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Published by: tatapanminda on Jul 21, 2013
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05/27/2014

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Functional Morphology: Locomotion & Feeding

Chapter 8
(Helfman, Collette & Facey)

Fish Locomotion
• Primary forces involved in fish swimming: – Thrust - force that propels forward – Drag - friction produced from passing an object through a medium – Gravity – force from earth’s magnetic pull
(partially counterbalanced by density of water)

– Lift - upward force that counteracts gravity

Swimming Styles...Thrust Generation
• Body waves – Anguilliform
• Partial body waves – (Sub)Carangiform • Caudal peduncle/fin beats – Ostraciform

• Medial fin waves - Amiiform
• Pectoral fin beats -Labriform

Swimming Styles Body waves Anguilliform (eel-like)
Lateral curvature in spine and musculature that moves in a posterior direction

Start: lateral displacement of head, and then passage of this displacement along the body axis to the tail
Result: backwardfacing “wall” of body pushing against the water

Swimming Styles Partial body waves (Sub) Carangiform. lunate) . Thunniform (tuna-like) Body wave begins posterior to head and increases with amplitude as it moves posteriorly Reduced drag compared to full body wave swimming Wave STARTS at the caudal peducle (deeply forked.

Swimming Styles Caudal peduncle/fin beats Ostraciform (boxfish-like and puffer-like) Sculling action of caudal fin—like rowing No body waves .body remains rigid .useful for oddshaped fishes .

triggerfish & others .bowfin-like Body rigid. but medial fins generate posterior waves (forward) or anterior (reverse) Good for stalking or moving without disrupting body musculature that serves as electric organ (knifefish) Also used for sculling .Swimming Styles Medial fin waves Amiiform .

by deep-bodied fishes .g.often includes feathering as well Especially useful for fine maneuvering e.Swimming Styles Pectoral fin beats Labriform wrasse-like Similar to rowing laterally-positioned pectoral fins.

Drag Reduction Features in Fish • Fusiform body shape • Reduction of body wave amplitude • Reduction of fin surface area: – caudal fin (forked. lunate) – paired and medial fins • Boundary layer modifications – mucous – laminar jets of water – microprojections .

Fusiform body shape • pointed leading edge • maximum depth 1/3 body length back from head • posterior taper • “propellor” (caudal fin) interrupts perfect fusiform shape .

Body wave modifications • Minimize lateral movement of head to reduce drag .thunniform . but alternate contraction and transfer of body musculature energy to caudal peduncle and caudal fin .subcarangiform • Increase amplitude as wave moves in posterior direction • Ultimate expression involves no body waves.

ultimate expression: fairings in tunas (dorsal and pectoral fin pockets) . reduced length of medial fins • Adjustable design modifications: variable erection of fins .allows for minimizing surface area when fin is not needed for thrust or turning .Fin surface area reduction • Area of fins increases drag • Permanent design modifications: forked caudal fins.

giving it tiny disruptions (golfers learned from sharks??) – shortening it .Boundary layer modification • Layer of water immediately adjacent to skin causes most of friction .boundary layer • thickness of boundary layer is proportional to amount of friction • three approaches to reducing thickness of boundary layer: – smoothing it .reducing distance of contact .making it “slicker” – roughing it .

disrupt boundary layer so it cannot grow: – ctenii – placoid tips .Boundary Layer. can reduce drag by up to 65% • microprojections .from gill chamber and out operculum or in micropockets behind and beneath scales • mucous .slime adds to “slipperiness”. continued • Fluid jets .

Buoyancy Control in Fishes • Dynamic lift: generated by propelling a hydrofoil forward at an inclined angle of attack • Static lift: generated by including low-density substances and reducing mass of high density substances in body. .

pectoral fins and peduncle keels all used as hydrofoils – swim constantly . mackerel sharks – head.Dynamic Lift • Hydrofoils: fish use their fusiform body and some use their pectoral fins as hydrofoils • Amount of lift is determined by: angle of attack and speed of propulsion • Ultimate expression of this is in pelagic rovers tunas.

squalene in sharks (sp.in swim bladder • only in bony fishes . = 0.Static Lift • Reduction of high density substances: – cartilage less dense than bone – use design features in bone that increase strength while reducing mass of bone • Inclusion of low-density fluids – lipids . grav.86) • stored in liver – gases .

Swim bladders • Gas-filled appendix to the anterior digestive system.no connection between swim bladder and gut .pneumatic duct connects swim bladder to esophagous – physoclistous . dorsal to abdominal organs • Two types of swim bladders: – physostomous .

physiology) 3. Digestive efficiency . Nutritional needs 4. Structure 2. Function (behavior.Food Aquisition & Processing 1.

Food capture • Mouth and pharyngeal cavity – upper jaw – teeth .jaw. mouth. pharyngeal – gill rakers .

More on teeth .

mouth. pharyngeal – gill rakers .Food capture • Mouth and pharyngeal cavity – upper jaw – teeth .jaw.

pharyngeal – gill rakers .Food capture • Mouth and pharyngeal cavity – upper jaw – teeth . mouth.jaw.

small in herbivores/omnivores Pyloric caecae Intestine – short in carnivores.GI • • • • • Esophagus Stomach – large in carnivores.separate from urogenital pore . long in herbivores/omnivores Anus .

chitin breakdown lipases .lipid breakdown .GI.protein breakdown amylases .auxiliary organs • Liver – produces bile (lipolysis) – stores glycogen – stores lipids • Pancreas – digestive enzymes • • • • proteases .starch breakdown chitinases .

less selective .selective eat only the plant • grazers .Fish Feeding .10% of all species – feed on decomposing organic matter . no cartilaginous fishes • browsers .function • Herbivores – < 5% of all bony fishes.include sediments • Detritivores – 5 .

function. cont. • Carnivores – zooplanktivores • suction feeding • ram feeding – benthic invertebrate feeders • • • • graspers pickers sorters crushers .Fish Feeding .

Fish Feeding . – fish feeders • • • • active pursuit stalking ambushing luring . cont. • Carnivores.function. cont.

Fish feeding behavior • Fish feeding behavior integrates morphology with perception to obtain food: – Search – --> Detection – --> Pursuit – --> Capture – --> Ingestion .

Feeding behavior • Fish show versatility in prey choice and ingestion • Behavior tightly linked to morphology (co-evolution) .

.. capture. pursuit. select the prey that yields the greatest energetic or nutrient “return” on the energy invested in search.more for less! – i..Fish feeding behavior • Behavior tends to be optimizing when choices are available – optimal = maximize benefit:cost ratio – basically.e. and ingestion .

Fish digestive physiology • After ingestion of food. simple molecules) • involves use of acids. gut is responsible for: – Digestion (breaking down food into small. enzymes – Absorption .taking molecules into blood • diffusion into mucosal cells • phagocytosis/pinocytosis by mucosal cells • active transport via carrier molecules .

HCl.0 for some tilapia!) • proteolytic enzymes (mostly pepsin) . other acids (2.Fish digestive physiology • Digestion is accomplished in – Stomach • low pH .

from pancreas & intestine • lipases (lipid digestion) .Fish digestive physiology • Digestion is accomplished in – Stomach – Intestine • alkaline pH (7.from pancreas & intestine • amylases (carbohydrate digestion) .0 . bile duct) .from pancreas & liver (gall bladder.0) • proteolytic enzymes .9.

Fish digestive physiology • Absorption is accomplished in – Intestine • diffusion into mucosal cells • phagocytosis/pinocytosis by mucosal cells • active transport via carrier molecules .

55% protein needed – omnivores .28 .12 .Fish Nutritional Needs • High protein diet: – carnivores . TIM HALL) .40 .25% protein needed) – 10 essential amino acids (PVT.35% protein needed – (birds & mammals .

Fish Nutritional Needs • High protein diet • Why so high? – proteins needed for growth of new tissue – proteins moderately energy-dense (don’t need dense source .ectotherms.ease of NH4+ excretion . low gravity) – few side-effects .

15.7 .5.Nutritional efficiency in fishes • Fish more efficient than other vertebrates: – conversion factor = kg feed required to produce 1 kg growth in fish flesh • fishes: 1.0 .0 .0 • birds & mammals: 5.

Nutritional efficiency in fishes • Fish more efficient than other vertebrates • Why? – ectothermy vs. endothermy – energy/matter required to counterbalance gravity – bias of a high-protein diet .

with no growth or reproduction (% body wt.Nutritional efficiency • Maintenance ration (MR) = the amount of food needed to remain alive./day) • MR is temperature-dependent – MR increases as temperature increases • MR is size-dependant – MR decreases as size increases .

8 14.8 3.3 5.0 .Temperature & Size effects .5 18. diet (g) 4.0 Maint.7 600 28 250 600 1.25 7.red hind (Serranidae) Temp (C) 19 Fish mass MR (% body (g) mass/day) 250 1.

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