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HEAT & COLD

APPLICATIONS

BICOL UNIVERSITY
POLANGUI CAMPUS
Level I CIs
HEAT APPLICATION -
indications
Promotes circulation to an injured area;
promotes healing
Aids in removing debris from infected wound
Relieves muscle spasm
Relieves pain (muscular relaxation)
Overcomes feelings of chilliness
Raises body temp
COLD APPLICATION -
indications
Limits accumulation of edema
Controls bleeding
Relieves pain
Produces an anesthetic effect
Reduces body temp
RULE OF THUMB:
Use cold application immediately after injury

Use heat to promote comfort and to improve


circulation, later

HEAT = VASODILATION
COLD = VASOCONSTRICTION
THE EFFECTS… (HEAT &
COLD)
Local

Systemic
Effects of Heat
Local Systemic

Inc. bld flow, O2, nutri, Increased C/O


antibodies, WBCs Increased pulmonary
Aches, pains, comfort, ventilation
relief Decreased BP
Accelerates inflammatory
process
Soft tissue healing, inc.
suppuration
Joint stiffness (arthritis,
contractures, LBP, open
wounds needing
debridement)

DA: edema
Effects of Cold
Local Systemic
Reduces bld flow, O2, Increased BP
metabolites, wastes Shivering
Lowers temp
Pallor, coolness
Controls bleeding
Sports injuries

DA: impaired circulation,


cell deprivation, damage
to tissues
NURSING PRECAUTIONS
ü Neurosensory
impairment
ü Impaired mental
status
ü Impaired
circulation
ü Surgery
ü Open wounds
VARIABLES AFFECTING
Tolerance to Heat and Cold

üBODY PART
üSIZE OF THE EXPOSED
BODY PART
üINDIVIDUAL TOLERANCE
üLENGTH OF EXPOSURE
üINTACTNESS OF SKIN
Pointers

The selection of temperature depends on factors (i.e.


duration of application, pt’s condition, skin condition
and sensitivity)

Maximum safe limits of both can be tolerated without


discomfort or tissue damage

H & C receptors adapt to temp changes


Pointers

Infants & children do not tolerate H&C well. Use


appropriate temp per age group.

For emergency use: use a bag of frozen vegetables.

HWB/Ice caps should not be placed directly over


client’s skin.

Check for any untoward changes time-to-time!


TEMPERATURES FOR H & C Applications
Methods of Heat & Cold
Application
I. Dry II. Moist
ü HWB ü Compresses
ü Aquathermia Pad ü Packs
ü Hot & Cold Packs ü Soaks
ü Heat Cradle / heat ü Sitz bath
Lamp ü Sponge Bath
ü Ice Bag/collar
ü Hypo/hyperthermia
blankets
NURSING INTERVENTIONS
- HWB
 Measure TEMP: N adult : 52C,
Debilitated / Unconscious adult : 40.5
– 46C, < 2y/o: 40.5 -46C.
 Fill 2/3 full. Place on a flat surface.
 Expel air, secure cap. Hold upside
down.
 Wrap.
 Apply 20-30mins. Assess area time-
to-time.
NURSING INTERVENTIONS – Ice
cap
 Fill ice cap up to 2/3 full.
 Pour water over the cubes. Twist the
top and cap.
 Check for leaks.
 Wrap.
 Apply 20-30 min/area.
 Assess skin time-to-time.
NURSING INTERVENTIONS –
TSB
 Check ct’s V/S.
 Protect ct’s bed. Warm the room. Drape
ct.
 Prepare ice caps, HWB, water.
 Add ice chips to the water gradually.
 Sponge: face, arms, legs (3-5mins).
Slowly and gently. Back, buttocks
(10mins).
 Leave each area wet, cover with damp
towel.
 Place ice caps (forehead); HWB (feet).
 Continue up to 25 - 30 mins.
 Pat dry.
MAJOR COMPLICATION

REBOUND PHENOMENON
 Turns out to be the opposite effect
 Heat VD VC; Cold VC VD
 Occurs at the time the maximum therapeutic
effect of the hot or cold application is achieved
and the opposite effect begins

 NURSING IMPLICATION???
Thank you…

END