The Decentralization of Educational Administration and Supervision
This module on the decentralization of educational administration and supervision consists of two lessons: Lesson 1 – The rationale of the Decentralization of Educational Administration Lesson 2 – Institution Building and Development Lesson 1 lists the major activities involved in the enterprise of education and points out that they may be carried out on either a centralized or a decentralized basis. It is also pointed out that the term decentralization is used in a strict sense as well as in a loose sense, and these two senses are distinguished. Seven major reasons for the increasing trend towards the decentralization of educational administration are then enumerated and discussed. Lesson 2 deals with the different concepts of institution building for organizations’ renewal and up-grading. It will also explain the structural and process mechanism for Institution building, and resources and support systems’ management.
. and corresponding decision-making authority for specific functions from higher to government units Educational training decentralization is a complex process that deals in a way school systems go policy. (2) concentrate the administrative powers in a single center instead of distributing them among local departments. among local centers. centralization is the drawing together of various institutions and activities along the lines of centralized system: while decentralization lower about level making of is the process and of re-assigning educational revenues. the
. and/or organizations. and be aware of the strategies and approaches in institution building and development.
Concepts of “centralized” and “decentralized” systems: (1982)19
From the Great Encyclopedic Dictionary. bring to a centre. prevailing trends towards decentralization of educational administration.Lesson 1
Rationale for Decentralization
The objectives of this lesson are to provide background information about the concepts. designing curricula and managing local schools. In other words. generating spending funds. “centralize” means: (1) come. responsibility . etc. teachers. While “decentralize” means divide and distribute government functions. Such changes imply fundamental shifts in the values that undergird public education – values that concern the relationships of students and parents to schools.
and the very meaning and purpose of public education (Fiske.relationships of communities to central government. 1996)
Power and prestige are provided the chief executive. practices & decisions are fostered. For the multi-unit enterprises keyed to geographical dispersion full advantage of respective local conditions can be obtained. 5.
. Uniformity of policies. due in a large part to the proximity to the top-management level. 3. 4. Duplication of functions is maintained at a minimum. Plans can be tried out on experimental basis in one plant. 4. Efficiency is increased since the structure can be viewed “as a whole”. The development of “generalists” rather than specialists is encouraged. Elaborate and extensive controlling procedures & practices are not required. 8. 2. Highly qualified specialists can be utilized because the scope & volume of work are sufficient to support and to challenge top-notch management. 7. A strong coordinated top management team is developed. 3. so that trouble spots can be detected and remedied easily and immediately. 6. A decentralized organization stresses delegation of authority and relieves the top manager’s load.Nature and Characteristics of Centralization
1. 7. Familiarity with important aspects of special work is readily acquired. and modified and proven before being supplied to similar plants of a company. Full utilization of the main office specialist is promoted. The danger of action drifting and getting off course is minimized. 5.
Nature and Characteristics of Decentralization
1. 6. locality or area. Intimate personal ties and relationships are promoted resulting in greater employee enthusiasm and coordination. 2.
. and plants are spread out. facilities. Risks involving possible losses of personnel.8.
Government failed to deliver even the most basic social services such as quality education and access to affordable health care to the majority of the
. The socio-economic development of most rural areas had been neglected by a highly centralized government that. civic responsibility. as it became increasingly isolated from the people. objections. As a result. Deprived of substantial authority to the administration’s continuance in power. Policies and programs were dictated from the top. many of these local officials increasingly became dependent on the national government for direction and ideas. local government officials raised little. The central government is so strong and powerful that many small details of administration have to be approved by the Department Secretaries in Manila. No matter how irrelevant or ill-conceived these programs were. The consequences of this strong centralized government have not been favorable to the growth of civic spirit. it grew less and less responsive to the needs of the rural populace. and civic conscience among the people in the local areas where such a spirit really begins and reside. Too much centralization kills local and individual initiatives. the country’s economy quickly deteriorated.Philippine Experience on Centralized Administration
One of the survivals of the long colonial days in the Philippines has been a strong centralized government lodged in the Chief Executive. if any. No country has become great until its people were encouraged to use their initiative and resourcefulness to meet their own problems according to conditions existing locally.
Political leadership at the local government levels became weak and ineffective.population.
which means the election of local officials instead of being appointed by the Chief Executive. Actually. Thus presidential initiative must start a progressive and irreversible conferring of power and authority to the political subdivisions. 1551. He spurred the vigorous movement for greater local autonomy.A.
.converted all specially organized provinces to regular provinces.The
DEVOLUTION: a First Step to Decentralization Since power and authority are now held at the center. R. The President herself has shown the way. 1205. devolution was started during the time of President Ramon Magsaysay when he favored giving local government more autonomy because he stressed the development of the rural areas.A. what is the best way to achieve decentralization? A sudden demolition of the structure without the necessary preparation would not be only jolting but cataclysmic. 1062 -provide more budget autonomy to provincial and municipal government. A wild reverse swing of the pendulum would be counter-productive – without the needed safeguards. 3. 2.provides that all municipal employees whose salaries were paid from the Municipal general funds were to be appointed by the mayor. R. R.A. and must take credit for the development of our communities – the Devolution of decision-making to the local level. A series of legislative activities may be recalled to show the tendency to decentralize power: 1.
A. The relationship is administrative in nature and implies no transfer of final authority from the National to the field level or diminution of central office powers or responsibilities. city mayors and leaders of congress culminated in the presentation of the Decentralization Bill in the regular sessions of Congress in 1964.provide for more autonomous government for municipal districts. The papers had
.known as the Barrio Charter. the activities delegated can be taken back at any time.known as the local autonomy to municipal government Autonomy Act.4. 6.A. Or at most. 7. Often. what is presented as decentralization in order to dignify it is delocalization which is marked by a displacement of activities (mostly mere tasks and chores) and not of powers to local governments.classified municipalities. such as the DPWH increasing the field officers’ authority to conduct bids by a few hundred thousand pesos. district or field offices. 5. 2264. Since it is neither a sharing nor a transfer of power. and the Department of Health or Agriculture providing extension services in the field. 2368. 1515. 2870.A. what is passed for decentralization is more aptly termed as deconcentralization whereby the central government does not share power simply install in place in special services closer to the citizenry.
What could be a sincere Presidential intention can be vitiated (or to make legally ineffective) in implementation. R. provided for the reorganization of the municipal Councils & increase municipal powers and activities. R. An example of this just happened over the last few months. Example would include token gestures of delegation of authority by the national government departments and agencies to their regional.A. The various efforts of provincial executives. R. R.
all powers come from the field or local communities. totally responsible for its own affairs. The effectiveness of national government developmental programs and projects largely hinge on the cooperation and role that local governments play in their implementation. This power being absent. judiciary. As a French author would define it. It is therefore.headlined that city and municipal mayor’s re-assumed control of the police. and the postal services and the like. Thomas Jefferson once said that “x x x it is not by the consolidation or concentration of powers but by their distribution-that good government is affected. These normally include national defense. What is not delegated up remains in the field. delegates power to the next highest level only when and where it is deemed more efficient to look at the higher unit. imperative that governmental powers should be optimally distributed in order to achieve a workable and effective system of governance. separate or transfer policemen. oversee and inspect police units. local officials should be prepared to undergo training in public administration. supervise. because it is enshrined in 1987 Constitution. Payumo of Bataan said that in order that the program of Decentralization is effective and successful in its implementation.
. One can only exercise control if he can punish or reward. Local autonomy is nothing else but a decentralized approach to national governance. Thus. The popular will or demand today is Decentralization and Local autonomy. how can it be said that they now have control? Real Decentralization is administration by the administered. however. bureaucracy in the national government is kept at the minimum.” Representatives Felicito C. foreign affairs. revealed that local officials would only direct. A close reading. Each local government.
and methods of teaching and learning. including delivery. The establishment of institutional and other mechanisms. miscarriage of justice. as well as any other more particularistic goals of education into educational objectives. 4. The determination of the overall goals of education.
. and unequal or inequitable sharing of the country’s wealth. 2. The translation of the overall goals. and ecology. underdevelopment of rural areas. prioritization of use of resources. 3. 6.There should be module for local elective officials. which in turn. The determination of appropriate curricula. of education. With these knowledge and skills acquired from their training. breed poverty. for the delivery of education. The recruitment and training of personnel. The management of learning. poor delivery of basic services. and physical facilities. 9. the local officials are expected to serve as a catalyst to remedy the malady of graft and corruption. with emphasis on training public accountability.
Rationale (UNESCO) 20
The major activities involved in the enterprise of education are: 1. 7. 8. for the planning and management. misuse of resources. development of project management capability. The formulation of policies to achieve educational objectives. 5. to include revenue sourcing. The preparation of teaching and learning materials.
and the latter should take action pertaining to their responsibilities and functions o their behalf and as a matter of legal right. are moving towards decentralization to some extent or other. decentralization is taken to include both senses in which the term is used. and review of educational progress with a view to effecting needed changes in the above-mentioned components. administrative or population units. to carry out the functions discharged by a central authority. The
. Powers which the central authority exercised should be transferred to the autonomous bodies so created.10. certain countries. in the strict sense of the term. widely used in a somewhat loose sense than that indicated above to refer to arrangements by which a central authority delegates all or some of its powers to a number of duly constituted bodies or individuals. The monitoring. covering relatively small geographical. The country examples given in lesson 3 will clarify the extent to which educational decentralization conforms to the strict use of the loose use of the term. also. where such directions are deemed to be necessary. All these activities can be carried out on either a centralized or a decentralized basis. Directives may be sent down from time to time by the central authority regarding policies or other matters of importance. directions may be sought by the delegated bodies or individuals from the central authority. which have centralized systems of education. Decentralization. Many countries. and not as the agents. should involve the creation of autonomous authorities. however. or representatives of the central authority. In the present module. assessment. are thinking of proceeding further with their efforts at decentralization. which have already decentralized their educational systems to some degree. authorizing them to exercise these powers in the capacity of agents of the central authority. The term ‘decentralization’ is.
has in almost every Third World Country recorded a phenomenal increase. countries whose present population exceeds 500 million.4. Let us group the countries of Asia and the Pacific into six categories: 1. 1. students. The magnitude of the educational enterprise.3. 7. Problems of communication. The magnitude of the increase can be best seen in student numbers.1. 5. teachers. the main components of which are institutions. 1.2. buildings and other facilities. The heterogeneity of the clientele for education. countries whose present population lies between 100 million and 500 millions. countries whose present population lies between 50 million and 100 millions countries whose present population lies between 25 million and 50 millions. The financial burden on the central government. 3.more important reasons which seem to be responsible for the increasing trend towards decentralization are as follows: 1. especially during the past three decades. 1. 6. The complexity of the educational system. The magnitude of the educational enterprise The educational enterprise. Public expectations from education.
Each of them is discussed below: 1. 2. The recognition of education as a component of regional development planning. 4.
These enrolment figures and the percentage increases will provide an indication of the extent to which student numbers have increased in various countries. The increases in the numbers of institutions.
. second and third
levels of education. according to UNESCO’s usual classification of levels.5. 1. countries whose present population lies between one million and ten millions Each year’s total enrolment is for the first.1. The growth in the student expansion is undoubtedly of enormous magnitude.
countries whose present population lies between 10 million and 25 millions. so much so that serious doubts are expressed by educators as well as by those in public administration as to whether a centralized administration is really capable of an efficient delivery of educational services.6. with the result that the entire enterprise of education has taken on huge dimensions. buildings and other facilities have undoubtedly been in proportion to the growth in the student numbers. teachers.
drawn to a large extent from the economically better off sectors of the urban population. the curriculum ceased to be functional. they did not become a social concern. But as the failure could fall back on family wealth for their maintenance or had family property which they could develop. In that context. 3. Centralized systems of education have not been able to come up with effective solutions. The curriculum of the elite schools prepared the small numbers enrolled in them for the learned professions. but one characteristic of a centralized education structure is that by and large it tends to give primacy to the privileged groups which have been its additional concern. In the process. the vast majority of the student population received less than a fair share of attention. and for vocations in which openings were few. and the quite large numbers failing to qualify or get the small number of jobs for which education fitted them became a serious social concern. The complexity of the educational system
. The same curriculum continued to be offered even after the elitist system was thrown open to the masses. The present clientele of the vastly expended education systems is broader based. socially. geographically. others did not. and it is felt that the remedy would lie in decentralization. and economically. Some achieved success. To say this is not to imply that the urban poor and the not very rich rural population were completely denied education.2. and the very affluent among the rural people who were few in number and generally used urban educational facilities for their children. but they also catered to a relatively homogenous clientele. but there is no gainsaying the fact that the provision for them was quite inadequate. not only were the educational systems small in size. The heterogeneity of the clientele for education Before the decade of the 1950’s when the first increases in numbers began to make their appearance.
In short. Pre-schools are being increasingly added at the lower end. The earlier structure was a simple one consisting of an elementary school. 4. the educational system has become one of immense complexity. In brief. Higher education is available not only in universities but in polytechnics and other specialized institutions. a single tract secondary school. as administered centrally. there is non-formal education which is increasingly offering a parallel education to the formal system. The single track secondary school is being replaced either by several secondary schools with diversified curricula or by a single comprehensive school within which a variety of curricular offerings is available. the public accepted education as a worthy end in itself and did not entertain any other expectations. It is the considered view of many educators that unless this gigantic monolithic structure. However. is reduced to reasonable proportions through a programme of effective decentralization. A much more complicated structure is in the process of being developed. the concept of life-long education has abolished the idea of a terminal point for education.
. and they did so on the ground that education was a catalyst to economic development. Then. the simple structure of formal education has been transformed into a much more complex one. Public expectations from education As long as the education system was small. And finally. and a university.Arising partly from the pressures mentioned in 1 and 2 above. educators were called upon to justify the expenditure. the educational systems of most countries have undergone a structural transformation during the past two decades or so. it would defy all attempts at management and breakdown. as expenditure on education began to increase with growth in size of the system. giving rise to unprecedented managerial problems. The public has now come to demand hard evidence of the contribution of education to economic development.
which is seen as a running sore affecting the entire social system. both horizontally and vertically. the message itself tends to get weakened and distorted in the process of transmission down a lengthy and often tortuous route. Communications from the top downward do ultimately reach those at the bottom with some intervening delay. The public is justifiably concerned with the existence of educated unemployment.What began as claims and expectations expressed wholly in terms of economic development have now broadened to include other aspects of development as well. Moreover. and the thrust now is on the role that education should play in national development in all its facets. and the failure of education to contribute to the solution of local problems. Educators are called upon to meet these challenges. the latter which get lengthened manifold and are affected more. The hope is now seriously entertained that the decentralization of education may be a means of making it more relevant to local needs and also realizing its potential as a catalyst to national development. 5. of education to local needs. they have begun to question the existing administrative system and to hold it responsible at least in part for the failure of education to deliver the goods. It also becomes more impersonal and less intimate with a consequent loss in its significance and impact. Communication becomes time consuming and exasperating. Problems of communication The expansion of a centralized educational system involves a lengthening of lines of communication. The public is also visibly concerned with the lack of relevance. Communications from the bottom intended to go upwards usually encounter barriers. however. as generally imparted. since they run the risk of being
. It is. and in their endeavour to do so. as the echelons through whom the communications are required to be channeled exercise discretionary powers as to whether the messages should really go up or not.
and/or parents. Aside from any legal transfer of the financial burden to
decentralized educational authorities. It is also assumes that more active involvement by more social institutions and groups will lead to an increase in resources available for education.accused by their superiors for giving them the extra work involved in receiving the communication or taking action about it. if education were decentralized. 7. and the prospect of further escalations. The recognition of education as a component of regional
development planning Imbalances in development between different areas. 6. whatever its particular form may be. This is in regard to communication within the system. It is felt that if education were decentralized. there is much less chance of its being received within a reasonable time. but in so far as communication outside the system – to or from parents or the public at large goes – is concerned. It holds that this will generate revenues from education to the regional or local government. The financial burden on the central government The very heavy demands which education makes on the national budget. if it is received at all. have made the ministries of finance of some countries urge decentralization as a means of relieving part of the burden now placed on the central government. and the arewise specificity of development problems and needs have made national development planners turn their attention to regional development
. community organizations. it is also anticipated that a substantial amount of voluntary support could be mobilized from local communities. the responsibility for raising part of the revenue required for financing educational expenditure could be placed on the decentralized structure.
condition for meeting some of the challenges faced by education. Decentralization has its own set of problems. it may be stated that the trends towards regional development planning that are becoming increasingly popular in some countries are forcing the hands of educators to take action towards the decentralization of education. but not sufficient. which have of necessity to be carried out on a decentralized basis. education cannot stand outside but has to become an integral component of the strategies of regional development. Consequently. and some of them are considered to be institutional level. division and up to the regional level. It would be far wiser to think of decentralization as a necessary.
.planning. Where a country puts regional development planning into practice.
Seven reasons for the trend towards the decentralization of education have been outlined above. A word of caution should be expressed that it would be unwise to think that the path of decentralization is strewn with roses or that decentralization is a panacea for all the ills with which education is now beset. district level.
What reasons. can you adduce for the trend towards decentralization?
.Test and Apply Your Knowledge
1. whether you advocate the decentralization of education in your country/region/division/district/institution. with reasons.
State. other than those given in this lesson.
The experiences in most of the countries indicate educational organizations function well in the initial period and start stagnating after some time. and to be aware of the structural and process mechanism for resources and support systems management. Structural and process mechanisms for Institution Building 3. Supervision: The Basic Management System 4. Recent advances and experiences in Management Sciences have indicated that it is possible to design and re-design organization to maintain and improve self-renewing Development’ capabilities. This module is devoted to familiarize the reader with some of these concepts and includes the following sections: 1.
It is important that educational organizations continuously grow and develop themselves to suit the changing environment as well as to bring about change in the environment. (popularly ‘Institution-Building’ OD) (IB) and such ‘Organization known as are two
movements that have demonstrated good results in helping organizations renew themselves. Developing and managing the faculty
. The concept of Institution Building 2.Lesson 2
Institution Building and Institutional Development
The objectives of this lesson are to provide information about institution building and development for organization’s renewal and upgrading. To do this requires good degree of selfrenewal capabilities to be built into the design and culture of the educational organizations.
There are two case studies presented at the end of this module. The first case deals with the creation and location of resources in a community and the second case study describes a self-renewal (OD) effort carried out in a school system. Various OD techniques are also discussed. and protects normative relationships and action patterns.5.
The concept of Institution Building
An institution is concerned both with its internal development as well
as with external linkages. The sixth section delineates the use of OD for self-renewal of institutions. The term ‘institution building’ has been used both for the process of internal development of an institution as well as for making external impact on the society. Towards self-renewal of institutions The first section explains the concept of IB. The third section examines the issue developing participative culture which forms a back bone for any IB or OD activities. An institution has been defined as an organization which embodies. Institution building has been defined as the process of establishing or transforming and organization into an integrated and organic part of a community. The second section deals with structural and process mechanism for IB. in a way that will help the organization play a proactive role in
. The fifth section spells out briefly the mechanisms of creating and managing institutional resources and support systems. The fourth section is devoted to the important area of ‘Faculty Development’ which is crucial for any educational Institution to play its change agentry role well. including making impact on a larger part of the society. and performs functions and services which are valued in the environment. An institution has the responsibility of influencing the environment. fosters. Creating and managing institutional resources and support systems 6.
projecting new values and become an agent of change in the community (Pareek. One aspect which is often neglected is that of self-renewal. In addition to the achievement of the goals and institution needs to pay attention to the development of its own people. An educational institute particularly has to look after this important dimension. it needs to add new functions so that the people may have a sense of development and growth. The management of an institution has to pay attention to both these aspects of institution building. doing research. The main function of management is to make institutions more effective. and making impact on a larger community. The goals may relate to providing education. development of people. Even if the institute continues to serve a particular community. An institution is also concerned with its own growth. working in different roles and at various levels. An institute needs to examine its processes of growth and possible decline and take steps so that a phase of decline may be averted and changed into one of
. expansion. evaluation programmes. 1981). Criteria can be evolved to test to what extent the goals have been achieved and with how much input of various kinds. etc. Development of people may involve both their continuous professional growth as well as undertaking new and higher responsibilities. selfrenewal. and the management ensures that these goals are achieved most speedily and with minimum inputs. preparing policies and strategies. supporting various projects. Management should ensure both the qualitative aspects of achievement of goals as well as efficiency in terms of input-output ratio. Each institution has defined goals. Effectiveness of institutions can be conceived in terms of five main aspects. achievement of goals. Most of such goals can be measured quantitatively. Every institute is interested in its scope of work and expanding its activities.
The linkages between institutions and the society have to be made stronger. experience that what they do is seen as significant by concerned people. Similarly. When people have opportunities to learn new techniques. work should be regarded as a joy. acquire new skills. they enjoy work. and revise their previous understanding. One function of management may be to create such a sense of challenge and worthwhileness in the work people are engaged in. We suggest that the primary focus of management in an institution may be to create an orientation of pride. Finally. and people are required to stretch themselves to cope with such positive challenges.continuous development. and not drudgery. an institution by definition is an organization which has the responsibility of influencing a larger section of the society on some values and norms. they may experience growth. enjoyment and growth (PEG) amongst various personnel in the institute. The feeling of growth comes when the work becomes increasingly more challenging and socially relevant. If people determine their own objectives.
The Focus of Management: PEG
The effectiveness of institutions will depend to a great extent on how it is able to develop its own culture and traditions to meet various challenges and achieves results related to the five different aspects enumerated above. If work ceases to give a sense of growth and
. The process of self-renewal is important for institutions working in developing countries. If people are engaged in work which they find challenging and worthwhile (being relevant to social needs and critical to social development) they feel proud to be associated with such work. and have an opportunity to work in collaboration on difficult but significant tasks. Thus management has several functions to perform in an institution. This aspect has recently attracted attention and has been termed as institution building.
the individual’s commitment to work goes down. autonomy. and opportunities to jointly work on challenging tasks.
MODULE 3 Concepts and Process in Educational
.development. We therefore strongly suggest that the main focus of management in an institution should be to produce enough challenge. opportunities for learning and meeting challenges. social relevance. The effectiveness of management of institutions may be evaluated in terms of the extent to which people feel proud and involved in their jobs and experience a sense of growth.
Administration and Supervision
namely: Lesson 1 – Concepts of Educational Administration and Supervision Lesson 2 – Functions and Principles of School Administration and Supervision Lesson 3 – New Dimensions in supervision Lesson 4 – Roles of School Supervisor
Module 3 deals with concepts and processes in Educational Administration and Supervision. It consists of three (3) lessons.
The administrator is responsible for expediting a process which brings all the persons with legitimate interests in a program. It can contribute immensely by providing efficient teachers. supervision and scientific management. It refers to the plan. and operation of the school system to achieve the desired aims and objectives. but also with the process by which practices are adapted and instituted. It is a service activity. direction. School Administration should consider the pupils. not only with organization and procedure.
. to distinguish its various types. and its efficiency must be measured by the extent to which it contributes to the teaching and learning. Each has an important role in achieving educational aims and objectives. (3) curriculum development. and adequate tools and environment for work. (4) school plant and equipment. (2) school finance. School administration is concerned. (5) guidance.
Administration and Supervision Defined
Administration should not be confused with the supervision they are not synonymous terms. and to understand the traditional and modern concepts of school administration. a tool by which the objectives of education maybe fully and efficiently realized. physical plan and facilities. It covers (1) the teaching staff.Lesson 1
Concepts of Educational Administration and Supervision
The objectives of this module are to develop a valid concept of the meaning of educational administration. The word administration connotes the machinery of an organization and its functions. control. and (6) discipline.
efficiency of operation is the primary goal. administration. no mechanism for authority is placed on the line officers or administrators who issue orders. separate from the formulation. The policies formulated by the chief executive are transmitted through the line to the individuals who are to execute them. and (2) the principle of obedience to properly constituted authority. The responsibility of education is centered by law in the chief executive who assumes the responsibility of formulating and executing educational policies. The
. Burton. there is no operating unity from which and through which the individual schools can obtain helpful leadership in improving their educational program. In the extrinsic-dualistic type of organization there is no On the other hand. leadership is simply an expression of two principles namely: (1) the principle of authority. In the authoritarian conception of administration.1947) give. and Brueckner (22. The execution of policies as distinct and In a line-and-staff school organization the
officer’s final authority is actually derived from the power under the law. no definition of lines. In a line-and-staff school organization. and (3) the democratic. information. the following: extrinsic-dualistic and the line-and-staff. Barr. Both belong to the traditional or authoritarian organization. (2) the authoritarian.For purposes of administration. Areas of authority and responsibility are assigned to line officers who have a measure of executive authority Hopkin’s (23. individual schools represent supreme authorities and function with little reference to any central unifying organization. The keynote of this system is efficiency in meeting a socially assigned obligation of a democratically established institution. The staff officers or supervisors supply advice. and technical assistance to line officers. In the laissez-faire conception of In other words. cooperation. The school administrator considers the execution of policies as distinct and separate from the formulation of policies.1941) divided the conceptions of school administration into three groups: (1) the laissez-faire. as types of school organization. in the line-and-staff organization the
centralization of authority.
To Melchor (25.1950). Burton. is held responsible for its actions. supervision had many meanings. authority is derived by persons from the situation and is shared by all who participate in the planning. Effective responsibility becomes possible only through an optimum level of participation which is the requisite of
supervision consisted solely of inspection of some school officials of the community for the purpose of noting the condition and use of school facilities. question. and Brueckner (24. Barr. freedom. This conception is based on the belief that those who must abide by policies shall participate in formulating them.final authority and responsibility are reviewed from time to time. “Supervision is an expert technical service primarily concerned with studying and improving conditions that surround learning and pupils’ growth.
disagreement. In the early years in this country.” and “supervisory program” relate to the instructional phases
. level makes the decision. the line officer on the next higher The democratic conception of administration is based on the principle of cooperation in which everyone participates on the extent of his ability. In the past.” This definition implies leadership on the part of the supervisor. All matters that concern the group are referred to the group. Final responsibility. For a modern definition of supervision. The words “Supervisor. Supervision ordinarily implies to the improvement of the teachinglearning situations and the conditions that affect them. Today all individuals connected with schools and school programs would not hesitate to state that such an inspection is not supervision in any sense of the word. In a democratic school organization the administrator’s position of leadership is derived from the authority but out of the group discussion and deliberation. There was a little or no specific and direct concern for the pupils or the teacher. or conflict arises.” “supervision. as well as the individual. In other words.1947) have this to say.
to evaluate. Thus. and the exercise of professional leadership in school improvement.of school plan and activities. or to praise.1947). Teachers and pupils do the actual work. and Bruecker (1947) in the following statement: “Supervision is leadership and the development of leadership within groups which are cooperatively evaluating the
.1951) discusses supervision as: (1) skill in leadership. but the supervisor is expected to assist them through suggestions and advice. themselves. supervision has become a program of in-service education and cooperative group development. It can also be said that the fundamental purpose of any supervisory activity is toward whatever improvement in the attitude of the supervised may be considered desirable in terms of groups accepted standard. growth or development. The modern concept of democratic supervision is expressed by Barr. From the major division of his textbook. It can be said. therefore. From these definitions we can definitely conclude that supervision refers to the process of coordinating group activity in such a way as to attain desirable goals. and through the kind of leadership that inspires them toward improvement. Wiles. It is a process of stimulating growth as a means of helping teachings to help Adequate supervision is concerned with making adequate provision for all the conditions which surround the learning of the pupils and the teachers. to appraise. (27. “to
supervise is to criticize. (2) skills in human relations. (4) skill in personnel administration. and (5) skill in evaluation. (3) skill in group process. the development of cooperative planning. that supervision emphasizes the professional growth and stimulation of teachers.
According to Crow and Crow (26.” Supervision may also be defined as a process of bringing about the improvement of instruction by working with people who are working with pupils. Burton. Supervision can also be defined in terms of functions or purpose for which it is used. purposes which lend meaning to the techniques employed.
” The purpose of modern supervision. The entire supervisory Supervision activity should be directed. one authority
(29. covers (1) the formulation of the aims.educational product in the light of accepted educational objectives. (4) the selection of methods and techniques by which the subject matter is taught. the purpose of supervision is to stimulate teachers and pupils toward the utilization of better teaching-learning procedures. and in doing that. toward the improvement of the total teaching-learning process and the total setting for learning. the supervisor or principal works with them in the study and analysis of the total teachinglearning situation in order to improve it. and purposes to be achieved. studying the teaching-learning situation to determine the antecedents of the satisfactory pupils’ growth and achievement. In other words. evaluating the objectives. to grow professionally themselves. the purpose the supervision is to improve instruction through the direction. In other words. and (5) the evaluation of the growth of the child and the improvement of the teacher. therefore.” In business and industry it is an accepted principle that supervision aims to improve the quality and quantity of production. objectives. (2) the selection and organization of the subject matters to be taught. and training of teachers. improving teaching-learning situation. (3) the placement of the teachers who will teach them. methods’ and outcomes of supervision. guidance. teaching will improve learning. therefore. This view implies that instruction may be improved and that teaching efficiency may be increased. improved Under these conditions. Instead of showing or telling the teachers how to do their jobs better.1950) has noted that “the improvement of teachers is not so much a supervisory function in which teachers participate as it is a teacher’s function in which teachers participate as it is a teacher’s function in which supervisors cooperate. is to supply the leadership which will help the staff members improve the instructional situation.
. In education.
Barr, Burton, and Brueckner (30,1947) identified four excellent types of supervision namely: laissez-faire, coercive, training and guidance, and democratic leadership. The laissez-faire type of supervision uses inspectorial supervisory methods unaided by any objective control, in which the teachers are observed. But nothing is done to help them improve the work they are doing. In other words, teachers are left free; they are neither imposed upon nor directed. The supervisor observes the teacher but does nothing to improve the teaching. The coercive type of supervision is the opposite of the laissez-faire type; the principal visits the teacher in order to observe them. The teachers are required to follow the ready-made procedures or standards prescribed by the principal, supervisor, or superintendent. In the training and guidance type of supervision, emphasis is placed upon the improvement of the teacher, as well as of his technique through direction, guidance, and training. The democratic leadership type of supervision enlists the teacher’s cooperation in the formulation of policies, plans, and procedures. In this type of supervision the supervisor observes, with the aim to improve the teaching-learning situation, through cooperative process. The teachers, the principals, supervisors, and the superintendent are regarded as co-workers in a common task. All these types of supervision are practiced in our school system. Ayer, authoritative (31.1954) gives the following types of supervision: (3) (1)
supervision, (4) democratic supervision, and (5) scientific supervision. Authoritative Supervision refers to supervision that is carried on with some degree of administrative authority. This type of supervision is based on a standard program of instruction carried on through guidance and direction. Creative supervision is based on the idea that supervision is an originating enterprise which aims to provide an environment an environment in which teachers of high professional ideals may live a wholesome and creative life, and to promote the potential powers of creativeness in pupils. Organismic
supervision promotes the idea that the child develops as an organic whole; hence teaching and supervision should emphasize the unifying process and integrated outcome of instruction. outcomes. In this type of supervision emphasis is placed upon the whole child, correlated subject matter, and integrated Democratic supervision is based on the concept of planning, Scientific supervision based upon leadership, conduct, and evaluation of instructional improvement should be shared by the teaching personnel. measurable and controllable items. This type of supervision makes use of the scientific principles that the solution of a problem should be based on facts.
Relationship between Administration and Supervision:
The Educational Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission failed to draw a demarcation line between school administration and supervision. According to this Educational Act, “every administrator is a supervisor participates in administrative affair,” In the Philippine school system, therefore, administration and supervision supplement and complement each other. They are both complementary and supplementary functions of our school system. From the preceding definitions of administration and supervision, one can conclude that the two terms are interrelated. Effective learning, which is the fundamental aim of supervision, cannot be accomplished under inefficient administration. It generally accepted that proper administration is one of the great factors to learning. The procedure or technique used by the administrator in determining the purpose of administration and the way it is to be effected becomes part of the learning process for everyone affected just as truly as methods of teaching in a classroom are a help to the learning of the pupils. Administration is intended solely to facilitate instruction; instruction must be so administered as to make it efficient and effective.
The way the school plant is operated, the manner teachers are selected and assigned, the methods of preparing a school budget, the attitudes of administrators toward the problems of children, the requirements for promotion from year to year – all these aspects of school administration become part of the ways of learning of all human beings connected with the system. The purpose of school administration, then, is to bring all phases of the total school enterprise into a harmonious working relationship around some central conception of unity inherent in the process to be desired in learning. Since administration is a means to learning which is the goal of supervision, it must exemplify in its practices those democratic, interactive, integrating processes basic to the successful functioning of the total school enterprise. Administration has a leading role in education and can serve as a powerful, constructive influence if it is centered on the ways and means of attaining the purposes of the educational program. Rorer (22.1942) in his remarkable analysis of the principles governing supervision believes that administration and supervision should be differentiated in their function of leadership. Administration requires more than mere knowledge of management or keeping the machinery operating smoothly. It demands a continuous study of goals to see how they can be best attained, and a constant appraisal and analysis of physical facilities, tools, equipment, materials, and personnel to determine how all these means can be utilized to utmost advantage. Administration requires specialized ability and a thorough-going knowledge of the science of administration, just as the planning and direction of the learning activities of boys and girls require specialized abilities on the part of the teachers. Supervision also plays major role in creating atmosphere in the school system stimulating to the growth of more admirable qualities among the personnel of the teaching staff. It is no longer regarded as a mere inspection
2. In other words. Administration provides favorable conditions essential to good teaching and learning. Every act of the administrator is based upon authority. for the most part. but as a form of democratic leadership – a clearing house of the best ideas of the work in the field. Likewise. Administration emphasizes authority. Rorer – expresses the relationship between administration and supervision in terms of the following principles: It is within the scope of supervision to stimulate and inspire the teachers to do creative
. Administration. differences in positions between the two can be briefly described as follows: 1. administration directs and supervision serves. 4. advises. work and to encourage them to grow professionally. Administration decides. and supervision carries out the better operation and improving of it. reflects more authority than supervision. there has been a concerted attempt to draw a line of demarcation between administration and supervision.of the work of the teachers. and service in case of supervision. while supervision assists. Administration represents the whole of the educational system. 3. This campaign for strict interpretation is still far short of its goal. and orders execution of the educational program. between the job of administering and that of supervising. while supervision is based upon service. directs. Through administration and supervision are interrelated. Ever since supervision was added to school management. guides and leads the operation and improving of the program. especially in a highly centralized school system. while supervision represents a portion of it that is related to the improvement of the teaching-learning situation.
Increasing Office Efficiency 8. Space Devoted to Instruction. Supervision and administration are two separate and distinct functions. System Records and Reports 9. Space Devoted for the Administration of Facilities 6. Grounds. The Present Need for the Improving Physical Facilities. coordinate. Supervision and administration are correlative. their respective definitions. Department Organization 4. Widening Participation in Planning the Budget Accounting Procedures Accounting of Supply and Equipment Making Schedules We have to determine the
activities rightfully belonging to administration and supervision as limited by Edmonson. Office Rotation and Personnel 10. The Selection of the Teaching Staff 2. The Organization of the Administrative and Teaching Staff 3. Site. and complementary functions of education. 2. 1. 12. 13. Supervision is a function of administration and subordinate to the former. 3.1. and Bacon (1948) give the following as a summary statement of the activities rightfully falling under
. for Services. we may present here examples of administrative and supervisory activities. Roemer. 11. and Size of Building 5.
Scope of School Administration and Supervision
In order to have a clear conception of the scope of the scope of school administration and supervision. administration. and Equipment 7.
Experimental Study of the Problems of Teaching 8.
Publications. Handwork The Curriculum Selection of Instructional Materials The School Library Appraising and Reporting Progress of Students The Public Relations Program Secondary Schools and College Relations Faculty Meeting
Importance and Functions of Discipline Guidance Program School Assembly Student Organization and Activities – Clubs. 16. The Development and Maintenance of Morale. or Esprit de Corps 6. 23. The Direct Improvement of Classroom Teaching 3. 24. Burton. 17. 21. The General Improvement of Teachers-in-Service 4. Organizing Programs of Cooperative Activity 5. Brueckner (1938) give the following as a summary statement of the activities belonging to supervision: 1. Dramatics.14. Survey of the School System 2. Performance of Professional and Semi-Administrative Duties
. Determining the Desirable Physical Conditions of Learning 9. 18. 15. 20. 22. 19. The Selection and Organization of the Materials of Instruction 7.
Professional Growth 10. 11. Teacher Diagnosis 2. Survey of Methods in Instruction 5. Teacher’s Meeting and Conference 8. Pupil Diagnosis 3. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision practices leadership through compulsion.Author Gist (33. Diagnosis of Curricular Offerings 4. Classroom Visitation 7. and imposition or through pressure in the use of ready-made solutions or procedures. Teacher-Pupil Relationship Evaluation of Supervision
The Traditional and Modern Concepts of Administration and Supervision
To have a vivid picture of the modern trend in school administration and supervision. Traditional administration and supervision place more emphasis upon techniques and the use of subjective devices and autocratic procedures. Traditional administrators
.1951) gives the techniques of supervision under the following headings: 1. it is necessary to discuss briefly its traditional concept. The traditional concept of administration and supervision is based on the philosophy that the teacher is the center of the administration and supervisory activities. Budgeting of Time in Supervision 6. Demonstration Teaching 9. The old concept puts more emphasis upon imposed improvement of the teachers through teacher-training and rigid discipline. coercion.
recognizes the child and his growth and development as the center of administrative and supervisory activities. Instead of directing attention solely to the improvement of individual teachers.and supervisors consider themselves as experts and work outside of the group under their control and supervision. on the other hand. The modern concept of school administration and supervision is more than mere inspection of the work of the teachers. it is a friendly help and counsel – a clearing house of the best ideas acquired in the field. Men were
operations were largely in a personal and practical basis. but rather because of their success in dealing with the public. the teachers and the students. it enlists the cooperative efforts of the entire staff in the study of the educational problems of the school. principles and techniques in improving the teaching-learning situation.
selected. with the approval of the board of directors. Modern administration and supervision see education as a whole – all factors. The inadequacy of the traditional concept of administration and supervision in
. determined the policy and directed the operation of the company and the work of its employees. reference to education was gradually recognized. Early in the history of school administration and supervision. They also regard classroom visitation as isolated from other school activities and projects. the concept of administration and supervision has gradually moved from the improvement of instruction to the improvement of the learning process. not because of their special technical training. The modern concept of school administration and supervision. In other words. The conception of administration and supervision during the period reflected the existing practices in business and industry whereby the manager.
This change in the concept of positions has created psychological insecurities in the administrator or supervisor himself and blocks his relationship with teachers. provide materials and resources to the teachers.The most recent special concept of school administration and supervision treats it from the point of view of human relations. Both the administrators and the supervisors no longer direct or guide but rather suggest changes. 2. Administrators and supervisors now are more But frequently called consultant role of the administrator and supervisor. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision is subjective. Modern administration and supervision are based on facts and utilize scientific and modern devices and procedures. it is ineffective and even threatening to the teacher.
unless this consultant role of the administrator and supervisor is properly supported by the executive school officials. This change is the result of enlightened understanding of democracy and increased knowledge of psychology as is apparent even in the titles of positions. The traditional and modern concepts of school administration and supervision can be summarized as follows: 1. This change in personnel relationships is the result of an enlightened understanding of democracy as a way of life.
. The change from individual improvement to group improvement through cooperative efforts has also changed the relationships of the educational personnel. while the modern concept recognizes the child and its growth. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision is based on the philosophy that the teacher is the center of administrative and supervisory activities. while the modern concept is more objective and scientific. The modern concept of school administration and supervision must be based on human dignity and human worth and must give priority to human factor.
while under the new concept it covers the whole teaching-learning factors which are resident in the pupils. 4. While both techniques and principles are necessary. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision is individualistic and regimented. in the administrators and supervisors. while the modern concept is socialistic or cooperative. in the teachers. while the modern concept is based on principles. techniques. 5. and imposition. The concept of school administration and supervision has undergone changes in the Philippines as to the functions and philosophy controlling administration in
. administrators and supervisors are considered as experts who know nothing wrong. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision regards classroom visitation as isolated activity from other projects. principles are fundamental and serve as the basis of
The Development of Concepts in School Administration and Supervision Philippines
The history of school administration and supervision reveals that the role of the administrator and supervisor changes in accordance with the needs and available knowledge and conditions of the times. while modern administration and supervision practices democratic leadership through stimulation. and in the school environment. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision puts more emphasis on techniques. direction and guidance.3. coercion. The traditional concept of school administration and supervision practices leadership through compulsion. 6. In the traditional concept.
and the methods used were dictatorial and coercive. and evaluating teaching-learning situations. They inspected the buildings and grounds and equipment. the relationships between administrators. The development of the concepts of administration and supervision in this country is presented below. the administrators and supervisors assumed an additional role.
. work was organized in a haphazard fashion. and proceeds through the method of intelligence through cooperative action. At present. administration and supervision are conceived as “an expert technical service primarily concerned with studying. Later on. promotes the general welfare. With the placing of emphasis on democratic and creative supervisory procedures and better understanding of the new concept of administration and supervision as the improvement of the total teaching-learning situation. In the early days. and teachers improved. Frederick Taylor changes all this. supervisors. administration and supervision were inspectorial in character. The “how” and “how much” were largely determined by the worker. and the conditions that affect them. The supervisor gave elementary instructions to the worker on what was to be done.general and supervision in particular. Thus.” It becomes synonymous with democratic leadership which stresses the dignity and worth of the individual. that of consultants. They even checked the attendance and enrollment of the pupils. improving.
Up to the early 1900s. emphasis was placed on the improvement of the curriculum and the improvement of instruction through the training and guidance of the teachers.
Rule-of-thumb management would be replaced by scientific management. It is up to management to determine this through scientific study and analysis. established the work methods and performance standards.1 also). These conditions resulted in an inefficient factory with little cooperation between management and labor. Workers. The same was true of management. Determine the basic element of every job. standardizing the work tools. Taylor believed that these conditions could be changed and both parties would benefit. Taking the concept further. He saw that workers were selected in a haphazard manner and given no formal job training.While Taylor was progressing from factory worker to operating manager at a steel plant. then workers could concentrate on doing the work. Taylor was bothered by the conditions that he found in the factories. not management. They were expected to learn their duties through on-the-job experience of trial and error. Taylor took the position that there is always one best method and one best tool to do the job. Taylor set forth the following principles of scientific management (see table 2. If management did the job of planning. and providing proper working conditions. and sharp powers of observation combined to give him keen insights into the efficiencies and shortcomings of how management functioned. Soldiering could be overcome if workers understood the production rates were based on facts and not set arbitrarily. 1. “Soldiering’ – that is. education.
. he earned an engineering degree by attending night school. This would include the rules of motion and time. His work experience. workers restricting their output –was commonplace.
4. These give a steadier and more efficient use of people and equipment. The development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity. not Rule-of-the-thumb. Cooperation. Likewise. Maximum output. which may be summarized as follows:
Science. All one has to do is to look at our banks. As Taylor said. Cooperate with the workers so that they do the work together with management in line with the principles that have been developed. Today its disciples are found everywhere. The logic of scientific management is overwhelming. It is no wonder that it is embraced by management everywhere. Scientific management has evolved and endured. not individualism. Provide for a division of labor that has the management doing the thinking and planning and the worker performing the labor. that constitutes scientific management.2. Finally. 3. Harmony. or fast-food restaurants to see modern evidence of the work principles as set down by Taylor (see table 3)
. in place of restricted output. but rather this whole combination. not discord. Select the workers with the right abilities and train them for their tasks. supervision is made easier. “It is no single element. Supervisors can easily spot when the worker is not performing. individual task can be meshed with one another and with machines.
Specialization also allows workers to gain greater efficiency because it is easier to master simple and repetitive tasks. hospitals.
Table 3 Scientific Management – 1990s
Standardization of tools and methods. management does the thinking employees
. Specialization: let employees do simple and repetitive tasks. Division of labor: breakdown jobs into small tasks.
It may be that the average worker needs more than a wellengineered small task to perform. The principles of scientific management do not need to be abandoned. But. Scientific Management by itself may not be enough to get job done today. be the grinding monotony of work o this character. The workers’ economic insecurity would keep them inline. the workman who is best suited to handling pig iron is unable to understand the real science of doing this class of work … and he must consequently be trained by a man more intelligent than him the habit of working in accordance with the laws of this science before he can be successful. Rather. In the public’s mind. competition was tougher. cost. are the workers staying in line? Are we not now seeing some evidence of performance decline in the workplace and can some of this attributed to the principles and assumptions of scientific management? American industries experienced quality. for him.Second Thoughts on Scientific Management
he shall be so stupid and phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental makeup the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would. we need to take what is useful from that philosophy and merge it with what are the appropriate present-day circumstances and the developments along with our history that helps to
especially from the Japanese.
Further. the Japanese seemed to be on the right track. Management believed that by offering workers adequate pay. and productivity
problems in the 1970s and 1980s. They had motivated work force. Therefore. They had the product quality. Why? What social science research and the Japanese experience seemed to be pointing to is that conditions have changed and our assumptions have to be updated. they would be willing to accept the way work was structured.
To help the supervisor to function effectively. we can build on this history by. recognizing the number of pressures pushing and pulling on supervisors (how well supervisors respond affects their chances of success) and. to name a few.
. schedules. one small pickle slice is not important. first. and wage and salary policies. reviewing the major trends and developments taking place in society (our world is changing. However. it could be significant extra cost and have considerable impact on profitability. and unless we realized the significance of these changes. management exerts pressures to control all the individual elements of its business. Take a simple item such as a fast-food hamburger. second. performance standards.round out our understanding of the environment in which the supervisor must function. quality levels. we will not be prepared to deal with the new circumstances. Let us consider what we mean by management pressures. An effective organization cannot allow conditions to exist that are not in harmony with the overall plan of the company. These controls take many forms – product specifications. Effective controls help to assure that there will be predictable behavior and successful results. Because of this. Profit objectives are met in large part because the product or service is delivered as designed.)
MANAGEMENT CONTROLS AND SEEKS CONFORMITY. The product specifications call for two pickle slices would improve the product. to the corporation that sells millions of hamburgers a year. work rules.
or improved appearance. customers. and this may cause the company to
. or extra services such as unauthorized “product improvement” could wreck the profitability of a company even though the product would have a longer life. As you can see. and it would be undersold in the
maintaining a schedule. it probably could not be priced competitively. But. understanding the real intent of management is not always easy.” Appreciation of this value hierarchy is of great help to supervisors when they are functioning as members of the management of the organization.An extra item.” What does this really mean? The company may really be saying that “productive people who are committed to the company are our most important asset. an upgraded component. which are the most valued? For example. If it had all these features. Remember. Top management values profits. more functions. other control elements used. and if so. marketplace. does it value some of these over the others. management does not want the customer shortchanged. worker-hours required to do the job. The trick is to deliver the product or This idea carries through to service as specified – no more no less. top management determines the policies and But priorities of the company and tries to keep these up to date. On the other hand. supervisors read in a policy book or hear in a training session that “people are our most important asset. It would not want employees to leave out all pickles or cheapen the product in any way. better taste. What is controlled and how it is controlled will reflect the strength of management’s feeling toward these items. and its employees. quality. and all the
circumstances change (see Table 4).
More part-time employee exists. More women have joined the work force. Perhaps the best way to “read” the company is by observing what the organizations actually do. Too many levels of management can slow or distort any directives. Unions are losing their influence.
Table 4 Trends and Developments Affecting Supervisors
Just as we
can tell much about individuals by observing their actions. The government is more involved in workplace issues. supervisions are usually farthest from top management. Sometimes it is assumed that everyone got the “word. These shifts are not always communicated to everyone on a timely basis. a great deal about organizations by observing their actions.
. A fading product gets dropped or new ways of operating. A new product is rushed to the market.shift directions. yet they are expected to carry out its wishes precisely.” Unfortunately. we can also learn
Employees want a say on what affects them in the job.
. supervisors must realize that they cannot solve all the problems of the employees. the buffer between the workers and management. Their contact with the powers that be is through supervisors.Employee Pressures
Just as supervisors experience pressures from management. a chance to be heard and to be treated with respect. As we will see later in the book. If
they can influence the supervisor. and so on. Part of the transition process includes learning how to cope with these pressures. It will fall to supervisors to fulfill the role of the person in the middle.” you do this for us?” Some of the requests are legitimate.” We could do better work if we had The production rates are too high. the
decent tools and materials. meaningful participation on decisions that affect them. What is too cold for one person may be the correct temperature for another individual. there is hope that their concerns will get Supervisors will hear “I need more money.” “Why can’t we do it my way?” and “Why won’t
employers want answers and action – fast. Still. they also experience pressures from employees. What the workers are seeking is justice and dignity in the workplace. heard and perhaps resolved. others are frivolous. supervisors are their only real contact and hope for an airing of their concerns. Employees are isolated from the decision makers in the organization. For the most part. Many A change made to satisfy one employee may distress another worker. However. protection from unfairness from the boos and from unsafe conditions in the workplace – in other words. employee concerns cannot be solved. It is natural that supervisors will get pressures from the workers. failure to listen and respond to employee concerns is the primary cause of grievances and unionization.
Supervisors need to make two important distinctions: (1) to distinguish between legitimate concerns and concerns that are designed to exploit or gain an unfair advantage and (2) to distinguish between items over which they have little or no control and those over which they do have some control. it causes
. and respond appropriately. It is also helpful. do not allow employees to use you. and treat each individual with respect. This They
listen and look for problem areas. Of course. When they are offbase. It makes the company do things that may seem unreasonable. means that effective supervisors are in touch with the employees. add more holidays. They filter but do not block upward communications. Employees have concerns that only supervisors can handle. even necessary. Supervisors can. It is okay to filter out the frivolous complaint or suggestion. It is doubtful that supervisors can effect improvements in the pension plan.
GOVERNMENT. Besides being influenced by pressures from
management and employees. see the training and development of the employee. separate the real from the imagined Supervisors realize the need to communicate upward to management. supervisors. let them know it. however. to management that concerns get forward so top management knows what employees are feeling. maintain safe and clean working conditions. slights. It is a strong and sometimes unpopular third party to the supervisor-employee relationship. a number of other pressures come to bear on One of these forces is the government. By dealing directly with factors under your control. or change the production rates. you will have a proper orientation to these various pressures.
inefficiencies, and it adds to costs. It makes supervisors function as police to ensure that employees obey the regulations. The government places the If burden on management and not on the workers for obeying the laws. workers make mistakes, the penalties fall heavily on management. The workers are not as accountable for their actions as management is. Workers also resist any restrictions that are placed on them. Employees wish to work free of any limitations, yet the government compels them to follow certain regulations or procedures. Popular or not, the government has an increasingly important part to play. process. Non discrimination is the law. The government also has a stake in pay practices. Workers must receive the minimum wage for their job and Equal pay is called for when and women and overtime when applicable. It has a stake in the employment
minorities do essentially the same work. Safety and health hazards are also of concern. The government
requires a workplace free of known and recognized hazards. Providing and requiring safety glasses or machine guards for certain jobs add expense and may even slow production. Workers may say that the glasses give them a headache and obstruct their vision. The safety devices may interfere with their productivity and they would rather be free of these restraints. the years I have been working.” Supervisors are positioned between a requirement to enforce the laws and workers and management who resent and resist complying. Although there are conflicting interests, the supervisor’s course of action is clear. Obey the law even though it is often unpopular and an uphill struggle. The compelling argument is put forth, “Besides I have never had a job injury in all
Another force acting on supervisors is the union.
is unionized, the supervisor encounters another set of
pressures. The contract spells out the terms and conditions of the employeremployee relationship. When the contract is violated, employees can point to the contract and seek a remedy. They may go directly to a shop steward or other union representative who will act in their behalf. A union contract presses for conformity. Employees are to be treated in a like manner. Supervisors of the employees covered by the collective bargaining agreement are required to abide by its terms. stick. In union-management relations, a concept has evolved called “past practice.” In effect, past practice is what you do, not what you say you will do. And the past practice has the effect of overriding the written intent of the collective bargaining agreement. For example, suppose that the company and union agree the employees working under the influence of drugs or alcohol will be disciplined either by a suspension or discharge. If one supervisor decides to make an exception by sending home a “good” employee to “sleep it off” and no further action taken, on such an infraction, the possibility of a reversal of the decision would be very likely. JOB SPECIALISTS. Another factor that helps to shape the supervisor’s job is the many job specialists that companies employ. relations, wage and salary, safety and health, These specialists training, and cover a wide range of interests, covering such areas as personnel (labor nondiscrimination), efficiency experts (industrial engineers), quality control, and the like. They must enforce its provisions or run the risk of being unable to make a contractual provision
In a real sense, these specialists make valuable contribution to the organization, they can do much to help supervisors reach their objectives. They offer expertise to supervisors. They can point out possible solutions to problems or better ways to reach performance objectives. Efficiency is important to the supervisor. It is the total focus for the methods engineer. Supervisors must deal with all these job demands, each and every day. Striking a balance among the needs of the specialists, the employees, and the performance objectives of the department can be difficult, if not impossible to do.
TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS
A New Orientation to Work: Jobs Must Be Meaningful
The number and variety of pressures working on supervisors are impressive. Besides coping with these supervisors must also be tuned into the changes that are taking place around them. And it is not enough to realize the change is taking place. Supervisors must understand the impact that these developments have on the successful performance of the job. There continues to be a great deal of debate over the degree of worker commitment and loyalty to the employer. On one side of the debate, pessimists will hold that “workers aren't what they used to be”. On the other side, there are individuals who maintain that workers are better than ever. Similar to our advertising slogans, they are individuals who maintain that workers are better than ever. Similar to our advertising slogans, they are a “new and improved” product. Both sides miss the central point. People still retain their capacity for commitment to work. But it is no longer a commitment to any work. We are finding that a significant segment of the work force is rejecting jobs that are,
and discontented. 6 percent or greater. we will choose jobs that make some concessions to our self-interest. and promotions. food stamps. the worker is likely to become frustrated. dull or dead-end.7 years. And there is good reason to believe that the educational level will remain high and possibly increase. disillusioned. It has already been mentioned that the educational level of the work force has been steadily increasing. People need to work. By 1980 two-thirds of the population had completed four years of high school and over half of all American workers had some college. Since the young suffer the heaviest burden when jobs are scarce (recent employment figures show overall teenage unemployment staying near 20 percent while the overall unemployment rate is just over 7 percent).7 years of schooling. and more and more of us are being as selective about our employment as we are about the rest of our activities. Therefore. our youth become more critical and demanding of management. By 1980.to them. If these expectations do not come to pass. college or vocational training becomes a respectable alternative to unemployment. And many of these workers are more educated than their
. On the other hand. for it is work that gives us status and self-respect. For one thing. In 1940 the median level of education was 8. unemployment levels are likely to remain high through the end of this century. higher earnings. and supplemental unemployment benefits. such as unemployment compensation. The unemployed can receive help from one more sources to hide them over. and the young will stay in school longer. This additional schooling raises hopes of meaningful work. Having this greater education. Financial security also comes from the various “safety nets” that are available. termination pay. that level had risen to 12. they are more actively seeking what they regard as desirable jobs. We are people who are coming to exercise greater choice in all aspects of our life. The work ethic is still alive and well.
The Changing Work Force
MORE EDUCATED WORKERS.
Under scientific management principles. workers see the need for retaining because they no longer possess the skills needed for new jobs. specialized. Unions and companies will negotiate retraining agreement. (Working skills can become as obsolete as old machinery. and are punctual and regular in attendance. School in the cities have high dropout and the quality of education is questionable. and time-oriented. the schools performed very well. this is due to workers being terminated because of a company shutdown or relocation.) Or the worker may wish to qualify for a new career. The older worker is able to count on receiving financial help and support. work in the factories and offices is repetitive. All this seems to suggest that this supervisor is going to be faced with generation of few applicants with
. will actively go after this student body. The older worker is also returning to school. Socialization aims to build a base of shared attitudes and values that foster cooperation and sense of belonging. supervisors are affected by the various educational levels they are finding in the work force. In any case. employers seek workers who are obedient. The person who is a supervisor in an urban environment faces a special challenge. if predictions are correct about the nature of work changing—tasks will become larger rather than smaller—such schooling may not be as relevant. and if they are asked to accept more and more responsibility. are willing to perform routine and dull tasks. In some cases. Federal and state funding is available.supervisors. Their education is superior not only in years of schooling. the need for more education is felt. socialization helps people function better because they learn what is right and wrong. If workers have to be adaptable to frequent changes in work assignments. Hence. faced with declining enrollments. In other situations. but in the ability to adapt to the language and requirements of the new technology. So far our schools have performed in harmony with these needs. And colleges. However. Further. is education and socialization process adequate to these needs? Certainly. When considered against the principles of scientific management.
or if the student drops out. obedience. Have few. They demand more career development opportunities. Bu if the schools fail in any part of this mission. This. if any. Highly educated workers may be less likely to accept authority. Industry is used in schools by socializing students to punctuality and regularity of attendance. plus teaching the student basic skills of reading.” prepare the youth for the world of work. The workers want more involvement on their jobs. however. will need more remedial training to prepare them to be productive in the workplace.
.little work experience. writing. The overall result is an uneven quality in our work force. The educationally disadvantaged. and “computering. and accepting the value of work as a worthy end in and of itself. it would appear the basics must be handled by the company and supervisor. of the needed job skills. and lack discipline necessary to adapt to a much more disciplined environment that they have up to now faced.
Supervisors. apply it on the job. Even supervisors with poor skills are able to turn their careers around.Conclusions
The role of the supervisor is changing dramatically. are made and not born. The old-style supervisors may be in for hard times. supervisors will become more. but the role of the supervisor has a bright future. It takes work. Achieving effectiveness is not an easy task. Effective supervisors are not going to control people the way they did it in the past.
. Do not let the problems overwhelm you. and learn from the experience of doing things right. important to the organization. Workers regularly make the successful transition from worker to supervisor. Making the transition is difficult. Supervisors will function as facilitators. The theory is much easier to understand than it is to apply. Supervisors will now coach the employees and help them with their planning. for the most part. The process of becoming an effective supervisor is relatively simple—understand the theory. Despite all the changes taking place. not less.
Differentiate the following concepts: 1.2 Administration from supervision Traditional from modern concepts of administration and
supervision.1 1.Test and Apply Your Knowledge
1. What skills do you consider as especially significant for administrative and supervisory success?
. and to supervisors. of special educational fields. In a large school system.
The term function as used in education may mean the purpose or activity to be accomplished by creative educative process. Furthermore. English. there may be further divisions of administrative and supervisory responsibility. music. such as: health education. The functions of the school are oftentimes determined by its organization and classroom practices. supervisory authority is usually delegated by the superintendent to an assistant superintendent. or to some activities carried on by the school. The school can achieve the administrative and supervisory functions. Within the local school themselves. The principal of a large high school may have one or more administrative or supervisory assistants whose function is to supervise the activities of specified groups of teachers and pupils within the school.Lesson 2
Functions and Principles of School Administration and Supervision Objectives
Lesson 2 will provide the students with adequate understanding of the functions and principles of school administration and supervision. and the like. the principal may be compelled to delegate to his associates the actual supervision of the instructional program. In a complicated and intricate school organization the chief supervisory officer may find of his time and energy devoted to the care of an administrative detail that gives him little opportunity for direct supervision. home economics. This is particularly true of a principal of a large school. to principals. The term applies to education as a whole. On account of the pressure of administrative duties. it will develop an insight of the value of leadership in school administration and supervision. Functions are fulfilled by providing some ends or goals. to a unit of a school system.
The learning experiences should not be chosen simply because they are available.The Functions of Schools Administration
Although administration and supervision are interrelated. Planning for school programs or activities— Planning is a fundamental function of school administration. the proposed instructional materials. The machinery for administration and the procedures to be used in directing the educational enterprise must be planned only in terms of our accepted goals for education. the procedures to be used in accomplishing them. Some of the major functions of administration are the following: 1. they have different ad specific aims and functions. It is his responsibility to encourage all the teaching staff to cooperate in planning the school program. The general objectives must provide the guidelines. the plan must show the objectives desired. The school administrator must also make a survey and analyze all the factors and conditions requiring modification. The planning of all these complex activities needs the cooperation of all concerned. A test of a successful administrator is his capacity to lead all persons under him to a community of purpose and procedure. They should be selected in order to accomplish the purposes of which the school is organized and maintained. In planning school programs or activities. In other words. a sequence of appropriate learning experiences.
. and the procedures outlines. The multifarious school activities call for scientific planning on the part of the administrator. and the criteria employed to determine the degree of success achieved by the program. the administrator must take into consideration the general objectives to be achieved. Group participation in administration can succeed only insofar as there is unity. It is the process of determining the nature of the educational enterprise.
the educational policies and regulations should be enforced. and is particularly the province of school administration. The administrator. and supervising activities. The formulation of school policies must be widely shared with the public. He should first study in a practical way the needs of his school. Administration harmonizes all educational activities
. The administrator should work our definite policies. It may necessitate issuing orders. more than anyone else. and many similar acts involved in carrying out all the aspects of the educational program. determination of the subjects to be included in each course. To make the school administration dynamic. Directing
educational policies— After plans have been made. and those of the community. and the school administrator should be held responsible for the results 3. his pupils. and evolve for them an administrative program to be followed. The administrator should secure the assistance of others in formulating educational policies. Direction is a major aspect of execution. To facilitate direction of the school work. policies should be formulated to regulate the control and operation of the school system.2. Directing school work is another important function of school administration. holding conferences. It includes a myriad of tasks carried out daily by the school administrator. provision for physical equipment necessary to carry out the work. regulations and rules and embody them into a program. rules and regulations. It involves decisions as to who shall carry out plans. his teachers. should endeavor constantly to bring the policies and the procedures of the school system into line with the best interests of students in their total living. they must be put into effect. Coordinating administrative and supervisory activities— It is the function of the school administration to coordinate all the activities of the school to make them contribute to the realization of the school's main objectives.
interactive.and makes them bring all phases of the total school enterprise to a harmonious working relationship around some central conception of unity inherent in the process to be desired in learning. it must exemplify in its practices those democratic. Likewise.
. integrating processes basic to the successful functioning of the total enterprise. since administration is a means to learning which is the goal of supervision.
Leadership gathers justification for its existence when it serves to emancipate teachers and pupils. On him depends the success of the school organization clothed with the necessary authority and definite responsibility. authority An and efficient definite necessary
responsibility to ensure educational leadership. exercises the and democratically. The authoritarian type of administration. A Rating Scale is often used by the administrator to discover the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching personnel. the administrator or the chief executive of any school should be the professional leader of the teaching staff. rating teachers is a legal requirement. Democratic leadership implies an understanding of the conditions under which one leads a consideration of individual differences. of the classroom facilities. working scientifically. Evaluating the teaching personnel and the school program— Evaluation. The important duty of an administrator is to provide leadership in the improvement of the staff. when it gives them a feeling of security and belonging. administrator conscientiously. Administrators rate teachers for the following
. The improvement of the total teaching-learning situation. 5. In the Philippines. includes teacher-rating and school survey. and the development of an efficient educational program—all these require democratic leadership which is progressive and objective. as an administrative function. when it enriches their personalities. and sympathy with the persons who are led. Providing the necessary leadership— In the operations of the school system.4.” should be abandoned and replaced by that type of involvement in the joint of development of a constructive program. while the temporary are rated twice a year. Leadership must be substituted for authority. Regular teachers in public schools are rated annually. where teachers are constantly told “what to do” and “how to do it.
reasons: (1) to eliminate incompetent teachers. and (3) to identify those who merit promotion. (2) to improve teaching through in-service education.
in need of change. proportions of failures. It is especially for such uses that well-organized records are invaluable. The school administrator should be in a position to generalize from facts placed at his hands. and indicate the probable direction in which the changes should be made. School records should be kept for comparison and evaluation purposes.
. However. They reveal the aspects of the program. elimination. 6. Reporting results to the public is an administrative function. No content should go into records for which no real use is likely to arise. A school survey as an administrative function is valuable if the staff of the school participates in making the appraisal. and many other things that indicate the kind of products his system is producing. Annual reports and school publicity help the public to understand what the schools can do and are doing. Keeping records and reporting results— Recording and reporting are administrative functions to insure results with a maximum delegation of authority.School programs and conditions are evaluated through a school survey. The people must be given an opportunity to participate in the discussion of possible changes in policy. costs of instructions. such as retardation. A well devised set of records requires the setting up of administrative objectives and provides for the gathering of information which enables the administrator to determine the extent to which these objectives are being achieved. and are in themselves a democratic way of operating the school system. merely informing the public of what the schools are doing is not enough. A school survey is an important function of school administration. Survey and other evaluations are primarily spring boards to further work. As a student of education.
The Major Functions of Supervision
Supervision, like administration, has multifarious functions. The five major functions of supervision are the following: 1. Inspection – The term refers to the study of existing school conditions. The first task of a supervisor is to survey the school system in order to discover problems or defects of the pupils, teachers, equipment, school curriculum, objectives, and methods of instruction, together with the conditions that surround them. Problems or defects may be discovered through actual observations, educational tests, conferences, questionnaires, and check lists. Once discovered they should be classified into major and minor problems. The major defects should be formulated into supervisory objectives to be attained for the semester or for the year or course of years. Inspection as a function must be based on actual facts. 2. Research –The fundamental aim of this function is to formulate a plan to remedy the weakness or to solve the problem discovered. The supervisor should conduct research to discover means, methods, and procedures fundamental to the success of supervision. The solutions discovered through research should be passed on to the teachers and other personnel connected with the school system. Teachers in the field should also be encouraged to conduct their own research for selfimprovement. Research as a function should be practical and applicable to existing procedures and conditions. Spain (1928) outlines the steps in supervisory research as follows. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) To discover existing defects in instruction. To seek improved methods of correcting defects. To formulate tentative plans to improve instruction To plan controlled experimental conditions To measure results of experiments To formulate tentative objectives and standards
To formulate a plan for the general use of method To present a plan to district principals for criticism, suggestion, and approval.
3. Training – Acquainting the teachers with the solutions discovered or formulated through research is within the training function of supervision. Training may take the form of demonstration teaching, workshops, seminars, directed observation, individual or group conference, inter visitation, professional classes, or the use of bulletins and circulars. Training function must be based on the democratic principle of supervision.--respect for rights and opinions of others. Supervision must endeavor to keep up with the best prevailing standard of improving the total teaching-learning situation. 4. Guidance – The concept of guidance has found expression in the field of school supervision. Guidance involves personal help given by someone. It is the function of supervision to stimulate, direct, guide, and encourage the teachers to apply instructional procedures, techniques, principles, and devices. Assisting the teacher to accomplish his purpose, and to solve the problems that arise in his teaching are within the scope of guidance function. Guidance, like training, should be given in the spirit of democratic leadership. Guidance in supervision stimulates teachers to be creative. Under this concept, the supervisor uses methods which best develop the inner self-expression urges of teachers, and later on uses a variety of projects which stimulate creative and reflective thinking. The methods used may be either old or new to the supervisors; the primary objective is teacher creativity. Creative thinking is the type of teaching in which the teacher exhibits creative ability on her part. It is measured by the extent to which the teacher's display of energy results in
initiative, originality, individuality, self directed thinking, inventiveness, growth of personality, purposeful creativity, and variation from conventional practice. An abbreviated statement of Cox’s principles of supervision for creative teaching are given by Ayer as follows: (a) Supervision for creative teaching helps teachers in setting up and achieving their own teaching objectives. (b)Supervision for creative teaching stimulates, guides, and rewards worthwhile activities. (c) The integration of the teacher’s personality is fundamental. (d)Minor innovations and successes deserve first consideration. (e) Self-supervision is an inherent quality of the creative artist. (f) Understanding and skill in creative teaching are achieved gradually and progressively. (g)The support and encouragement of creative teaching are potentially present among community groups and school officials. (h)The creative teacher receives personal satisfaction and should be given wide recognition for creative teaching.
5. Evaluation – This can be considered the ultimate major function of
supervision. The purpose of evaluation is to appraise the outcomes and the factors conditioning the outcomes of instruction, and to improve the products and processes of instruction. This function calls for the use of educational tests and measurement. It is the duty of the supervisor to help develop an adequate instrument with which to measure the teaching-learning process and set up standards of attainment as are necessary for the appraisal of the teacher’s progress in teaching, and the
5. Evaluation aids pupil-teacher planning.
should not prescribe specific means and methods of appraisal to be used in instruction but should assist the teacher to devise such. 4. 3. Evaluation as a function of supervision serves many significant purposes such as the following: 1.
Other Functions of Supervision
. 7. Evaluation appraises the quality of supervisory processes and the supervisor’s competence. Evaluation discovers the needs of the individuals being evaluated and familiarizes the teachers with the pupil’s needs and possibilities. Evaluation appraises the success of the instructional program in particular and of the supervisory program in general.pupils in his learning. 6.
Schoolwork should be evaluated in the light of The supervisor
desirable educational objectives and social standards. Evaluation serves as guides for the selection of supervisory techniques. Evaluation serves as a means of improving school-community relations. 8. as new needs arise. Evaluation must be based on educational aims and objectives. Evaluation appraises the quality if the teaching processes and the teacher’s efficiency. 9. Evaluation improves the selection and the use of guiding principles in supervision. 2. Evaluation appraises the educational growth of pupils which is the end-product of supervision.
and work habits of the pupils. and Outcomes of Supervision: (a) Discovering and applying the techniques of evaluation (b)Evaluating the general work of supervision (c) Evaluating the results of supervising plans (d)Evaluating the factors limiting the instructional outcome (e) Evaluating and improving the personnel of supervision Crow and Crow (1947) give the following as important functions of supervision which pertain to teaching and learning: 1. Studying the Teaching-Learning Situation: (a) Analyzing the objectives of education and supervision (b)Studying the products of teaching and learning (c) Studying the satisfactory and unsatisfactory growth and achievement (d)Studying the interests. and Bruekner give the following as the three major functions of supervision with the supervisory activities under each. abilities. Methods.Barr. application. Evaluating the Means. 1.
. and work habits of the pupils (d)Improving the materials of instruction and the socio-physical environment 3. The interpretation of educational objectives. Improving the teaching-Learning Situation: (a) Improving the educational objectives and the curriculum (b)Improving the teacher and her methods (c) Improving the interests. (e) Studying the teacher at work and aiding her to study herself (f) Studying the curriculum in operation (g)Studying the materials of instruction and the socio-physical environment of learning 2. Burton.
The stimulating of whatever creative ability may be inherent among the supervised. The evaluation of educational outcomes. Like other functions. Principles make for enormous economy of time and effort in choosing techniques to be used. The critical study and improvement of supervising techniques 8. guidance. 7. The guidance of pupils toward improved study and work habits. 5. The measurement of the individual pupil’s ability to learn. Principles are means by which the administrator and supervisor proceed from one situation to another. 2. The study of improvement of the curriculum and materials of instruction. 4. must be based upon modern principles of education. training.
School administration or supervision. Principles govern the operation of administrative and supervisory techniques.
. Crow and Crow also recognize inspection. The application of the principles of school administration and supervision may be stated as follows: 1. They are important in the exercise of administrative and supervisory activities.2. The improvement of teaching techniques. and evaluation as major functions of supervision. Improvement of instruction and promotion of better learning are the fundamental aims of school administration and supervision. 3. 3. 6. Principles are instrumental in improving teaching and learning. to be effective.
for they furnish a broader basis by which to judge the techniques used in school administration and supervision.4. 6. Principles are needed to guide the choice and sequence of the appropriate techniques at hand but in no way do they supplant the fundamental rule techniques in carrying on the process and activities which make up the work of administration and supervision. and with changes in teaching-learning situations. Principles lead the administrators and supervisors to further Principles change activities for they are dynamic and not static. 10. Principles define the items which must be scrutinized in evaluating results. administration and supervision. Principles eliminate much of the blundering trail-and-error effort in a practical piece of work. They are hypotheses that direct the search for new techniques in school
with the discovery of new facts. Principles aid in the evaluation of techniques. They do not represent new ideas or concepts. but rather present-day thought and practices as guided by this philosophy. 5.
. 8. 9. This implies an understanding of the fundamental principles and functions of school administration and supervision. 7. Principles are used to evaluate the success of administrative and supervisory programs. Principles greatly aid in discovery of new techniques. They give direction or point of destination. with changes in social and moral values. Administration and supervision are directed and evaluated I terms of principles.
General principles of Administration and Supervision
The following general principles summarize the implications of our philosophy for administration and supervision.
respect personality. Democracy in education does not imply that the administrators and supervisors abdicate their positions topermit teachers. and extend consideration to all. challenges the administrator and supervisor for a total reconstruction of education.
. It is the aim of democracy to give the fullest measure of freedom to the individual to develop his maximum capacities so long as this development does not interfere with the welfare and rights of others.
school administration and supervision are to be democratic. parents. School administration and supervision must be democratic. Democratic school administration and supervision recognize individual differences.1. some reconstruction in thinking and practice must be made. as the controlling objective of education. Democratic administration and supervision make it possible for each individual to make distinctive contribution to the work of the school. foster in others. It does not imply that administrators and supervisors must furnish a democratic type of leadership which is measured in terms of the amount and quality of leadership which they. and pupils to run the school system. in turn. Democratic socialization.
3. Miel. students. 11.” 8. progress – to the end of a smooth-running system. Cannot bear to let any of the strings of management slip from his fingers. Sacrifices everything – teachers. 4. and so forth 9. Adopts a paternalistic attitude toward the group“I know best. Thinks he can sit by himself and see all angles of a problem 2. Gives others as few opportunities for leadership as possible. Is jealous of ideas. and Minser (1943) for comparison: 10. Is greedy for publicity
AUTOCRATIC 1.Some of the characteristics or practices of an autocratic and a democratic administrator or supervisor are hereby presented by Koopman. Expects hero-worship. Does not know how to use the experience of others. reacts in one of several ways when someone else makes a proposal. Makes decisions that should have been made by the group 7. Does not admit even to himself that he is autocratic
12. 6. giggles with delight at his attempts at humor. Makes committee assignments.
. Is so tied to routine details that he seldom tackles his larger job 5.
Maintains the position of friendly. 11. 4. Consciously practices democratic techniques 10. Believes that as many individuals as possible should have opportunities to take responsibility and exercises leadership.DEMOCRATIC 1. 9. Refers to the group all matters that concern the group 3. Pushes others into the foreground so that they may taste success. Is quick to recognize and praise an idea that comes from someone else. 5. Pushes others into the foreground so that they may taste success. helpful adviser both on personal and professional matters. 8. 2. Wishes to be respected as a fair and just individual as he respects other.
. Is more concerned with the growth of individuals involved than with freedom from annoyances 7. Believes that as many individuals as possible should have opportunities to take responsibility and exercises leadership. 12. Consciously practices democratic techniques 6. Is more concerned with the growth-of individuals involved than with freedom from annoyances.
This principle emphasizes the fact that conditions are constantly changing. e. These respect the authority derived from below rather than the one imposed from above. and redirection of effort. d. the administration and supervision involve better the administration and supervision. that thinking changes with changing conditions. any organization set up today may need f. Democratic school administration and supervision demand that participation should not be limited to line-and-staff officers but should also be extended to the classroom teachers and the student body. Democratic school administration and supervision respect the authority if truth and happiness rather than that of autocratic leaders. the broader the participation.Democratic school administration and supervision observe the following basic principles: a. rethinking. Democratic school administration and supervision demand that the execution of the major or minor policies should be in the hands of the administrator with such assistance from the staff personnel To improve man’s ability to live and work with his fellowmen is still the most challenging goal in administration and
. school leadership and consideration as well as general participation. Democratic school administration and supervision call for continuous evaluation. Their function is to point the way to the improvement of the schools in terms of changes necessary to meet demonstrated and felt needs. Democratic school administration and supervision call for the way of living within the school that is indicated by the concept of democracy. consequently. and that. This calls for dynamic leadership where both administrator and supervisor must be experts in social engineering. Democratic Theoretically. supervision. c. b.
Democratic school administration and supervision demand that the administrator or supervisors must have to forfeit the power and authority that are his by right of training and experiences and by endowment from the people. supervisors. The administrator or the supervisor is supposed to lead his personnel toward a certain definite goal. prevail. As the democratic function of education is to improve learning for every individual. it must not apply only to the teachers but also to the pupils as well. their execution must be trusted to the administrative officer.
. and pupils. Cooperation is practically synonymous with group action. teachers. and progress results from the combined efforts of all. Education must be an essentially cooperative process growing out of needs and aspirations of each member of the group. The administrator’s or supervisor’s concern should be to eliminate misunderstanding which is not conducive to cooperation. coordination in movement. Results are accomplished when unity in action. administration and supervision must be directed towards that end.
2. parents. and harmony in thinking. This is based on the principle that after the policies have been determined by pooling the best thinking of all concerned. The power and authority must come from below. The success of administration and supervision depends upon the cooperation among administrators. g.as is necessary. This principle is closely related to the democratic principle of administration and supervision. A democratic principle cannot function in an undemocratic set-up. School administration and supervision must be cooperative in
classroom teachers. This principle is based on the concept that educational workers are capable of growth. supervisors. Much can be accomplished by cooperation than by being a single-handed worker. and both groups work together. principals. both make greater and more effective efforts in the interests of the students. self-reliance. Democratic administration and supervision recognize that leadership is a function of every individual and that authority is to be derived from group planning. and individual responsibility on the part of all persons in the discharge of their duties. When administrators or supervisors. Cooperation means bringing together diverse talents to work for common ends. and supervisors can be accomplished by using the following basic principles: (1)Cooperative administration and supervision are highly socialized functions and imply willingness to work together. (3)Cooperative administration and supervision substitute leadership for authority. experiment and to discover Teachers are encouraged to for themselves the teaching
techniques and devices that may prove most effective in their particular teaching-learning situations.
. (2)Cooperative administration and supervision stimulate initiative.Barr and Burton* suggested that cooperative understanding between the teachers. The experiences of all his co-workers whose opinions are considered and sought on all matters of vital importance to the group. group execution and group evaluation. (5)Cooperative understanding administration between and supervision promote and administrators. (4)Cooperative administration and supervision provide opportunity for growth and development.
and attitude. b. fact-conscious. things we look for. and vital. practical. skills. and organization carried on by cooperating groups of self-directed workers and less and less through administrative dictum or fiat. planning. Scientific administration and supervision are based upon Efficient scientific
observable facts. Scientific administration and supervision observe the following practices: a. must
be scientific. Scientific administration and supervision employ the method of analysis in the comprehension of complex administrative and As a rule. School administration and supervision. administration and supervision are characterized by knowledge. to be effective. It can be said that the whole trend in modern industry and business is toward more and more thinking.
3. ability. Valid principles of administration and supervision are based upon scientific investigations directed toward the improvement of teaching and the promotion of better learning. we see only those
Both administrator and supervisor must be
. Scientific administration and supervision for the ideas that the improvement of instruction may be based upon measurable and controllable data. Both administration and supervision make use of the scientific principle that the solution of problems should be based on facts. The best way to determine whether a thing is present or not is to look and see.(6)Cooperative administration and supervision observe a code of professional ethics that is real. Cooperation can be easily established on ethical basis. The principle of “look and see” has been far-reaching in its consequence both in school administration and supervision.
and a reconstruction of human experiences is the guiding
. Normative survey method. The details of complex problems are brought into focus of attention and made understandable. cooperative casual method. School administration and supervision must be based on
accepted educational philosophy. Philosophy furnished direction and orientation to all educational efforts and criteria for sound educational practices. growth. Scientific administration and supervision are free from emotional bias. a social process. Scientific administration and supervision employ hypothesis in guiding the thinking process. d. Scientific administration and supervision employ objective measurement and quantitative methods in the treatment of data.
4. c. The evolution of administrative and supervisory activities should be influenced by one’s educational philosophy. A philosophy is a background of theory. e.supervisory problems by breaking them into comprehensive units. knowledge and beliefs which explains and justifies a selected way of life. and ease method are scientific procedures of great value to the school administrator and supervisor. Educational philosophy affects the thinking and resultant actions of the leaders who control public school administration and supervision. The minds of the administrator and supervisor are free from ordinary entanglements and flexible enough to entertain new ideas. Dewey’s educational theory that education is life. Administration and supervision have employed this natural tendency of the mind to generalize from the experiences at hand as a means for the systematic study of relationship of all factors effecting teaching and learning. Likes and dislikes which color facts are not allowed but facts contrary to a temporarily entertained point of view are entertained.
teachers are given freedom to use the methods they think best to modify these methods to suit their particular class. namely: development of moral. and teachers must constantly keep in mind the demands which democracy makes of education. which must be satisfied if the schools are to achieve true functions. inventing. administrators. The organization of leadership in any school system should be consistent with the educational philosophy achieved by the school system. and citizenship training. democratic thinking is present then. The
Administration or supervision is
sensitive to ultimate aims. Only the free can create. that is to say the very voice of freedom. For creative activity is the assertion of the human spirit against any and all odds.philosophy of education is the integration of personality –the building of personality which has the maximum growth and which possesses a well-developed standard of values giving consistency and unity to all thinking. civic conscience. In drawing up any program for improving instruction. School administration and supervision must be creative. supervisors. The guiding philosophy of our educational system us well outlined in our Constitution in terms of objectives. It brings new and When original ways of doing things on the part of the individual. the chief end of democracy
. devising. and acting. personal discipline. A sense of personal freedom is itself. experimenting. and policies with special reference
term creative means initiating. vocational efficiency. values. or producing something new. Creative administration or supervision denoted and encourage growth. to their adequacy. feeling. and creative activity is essential component of democracy. suggesting.
organize a To accomplish this. or between the administrator and the
. administrative and supervisory problems must be attacked democratically and scientifically. Creative administration and
supervision exercise democratic and scientific procedures and practices in observing teacher and pupils at work. the supervisor. Creative administration and supervision recognize that every teacher and pupil have the capacity for some degree of creative achievement in one field or another. Teachers and pupils are individuals with varying abilities. To be creative. e. and recognition of the importance of human element. administrator and supervisor to It is the duty of the provide such learning will promote an Exchange of ideas between the attitude of cooperation and
teacher and supervisor. interests. and the teacher. the superintendent must professional program which will cooperative
intelligently utilize the results of scientific research and the kind of experiences that will enable them to appreciate relationship. friendliness. b. Creative administration and supervision provide opportunity for the teachers and the pupils to grow through the exercise of their talents and abilities under expert professional guidance and encouragement. c. Creative administration and supervision are free from the control and tradition and actuated by the spirit of inquiry.It
supervision observe the following practices: a. social-mindedness. and needs. Creative administration and supervision need scientificmindedness. Creative administration and supervision provide opportunity for a conference or a meeting between the administrator. supervisor. d.
or one may consider the adequacy of a pupil’s control in relation to his maturity. there is every reason to believe that administrators and supervisors too would profit by the introduction of similar means of evaluating their own work as school leaders. pointed out that only by knowing as accurately as possible the results Administrators. Just as teachers and pupils have profited directly and indirectly from the introduction of more accurate methods of evaluating educational growth. one may consider the adequacy of a pupil’s control for a specified purpose under consideration. is to determine the adequacy of some parts or elements of the constituency with reference to some other parts or elements of the constituency with reference to some other parts of the inclusive whole. whether in terms of results or in terms of criteria relating to important antecedents. supervisors. too. Administration and supervision must be evaluated in the light
of their results. The
. To evaluate something. or his capacity. then. Evaluation is ordinarily a many-sided affair. of instruction can the processes of education be It has been improved.
6. The term evaluation implies a purpose to ascertain the values of an enterprise. Administrative or supervisory leadership is decidedly hampered in many respects by the use of outmoded traditional practices instead of more effective means and methods of evaluation. and teachers naturally all want to use the most effective means and materials available. The evaluation may be made. his interests.opportunities that this power of creation may be given a chance to express itself. Every person with leadership responsibility should be expected to furnish tangible evidence of the effectiveness of the program for the improvement that he proposes to put into operation. his past training and experience.
Results must be measured in terms of the teacher’s growth or improvement in the selection of subject matters. Results must be measured in terms of the child’s total growth in knowledge. habits. may be determined either through application of criteria designed to judge the value of activities performed by administrators or supervisors. b. The purpose for which effectiveness of administrative or supervisory leadership may be evaluated are the following: a. or through the measurement of the immediate and more remote outcomes of the administrative or supervisory program. The ultimate purpose of school administration or supervision is to promote pupil-growth. skills. The immediate purpose of administration or supervision is to develop cooperatively favorable settings for teaching and learning. b. and attitudes or in terms of the desired educational objectives. The second general purpose of administration or supervision is to formulate and carry out cooperatively educational policies and plans designed to achieve the ultimate goal. for example. The results by which effectiveness of administration or
supervision may be evaluated in terms of the following: a. The third general purpose of administration or supervision is to
adaptation of the educational program over a period of years from level to level within the system. formulation and
. abilities. d. hence.effectiveness of administration and supervision.
c. eventually the improvement of society. and from one area of learning experiences and content to another.
supervision. Educational leadership calls for the enrichment of individual lives. If a person is given authority to act. Demanding certain results from the teacher is practicable only when the teacher is permitted the necessary control or procedure for the attainment of those results. Democracy in its full meaning involves sharing of responsibility whenever authority is shared. d.
administration and functions. Holding an administrator or supervisor responsible for results without giving him the control necessary for their attainment is equally as bad as giving him powers and not demanding products. Results must be measured in terms of the physical improvement of the school buildings and grounds favorable to teaching and learning. c. Responsibility and control in matters of school administration
and supervision must run parallel throughout the system. Results may be measured in terms of community improvement and its relation to the school. This principle of parallelism of duties is the particular sphere to which the school administrator or supervisor is assigned and for which he is responsible. The integration of the school and community is also fundamental in evaluating results. there should be some way for him to share in the responsibility for success or for a failure.evaluation of aims. or a teacher is given authority to act for a principal.
must and They
distinguished have not synonymous
from terms. selection of methods and techniques. This principle is the foundation for any form of democratic practice.
8. e. Results must be measured in terms of the administrator’s or supervisor’s growth in educational leadership. and appraisal of educational products.
Any help that an administrator or supervisor can give to teachers so that they may avoid mistakes is commendable. nor can harmony be expected.Misconception regarding this difference undoubtedly causes more misunderstanding and possibly more neglect of duty than can be attributed to any other cause. or to realize only part of it. Unquestioned responsibility induces adequate action. what is everybody’s business is nobody’s business.
teamwork divides each activity into distinct assignments. The skilled administrator or supervisor who anticipates the possible difficulties that may be experienced by his new teachers. it is easy to overlook it. in its absence. The attitude of this kind of supervisor or administrator is always positive
. jointly If two persons are Good
responsible for the same work. for the improvement of which he suggests desirable changes of attitude or in procedures. or even to deem it unimportant because it is not given clear and complete interpretation. they cannot be held
responsible individually. School administration and supervision must be preventive
and constructive. Overlapping functions cannot be definite. old or new. As a well-trained and experienced administrator or supervisor works with his teachers. is practicing preventive school administration and supervision. When the duty is not clearly defined. The administrator or supervisor who is able to anticipate problems of this kind of assistance is especially valuable to the beginners in a new school or who are newcomers to the teaching profession. and who starts early to direct and to guide their teaching activities. however
9. he builds self-confidence in them by recognizing and commending their capabilities and by helping them to discover their own weakness. small each may be.
and a stimulation to teachers toward selfimprovement. Flexibility may be characterized by its being adaptable and readily adjustable to meet the requirement of changing conditions. They must study children to determine their difficulties and potentialities.
administration and supervision is to provide conditions favorable to the growth and development of children. be so organized and conducted that the growth of the whole personality of the child is possible. Flexibility as used in school administration and supervision may cover the following: • • Flexibility of school building – the adaptability of the school building to various uses as needs and conditions change. School administration and supervision must be flexible. physically. morally.
administrative and supervisory program must be flexible enough to adapt itself to the type of school organization and to the needs of each particular supervisory teaching-learning situation. and interests in terms of his development.
10. and administrators must always keep in mind the child and his needs. and socially. The teachers. abilities.and forward-looking. Flexibility of the curriculum – the adaptability of the school subjects as to the needs and interest of the pupils and to the rapid changing conditions of the community and the country in general. emotionally.
. and the most suitable type of education which will make it possible for them to grow mentally. Administration and supervision must. School administration and supervision must be centered on
development. therefore. supervisors.
Flexibility of instructional materials and devices – the adaptability differences of the pupils and the varied training and experiences of the teaching personnel. supervisors. and administrators.
Flexibility of school requirements and standard norms – the adaptability of procedures to fit the individualities of the pupils. teachers. student population and communities.•
Flexibility of objectives and teaching procedures – the adaptability of aims and methods to meet the conditions of the different schools.
goals. A knowledge of individual needs and desires of teachers is basic to almost any type of school administration and supervision. (2)Flexible school administration and supervision adapt adjust the types and length of classroom visit to the particular purposes and needs of the teaching-learning situations. Because of these differences the administrator and supervisor should avoid over-emphasis of standard norms. experiences. The administrator and supervisor need to understand that a supervisory arrangement in one situation will not fit another situation exactly. (5)Flexible school administration and supervision encourage pupils to suggest ways they would like to work and to give them opportunity to plan. They should be encouraged to set up standards and to make records of their own
. (4)Flexible school administration and supervision adapt itself to the needs of each particular teaching-learning situation. work. program. rating scales. (6)Flexible school administration and supervision meet the needs and desires of teachers. and evaluate their own activity. The administrator and supervisor should give special attention to the new and experienced teachers. and abilities. and prescriptive measures..The principle of flexibility in school administration and supervision observes the following practices: (1) Flexible school administration and supervision adapt activities to meet individual differences of teachers in training. School situations vary and personalities are unique. (3)Flexible school administration and supervision encourage and assist teachers to use flexible assignments and methods must be modified to meet individual differences of the pupils and to meet the individualities of the teachers. Individual needs of teachers can be determined by the use of self-appraisal check list. information tests.
and analysis of teacher’s training and experiences. and desires.changes of pupils. The school administrators and supervisors should be prepared to assist teachers to meet their needs
. evaluation of pupil progress.
The authority that is delegated by the principal to the members of his staff should be used wisely. limits of his individual authority. and should be understood by all concerned. •
The formulation of school policies should follow democratic principles of faculty and pupils’ participation and cooperation. The building and equipment should be used to maximum capacity. Authority granted to pupils should be supervised carefully lest.Other Principles of Administration and Supervision
There are other definite principles of school administration that should be known to school administrators. The educational program of the school should embody the cooperative efforts of faculty and student alike.
All educational responsibilities should be defined carefully and specifically. as a result of pupil immaturity and lack of experience. There should be no doubt in the mind of any school official concerning the
. All school facilities should be utilized that every child is given an opportunity to participate in the educational offerings of the school. Among the basic principles of good school administration suggested by Crow and Crow (1947) are the following: • • • • • • Teacher-participation should be stimulated in the kind of education that will provide good citizenship training. There should be developed and put into practice the kind of curriculum that guarantees continuous pupil-growth.
Well-trained teachers and other personnel should be secured and should be given the freedom of activity that is commensurate with their ability to use it effectively. it be abused. The various members of the school personnel should be assigned in such a way that everyone can utilize his energies toward the achievement of maximum efficiency.
The complexity of school organization arising from changing social conditions. Integration 5. Orientation 10.•
The best interests of the entire school should be basic to any decision that is made relative to the welfare of the pupils. or the school in general. Considerateness 8. changes in theories and methods of techniques brought about by recent scientific investigations and researches and changes in curricula because of the needs and demands of the time. increase in school population and teaching personnel (who are mostly non-professionally trained). Flexibility 7. most efficient method of securing educational ends in a democracy. The school can become a powerful force in maintaining and improving democracy only when the administrative and supervisory personnel
The leadership of the principal should such as to inspire all – pupils and teachers alike – toward better and more complete accomplishment. the teachers. Peckham (1948) selected ten major principles to cover the field of supervision as follows: 1. Leadership 3. There are likewise other definite principles which should be known to
the supervisor. call for a democratic administration and supervision which can be the only valid and perhaps. Planning 4. Creativity 6. Community 9. Cooperation 2. Evaluation
The success of any school system depends upon democratic administration and efficient supervision.
. hence. administration and supervision must be established on a democratic basis.become deeply concerned with developing technique of administration and supervision that is thoroughly democratic and consequently efficient.
Discuss briefly the functions of school administration and supervision.
.Test and Apply your Knowledge
2. What are the principles of supervision? Explain briefly each principle.
supervisors make sure the job gets done. somebody has to do it. management itself. Further. Virtually every organization makes use of the first-level supervisor.
“It’s a dirty job. but somebody’s got to do it.
. In short. The job must be viewed in a context of interrelated elements: a
management system. worker expectations. Government. resulting in a job that is diminished in scope. especially when performed to its fullest range. Supervisors further the objectives of the organization. In fact. and to know the qualities that make for supervisory success. a whole lot of somebodies have to do it because job is central to organizational effectiveness. and. competitive demands. it is a dirty job. but supervisors are uniquely positioned between management and the worker to see the providing of a quality product or service.Lesson 3
New Dimensions of Supervision Objectives
The objectives of this lesson are to familiarize the graduate students about the challenges that the supervisors may encounter in the discharge of their functions. In many aspects. And quite a job that is. and cultural changes.” The person who coined that phrase may very well have been talking about the job of a supervisor. and labor unions have chipped away at the duties and responsibilities of the supervisor. First-level supervisor run the departments that achieve the goals that have been set for them. All employees count. yes. the job has been under attack from a variety of directions.
the process employed. Good People Skills Employees are selected to be supervisors because. The supervisors need an in-depth knowledge. if there is one. knowing the product and its specifications. and the reasons why these processes are necessary. It means knowing the labor laws and other government regulations that apply to your business. they are good workers. Supervisors are the resource people for the workers. and rewarding. And it will become apparent that the supervisor’s role is challenging. that is. the machinery and its capabilities. so it is necessary that they be a good resource. Once the broader job definition is accepted and the supervisor is willing and allowed by management to take back the prerogative that has been lost over the years. This knowledge must not be superficial. among other things. the supervisor will be better able to fulfill his or her role in the organization.This text is designed to explain what supervision is all about and where it is headed. Technical Competence The qualifications for the supervisor’s job are impressive (see Figure 2).
Qualities That Make For Supervisory Success
1. Vague notions about product specifications or scheduling requirements will not do. Further technical competency means knowing the competency means knowing the company rules or provisions of the collective bargaining agreement. This can only be accomplished by developing a thorough technical competency. Supervisors need to be technically competent. It will explore supervisory effectiveness and give a broader vision of the supervisor’s job than is now being described. New supervisors do not fail because they
. 2. dynamic.
your responsibility is to meet. It is necessary to make a mental adjustment. these larger organizational objectives. productivity. then the supervisor and the department are wasting a precious resource – time. and the like are all necessary to keep people on track and to get the desired results. Many of these departmental controls will be the same as the overall company controls. They lack people skills. and budgets are legitimate and to be followed. This is where a transition is necessary. As a beginning employee. Controls
Company controls such as budgets. rather. schedules are commitments. for example. they fail because they are unable to get others to work effectively for them. Not only are they to be met. words. schedules. Effective supervisors develop departmental controls that do for them what the larger controls for the company – channel everyone’s effort in the desired direction to help reach the expected goals. After all. In other
4. If the assignments are made on the basis of convenience. they must be met in a certain way – with a sense of urgency. You had the right Your individual effort. performance standards. A sense of Urgency Supervisors have a well-developed “sense-of-urgency” – a balance between panic and apathy. and a necessary part of this tone is that all the day’s primary objectives must be met. you have leadership qualities.lack technical know-how. now you must get the group to do what you were able to do so well. Other controls can be How do you want certain questions directed – to you or to
others? If employees need equipment repaired. personal. 3. on a reduced scale. The supervisor sets the tone for the work group. you were productive. attitude. The traits that qualify one for promotion have to do with one’s individual effectiveness. should they clear it though
. Instead. It is a plus if you can instill enthusiasm and commitment in people. and attitude is now less important to your success. The supervisor conveys the view that assignments are necessary.
they have the effect of focusing attention on these areas.
. then employees are not likely to stray from the desired path.you or go directly to the tool crib? the personnel department?
If employees have questions in
termination pay or benefits. or procedure changes? Supervisors must appreciate that when controls are put in place. And. should they clear this through you or through Will you allow you employees to make minor schedule changes. if supervisors constantly monitor these control points. material substitutions.
Concentrates on making it easier for employees to Do this by giving them job training. Conference Leader Relies increasingly on group meetings Recognizes that employees want more information. It has been found that when the supervisor conveys to the employees high expectation for their performance. The New Dimensions Besides these traditional qualifications. When little is expected of employees. and a facilitator (see Table 5). function. showing that they can accomplish difficult tasks. setting high performance standards. a conference leader. by your example. 6. an important personal quality for success in supervision is to have the right attitude toward one’s employees in a very real sense. they behave accordingly. These new dimensions include a need for the supervisor to an economic advocate. more Removes obstacles that hinder employees. the expectations of the company and the supervisor go a long way toward shaping the attitudes and performance of the employees.5. some new dimensions to the job have to be added in response to the changing conditions in our society. those employees try to perform up to the level of that expectation. The Pygmalion Attitude Finally. Table 5 The New Dimensions of the Supervisor’s Job Economic Advocate Understands the importance of profits and the consequences of failure to be competitive in the marketplace. and
. Facilitator helping. the trick is to help people reach their potential. Believes that employees need to educate the workers better. Believes that employees need less bossing. Communicates the economic realities to employees.
” It may well have been the longest sustained period of prosperity and productivity in our history. Twenty years later. The period between 1950 and 1073 has been referred to as the “golden age of industrialism. the economy has changed drastically over the last 40 years. national. In roughly the same time period. As an economic advocate. American business ignored the fact that there was a relationship between the performance of employees and the continued prosperity of employers. and world markets. In the early 1960s. the Midwest. and even the South. Imports contributed greatly to the jobs loss. A nation we
became complacent and thought ourselves free of the competitive realities Because any economic downturn was seen as temporary. In 1984 that figured dropped below 250. imported cars took about 6 percent of the United States market. the United States lost over 22 million jobs in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing.ECONOMIC ADVOCATE. In the period 1975 – 1979. Plants were closed in New England. Consider these figures. imports accounted for 18 percent of our car sales.000 people. Management enjoyed ever-higher profits and growth. imported steel rose from 9 percent of the market to around 26 percent. of the marketplace. The oversight cost us dearly in terms of our ability to compete in local. steel companies employed an average of 453. the supervisor speaks for our economic system and serves to educate the workers to its harsh realities.
. With its ups and downs. Let us consider these dimensions one at a time.000 salaried and hourly paid workers. Between 1969 and 1976.
for supervisors to be effective advocates. employees are not used to sitting in on meeting and offering ideas. and chemicals. but they are basically no longer made here in the United States. machine tools. The economic education of the worker is going to grow in importance. But. individual meetings. The second new dimension for supervisors Reliance on
involves a significant shift in their communication role. they demand participation. and the other concepts that relate to profits and loss and job security. Further. Employees want information. they must themselves understand the importance of quality. The person most favorably positioned to the teacher is the supervisor. First. costs. employees are demanding to hear and be heard on job issues that affect them. He or she must be the economic advocate. CONFERENCE LEADER. Remember. from 40 percent to 23 percent. it makes good business sense to use the total brainpower of the organization. semiconductors. from 24 percent to 17 percent. This shift in emphasis has a number of implications. Supervisors have to learn how to manage group discussions. These products may still be sold by American companies.The United States was not doing any better in the export market. After years of being
. from 18 percent to 11 percent. 1970 – 1980. competition. by the large the American worker is not schooled in the importance of these issues. performance The supervisors must regularly review sessions. our share of the world’s aircraft market dropped from 67 percent. Our capital goods and “high-tech” industries lost export market shares during the 1970s. and any other communicate these issues to the workers. Take advantage of group and appropriate forum to drive the point home. productivity. The supervisor’s communication must adjust to these new conditions. Our consumer electronics industry is gone. For one thing. For the period.
communicating one on one is no longer enough.
management has a legitimate concern that meetings might get out of hand. Instead. They need to learn techniques on how to get employee participation. the supervisor may be seen as weak or inadequate. FACILITATOR. training. use time wisely. But is it reasonable to assume that the supervisor must know more about each and every job than every worker in the department? These are the questions that the supervisor has to ask. The supervisor must act in ways that make it easier for workers to perform. Employees must be better trained and oriented. be time and money waster. These activities focus on helping workers to perform their tasks. Beyond all this is the risk that having group meetings can undermine the authority and status of the supervisor. Doing this will result in a shift in responsibilities for both the supervisor and the employees. Second. Obstacles must be removed. Information. The third new dimension moves the supervisor away from being a “boss” to being a facilitator. leading and standard setting are among the things supervisors should emphasis. The supervisor has to recognize there is a risk associated with employee participation. supervisors need training before they can hold effective group discussions.told what to do and how to do it. it is not easy to get employees to open up participatory discussion sessions. and raise unreasonable expectations among employees. Third. emphasis. Materials must be available when needed and equipment kept in good repair. This is a pronounced shift in The new supervisor does less “bossing” looking over the
shoulder and calling on employees for more and better performance. the boss should be the boss. After all. but the risk is more than offset by the possible gains that come from harnessing the untapped potential of the work force. the supervisor becomes the resource person for the department.
The monthly unemployment figures and inflation rate are important topics. It may be more interesting to look at the big picture. they will remain stunted. He observed that people grow according to the demands they place on themselves. Effective supervisors have learned to pay attention to the little details of the job.”
3. The daily newspaper is filled with items to discuss as an economic advocate. As a personal philosophy. supervisors should heed the advice of Peter
Drucker. plant closings.
guiding. A salesperson may be turning in impressive dollar amounts. but it is the little details that trip you.Supervisors
planning. does the sales person know why? 2. “If they demand little of themselves. If they demand a good deal of themselves. Strikes.
Employees will have the opportunity to exercise a degree of self-direction and initiative largely denied them until now.
Tips and Techniques for Supervisors
1. but the effective supervisor looks beyond the total figure. they will grow…without any more effort than is expended by the nonachiever. and relocations are powerful reminders of what can happen to a company and its employees. Where is the business coming from – a few accounts or from the total territory? Are new accounts being established? Is the total product line being sold or only a few items? Have certain customers stopped ordering? If so.
Although beginning supervisors should get adequate training and supervision while they are learning their new job. discuss them with your supervisor. However. Gain an understanding of what is done and why.” Learn the job first. continuing “to work” could be fatal. You need to available to them when they need you. bosses do not like surprises. It is important that you identify with the support management. otherwise. Or you may wish to change procedures. Listen to your works and be ready to support them when they are in need and in the right. this support is often missing. Be careful. In fact. being an excellent worker no longer matters much.4. Do not forget that you are a role model. Seek it from qualified sources. You may want to “shape up” the workers. The example you set is as important to your workers as the orders you give. having a management perspective does not mean that you are insensitive to the concerns of employees. Management has confidence in you. Also. once you become a supervisor. The inability to let go of the past can lead to supervisors’ eventual failure. Take seriously the warning. You probably have a number of new ideas you want to put into effect. You may want to rearrange the department. After you know the job. Try to identify especially
. Now your job calls for you getting others to do the actual work. you would not have been selected for a supervisor’s position. though not at the expense of the employees. You were selected to be a supervisor because you were an excellent worker. Get the benefit of that person’s expertise as well as consent for your proposed changes. It is a wiser course of action to get your “feet on the ground.
effective supervisors. Analyze those people and how they operate. Learn from them. What are the keys to their success? Can you use any of their techniques to improve your effectiveness? You will find that experienced and successful supervisors are excellent role models as well as good people to go for advice.
who plays a relatively small part in the type of supervision discussed in this book. formulate a working definition of supervision. they would probably indicate the principal. cafeteria workers. the concept of school personnel held by a typical layperson is that of a teacher in every classroom and a principal in every school.
One of the best-kept secrets outside the education profession and. namely. describe a conceptual model of supervision. Or they might refer to the superintendent. Were members of the community asked to identify a school supervisor. list common tasks of supervision. Business and
. is the existence of a large shadow army of school personnel known by the collective title of supervisors.Lesson 4
Roles of School Supervisor Objectives
The objective of this lesson is to be able to know the historical development of the field of supervision. it is surprising to find that the role of the supervisor in education remains rather ill defined. Although laypersons may be aware that school systems employ a variety of personnel. Parents and sometimes teachers profess not to know of the presence of these specialists in the school systems of the nation. such as custodians. state what you believe to be the minimal qualifications of a supervisor. and counselors. describe various roles of supervisors. instructional supervision. to a degree even within the profession. Considering the veritable army of supervisors on local and state levels of schooling throughout the country. who may or may not be the sole supervisor. identify supervision in a school system. secretaries.
Supervision has gone through many metamorphoses. as we will discover later. Harris attributed the variations in roles to differing theoretical perspectives: Supervision. To compound the problem. or assembly-line supervisor. The question of whether they should be part of management is. To provide perspective. Ben M. The diversity of perceptions stems not only from organizational complexity but also from lack of information and absence of perspective.” orders. and check on results (products). supervisory roles are often poorly delineated. many occupations outside education use the services of supervisors. the titles of supervisors are almost as varied as their roles. telephone supervisor. a storm center among specialists in supervision. The position of commercial or industrial supervisor is highly visible and well defined in the managerial structure of the organization. In analyzing the development of most aspects of
. we can a bit arbitrarily establish historical time frames for the evolution of instructional supervision. at least. the total school operation must be the point of departure for analyzing instructional supervision as a major function. “to oversee. like any complex part of an even more complex enterprise. give evaluate
employees’ performance. construction supervisor. To varying degrees. Educational supervisors may or may not be a part of the managerial structure of school systems. They demonstrate techniques. department-store head. If we look at some of the changes that have occurred in this field since the early days. can be viewed in various ways and inevitably is. Even within localities. offer suggestions. Responsibilities of educational supervisors are not at all clear from locality to locality and from state to state. floor manager.industry are not troubled by this same malady. These individuals carry out the task of supervision in the original sense of the Latin word supervideo. whether as office boss.
Satan. which outlines the major periods in the historical development of supervision. social. As schools became established. which required communities with 50 or more families to provide instruction in reading and writing and communities with 100 or more families to establish a grammar school. checking for compliance with teaching techniques. supervision has come a long way since colonial days.” and tutors instructed youngsters in the home. When parents. and
.2 Applied to curriculum development. educated young people would not be led astray by the Old Deluder. these could include “School curriculum not only reflects but is a product of its time” and “Curriculum changes made at an earlier period of time can exist concurrently with curriculum changes at a later period of time. but as the population grew. early colonists realized that they needed some formal structure for the education of their young. Thus.” The same axioms are valid if we substitute the word supervision for curriculum.education. Supervisory behaviors and practices are affected by political. History is forever with us. traces of supervisory behaviors and practices that existed in earlier days of our country can be found even today among highly divergent practices and behaviors. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts passed the famed Old Deluder Law of 1647. in effect. local school committeemen fulfilled the function of supervisors by giving directions. Furthermore. as we can see in Table 6. both teacher and supervisor. strong controversy still exists about the role of religion in the public schools. religious. Not until the establishment of organized schools did the need for specialized school supervisors materialize. these people were. However. “dames. Note the powerful effect of the church on early education in the colonies. Though church and state are more or less separated today. and industrial forces existent at the time. we should keep in mind what we might call axioms.
.evaluating results of instruction by the teachers in their charge. early supervisors set strict requirements for their teachers and visited classrooms to observe how closely the teachers complied with stipulated instructions. In an authoritarian mode. Departure from these instructions was cause for dismissal.
Monitoring rules. expanding students understanding of classroom events Improving instruction. citizen’s committees Superintendents. helping teachers improve Improving instruction and efficiency Improving instruction Improving Instruction Improving instruction. ecological 1985 – present
School-based supervisors. clinical. learning communities. peer/coach/mentor. Instructional improvement Scientific. peer/coach/mentor. human resources. supervisors. increasing teacher satisfaction. human resources. bureaucratic Human relations. artistic. looking for deficiencies Monitoring rules. superintendents Principals. increasing teacher satisfaction.4 Taking a cue from their eighteenthcentury predecessors. school-based supervisors. creating. culturally responsive. today’s school faculty. peer/coach/mentor
Scientific. human relations. selectmen. and certain public officials on the occasion of the selectmen’s visit to their schools. central office. Walter Herbert Small observed that as early as 1733 schools provided a dinner for schoolmasters. clinical. and board
. clergymen. principal Supervising principals. administrators.Table 6: Major Supervision
1620 – 1850 1850 – 1910 1910 – 1930 1930 – 1950 1950 – 1975
Type of Supervision
Inspection Inspection. clinical. principals. collaborative/collegial. human relations. human relations. general and special central-office supervisors. school people were anxious to appear at their best when visited by selectmen. scientific. democratic Bureaucratic. human resources. school-based supervisors Principals. interpretive. democratic Scientific. central-office supervisors Principals. analyzing cultural and linguistic patterns in the classroom
Parents. artistic. expanding students’ classroom events. selectmen. central-office supervisors. collaborative/collegial. central-office supervisors
Even in the eighteenth century. human relations.
was also promoting public education. In the nineteenth century. employed school superintendents. pushed the cause of public schools and created the first normal school in the United States for training teachers. As early as 1837. although their
. social. and increased population called for new ways of supervising instruction. New institutions. imitating Prussian and military models of graded organization.members commonly extend the hospitality of an initial breakfast or dinner meeting to visiting teams from regional accrediting associations. case of 1874 that affirmed the right of communities to levy taxes for secondary education. citizens’ committees. new programs. and parents gave way to trained educators. and the famous Kalamazoo. clergy. Kentucky. The number of high schools in the country grew rapidly.5 Superintendents in the early nineteenth century spent considerable time visiting and supervising schools. was a phenomenon of the nineteenth century. secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education from 1837 to 1848. the Massachusetts law of 1827 requiring a high school with a two-month program in towns of 500 or more families. Among these developments were the creation of the first high school in Boston in 1821. Buffalo. New York. spurred by political. and Louisville. Selectmen. some twenty-nine school systems were headed by superintendents. local committees began looking to professionally trained persons to administer and supervise the schools. Henry Barnard. and educational developments of the time. During the same period. Michigan. He defined the state’s responsibility for public education. The common elementary school grew rapidly in the first half of the nineteenth century. Universal public education for boys and girls. first secretary of the Connecticut State Board of Education. Horace Mann. poor and rich. expanded student bodies. By 1870.
Such a situation implies a highly structured form of instruction and a very centralized system of supervision. Inspection.
. often derided as “snoopervision. continue to fulfill their tasks with an authoritarian approach.” was the prevailing approach in the nineteenth century. shown in Table 6. or inspectors as they are called in other countries. The appeal to authority was very evident in the widely reproduced set of instructions to teachers in Harrison. in 1872. To some extent school supervisors. The classic illustration of this—although not entirely accurate—is France.focus changed from looking for deficiencies meriting dismissal of teachers to helping teachers overcome difficulties. South Dakota. of which it has often been said that the Minister of Education can tell on any day exactly where each teacher is in any textbook anywhere in the country.
Learning activities and test items based on the objectives were designed for each marking period. especially to be noted in the form of state and national standards and assessment programs. specified detailed objectives that students were expected to master during each marking period in each subject. the superintendent could no longer supervise individual schools closely. the movement toward centralization slackened somewhat. p. South Dakota. 1982). The assumption of these strategies was that if organizations
.FIGURE 1. engaging in a process called curriculum alignment. Harrison. 11. Scientific management and efficiency were buzzwords of the new approach. local curriculum guides were keyed into the objectives assessed on the states’ examinations. Source: Board of Education. In the late nineteenth century. Some school districts. Anglin. Taylor and Max Weber in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Teaching: What It’s All About (New York: Harper and Row.
South Dakota. In the early 1990s. principals and central office supervisors shared a major part of the burden of everyday supervision. resulting in a degree of decentralization and empowerment of teachers and laypeople. As the population grew and schools increased in number. however. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the influence of people like Frederick W. Harrison. Reprinted by permission of Board of Education. scientific and bureaucratic approaches to supervision replaced inspection. but during the 1970s and 1980s we saw pronounced centralization at the state and school district levels.6 At the beginning of the twenty-first century. we see a strong revival of centralization efforts.
Our system of education does not begin to approach foreign systems in degree of centralization. and Leo W. In states that conducted student-assessment programs. and Joyce Shanahan Anglin. Richard Goldman. Some states either recommended or mandated minimal competencies or standards that students were (and to an increased degree still are) expected to achieve in certain subjects at each grade level.1 1872 Instruction to the Teacher.
under some circumstances. production would presumably be high. Weber was promoting the concept of bureaucratic management of organizations as the ideal model for achieving efficiency and productivity. the bureaucratic model of organization became firmly rooted in our school systems with the superintendent at the top and the teacher at the bottom. collegial” concept of administrative organization7 and despite sporadic efforts by some organizations to apply principles of shared management as advocated by W. The bureaucratic model became the pervasive organizational structure in all human institutions—business. Supervisors had only to ensure the rigorous application of the principles. the bureaucratic model remains the dominant form of school organization despite predictions of an “emerging. Thus in the early part of the twentieth century. the bureaucratic model has become so entrenched in our lives that bureaucracy has become. a derogatory term. social organizations.”9 “Scientific” supervisors look for
.followed established principles for efficiency. pluralistic. industry. and schools. Although philosophies. In fact. and operating procedures have changed since the early twentieth century. While Taylor was expounding on scientific management. Edwards Deming. attitudes. Describing the attitude of scientific managers during the early 1900s. Lucio and John D. McNeil said that “teachers were regarded as instruments that should be closely supervised to insure that they mechanically carried out the methods of procedure determined by administrative and special supervisors. church. government. William H. The model provided for a hierarchy of authority and responsibility—from the chief executive officer at the top of the pinnacle to the lowliest worker at the bottom. In between came a whole echelon of generalist and specialist personnel.
Benne. To supervisors of this persuasion. learned. and consultative. they had to become sensitive to the behavior of groups and individuals within groups. Under the influence of people like Elton Mayo. Ronald Lippitt. teaching is a science rather than an art. Mary Parker Follett. White. Does this sound familiar to you in the new millennium? Following research on instruction carried out through the 1960s and 1970s. supervision turned in the direction of human relations and group dynamics.
. democratic. teachers are bound to be successful. Collaboration and partnership between supervisors and teachers became important. Paul Sheats. Kurt Lewin. The teachers’ performances can then be judged on how well they follow the instructional principles in their teaching. cooperative. Ralph K. They became more aware that they must respond to needs as determined by the people they served—the teachers— as opposed to satisfying their own needs based on their supposedly superior judgments. many educators still perceive teaching as a science whose component skills—generic competencies—can be identified.fixed principles of teaching. The word supervision itself became modified by such words as collaborative. and Warren G. Kenneth D. and mastered. Supervisors began to realize that their success was dependent more on interpersonal skills than on technical skills and knowledge. This change of focus has continued and intensified into the present. and they believe that by following a prescribed set of rules. drawn from research that can be prescribed for teachers. The prefix superof supervision declined in importance. No longer did supervision constitute handing down methods to teachers and then monitoring their performances. Stress on the democratic process and the application of the behavioral sciences commanded the attention of supervisors. Bennis in the mid-twentieth century.
. today’s supervisors would reject the first two and minimize the third. some might rate the chat in the lounge as more important. We find a definite acceptance of the idea that instructional supervisors are employed to help teachers build on their strengths. We are also experiencing newer ecological approaches. we can find holdovers of the inspection mentality and we can still encounter the boss–employee mind-set.
some. They tend to consider a classroom visit and an appearance in the teachers’ lounge as equally important. they may visit the teachers’ classrooms or stop by the teachers’ lounge for a cup of coffee. supervisors place heavy reliance on human relations.What we are seeing today is an amalgamation of practices and attitudes. interpretive. as professionals.
task. it is helpful to note that of the three older approaches mentioned.
supervisors realize that teachers.
Laissez-faire. Before exploring the newer directions in instructional supervision. improve. We will return to these later in the text. less is better. and instructional supervisors to their peers. Even within a scientific framework. They see their task as giving the teacher a benevolent pat on the back now and then. Nondirective in their approach. We are finding principles of scientific supervision within a clinical yet supportive context. can be persuaded but not coerced. but we are experiencing more cases of cooperation and collaboration between supervisors and teachers than in the past.
Approach. and remain in the profession instead of probing teachers’ deficiencies and seeking their dismissal. artistic. many times.
Supervisors who are thus inclined agree with many teachers that in the case of supervision. they have better answers to their own problems than do the supervisors. focuses of We also note that teachers themselves are acting as supervision—human resources.
nor is an exclusively group-process approach. and deep disagreement exists about what knowledge—that is. groups will reach consensus on points under discussion. we lack sufficient understanding of the process of teaching. they spend considerable time fostering a positive group climate. and with what special effects on students. Purpel: The difficulty of defining supervision in relation to education also stems. They hope that after a period of deliberation. supervision is a never-ending exercise in group process.
This discussion. clear-cut definition of supervision is extremely difficult. They must be mindful that many of the innovations in schools are products of experimentation by one or two individuals rather than groups. . Quite simply. however. in large part. . To others. To create a sharp.
. Viewing themselves as resource persons to the group. .When we have achieved more understanding of what and how to teach. from unsolved theoretical problems about teaching. using social affairs to establish a happy. what curriculum —is most valuable to teach. but they will be called on to work with both groups and individuals. the criteria for measuring teaching effectiveness are imprecise. as acknowledged by Ralph L. They see improvement of instruction as a continuing exercise in human relations. Mosher and David E.•
Group Dynamics. Supervisors may favor group processes. cooperative frame of mind among teachers. Our theories of learning are inadequate. still leaves us unsure of what supervision is or should be.
Neither an authoritarian nor a laissez-faire approach is adequate or suitable for today’s schools. we will be much less vague about the supervision of these processes.
Stressing the helping nature of supervision.” Ross L.Looking at the way specialists in supervision have defined the term may help us in our quest for a viable definition. Jane Franseth early on stated. “Today supervision is generally seen as leadership that encourages a continuous involvement of all school personnel in a cooperative attempt to achieve the most effective school program. the goal of which is improvement in the growth and development of the learner. Let’s sample some past and present definitions. Burton and Leo J. viewing it as a technical service requiring expertise. Dean Evans pointed to the democratic nature of modern supervision in their definition:
. Neagley and N. Brueckner gave supervision a broad interpretation. William H.
Beach and Judy Reinhartz. see “supervision as a complex process that involves working with teachers and other educators in a collegial. Alfonso. In this book.”16 Don M. Gerald R. Harris wrote: “Supervision of instruction is what school personnel do with adults and things to maintain or change the school operation in ways that directly influence the teaching process employed to promote pupil learning.”14 Robert J. and the curriculum. dynamic. democratic actions designed to improve instruction through the continued growth of all concerned individuals—the child. Lovell. in revising the earlier work of Kimball Wiles. and improve the design and actualization of learning opportunities for students. and Richard F. collaborative relationship to enhance the quality of teaching and learning within schools and that promotes the career-long development of teachers. Neville offered a slightly different definition: “Instructional supervision is herein defined as: Behavior officially designated by the organization that directly affects teacher behavior in such a way as to facilitate pupil learning and achieve the goals of the organization. It consists of positive. the administrator. rejecting the use of the word help in defining supervision. looked at instructional supervisory behavior as behavior that “is assumed to be an additional behavior system formally provided by the organization for the purpose of interacting with the teaching behavior system in such a way as to maintain. learning. the teacher. you will find the emphasis placed on instructional supervision.Modern supervision is considered as any service for teachers that eventually results in improving instruction. Contemporary definitions of supervision stress service. Robert
. Firth. and the parent or other lay person. change. the supervisor.” John T. cooperation. and democracy.” Note how many definitions focus on (1) the behavior of supervisors (2) in assisting teachers (3) for the ultimate benefit of the student.
coordinates interactions. John C. Advocating the replacement of “supervision as it is now practiced” by what they refer to as “normative” supervision. and Jovita M. Ross-Gordon pictured those in supervisory roles as applying “certain knowledge. provides for maintenance and improvement of the instructional program. and action research that will enable teachers to teach in a collective. Supervision. clarifies purposes. Krey and Peter J. and ideas are shared by supervisors. and assesses goal achievements. supervision is
. Glickman.” where values. professional development. both as individuals and in groups. norms.” You will note recurring themes. viewing supervision as “the process of overseeing the ability of people to meet the goals of the organization in which they work. Stephen P. is conceived as a service to teachers. To put it simply. Burke offered a comprehensive definition of supervision: Supervision is instructional leadership that relates perspectives to behavior.” Jon Wiles and Joseph Bondi viewed supervision as “a general leadership role and a coordinating role among all school activities concerned with learning. Starratt saw supervision as taking place in schools that are “true learning communities. some similarities. and some differences in emphasis or perspective among the many definitions of supervision. purposeful manner uniting organizational goals and teacher needs. Daresh and Marsha A. group development. teachers. and students.” Emphasizing process and function of supervision rather than title or position for the purpose of improving student learning. and technical skills to the tasks of direct assistance. Thomas J. interpersonal skills. Gordon. curriculum development. contributes to and supports organizational actions. as presented in this text.D. Playko offered a concise definition. Carl D. Sergiovanni and Robert J.
developmental. educational. collaborative.
differentiated. The words service and help should be underscored. general. and instruction. some specialists in the field have found it expedient to add modifiers.a means of offering to teachers. General supervision is perceived by some as synonymous with educational supervision and by others as that type of supervision that takes place outside the classroom. for the
curriculum. namely. Administrative supervision covers the territory of managerial
responsibilities outside the fields of curriculum and instruction. instructional. collaborative. supervision improvement supervision. Clinical. instruction. suggests including responsibilities administration.
developmental. in a collegial. Thus in the literature we encounter administrative. and professional setting. instructional supervision narrows the focus to a responsibilities. specialized help in improving instruction and thereby student achievement. and they are used repeatedly in this text. Each of the adjectives offers a special interpretation of the term supervision. Whereas encompassing more limited educational many set of of aspects supervision of schooling.
Problems That Complicate The Supervisory Role
Continuing Diversity of Conceptions of Supervision Realizing that the term supervision by itself is subject to many different interpretations. and peer supervision are subsumed under instructional
. and peer. collaborative. consultative. Differentiated supervision allows teachers to choose the types of developmental activities in which they will engage. clinical. consultative.
observed. We return to varying conceptions of supervision in later chapters of the book. see room for a more eclectic approach. Such a supervisor believes that those skills can be described.Whether the supervisor perceives teaching as a science or as an art further colors the supervisor’s role.
. This type of supervisor believes that the entire setting for instruction. the persons involved in the teaching act. and analyzed. and the general atmosphere of the classroom must be considered. Some specialists would maintain that supervisors should devote all or most of their emphasis to a single approach or type of supervision. including ourselves. The supervisor who follows an artistic approach believes that teaching is a highly individualized activity that bears the stamp of the teacher’s unique personality. The supervisor who follows a scientific approach believes that generic teaching skills can be identified and that all teachers at all levels should be able to demonstrate them. Others.
and lack of agreement on what should be taught. They have raised teacher salaries. mandated state testing of teachers. seek to interpret the events that have taken place during a lesson. many state legislatures have passed laws calling for sweeping reforms in public education. for example. provide answers to differing philosophical premises held by supervisors.Differing Conceptions of Effective Teaching Some specialists ascribe difficulty in defining supervision. Many research studies on effective teaching have been conducted in recent years. Mandates from the State Level Over the past three decades. to a lack of understanding of the teaching process. Others include the teacher’s personal and professional attributes in their description of effective teaching. the demonstration of teaching skills. some champion cooperative learning. such as test scores of students. Some favor direct instruction of entire groups. with the teacher. Certain supervisors are partial to particular models and styles of teaching. Some focus on product. These studies furnish partial answers to some of the pedagogical questions. however. and others advocate individualized instructional techniques. impreciseness of the criteria for assessing teacher performance. Some supervisors look at process. Some smile. They do not. instituted on-the-job
. These differing conceptions of what constitutes effective teaching make the supervisory process difficult for both the teacher and the supervisor.23 Those who follow an interpretive or hermeneutic approach to supervision look at the unique characteristics of a particular learning situation and. that is. on discovery learning and frown on lecturing. as did Mosher and Purpel.
Supervisors who are in disagreement with state reforms are faced with intrarole conflicts. After meeting state requirements. Local school systems have had to give priority to state mandates. state mandating peaked. State assessments of student achievement. and ordered annual evaluations of all school personnel. by state-developed curriculum guides. including site-based or school-based management. Nevertheless. and the responsibility for administration. are almost exclusively cognitive in nature. Movements toward decentralization. prescribed aspects of the curriculum. The supervisor’s role is heavily affected by state mandates: by state tests for both teachers and students. the supervisor owes it to the teachers to help them produce high student test scores. State mandates have established priorities for local school personnel. including supervisors. increased direction from the state level has certainly reduced the flexibility of local school systems to make decisions based on their assessment of local needs and on their own philosophies of education. and parental participation in decision making. For a brief period. by state model instruments for evaluating teachers. State departments of education have implemented and administered the many reforms mandated by their legislatures and state boards of education. However. they may and often do go beyond the state directives. Although room has remained for some local decision making. The supervisor who has a commitment to affective and psychomotor as well as cognitive learning will feel uncomfortable with testing restricted to only the cognitive domain. for example. placed more responsibility and authority on the individual schools and less on the district and state levels.assessment. and instruction shifted more to the local schools. and by state specification of teaching competencies. supervision. curriculum. as the first decade of the twenty-
. established student-assessment programs. teacher empowerment.
we are seeing renewed stress (in both its meanings of “emphasis” and “tension”) on setting standards and testing coming from the district and state levels. welcome real supervisory help. the national level. They have raised valid questions concerning the competencies on which they will be judged. the profession have expressed dissatisfaction with student achievement and with incompetent teaching. as a rule. and what use will be made of the results. Furthermore. how the evaluation will be conducted. feeling. Tensions between Teachers and Administrators/Supervisors The public and.first century unfolds. who will do the evaluating. Yet many of them view supervisors with contempt. and avoid opportunities to work with them. accountability of teachers. as is the case of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Teachers. adds to the tensions. Consequently. choose not to ask for their help. and. and teacher competence have brought about increased pressure for evaluation of teacher performance. The inability to separate supervisory service from evaluation. that teachers are more capable than supervisors or that supervisors have nothing of value to offer them. Teachers. have not wholeheartedly embraced current processes of evaluation. evaluation of teaching has loomed large in recent years. Arthur Blumberg pictured the tensions between supervisors and teachers as a “private cold war. Teachers question the reliability of the data collected on their performances and the competence of the administrators or supervisors in making assessments. sometimes rightly and sometimes wrongly.”24 To some extent
. especially through their organizations. Many years ago. they want to be involved in the creation of the evaluation process. Increased emphases on student achievement. to an increasing degree. Many teachers simply ignore supervisors.
human relations skills. But if we delimit supervision to the means of improving the curriculum and instruction. or hostile attitudes are symptoms of the malaise brought on by uncertainties about the role. Great needs exist to clarify duties and responsibilities of supervisors. function. and effectiveness of the supervisory profession. Logically. supervision of those aspects is only one of their many tasks. every administrator is ipso facto a supervisor. Hence. whereas others are assigned the improvement of curriculum and instruction as their major function. Although principals have responsibility for the curriculum and instruction of the school. fearful. and principles of collegiality and collaboration have reduced conflicts between supervisors and teachers but have not completely eliminated them. some individuals in the school system are charged with the management of resources and personnel as their primary task. is a supervisor. instructional supervision is
. Unfortunately. to discover the most effective techniques and skills. however.
Who Are The Supervisors?
In the traditional meaning of supervision. Many arguments are waged over whether the building principal. we are on firm ground in labeling the administrator a supervisor. it would seem that any school official who assists teachers in improving curriculum and instruction is a supervisor. In practice. Negative. and to identify who the supervisors are. anyone who oversees the work of another is a supervisor. If we limit the concept of supervision to management of resources and personnel. we may not conclude that every administrator is an instructional supervisor. for example.progress in empowerment of teachers.
We should note at this point that the issue is not ordinarily reversed—that is. The profession has begun to recognize the individual school as the locus of change. more principals are accepting responsibility for the role of instructional supervisor. and career ladder programs. supervising principals.often a secondary task for many school principals. such as state-mandated curricula. a desire for change. We might more accurately refer to those principals by a title used in earlier days. if not change itself. in the role of the building principal—from manager to instructional supervisor. if possible.
. however. merit pay. concerning whether supervisors should assume administrative responsibilities. evaluation systems. who commonly lament that they do not have time to devote to curriculum and instructional leadership because they are too busy with the day-to-day operation of the school. Though some principals will continue to devote less time to instructional supervision than to other duties and may. delegate much of the task to others. by necessity if not by desire. We are witnessing. further push the principal into fulfilling instructional supervisory responsibilities. to distinguish them from instructional supervisors. “By their fruits ye shall know them” is more pertinent in the world of supervision than “by their titles ye shall know them. administrators already have these responsibilities. the principals do. We hasten to add that in those small schools throughout the country that employ several teachers and a principal with no one to assist him or her. For both legal and practical reasons.” Controversy swirls around the issue. Developments. there is seldom discussion of whether administrators should assume supervisory responsibilities. placing responsibility for instructional leadership squarely on the principal. perform the function of instructional supervisor.
staffing. Figure below illustrates how we can chart varying degrees A full-time administrator (e.As we try to identify supervisors. and public relations. if only for a portion of their time. make judgments. Some school personnel who by job description are classified as supervisors When they are charged with or assume they on join their the own ranks initiative of the administrative duties such as annual assessments of teacher performance. pupil personnel services. superintendent of schools. When they behave in this fashion. They may visit—and in many cases they are required by law to visit—teachers in their classrooms. those personnel who spend all of their time and
efforts in helping teachers directly with the improvement of instruction may be called full-time instructional supervisors.
. administrators become supervisors. Thus. with a nod to Izaak Walton. many principals. and offer advice. observe their teaching.g.. we have the Compleat Administrator on one side of the spectrum and the Compleat Supervisor on the other. it might be helpful to depict the degree to which administrators and supervisors take on the role of guiding instructional improvement. Some administrators. accept managerial tasks. although preoccupied with managerial problems. Finally. however. administrators. transportation. expend some time and energy on instructional supervisory activities. especially of large schools) is deep into budgeting. He or she devotes little or no time to curricular and instructional supervision but delegates that duty to others.
with supervisor emphasized. we talk about a person whom we call the supervisor.Types of Supervisors
The American system of education is a confusing diversity of systems that confounds people from abroad who attempt to study it. In fact. This confusion extends to the provision of special services like supervision.
Administrator s Who Supervise Part-time Supervisors Who Administrate Part-time
Full-time Administrator s
Figure 1. we are talking about the instructional supervisor. This book concentrates on the supervisor. In agreement with many specialists. The effort to identify a single role applicable under all circumstances is akin to searching for that elusive will-o’-the wisp. do. Because of the great diversity in roles and duties of supervisors. with the emphasized. we include curriculum supervision within the context of instructional supervision. In discussing the supervisor we make the assumption that principles and practices of supervision may apply generally. Were we to talk about the supervisor. accepted role that supervisors can. we urge the reader to keep in mind the distinction between the supervisor.
In this module. In administrative
. we would be conveying the erroneous notion that there is a single. or should play. Supervisors are special service personnel to be found on the staffs of administrators at the state. and the supervisor. district.2 Continuum of Supervisory Responsibility. to most but not all situations and not to all persons who wear the hat of supervisor. the best model of teaching. Unless otherwise specified. and school levels. at times our system even perplexes Americans.
The assistant superintendent interprets state department of education and state legislative mandates concerning education and is directly responsible to the state superintendent of public instruction. equipped with the mantles of status and authority. whereas the administrators. Line employees below the top position (e. Included among the types of supervisors are administrators who spend a portion of their time in supervising instruction as well as full-time supervisors. This office
. Although titles and responsibilities of these auxiliary personnel differ from state to state and from school district to school district. That office also provides consultant service to the schools.. whose responsibilities fall within a subject or grade level. and acts as liaison with the federal government in the preparation of proposals for grants for federal projects. Figure 1. Supervisors are often referred to as auxiliary personnel or staff.2 also distinguishes generalist supervisors.g. we can identify the major types of supervisors.parlance these service personnel are staff employees. Although this position may bear other titles. superintendent) are hired by and responsible to other line employees higher up in the chain of command. Staff employees are hired by and responsible to the line employees. State Supervisors the chief supervisor on the state level is the assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction. Figure 1. with the help of staff members. The assistant superintendent’s office frequently directs teachers in the preparation of certain curricular materials and often supervises textbook adoptions. sponsors conferences on curriculum and instruction. this person’s responsibility is to supervise the entire curricular and instructional program of the public schools in the state.3 shows some of the varieties of supervisors on different levels. are line employees. whose duties cut across disciplines and grade levels. from specialist supervisors.
encourages techniques. consultants. such as directors or supervisors of elementary. These staff members aid in fulfilling the assistant superintendent’s tasks.
. and secondary education. They generally confine themselves. or coordinators. Frequently these include specialists in curriculum and instruction. however. to providing leadership at their own levels. middle. directors.
The assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction is aided by a staff of specialists who may be designated supervisors.
Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction Director of Elementary Schools Director of Middle Schools Director of Junior High Schools Director of Senior High Schools Director of Community Colleges Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction General
Supervisors Director of Instruction Director of Elementary Schools Director of Middle Schools Director of Junior High Schools Director of Senior High Schools Director of Pupil Personnel Services Assistant Principal for Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum Coordinator Curriculum Assistant Lead Teacher Team Leaders Department Heads Grade Coordinators Curriculum Consultants Curriculum Coordinators Supervisors of Special Programs Supervisors of Subject Areas Curriculum Consultants Curriculum
SPECIALIS TS Coordinators Supervisors of Special Programs Supervisors of
FIGURE 1. mathematics. They are generally responsible to the director of elementary education or director of middle schools. and social studies. such as exceptionalities. junior high schools. giving advice. for example. science. reading. or senior high schools. and demonstrating effective methods of teaching their specialties. assisting teachers. suggesting materials. depending on their level of responsibility. a supervisor of elementary language arts and a supervisor of secondary language arts on the assistant superintendent’s staff.3
Types of Supervisors
Well-developed state departments of education provide a variety of specialists in particular areas or disciplines. We sometimes find.
. These supervisors operate throughout the state in their own areas of specialization.
This key local official aids teachers in developing materials. a designation that distinguishes them from school-based personnel employed to serve in particular schools. provides schools with up-todate materials and consultants. encourages experimentation and research.Local Supervisors The presence and effectiveness of the supervisor is felt more keenly on the local than on the state level. District Level On the school-district level. Often these include one or more general supervisors. supervisors are on the staff of the local school superintendent. Larger school systems employ supervisors or directors of elementary. customarily an assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction or sometimes a director of instruction provides curricular and instructional leadership throughout the local district. and meets with teachers and administrators on problems of curriculum and instruction. Whereas the general supervisor must be
. leads the district in the continuous task of curriculum development. They are frequently in the schools assisting individual teachers and groups of teachers in a variety of fields. Helping the assistant superintendent are personnel of various types. They are referred to in the literature and in practice as central-office personnel. and new ways to organize for instruction. responsible for supervision from kindergarten through twelfth grade. local supervisors become key people in the school system. adolescent psychology. On the central-office staff. and secondary education. middle. Some of the smaller school districts limit their central-office personnel to positions of this type. The state supervisors’ areas are so large and responsibilities so many that they cannot possibly make the rounds of all the schools and teachers demanding services. Consequently. methods of handling groups and individuals. These persons are familiar with learning theory.
foreign languages. Large school districts often provide a variety of supervisors or consultants in special fields. and vocational education. Some of the special-area supervisors divide their time between the elementary. With the team-staffing patterns followed by many schools. and methods in their fields. in art. They have expertise in a particular field and may devote their full time and energies to the development of curriculum and instruction in their specialties. and physical education. others confine their work to one level. materials. guidance. for example. junior high. such as reading. these three specialists may concentrate on their individual levels. and secondary levels as. grade coordinators. Their task is to assist teachers with curricular and instructional problems and to give leadership to the development of the curriculum and the improvement of instruction. School Level Within the individual schools of a district are people who could be labeled supervisors. Team leaders.spread thin over the entire school system. They can be knowledgeable about the latest content. These specialists are in a strategic position for effecting change in individual classrooms. middle. should. and senior high schools fulfills for a department a supervisory function similar to that fulfilled by the team
. The department head in middle. This person devotes full energies to developing the curriculum of his or her own school and helping teachers improve instruction. music. and sometimes do serve as supervisors. Often a school will employ an assistant principal whose main duty is the supervision of curriculum and instruction. and department heads in the individual schools can. the person who heads instructional team plays a significant role as supervisor for that team. Curriculum coordinators or lead teachers are sometimes found in the individual schools either as assistants to or replacements for the assistant principal for curriculum and instruction.
In middle. or departments or with full-time teaching schedules. we may find both team leaders and department heads. as so often happens. Depending on the school district.leader.3 who hold line or administrative positions are truly supervisors—for example. the assistant superintendents and directors on both state and district levels who often work only minimally with teachers. Principals have the obligation of freeing their coordinators and leaders so that they will not become bogged down. whose interaction with district-based and school-based supervisors is infrequent. Newer practices in supervision enlist the services of peers. central-office supervisors work frequently and collaboratively with school-based supervisors and teachers to assist in achieving district goals. and senior high schools. with either administrative details of running their grades. assist teachers in the production of instructional and curricular materials. arrange for staff development. and mentors in the process to help avoid this overload. You may question whether those personnel shown in Figure 1. teams. coaches. the grade coordinators for all sections of a grade level and the team leaders for each section of a grade level serve as quasi-department heads who carry supervisory responsibilities.3. In Figure 1. The assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction and frequently the directors on the local district level occupy line rather than staff positions. Unlike state supervisors. Whereas some specialists in supervision restrict their
. with team leaders within departments responsible to the department heads. junior high. these line officials are classified as supervisors because they devote at least part of their time to supervisory duties. and help teachers improve their teaching methods. however. line personnel may or may not work directly with teachers. School-based supervisors should lead in curriculum development. These activities can prohibit them from giving adequate time to instructional and curricular leadership. Because elementary schools are ordinarily not departmentalized.
they should be trained in supervision as are those who pursue full-time careers in supervision. as one preparation program opens up two job markets. which are often minimal. The training requirements of these two related careers are not identical. others include within their concept line officers who have responsibilities for curriculum and instruction. By taking a handful of college courses in educational administration and supervision. However delightful such an arrangement is for prospective
administrators and supervisors.concept of a supervisor to those staff persons who work full-time directly with teachers. a person can become certified in both administration and supervision. differentiation in training programs for administrators and supervisors remains a serious need of the profession. are identical. Because many line administrators do engage in supervision. It is an unfortunate commentary on the licensing process in many states that the requirements for preparation of administrators and supervisors.
Arranging for in-service education. Providing facilities. and the others as operational. Task 8. Burton’s listing has been viewed as “the first modern statement and concept” of supervision.28 You will note both
. The improvement of teachers in service. Relating special pupil services. 2. Providing staff. Task 6. Task 7. are shown here: 1. 5. Burton listed the tasks he saw as pertinent to the supervisor. and 4 as preliminary. The rating of teachers. Organizing for instruction. which some might label arenas. Providing materials. William H. Task 5.Tasks of Supervision
We can gain a clearer insight into the field of supervision by focusing our attention on what supervisors actually do. As long ago as 1922. Orienting staff members. Developing curriculum. Evaluating instruction. This list looks surprisingly current when we examine the numerous tasks that today’s supervisors actually perform. Task 3. 3. Task 9. 4. 3. These tasks. Task 2. Task 10. Developing public relations. Task 4. Writing a half century later. The selection and organization of subject matter. The improvement of the teaching act. Harris enumerated ten tasks of supervision in the following rather detailed list: Task 1. Testing and measuring. 6 and 10 as developmental. Harris classified tasks 1.
We can find supervision specialists who would be willing to accept either compilation of supervisory tasks. Snyder viewed the supervisor’s task in the following light: The primary supervisory task is to develop professional learning communities. staffing. Snyder perceived “the new work of the supervisor” as “building the energy mass.
A Model of Supervision
The supervisor plays a variety of roles within certain domains. Holding that “traditional supervisory practices of helping and evaluating individual workers” are “no longer useful except with respect to contract decisions.” What is more revealing about the roles and functions of supervisors are the statements of expectations as shown in job descriptions of various school personnel. we can find experts in the field who would reject both lists. and public relations to the administrator rather than to the instructional supervisor. however. and the expertise demonstrated in the particular domains is derived from a
. Those who view supervision as a field distinct from administration would delegate administrative tasks like scheduling. Were we to compare job descriptions across school systems. clinical relationship between the teacher and supervisor would eliminate many of the tasks from both lists. we would inevitably discover differences in the duties assigned to personnel with the same titles. is that much is expected of all supervisors. Those who view supervision as a one-to-one. What is universally true throughout school systems. in work teams. school by school and team by team.similarities and differences in the Burton and Harris listings.” Karolyn J. On the other hand. that not only acquire new knowledge and skills but also learn how to study and respond exceptionally well to their natural work and learning environments.
by helping teachers try out new techniques of presenting geometric concepts) and/or the domain of staff development (e. consultant. For example. cut them into one or two. a supervisor who works as a group leader in curriculum development (say.number of bases or foundations. The domains and roles rest on a foundation—the supervisor’s knowledge and skills. They might restrict supervision to instructional development and limit it to clinical supervision. Some people.g. The model shows three large domains or territories within which supervisors work (instructional development. The twoheaded arrows connecting the three domains show that all are interrelated... A conceptual model can clearly reveal the concepts held by the person who designs it. in mathematics) may at the same time work in the domain of instructional development (e. for example.g. group leader. by conducting seminars on new techniques). They might remove instructional development as well as curriculum development. and staff development) and the four primary roles of the supervisor within those domains (coordinator. or expand them beyond three. Figure 1. One way to explain the dimensions of supervisory behavior is in the form of a conceptual model. The model conveys the notion that supervision is both serviceoriented and dynamic. Thus one could take this same basic design but follow a different set of assumptions. curriculum development. if they feel that staff development means
.g.3 depicts the concept of supervision followed in this text. The supervisor serves teachers dynamically by playing all or any of the roles within all or any of the domains. They might eliminate supervisory duties in curriculum development. might take issue with the three domains. and evaluator).. leaving only instructional development and staff development. allowing only staff development to remain (e.
assistance to teachers in improving both personal and professional qualities. or simply trusted colleague.
. In restricting the domain of supervision to staff development alone. then instructional development becomes a by-product or part of staff development). these people might perceive the roles of the supervisor as dual: consultant to individual teachers and consultant to groups of teachers. Some might go even further and restrict the supervisor to one role: consultant to individual teachers.
In contrast. consultant. curriculum planning. the supervisor exercises various roles within each of three domains: instructional. whereas this text presents a generalized supervisory model.”
Domains of Supervision
As we’ve seen. That is. Bernadette Marczely offered a differentiated conception of supervision encompassing a number of models from which supervisors may choose on a “case-by-case basis. curricular.4 A Conceptual Model Supervision In presenting the model of supervision shown here.DOMAINS OF SUPERVISION
Instruction al Developme nt Curriculum Developm ent Staff Developme nt
ROLES OF THE SUPERVISOR
Coordinator Consultant Group Leader
INSTRUCTIO NAL TECHNOLOG Y MANAGEMENT CURRICULU M THEORY LEARNING THEORY GROUP INTERACTIO N
EVALUATION PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
DOMAINS OF SUPERVISION
HOSTORY OF EDUCATION
COMMUNICATI ON THEORY
Figure 1. the supervisor acts as coordinator. we have taken the position that supervisors do and should work in all three domains and carry out at least the four roles. group leader. and
. and evaluator to assist teachers in the improvement of instruction. through the four roles already charted. and staff development. This model can also accommodate the required administrative functions of supervisory personnel.
Staff Development—Developing and facilitating meaningful opportunities for professional growth. Floyd C. the supervisor must bring to bear a wide repertoire of knowledge and skills. Observation and Conferencing—Providing feedback to teachers based on classroom observation. By reviewing the literature on supervision and surveying instructional leaders. These domains and their definitions are as follows: • • • • • • • • • Community Relations—Establishing and maintaining open and productive relations between the school and its community.personal and professional growth and development. Edward Pajak headed a study on identification of supervisory proficiencies sponsored by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Pajak affirmed twelve domains. Firth. and human relations skills. and skills in each domain. and Neville have also given attention to the skill-mix necessary to instructional supervision. with relevant knowledge. Planning and Change—Initiating and implementing collaboratively developed strategies for continuous improvement. In doing so. Service to Teachers—Providing materials. Communication—Ensuring open and clear communication among individuals and groups through the organization. resources. managerial. Mann referred to the skills needed by supervisors as a “skill-mix. and assistance to support teaching and learning. Curriculum—Coordinating and integrating the process of curriculum development and implementation.
. attitudes.32 Alfonso.” consisting of technical. Problem Solving and Decision Making—Using a variety of strategies to clarify and analyze problems and to make decisions. Instructional Program—Supporting and coordinating efforts to improve the instructional program.
Coordinator The supervisor serves as a coordinator of programs. more than likely the serviceoriented supervisor will perform at varying times each of the four roles shown in the model. teachers. and reports.
Personal Development—Recognizing and reflecting upon one’s personal and professional beliefs. It is the supervisor who acts as a link between
. and power structure. Although some variation will be found in the roles supervisors may fulfill. The external aspects of the supervisor’s job—that is. the designated administrator should assume the primary task of leadership in community relations and allow the instructional supervisor to concentrate on the task for which he or she is uniquely equipped: service to teachers. and other school personnel—find less treatment here. as happens in most positions of leadership. by the supervisors themselves.•
Research and Program Evaluation—Encouraging experimentation and assessing outcomes. For help in the domain of community relations. They are defined by the superintendents or principals to whom the supervisors are responsible and. Motivating and Organizing—Helping people to develop a shared vision and achieve collective aims. materials. Building positive community relations is extremely important for every school person. abilities. and action. building community support. the reader should consult some of the literature on public relations. community relations. groups.
Eleven of these twelve domains—essentially ways of working with individuals and groups within the schools—are discussed in this volume.
The roles supervisors play vary from locality to locality and from state to state. However. which is certainly an important domain not only for supervisors but also for administrators.
As a group leader. the supervisor may simply furnish necessary information and suggestions. To perform this role the supervisor must be knowledgeable about group dynamics and must demonstrate leadership skills. arranges. the supervisor seeks. Consultant The supervisor serves in a consulting capacity as a specialist in curriculum. the supervisor provides assistance to teachers in evaluating instruction and curriculum. in moving toward group goals. At other times. and fosters leadership from within the group. The supervisor assists groups in consensus building.programs and people. Group Leader The supervisor as group leader works continuously to release the potential of groups seeking to improve the curriculum. the supervisor helps teachers evaluate their
. He or she knows the disparate pieces of the educational process and directs the actions of others to make the pieces blend. set. and staff development. and in perfecting the democratic process. evaluates. we believe the supervisorconsultant should be able to demonstrate a repertoire of teaching strategies. At times. identifies. he or she renders service to both individual teachers and groups. Evaluator As an evaluator. instructional methodology. In this capacity. and conduct limited research projects. The supervisor should be a prime source of assistance to teachers wishing to improve either their generic or specialized teaching skills. instruction. Though some will disagree with us. and pursue goals. he or she may help teachers define. the supervisor plans. As a director of staff development. and often conducts in-service programs with and for teachers. Additionally. or themselves. The supervisor helps teachers find answers to curricular and instructional problems identify research studies that may have a bearing on their problems.
The large number of areas from which a knowledgeable and skilled supervisor must draw suggests the need for a broad training program in preparation for work as a supervisor. Perhaps this silence can be attributed to one or more of the following reasons. and foundations. if supervisors are expected to demonstrate a high degree of skill in human or interpersonal relations. warmth. Thus.classroom performance. nor does the absence of these traits ensure failure.4) are areas of learning from which the supervisor derives expertise. and sincerity. Personal characteristics can be inferred from the skills supervisors should possess. we can deduce competencies that supervisors should be able to demonstrate. they should exhibit human and humane traits like empathy. The presence of generally valued personal traits in a leader does not guarantee success on the job. with its domains. assess their own strengths and weaknesses. Supervisors should possess (1) certain personal traits and (2) certain types of knowledge and skills. When we study the conceptual model of supervision. the experts have concentrated on the more certain requisite knowledge and skills.
Foundations of Supervision
The foundations of supervision (see Figure 1. 1.
. and select means of overcoming their deficiencies. Because the search for universal traits has been unproductive. 2. roles. Personal Traits The literature on supervision is remarkably silent on what personal characteristics are necessary for successful supervisory behavior. Educational research has been notably unsuccessful in identifying personal qualities common to all successful administrators and supervisors.
the supervisor must be imbued with the spirit counselors refer to as “the helping relationship. Above all. Personal traits necessary for success in positions of leadership appear so obvious that they need no elaboration. the supervisor needs the kind of persuasiveness and infectious enthusiasm that inspires teachers to want to make changes for the better. The successful supervisor is in constant contact with people and should possess those personal traits of warmth. loyal.” the desire to give of oneself to be of assistance to others. Beyond this. and so on. the supervisor should be able to work effectively in both one-to-one relationships and in groups. let’s briefly consider the question of personal characteristics needed by supervisory personnel. they can be sure that the teachers will be. the supervisor needs to possess a predisposition to change and must constantly promote improvement.3. promising to be trustworthy. despite these encumbrances. If supervisors.
. too. The supervisor who is a helper to teachers is able to effect a democratic environment in which the contributions of each participating member are valued. friendliness. The supervisor must be able to live with change and help teachers adapt to the changing needs of society and of children and youth. friendly. whose chief responsibility is to bring about improvements. Some specialists in the field may feel that a compendium of supervisory traits is similar to the oath that Boy Scouts take. Nevertheless. As a service-oriented agent for improvement. helpful. To accomplish this mission. patience. and a sense of humor that are essential not only to supervision but also to teaching. The search for personal traits is a somewhat dated activity at a time when researchers are attempting to identify competencies that school personnel should demonstrate. are satisfied with the status quo. 4.
middle. The role of the school in society. History of education. Instructional design and methods. especially of curriculum and instructional development. Assessment of teacher performance. Philosophy of education.
• • •
In pre-service and in-service training programs.Knowledge and Skills Although personal traits of supervisors are not often discussed.
Lovell and Wiles pointed to necessary knowledge and skills when they wrote that supervision is • • • Releasing human potential Leadership Communications
. Three to five years of successful teaching at the elementary. There is general agreement that supervisors should have A sound general education program. supervisors should develop grounding in • • • • • • • • • Learning theory and educational psychology. we can find an abundance of statements about the knowledge and skills successful supervisors need. Conferencing and counseling. or secondary school level. A major field of study.
A thorough pre-service professional education program. A solid graduate program in supervision. Group dynamics. Curriculum development.
Coordinating and facilitating change Curriculum development Facilitating human development. Alfonso, Firth, and Neville drew implications leadership, for instructional
decision making, and change theories. Read the table of contents of any textbook on supervision and you will see the broad knowledge and special skills demanded by the profession. To identify knowledge and skills required for effective supervision, we may also turn to Figure 1.4 and analyze the domains, roles, and foundations presented in the conceptual model. To perform effectively, the supervisor must possess broad knowledge of both a general and professional nature and be able to translate that knowledge into skillful practice. At appropriate points in this book, you will encounter further discussion of the knowledge and skills essential to instructional supervisors.
The roles and titles of supervisory personnel vary among the school systems of the nation. Supervision is defined in this text as a service provided to teachers for the purpose of improving instruction, with the student as the ultimate beneficiary. A supervisor is a trained auxiliary or staff person whose primary function is the provision of service according to a conceptual model. The model presented in this chapter portrays the supervisor as fulfilling the roles of coordinator, consultant, group leader, and evaluator within the domains of instructional, curricular, and staff development.
The supervisor should possess personal traits that will enable him or her to work harmoniously with people and sufficient knowledge and skills to perform all functions effectively. Leadership, interpersonal, and communications skills appear to be especially important to successful supervision. Supervisors should possess a judicious mix of technical, managerial, and human relations skills. Supervisors perform a wide variety of tasks, which may or may not include administrative duties. The focus of this book is on instructional supervision, which is an inclusive term to signify service to teachers in developing the curriculum, instruction, and themselves.
Questions for Discussion
1. Are there other domains of supervision besides those shown in Figure 1.4 or cited from the Pajak study? 2. Do supervisors have roles besides those shown in Figure 1.4? 3. Are there other foundations of supervision besides those shown in Figure 1.4? 4. How would you describe the current state of instructional supervision? 5. Are there too many supervisors in our school systems? Support your response.
1. Cite at least four definitions of supervision to be found in the bibliography of this module, show their similarities and differences, state whether you agree or disagree with each definition, and give reasons for your position. 2. Formulate your own definition of supervision.
3. State your position on the following questions:
Is the principal a supervisor? Why or why not? Would our system of education be better if the U.S. Department of Education employed inspectors to check on instruction throughout the country? Give reasons for your answer.
Would our system of education be better if state departments of education regularly sent out inspectors to check on instruction throughout their states? Why or why not?
How much teaching experience is essential for a person to be an effective supervisor?
4. Write a short paper, using references in the bibliography at the end of
this chapter, expanding on the list of qualifications of supervisors discussed in the chapter. 5. Write a short paper, using references in the bibliography at the end of this chapter, expanding on the functions, roles, or tasks of supervisors discussed in the chapter. See, for example, Beach and Reinhartz, 6. Following the concept of a skill-mix, list specific (a) technical, (b) managerial, and (c) human relations skills that you believe are needed by a supervisor. 7. Write an analysis of your own knowledge, skills, and personal traits as they bear on the role of the supervisor. Describe your strengths and indicate areas in which you feel you need improvement.
1. Examine the staffing pattern of a school system you know well and
list as many different types of supervisors as you can discover. 2. Design your own conceptual model of supervision.
Tape an interview with a supervisor on the central-office staff and write a summary covering the following points: (a) How does the supervisor perceive his or her role? (b) What are major problems in
. 6. Identify the supervisors by title. for one or more of the following supervisors and write a brief description of their chief duties based on the interview: a. a supervisor played. State department of education b.3. Interview and obtain a job description. such as assistant principal for curriculum. junior. General supervisor c. Department head g. Grade coordinator (grade chairperson) e. and so on. 9. Team leader d. School superintendent’s office 8. middle. Outline a desirable university training program for supervisors and compare it with a training program with which you are familiar. if available. or senior high schools 7. Identify at least two improvements in curriculum and/or instruction that have been made in a particular school system in the last three years and determine what role. 4. Inquire of several teachers how often supervisors visited them in their classrooms during the past school year. supervisor of language arts. 5. Lead teacher f. if any. Describe supervisory assistance available to teachers in your field from the following sources: a. Assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction b. Poll a sample of teachers and inquire (a) whether they know what supervisory help is available to them and (b) how they perceive the functions of each supervisor. Director of elementary. Cooperative (regional) educational service agencies (intermediate school district level) c.
. and comparing the similarities. if any. Write a brief summary contrasting the differences. Outline the state requirements for certification as (a) a school principal and (b) a supervisor.supervision as he or she sees them? (c) What training is required for the job? 10.
APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE
1. What are the capabilities of a well-informed supervisor? each. What
are the challenges that supervisory activities in schools?