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ELECTRONIC

COMMUNICATIONS

SYSTEMS

PART 3-2
Fall 2001 1
ENZO PATERNO
AMPLITUDE

MODULATION

TRANSMISSION

Fall 2001 2
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION

DSB-FC AM
(AM)
Fall 2001 3
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)

AM
Vam (t ) = [ Ec + m(t )] cos ωct

MODULATING THE AMPLITUDE OF THE CARRIER WITH


THE MODULATING SIGNAL

Fall 2001 4
ENZO PATERNO
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)
For Ec (t ) = Ec cos 2πfct AND Em(t ) = Em cos 2πfmt

Modulated Signal : Vam(t ) = ( Ec + Em cos 2πfmt ) ( cos 2πfct )


Vam(t ) = Ec(1 + β cos 2πfmt ) ( cos 2πfct )
Em
β=
Ec
1 1
Given : (cos X )(cos Y ) = cos( X − Y ) + cos( X + Y )
2 2
We get : Vam(t ) = Ec cos 2πfct + Ecβ cos 2πfct cos 2πfmt
Which gives :
Ecβ
Vam(t ) = Ec cos 2πfct + [ cos 2π ( fc − fm)t + cos 2π ( fc + fm)t ]
2
Fall 2001 5
ENZO PATERNO
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)
SUMMER
MULTIPLIER
MODULATOR

∑ • THE AMPLITUDE OF THE

Ec CARRIER IS UNAFFECTED BY
THE AM PROCESS

Em(t ) = Em cos ω mt cos ωct


Ecβ
Ec cos 2πfct + [ cos 2π ( fc − fm)t + cos 2π ( fc + fm)t ]
2
Fall 2001 6
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DOUBLE-SIDEBAND FULL CARRIER (DSB-FC)
M (ω )
MESSAGE

BANDWITH: Bm = f m
Bm
− ωm 0 2πfm = ωm
CARRIER
MODULATED SIGNAL
(DSB-SC AM) LSB USB
ϑDSB (ω )
Bm Bm
ωc − ωm ωc ωc + ωm 0 ωc − ωm ωc ωc + ωm

BW OF THE MODULATED SIGNAL IS: B = 2 Bm


Fall 2001 7
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DOUBLE-SIDEBAND FULL CARRIER (DSB-FC)
THE MODULATED CARRIER SPECTRUM CENTERED
AT fc IS COMPOSED OF AN UPPER SIDEBAND ABOVE
fc, (USB), AND A LOWER SIDEBAND BELOW fc, (LSB).
Ecβ
Ec cos 2πfct + [ cos 2π ( fc − fm)t + cos 2π ( fc + fm)t ]
2
LSB USB

2 fm
MODULATED SIGNAL COMPRISES A COMPONENT AT fc, IN
THIS CASE THE SCHEME IS CALLED DSB-FC MODULATION
Fall 2001 8
ENZO PATERNO
DOUBLE-SIDEBAND FULL CARRIER (DSB-FC)
Ecβ
Ec cos 2πfct + [ cos 2π ( fc − fm)t + cos 2π ( fc + fm)t ]
2

let m = β

Fall 2001 9
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)

Fall 2001 10
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)

UNMODULATED CARRIER: Vc (t ) = Ec sin 2πfct OR Ec cos 2πfct


MODULATING SIGNAL: Vm(t ) = Em sin 2πfmt OR Em cos 2πfmt
• Modulation Coefficient
Em
MODULATION INDEX: β= { •• Modulation Factor
Ec Modulation Index

Em
PERCENT MODULATION: M = x 100%
Ec

RANGE OF M: 0% 100% WHERE:

M < 100%, UNDERMODULATION


M = 100%, 100% MODULATION
M > 100%, OVERMODULATION (i.e. DISTORTION)

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PERCENT MODULATION (M)

Em
M = x 100%
Ec

PERCENT MODULATION GIVES THE PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN THE AMPLITUDE


OF THE OUTPUT WAVE WHEN THE CARRIER IS ACTED ON BY A MODULATING
SIGNAL.

Fall 2001 12
ENZO PATERNO
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)

MODULATED CARRIER AMPLITUDE: V = Ec + Em { ± Em


V max = Ec + Em ; V min = Ec − Em
Em
WE KNOW: β= ∴ Em = β Ec
Ec
THUS: V max = Ec + βEc = (1 + β) Ec
V min = Ec − βEc = (1 − β) Ec
WITH:

100% MODULATION: B =1; V max = 2 Ec; V min = 0


50% MODULATION: B = 0.5; V max =1.5 Ec; V min =.5 Ec
0% MODULATION B = 0; V max = Ec; V min = Ec
Fall 2001 13
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION

Fall 2001 14
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB_FC)

V max = Ec + Em ; V min = Ec − Em
1 ASSUMPTIONS:
Em = (V max −V min) • MODULATING SIGNAL IS A TONE
2 • MODULATING PROCESS IS SYMMETRICAL
1 (EQUAL + and – ENVELOPE EXCURCIONS)
Ec = (V max +V min)
2
Em V max −V min
β= =
Ec V max +V min

Em 1
Eusf = Elsf = = (V max −V min )
2 4
EUSF = PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE UPPER SIDE FREQUENCY
ELSF = PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE LOWER SIDE FREQUENCY

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AMPLITUDE MODULATION (DSB-FC)

Modulating Signal

Unmodulated Carrier

50% Modulation

100% Modulation

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DSB-FC EXAMPLE
FOR AN AM DSB-FC MODULATOR, WITH CARRIER FREQUENCY
OF 100 kHz, AND A MAXIMUM MODULATING SIGNAL OF 5 kHz,
DETERMINE:
FREQUENCY LIMITS FOR THE UPPER AND LOWER SIDEBANDS

(100 - 5) kHz TO 100 kHz = 95 kHz TO 100 kHz = LSB


100 kHz TO (100 + 5) kHz = 100 kHz TO 105 kHz = USB
BANDWITH OF THE MODULATED SIGNAL
B = 2 fm = 2 x 5 kHz = 10 kHz

UPPER AND LOWER SIDE FREQUENCIES WHEN MODULATING SIGNAL


IS A 3 kHz TONE
(100 - 3) kHz = 97 kHz = LSF
(100 + 3) kHz = 103 kHz = USF

Fall 2001 17
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DSB-FC EXAMPLE
FOR THE AM WAVEFORM BELOW:

DETERMINE:

Fall 2001 18
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DSB-FC EXAMPLE
PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE UPPER AND LOWER SIDE
FREQUENCIES
Em 1
Eusf = Elsf = = (V max −V min)
2 4
1
Eusf = Elsf = (18 −2) = 4V
4
PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE UNMODULATED CARRIER
1 1
Ec = (V max +V min) = (18 + 2) =10V
2 2
PEAK CHANGE IN THE AMPLITUDE OF THE ENVELOPE

1 1
Em = (V max −V min) = (18 −2) = 8V
2 2

Fall 2001 19
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DSB-FC EXAMPLE
COEFFICIENT INDEX

Em V max −V min 8
β= = = = 0.8
Ec V max +V min 10

PERCENT MODULATION

Em
M = x 100% = 0.8 x100% = 80%
Ec

V max −V min 18 − 2
M = x100% = x100% = 80%
V max +V min 18 + 2

Fall 2001 20
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC EXAMPLE
ONE INPUT TO A CONVENTIONAL MODULATOR IS A 500 kHz
CARRIER WITH AN AMPLITUDE OF 20 Vp. THE SECOND INPUT
IS A 10 kHz MODULATING SIGNAL THAT IS OF SUFFICIENT
AMPLITUDE TO CAUSE A CHANGE IN THE OUTPUT WAVE
OF ±7.5Vp. DETERMINE:

UPPER AND LOWER SIDE FREQUENCIES


(500 + 10) kHz = 510 kHz = USF
(500 - 10) kHz = 490 kHz = LSF

MODULATION COEFFICIENT AND PERCENT MODULATION


7.5
β= = 0.375
20
7.5
M = x100% = 37.5%
20

Fall 2001 21
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC EXAMPLE
PEAK AMPLITUDE OF THE MODULATED CARRIER

Ec (MODULATED) = Ec (UNMODULATED) = 20 Vp

UPPER AND LOWER SIDE FREQUENCY VOLTAGES


Em βEc 0.375( 20)
Eusf = Elsf = = = = 3.75Vp
2 2 2
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM AMPLITUDES OF THE ENVELOPE
V max = Ec + Em ; V min = Ec − Em
V max = 20 +7.5 = 27.5Vp
V min = 20 −7.5 =12.5Vp

Fall 2001 22
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC POWER DISTRIBUTION
THE POWER DISSIPATION OF AN UNMODULATED CARRIER
IN LOAD RESISTANCE R:

(0.707 Ec ) 2 Ec 2
Pc = =
R 2R
Em βEc
FROM: Eusf = Elsf = =
2 2
β 2 Ec 2 β2
Pusb = Plsb = = Pc
8R 4
THE TOTAL POWER IN AN AM DSB-FC ENVELOPE IS:

Pt = Pc + Pusb + Plsb
Fall 2001 23
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC POWER DISTRIBUTION
FOR A DSB-FC MODULATED WAVE, THE TOTAL POWER IN
AN AM DSB-FC ENVELOPE IS:

Pt = Pc + Pusb + Plsb
β Pc
2
β Pc
2
β Pc
2

Pt = Pc + + = Pc +
4 4 2
β 2

Pt = Pc (1 + )
2
MODULATED WAVE CARRIER POWER = UNMODULATED WAVE CARRIER POWER
(POWER OF THE CARRIER IS UNAFFECTED BY THE MODULATION PROCESS)

Fall 2001 24
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC POWER DISTRIBUTION
β 2

Pt = Pc (1 + )
2

THE TOTAL POWER IN AN AM DSB-FC ENVELOPE INCREASES WITH


MODULATION

↑ β ↑ Pt

β 2 Ec 2
β2
Pusb = Plsb = = Pc
8R 4
Fall 2001 25
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DSB-FC POWER DISTRIBUTION
β 2
β2
Pt = Pc (1 + ) Pusb = Plsb = Pc
2 4
let m = β

Fall 2001 26
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC POWER DISTRIBUTION
β 2
β 2
Pt = Pc (1 + ) Pusb = Plsb = Pc
2 4
WITH 100% MODULATION, β =1 :
1 1
Pusb = Plsb = Pc Pusb + Plsb = Pc
4 2
1
Pt = Pc (1 + ) =1.5 Pc
2
DSB-FC DISADVANTAGE: THE INFORMATION IS CONTAINED IN
THE SIDEBANDS ALTHOUGH MOST OF THE POWER IS WASTED
IN THE CARRIER (DSB-SC ELIMINATES THIS DISADVANTAGE)

Fall 2001 27
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC POWER DISTRIBUTION

THE ADVANTAGE OF ENVELOPE DETECTION IN AM


HAS ITS PRICE.

IN AM, THE CARRIER COMPONENT DOES NOT CARRY


ANY INFORMATION,HENCE, THE CARRIER POWER
IS WASTED.

Fall 2001 28
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC EXAMPLE
FOR AN AM DSB-FC WAVE WITH A PEAK UNMODULATED
CARRIER VOLTAGE Vc = 10 Vp, A LOAD RESISTANCE OF
RL = 10 Ohms, AND A MODULATION INDEX OF 1, DETERMINE:

CARRIER POWER
Ec 2 10 2
Pc = = = 5W
2R 2(10)
UPPER AND LOWER SIDEBAND POWER
β2 1(5)
Pusb = Plsb = Pc = =1.25W
4 4
TOTAL SIDEBAND POWER
β2 1(5)
Pusb + Plsb = Pc = = 2.5 W
2 2
Fall 2001 29
ENZO PATERNO
DSB-FC EXAMPLE
FOR AN AM DSB-FC WAVE WITH A PEAK UNMODULATED
CARRIER VOLTAGE Vc = 10 Vp, A LOAD RESIATANCE OF
RL = 10 Ohms, AND A MODULATION INDEX OF 1, DETERMINE:
TOTAL POWER IN THE MODULATED WAVE
β 2
12
Pt = Pc (1 + ) = 5(1 + ) = 7.5W
2 2
POWER SPECTRUM:

Fall 2001 30
ENZO PATERNO