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Recall that the mathematical expression

is called a Fourier series. Since this expression deals with convergence, we start by defining a similar expression when the sum is finite. Definition. A Fourier polynomial is an expression of the form

which may rewritten as

The constants a0, ai and bi, The Fourier polynomials are

, are called the coefficients of Fn(x). -periodic functions. Using the trigonometric identities

we can easily prove the integral formulas (1) for , we have

TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL HONORS)

for n>0 we have

(2) for m and n, we have

(3) for , we have

(4) for , we have

Using the above formulas, we can easily deduce the following result: Theorem. Let

We have

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This theorem helps associate a Fourier series to any

-periodic function.

Definition. Let f(x) be a

-periodic function which is integrableon

. Set

The trigonometric series

is called the Fourier series associated to the function f(x). We will use the notation

Example. Find the Fourier series of the function

Answer. Since f(x) is odd, then an = 0, for coefficients bn. For any , we have

. We turn our attention to the

We deduce

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Hence

Example. Find the Fourier series of the function

Answer. We have

and

**We obtain b2n = 0 and
**

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Therefore, the Fourier series of f(x) is

Example. Find the Fourier series of the function function

Answer. Since this function is the function of the example above minus the constant So Therefore, the Fourier series of f(x) is

.

TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL HONORS)

Remark. We defined the Fourier series for functions which are -periodic, periodic, one would wonder how to define a similar notion for functions which are L-periodic. Assume that f(x) is defined and integrable on the interval [-L,L]. Set

The function F(x) is defined and integrableon of F(x)

. Consider the Fourier series

Using the substitution

, we obtain the following definition:

Definition. Let f(x) be a function defined and integrable on [-L,L]. The Fourier series of f(x) is

where

TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL HONORS)

for . Example. Find the Fourier series of

Answer. Since L = 2, we obtain

for

. Therefore, we have

TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL HONORS)

TARUN GEHLOT (B.E, CIVIL HONORS)

- 20005af0_137.pdf
- 20005aef_1.pdf
- Basic Concepts of Statistics
- Continuity of Functions by Graph (Exercises With Detailed Solutions)
- Modelling with First Order Differential Equations.
- Intervals of Validity
- Modelling With First Order Differential Equations
- Review Taylor Series
- Review
- Modeling Transformations.
- Convergence Criteria
- Applications of Numerical methods
- Transformation of Random Variables
- Describing and Exploring Data
- Application of Fourier Series to Differential Equations
- Operations on Fourier Series
- Fourier Sine and Cosine Series
- Solving Polynomial Inequalities by Graphing
- The Newton Raphson Method
- Linear Approximations
- Vertical Tangents and Cusps
- Critical Points
- Series Solutions Airy's Equation
- The Magic of Vedic Maths

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UsefulNot usefulFourier series basic results

Fourier series basic results

- 20005af0_137.pdf
- 20005aef_1.pdf
- Basic Concepts of Statistics
- Continuity of Functions by Graph (Exercises With Detailed Solutions)
- Modelling with First Order Differential Equations.
- Intervals of Validity
- Modelling With First Order Differential Equations
- Review Taylor Series
- Review
- Modeling Transformations.
- Convergence Criteria
- Applications of Numerical methods
- Transformation of Random Variables
- Describing and Exploring Data
- Application of Fourier Series to Differential Equations
- Operations on Fourier Series
- Fourier Sine and Cosine Series
- Solving Polynomial Inequalities by Graphing
- The Newton Raphson Method
- Linear Approximations
- Vertical Tangents and Cusps
- Critical Points
- Series Solutions Airy's Equation
- The Magic of Vedic Maths
- Maths and Magic
- On What Day Did It Happen
- The Beauty of Mathematics
- Solution of Nonlinear Equations
- Taking_ Chances _extended