sets of digits. 10threvision (ICD10) psychiatric disorders.scoring was done and total score obtained classify the subjects into upper high.g. Janavs. language function (comprehension and expression).g. II. 8 9 6) up to seven digits (e. (1995). Sheehan. These sets of digits were taken from the digit forward and digit backward subtest of “Cognitive-Linguistic Assessment Protocol for Adults” (CLAP) in Kannada (Kamath. The time to complete the instrument was approximately 10 minutes in all. However in DBS task the participants were asked to verbally repeat the numbers in reverse order. At first participants signed an informed consent form. The digit sequences used in the tasks and the criterion for deciding span were same as DF tasks. There were three trials per set.
12 (.75) 4. RESULTS A commercially available statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 16.justifications.0 (.35) 3. It 9 .51) 3.5 (. MINI.5 (.25 (.75) 4. p = ˂ 0.8 (. The participants were tested in a quiet.87 (.75 (.74) 3.82 (.79) DBS Female 4.87 (.64) 4.87) Male 4. The interviews were conducted under a neuropsychologist’s guidance. participants underwent digit span tasks so that their working memory may be evaluated. Table 1 shows the mean and standard deviation (SD) for span (DFS and DBS) across age groups.53) 6. At last.87 (. Paired samples t-test (α = 0. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was performed to compare the DFS and DBS tasks across age groups and gender. The results are shown in Table 2.05) explored a significant difference between these tasks with t = 17.46) 5.64) 4. psychiatric and neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated by a psychologist trained in diagnostic evaluation in older individuals.51) 3. and procedures of this investigation.37 (.00 was used for the statistical analysis. At this moment.35) 3. Finally the 10 percent of the audio-video recorded data were retested by three speechlanguage pathologists for inter-judge reliability. and HMSE. All the data was audio-video recorded with digital camera (Sony 1080).70) 3.62 (.35) 3. noise free environment at home or clinical setting.37 (.37 (. After that.87 (.12 (.74) 3.0 (.87 (.5 (. they had to complete socio-cultural questionnaire.0 (0) 3.71) Note: Standard deviations appear in parentheses. Age Group Male 40-50 years 51-60 years 61-70 years 71-80 years Above 80s Total 6.37 (.37 (1.001.46) 4.51) 3.03. based on the MINI and HMSE scores and on structured interviews. DFS was higher than DBS (Figure 1).53) 5. Table 1 Mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of DFS and DBS for the five age groups.75 (.83) 3.0) DFS Female 5.83) 5.
Table 2 F value and p-value of age and gender for DFS and DBS. The result 10 . and 4-5 age groups.001]. However.31 p ˂ 0.001]. 3-4.01 1. 2-3. except 1-2.05= significant difference) Figure 2. 3-4.51.35 6.02* 0. Comparison of DFS and DBS across 40-to-above 80s years. Tasks Age groups F DFS DBS 20.01* Age* gender F 3. 3-5. and 4-5 all other age groups showed significant differences. This was measured using DFS and DBS tasks.31.001* ˂ 0. and for DB span [F (1.001* Gender F 14. DISCUSSION The study investigated the effect of aging on pattern of decline of digit forward and digit backward span tasks of working memory in native Hindi speakers within the age range of 40–above 80s.14 P ˂ 0. p = ˂ 0.001* 0. at DBS significant differences were observed except 25. 3-5. In DFS. The comparisons of the DFS and DBS across age groups are shown in Figure 2.revealed significant effects of age group for the DF span F (1. 77) = 20. p = ˂ 0.13 P 0. 77) = 5.34 Note: (*p ˂ 0.51 5.
across all the age groups. 11 . Hester. which affect the cognitive abilities. 2004). It is a common notion that reduced hearing acuity is pervasive with normal aging.. none of the studies has compared the effect of gender on DFS and DBS in adult age groups.7) approximate towards the lowest value of normal range within 4-5 digits (Lezak et al. . 2003. and after that span remained constant. In the present study. 2002. 2004). 1991).. It is important to mention that all the participants below age of 65 years had clinically normal hearing acuity.1. study by Gathercoel et al. 2004. This effect forces us to think about factors other than aging. to repeat them. However the mean DBS (M = 3.. 2004).9) was within normal range of 5-8 digits (Kaplan. Thus. Black..6. participants above 65 years had reported some amount of hearing deficits.. Moreover. This finding was also similar to some of the previous studies (e. ceiling effect was seen early for DBS than DFS tasks. Participants reported that. Lunner.. 2009.of present study showed that span for DF task was higher than DB. Morris... 2002.59 to 2 (Kaplan et al. Wilde et al. the digits were presented at louder voice they asked the experimenter to repeat the digits. It may be noted that. The mean span of male was significantly higher than female for both the measure. (2004) has studied the effect of gender difference on working memory ability in young children within the age range of 4-15 years. Myerson et al. This decline in sensory acuity might affect their cognitive tasks performance (Baldwin. SD = 0. Results of present study showed a significant age and gender difference effects on DFS and DBS of WM. that even. Although previous researches have revealed profound effect of aging on WM abilities..g. they found difficulty in memorizing and recalling digits. Similar observations were observed during the study. Our results indicated that. Similar aging associated decline in both DF and DB span have been reported in previous studies (Hester et al. 2007. et al. it is important to determine whether change in WM abilities is dependent on deficit of hearing acuity or not. Wingfield et al. Baldwin & Struckman-Johnson. 1986. DF and DB span decreased by a rate of one digit per age group upto 6170 years and 51-60 years respectively. mean DFS (M = 5. & Delis 1991). 2005). Wilde et al. 2004. However. SD = 0. Fein. & Ong. The difference between the DFS and DBS was also found within the normal range of 0. even they could listen the digits quite well. Kinsella.
Lower performance of adults above 65 years of age on working memory tasks might be due to reduced sensory acuity. 1980. precise relationships between age associated reduced hearing acuity and normal aging is not well understood. saturation in span takes place. Alternatively. However. Thirdly. Firstly. the results of present study provides a data base of digit forward and digit backward span of adult speaker. Apart from this. The findings of the present study 12 . formal assessment for hearing ability. how the interaction of reduced hearing acuity and normal aging affect the working memory. However. except the number of participants. 1986).. Also. but pattern of decline was found to be similar for both the measures (Figure 2). (2004) where they assumed that both DFS and DBS tasks uses central executive. It also suggests that after 70 years. gender has a significant effect on working memory indicating that males has a higher DF span than females. This type of pattern was reported in one of the studies by Hester et al. CONCLUSION The results of this study present some important facts. There are only a few studies that compare the influence of language on the DS tasks (Ellis & Hennelly. and detailed cognitive assessment are needed to address their influences on working memory in normal aging. In the present study. Secondly. it was a notion that central executive has a significant importance in BS tasks performance. leading to greater rate of decline in DFS than DBS tasks. it is concluded that reduced and static span after age of 70 years may be due to sub clinical reduced hearing acuity that interact with normal aging differently. is not well explained in the literature. Present study included the lesser participant (N =80) than the earlier study (N =1030). although the rate of decline was not uniform with age. In this study formal screening of the person for the hearing ability was not done as it was not the focus of the study. The similarity of results between the two studies is because of the fact that an identical protocol was used in both the studies. in DB span task. Strigler & Lee. working memory ability declines with a similar rate up to 60-70 years. both males and females performed equally.Therefore. However. the study indicates that normal aging affect the working memory abilities for DBS earlier in the life span than DFS.
. S. 307-329. Baldwin. UK: Oxford University Press.Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. A. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are grateful to Dr. A New Instrument (Scale) for Measuring the Socioeconomic Status of a Family: Preliminary Study. K. Cognitive implications of facilitating echoic persistence. C. AIISH for their valuable guidance. C. Neuropsychological characteristics of normal aging.. (1986). K. 30 (4). S. D. Working memory. (2007). 13 . Lecturer in Biostatistics. Working memory and language: An overview. M.Developmental Neuropsychology.. (1989). Baddeley. Baddeley. O. Shyamala. HOD. Aggarwal. 307–320. Department of Speech–Language Pathology and Mr. Oxford. P. A. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. Savithri. Memory & Cognition. 189–208. Director AIISH for giving us an opportunity to conduct this research study. C. P. & Rosselli. 35 (4). R. Santosh C. K. D.. Designing in-vehicle technologies for older drivers: Application of sensory-cognitive interaction theory. 3 (4). L.. Baldwin. (2003). Sharma.. Bhasin.might help in differentiating normal versus pathological aging as well as framing research studies in the direction of digit backward and digit forward span tasks. O. 36. P. (2002). 774-780. L. It can also help in studying the variations of these tasks in different disordered population. REFERENCES Aggarwal. Ardila. Department of Speech–Language Pathology. A Special thanks to Dr. & Rajoura. (2005). K. A. Journal of Communication Disorders. 5. 111114. Chhabra. A..
M. A. Gilbey. Bellie. (2002). E. 770–782. S. 244-250. & Wearing. Hennelly. (2004). Dennerstein. Baddeley. C.. Ergonomics... Journal of Clinical Psychology. S.. Baker. Ryan.. Memory related functions and age. Pickering. 42 (5). & Struckman-Johnson. M. H. Phonotactic influences on short-term memory. Kane. Ellis.. IL: Charles C. D. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 43–51. C. & Wilhelm.. Clark. G.. 769-786. J. Seaberg. Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and 14 . 40. Springfield. V.. Gathercole. V. Jarrold. user’s guide. C.. The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Black. D. Conway. (2004). S.Developmental Psychology. 71 (1). Engle. S. Australian Psychologist. Normative data for tasks of executive function and working memory for Australian-born women aged 56–67.. Ganguli. 12 (5). R. Hambrick. Ratclife. Digit repetition in brain-damaged adults: Clinical and theoretical implications. Pandav.. (1999). D. Elkadi. S. C... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory & Cognition. (2005).. Bunting M. D. (1995). Pickering. British Journal of Psychology. Ambridge.. B. Guthrie. S.. A. L. E. (1980)... Frankish. R. (2005). Thomas. Z. Sharma.. Bayliss. 39 (3). 61-74...Baldwin. C. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 10... A. F. R. 45 (1). Botwinick. L. Hindi version of MMSE: The development of a cognitive screening instrument for a largely illiterate rural elderly population in India. J. (1974). W. 367– 377. R. The relationship between short-term memory and working memory: Complex span made simple. 414-421. Memory. J. & Dekosky... S. Chandra. F. & Peaker. O. 25. Impact of speech presentation level on cognitive task performance: Implications for auditory display design. W.. & Gunn. E. C.. Henderson. A. C.. S. N. Gathercole.. R.13 (3-4).. W. S.. & Storand. R. 84-95. M. S. M. (1986). S. A bilingual word-length effect: Implications for intelligence testing and the relative ease of mental calculation in Welsh and English. J. J. 177190. Bowden.J.
A. O. 475–481. A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. W. D. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. (2004). (1991). C. Howieson. B. E. W. Kamath. Hickman.. Wilhelm. W.. & Delis. H. A. 99. McLean.. 50(5). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Lezak. & Reynolds.. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. D. Longitudinal analysis of the effects of the aging process on neuropsychological test performance in the healthy young-old and oldest-old. R. A. D. 189-217. B. (1988). R. Effect of age on forward and backward span tasks. Kaufman. T. Sexton. Just. Sex. Morris.. 122–149. Background and basic processes: Cognition and hearing aids. G. (2000). D.. Lunner. A. Hester. New York. Neurologic function in the optimally healthy oldest old: neuropsychological evaluation. region. Rudner. Payne. A. 22 (pp. M. Vol. J. T. WAIS-R as a neuropsychological instrument.. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. S. comprehension. L. 10. M. Cognitive-Linguistic Assessment Protocol for adults. In G. S. Oken.. D. D. San Antonio. 1882–1886. Fein. & Kaye. Kaplan.. & Howieson. Bower (Ed. D. 17. 323–337. W. Kane. and education differences on the 11 WAIS-R subtests. P.. R. Holm. J. Tuholski.. M.. Mysore. Z.) New York: Oxford University Press. E. 133. Working memory. L. University of Mysore. D. The generality of working memory capacity: A latent-variable approach to verbal and visuo-spatial memory span and reasoning. Neurology. Psychological Review. A. L. S. (2004). Kaye. (2001). & Ong.. G.. R. B.. TX: The Psychological Corporation... & Engle. Unpublished dissertation. J. &Loring.. (2004). 193-225).. & Zacks.. T. residence. and aging: A review and a new view. Journal of Clinical Psychology. (1988). Dame. &Ronnberg. Developmental Neuropsychology.. J. B.. & Carpenter. (2009). 44. 231–248. race. 15 . NY: Academic Press.Hasher. (1993).. B... Howieson. Neuropsychological assessment (4th ed. J. M. J. Howieson.).. S. J. 43. A. 395-403. E. Hambrick. Kinsella. (1992).
. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society. J. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. J. & Miyake. Amorim. A. The International Journal of Neuroscience. 16 . J. 26(4). & Kramer. 539–549... Lecrubier. G. plus or minus two: Some limits to our capacity for processing information. A. A.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and CID-10. Comparative study of visual verbal short-term memory in English and Spanish speakers: testing a linguistic hypothesis. memory. Y.. The separability of working memory resources for spatial thinking and language processing: An individual differences approach. & Vallar. 380-392.. 63. & Tulsky.N. 4-27.. Stigler. 125. Sheehan. 78. Alvarez. Y. Psychological Review. & Ardila. Lee. R. 22-33. (1998). 95. 727-729.H. Mungas. Papagno. C.Individual differences in memory and executive function abilities during normal aging. (1986). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. E. Reed. Memory span on the Wechsler scales. W. 81–97. (1998).. Orsini. D. R. The magical number seven. L. (1972)... 272-292. S. E. Spitz. Laiacoma. Weiller. H. Digit memory in Chinese and English: Evidence for a temporally limited store. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.. K. G. Olazara´n. Cognition. N. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. P. 1-20 West. Psychological Bulletin. 8. Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences. and executive function for assessment of cognitive decline in older person. Strauss. J.... D. Pineda.Mejia. 183–185. D. 120. R. In defense of the frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging. A. H. S. H. M.Neuropsychology. D.. Note on immediate memory for digits: invariance over the years. 539–548. (2003).. Psychometrically matched measures of global cognition. Psychological Bulletin. B. Jacobs. Verbal and spatial immediate memory span: normative data from 1355 adults and 1112 children. Sheehan. (1996). D. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. West. D. P... 23 (1). Grossi. Wilde. 105–110. 6.I. (2004). (1996). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 59(20). L. M. (1996). 17(3). J. Shah. Janavs. Capitani. (1956). D. & Stern.... (1987).. (2000). E. 271-284 Miller. S.I. 2.
14(3). A. S. & McCoy. 144-148 17 . Tun. Hearing Loss in Older Adulthood. (2005). Current Directions in Psychological Science.Wingfield. A. L.. What it is and how it interacts with cognitive performance.. P.