Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


August 27, 1770 Stuttgart, Württemberg November 14, 1831 (aged 61) Berlin, Prussia Germany German 19th-century philosophy Western Philosophy German idealism Founder of Hegelianism Historicism Precursor to German Historism Logic · Aesthetics · Religion Philosophy of history Metaphysics · Epistemology Political philosophy Absolute idealism · Dialectic Sublation · Master/slave


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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


G. W. F. Hegel
People Immanuel Kant Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Gottlieb Fichte Friedrich Hölderlin Friedrich Schelling Arthur Schopenhauer Søren Kierkegaard Baruch Spinoza Works Phenomenology of Spirit Science of Logic Encyclopedia Philosophy of Right Philosophy of History Schools Hegelianism Absolute idealism British / German idealism Dialectic Master–slave dialectic Related topics Right Hegelians Young Hegelians The Secret of Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept

The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart, which now houses The Hegel Museum

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united. Vygotsky.. Schelling and Hölderlin immersed themselves in theoretical debates on Kantian philosophy. Brandom. Feuerbach.[5] While in Frankfurt Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on . In 1776 Hegel entered Stuttgart's Gymnasium Illustre. the "Master/Slave" dialectic.e. he was known as Wilhelm to his close family. Peirce. Popper. a "man of letters" who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public. Gadamer. Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt. Dewey. "Spirit". Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions. Bradley. and between immanence and transcendence. "ethical life" and the importance of history. was Rentkammersekretär (secretary to the revenue office) at the court of Karl Eugen.[1] His influential conceptions are of speculative logic or "dialectic". the poet Friedrich Hölderlin. i. Küng. Fukuyama. including both his admirers (Strauss. Iqbal) and his detractors (Schopenhauer. Dilthey. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom. Bauer. copying lengthy extracts in his diary. who was to perish as an officer in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812.[3] Hegel had a sister. where he moved in 1797. without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Green. Hegel and his father also caught the disease but narrowly survived." Tübingen (1788-93) At the age of eighteen Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift (a Protestant seminary attached to the University of Tübingen).[4] At age three Hegel went to the "German School". Maria Magdalena Louisa (née Fromm). Kojève. 1770 in Stuttgart. H. During this period he composed the text which has become known as the "Life of Jesus" and a book-length manuscript titled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion". Baur. She died of a "bilious fever" (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. Herbart. his own felt need to engage critically with the central ideas of Kantianism did not come until 1800. Heidegger. Žižek. Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary. His father. F. Hegel's studies at the Gymnasium were concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") entitled "The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey. Schelling. Georg Ludwig (1776–1812). James. Deleuze). When he entered the "Latin School" aged five. "absolute idealism". T. Duke of Württemberg. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Georg Ludwig. from which Hegel remained aloof. H. he already knew the first declension. Hegel became Hofmeister (house tutor) to an aristocratic family in Bern (1793–96). Bern (1793–96) and Frankfurt (1797–1801) Having received his theological certificate (Konsistorialexamen) from the Tübingen Seminary. Russell. in the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. and the younger philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court. having been taught it by his mother. Christiane Luise (1773–1832). Croce. Sartre. Engels. the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. Marx. Hegel at this time envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph. During his adolescence Hegel read voraciously.[2] Hegel's mother. and a brother. Nietzsche. where two fellow students were to become vital to his development—his exact contemporary. 3 Life Early years Childhood Hegel was born on August 27. Stirner. negativity. sublation (Aufhebung in German). His relations with his employers becoming strained. They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. Authors he read include the poet Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Here Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. Kierkegaard.

where Niethammer had declined and passed on to Hegel an offer to become editor of a newspaper. as Napoleon engaged Prussian troops on October 14. reluctantly accepted. He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and. unpublished during his lifetime.[8] Hegel sees the "world spirit on horseback". Hegel recounted his impressions in a letter to his friend Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer: I saw the Emperor – this world-soul – riding out of the city on reconnaissance. gave joint lectures on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and held a "Philosophical Disputorium". The following February Hegel's landlady Christiana Burkhardt (who had been abandoned by her husband) gave birth to their son Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer (1807–31). the Kritische Journal der Philosophie ("Critical Journal of Philosophy") to which they each contributed pieces until the collaboration was ended by Schelling's departure for Würzburg in 1803.[7] His finances drying up quickly. 4 Career years Jena. this extraordinary man. a post he held until 1816. While in Nuremberg Hegel adapted his recently published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. Napoleon entered the city of Jena. appointed headmaster of a Gymnasium in Nuremberg. Hegel. Part of his remit being to teach a class called "Introduction to Knowledge of the Universal Coherence of the Sciences". Hegel moved to Bamberg. Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) after submitting a Habilitationsschrift (dissertation) on the orbits of the planets. Hegel was now under great pressure to deliver his book. Although Napoleon chose not to close down Jena as he had other universities. after Hegel wrote a letter to the poet and minister of culture Johann Wolfgang von Goethe protesting at the promotion of his philosophical adversary Jakob Friedrich Fries ahead of him. to his chagrin. 1806. whom it is impossible not to admire. Fries was later in the same year made Ordinary Professor (salaried) there.[9] In March 1807. . In 1805 the University promoted Hegel to the position of Extraordinary Professor (unsalaried). . falling into . The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy. the Bamberger Zeitung. appeared. It is indeed a wonderful sensation to see such an individual. Hegel developed the idea of an encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Religion and Love". with Schelling. Napoleon. the Phenomenology of Spirit. who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there. the long-promised introduction to his System. concentrated here at a single point. In 1802 Schelling and Hegel founded a journal. but failed. unable to find more suitable employment. Ludwig Fischer and his mother (whom Hegel may have offered to marry following the death of her husband) stayed behind in Jena. reaches out over the world and masters it . in November 1808. In 1799 he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate". Bamberg and Nuremberg: 1801–1816 In 1801 Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling. Later in the year Hegel's first book. making Hegel's financial prospects even worse. On the day before the battle. who. astride a horse. the city was devastated and students deserted the university in droves. Hegel was putting the finishing touches to this book. again through Niethammer.[6] Hegel attempted to enlist the help of the poet and translator Johann Heinrich Voß to obtain a post at the newly renascent University of Heidelberg.[10] He was then. aged 37. in the Battle of Jena on a plateau outside the city.

To this list one could add Proclus. Here he published his Philosophy of Right (1821).Karl. the eldest daughter of a Senator. While Aristotle criticizes Plato's "Forms". Thought Freedom Hegel's thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the broad tradition that includes Plato and Kant. Hegel with his Berlin students Sketch by Franz Kugler Hegel was appointed Rector of the University in 1830. philosophy of nature. taking up lodgings in Kreuzberg. the news of his death never reached his father.)[13] Hegel published The Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Outline (1817) as a summary of his philosophy for students attending his lectures at Heidelberg.[14] He is said to have uttered the last words "And he didn't understand me" before expiring. when he was 60. the Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik. with the (mistaken) impression that the epidemic had largely subsided. 1813. having thus far spent his childhood in an orphanage. and from empiricists like David Hume. his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household. 5 Hegel's son Ludwig Fischer had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in Batavia. Plotinus. Heidelberg and Berlin: 1816–1831 Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel three parts (logic. In 1831 Frederick William III decorated him for his service to the Prussian state. This period saw the publication of his second major work. which distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus. Hegel's remaining two sons . Leibniz. The physicians pronounced the cause of death as cholera. and Thomas Hobbes. in 1811. Hegel chose Heidelberg. which had remained vacant since Fichte's death in 1814..[16] Early the following year Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. By November 14 Hegel was dead. Hegel was buried on November 16 in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery next to Fichte and Solger. In August 1831 a cholera epidemic reached Berlin and Hegel left the city. This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion (in the Phaedo. As the new semester began in October. the philosophy of religion. is that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications. His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond. who followed a theological path . Meister Eckhart. Now in a weak state of health. and the birth of his two legitimate sons. and Rousseau. Republic. Hegel seldom went out.[12] (Ludwig's mother had died in the meantime.[15] In accordance with his wishes. 1816). He was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year. and philosophy of spirit). where he moved in 1816. he preserves Plato's cornerstones of the ontological . and Heidelberg. who became a historian.lived long and safeguarded their father's Nachlaß and produced editions of his works. Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1813–1901) and Immanuel Thomas Christian (1814–1891). but it is likely he died from a different gastrointestinal disease. Hegel returned to Berlin. the Stoics.[11] Hegel married Marie Helena Susanna von Tucher (1791–1855). and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from lecture notes taken by his students. for soul or mind or divinity. What all these thinkers share. Jakob Boehme. 1812. the philosophy of history. Soon after. and Timaeus) of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than inanimate objects possess. 3 vols. his lecture courses on aesthetics. In 1818 Hegel accepted the renewed offer of the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin. and Immanuel. Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering his lectures. Berlin. in April 1817.

is to begin with basic concepts like Being and Nothing. Modern philosophy. by extension. self and Other. all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life". culture. a solution that is reached. in principle. such as those between the subject and object of knowledge. and nature and freedom) becomes intelligible as a progressively developing and self-perfecting whole. perhaps even the sole. Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive. Rousseau. Hegel preserves this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite (a process that Hegel in fact relates to "freedom" and the "ought"[18]). Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature. their essential character is determined by their boundaries. rather than remaining a brute "given. is repeated in new guises at later stages. he called "the absolute idea" or "absolute knowledge". In this manner." The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. This is because. rational unity that. and the and and 6 Progress The obscure writings of Jakob Böhme had a strong effect on Hegel. "good") which transcends bodily restrictiveness. evolving. in his Science of Logic and his Encyclopedia. Kant pursues the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" (or. and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations. Böhme had written that the Fall of Man was a necessary stage in the evolution of the universe. as well as to God. Hegel was fascinated by the works of Kant. as "finite" things. the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness." The reason why this subsumption takes place in a series of concepts is that Hegel's method. over against other finite things. the Enlightenment and Romanticism. So.[19] what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" (following the Latin etymology of "real": more "thing-like") than what does not. is pervasive. mind and nature. knowledge and faith. and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions. freedom and authority. All three find common ground on the unique position of humans in the scheme of things. and with their ontological implications. Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity". And Hegel renders these dualities intelligible by (ultimately) his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic. particular and universal. in order to become "real". This evolution was. Hegel's concern with Kantian topics such as freedom and morality. and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible. Hegel intends to defend the germ of truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like those of materialism and empiricism. in Plato's case. they must go beyond their finitude ("finitude is only as a transcending of itself"[20]). Like Plato. the "Concept" (or "Notion": Begriff). in different contexts. and an assumption with reasoned arguments for a prime mover. "Spirit". as Hegel suggests by his introduction of the concept of "reality". In his discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia. but instead the latter (in each case) is self-transcending of the former. Kant imports Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty to his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom. Finite things don't determine themselves. . The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole.[21] Rather than stress the distinct singularity of each factor that complements conflicts with others—without explanation—the relationship between finite and infinite (and particular universal. The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—and. because. the universal going beyond the particular (in the Concept). with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites. and Goethe. in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic's chapter on "Quality". Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable. the order of the cosmos. itself. the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature. including those already mentioned. and by the French Revolution.[17] In his Phenomenology of Spirit and his Science of Logic. in the third volume of the Encyclopedia. work of philosophical value on this topic".Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning. nature freedom—don't face one another as two independent realities. In this way. and Spirit going beyond Nature. known by the discussed categorical differences from animals and inanimate objects.

Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear. 7 Civil society Hegel made the distinction between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. while it seems to be the case that he felt that a civil-society such as the German society in which he lived was an inevitable movement of the dialectic. nature. it was perfectly legitimate in the eyes of Hegel for a conqueror.[24] Broadly speaking.[26] This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was followed by Alexis de Tocqueville. developmental order underlies every domain of reality and is ultimately the order of self-conscious rational thought. This notion of identity in difference." Geist combines the meaning of spirit—as in god. and that. although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness. it became the foundation for Karl Marx's civil society as an economic base. as to the lack of progress in their societies. In Hegel's early philosophy of nature (draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena). to come along and destroy that which was not fully realized. such as Napoleon. society and politics. underlying. logical. SomeWikipedia:Avoid weasel words have argued that either of these terms overly "psychologize" Hegel. Contradiction and negation have a dynamic quality that at every point in each domain of reality—consciousness. through their own understanding.[23] In this work. philosophy. the macro-community of the state and the micro-community of the family. which is intimately bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity. including culture. history. that is that mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects that stand outside of it or opposed to it.[25] to the right.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel According to Hegel. solipsistic consciousness like ghost or "soul. It is rational because the same. it comes to completion only in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who. Rather. bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself. The rational. society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up (Aufhebung) to a higher unity. as these societies were not fully conscious or aware. he made way for the crushing of other types of "lesser" and not fully realized types of civil society. to the political left and right. is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from that of other philosophers. is "with itself" in these external manifestations. For example.[citation needed] implying a kind of disembodied.[22] Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge and mind (and therefore also of reality) was the notion of identity in difference. and makes it possible for human beings to became subjects.[] "Mind" and "Spirit" are the common English translations of Hegel's use of the German "Geist". through recognizing itself in them. the term was split. art. systematization remains open. This whole is mental because it is mind that can comprehend all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. civil society (Hegel used the term "bürgerliche Gesellschaft" though it is now referred to as Zivilgesellschaft in German to emphasize a more inclusive community) was a stage in the dialectical relationship that occurs between Hegel's perceived opposites. self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. ghost or mind—with an intentional force. so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. Thus. Hegel's notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of "Aether" from which Hegel also derived the concepts of space and time.[25] In fact. . it became a description for all non-state aspects of society. On the left. Hegel's thought is revolutionary to the extent that it is a philosophy of absolute negation: as long as absolute negation is at the center. however in his later works (after Jena) Hegel did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether" any more. as it were. like Hegel's followers. the main characteristic of this unity was that it evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation.

its essence as process. it does not depend on anything else. The limitations represent fetters. there is no proposition of Heraclitus which I have not adopted in my logic. stripping away the concepts of divinity.and 20th-century theology.[30] Pure being and pure non-being or nothingness are for Hegel pure abstractions from the reality of becoming. styled what was left dialectical materialism. when fully and properly understood. although he may well have regarded them the same. Just as humans continually correct their concepts of reality through a dialectical process. but even if present is not the main gist of his thought. so God himself becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming. For Hegel. and this is also how he interprets Heraclitus.. which he interprets to mean Sein und Nichts sei dasselbe Being and non-being are the same. God is not ineffable (so incomprehensible as to be unutterable) but can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality. however. as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought. which cannot be conceived. Hegel. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. who. the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking. although he has had a major influence on 19th.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 8 Heraclitus According to Hegel. Hegel argued that.. which for Hegel includes understanding the inherent contradictoriness and negativity of reality. For his god Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers rather to the nous of Anaxagoras. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day. that is. Heraclitus's great achievements were to have understood the nature of the infinite. At the same time. etc. reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process in and through philosophy. that is. such as matter."[27] For Hegel. C. but indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity. The universe as becoming is therefore a combination of being and non-being. that is. Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true (in Hegel's terms "speculative") philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. which it must constantly be casting off as it becomes freer and more self-determining. not nothing at all. self-relating particulars. The particular is never complete in itself but to find completion is continually transformed into more comprehensive. Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought. This interpretation of Heraclitus cannot be ruled out.. for its being. but more remains to be thought in the substrate of non-being. . which is identical to God. The essential nature of being-for-itself is that it is free "in itself". an atheistic version of his thought was adopted instead by some Marxists. "Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite. interprets not-A as not existing at all. Heraclitus does not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and in that fragment seems to be opposing any identity A to any other identity B. his ideas of God are not acceptable to some Christians. According to Hegel. as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle. Hegel asserted that in Heraclitus he had an antecedent for his logic: ". and that "being" and "nothingness" are mere empty abstractions.[31] Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian."[28] Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy. as he continues to refer to god's plan. which is not-A. complex.[29] One to which he attributes great significance is the fragment he translates as "Being is not more than Non-being". which is identical to pure or unlimited thought. Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being. which some saw as originating in Heraclitus. and to have grasped that reality is becoming or process.

maintains himself in the process. which was originally published in 1816 and revised in 1827 and 1830. 1812. a reversal takes place: God. the logical and metaphysical core of his philosophy. Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences.. and the history of philosophy were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. This means that Jesus as the Son of God is posited by God over against himself as other. embodying both the benevolent organizing power of rational government and the revolutionary ideals of freedom and equality. has to distinguish himself from himself.. published in 1820. such as Existentialism. published in 1811. however. while on the other. Hegel further attests that God (as Jesus) not only died. and 1816 (revised 1831). But precisely because of its absolute novelty. He also published some articles early in his career and during his Berlin period. and knows above all that its own knowing cannot exhaust this relationship. Hegel’s theological concerns were reflected in many of his writings and lectures. History. . that is to say. progresses by learning from its mistakes: only after and precisely because of this experience can one posit the existence of a constitutional state of free citizens. historism. It would come to have a profound impact on many future philosophical schools. his account of the evolution of consciousness from sense-perception to absolute knowledge. and the latter is only the death of death. but ". The revolution therefore has nowhere to turn but onto its own result: the hard-won freedom is consumed by a brutal Reign of Terror. and thus things are reversed. the Science of Logic..God. in three volumes." Works Hegel published four books during his lifetime: the Phenomenology of Spirit (or Phenomenology of Mind). Legacy Hegel's tombstone in Berlin There are views of Hegel's thought as a representation of the summit of early 19th-century Germany's movement of philosophical idealism. Hegel's remarks on the French revolution led German poet Heinrich Heine to label him "The Orléans of German Philosophy". A number of other works on the philosophy of history. he is the process of differentiating. a summary of his entire philosophical system. "God is not an abstraction but a concrete God. which claimed that laws were not necessary. Hegel sees both a relational unity and a metaphysical unity between Jesus and God the Father. has to generate the Son. it is also unlimited with regard to everything that preceded it: on the one hand the upsurge of violence required to carry out the revolution cannot cease to be itself. he criticized von Haller's reactionary work. and British Idealism.rather. but a system which knows about its own relationship to the rest of experience which is not philosophy. Hegel's thought is not just a philosophical system. The Christian Religion: Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion Part 3..[32] Hegel's thoughts on the person of Jesus Christ stood out from the theologies of the Enlightenment. considered in terms of his eternal Idea. namely. To Hegel. In the latter. Jesus is both divine and Human. the historical materialism of Karl Marx. published in 1807.[] The French Revolution for Hegel constitutes the introduction of real individual political freedom into European societies for the first time in recorded history. God rises again to life. and the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. religion. In his posthumous book.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 9 Religion As a graduate of a Protestant seminary. he espouses that. his political philosophy. aesthetics. it has already consumed its opponent. including schools that opposed Hegel's specific dialectical idealism. love and Spirit".

Marx. Fichte had been accused of writing atheistic philosophy. introductions to and commentaries about Hegel can contribute to comprehension.[citation needed] If one wanted to provide a big piece of the Hegel puzzle to the beginner. English translators have to use the "phenomenology of mind" or "the phenomenology of spirit" to render Hegel's "Phaenomenologie des Geistes". And that in two ways. such as the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. Now although it may be admitted that every philosophy has been refuted. of all studies. since his philosophical language and terminology in German often do not have direct analogues in other languages. did so without fully absorbing his new speculative or dialectical logic. For example. like many philosophers. Nevertheless. Hegel himself argued. Feuerbach. most saddening. displaying. In response to Immanuel Kant's challenge to the limits of pure reason. it must be in an equal degree maintained that no philosophy has been refuted. the German word "Geist" has connotations of both "mind" and "spirit" in English. although the reader is faced with multiple interpretations of Hegel's writings from incompatible schools of philosophy. esoteric. After less than a generation. The difficulty in reading Hegel was perceived in Hegel's own day. Hegel developed a radically new form of logic. although his "Encyclopedia" was intended as a textbook in a university course. Most commonly the refutation is taken in a purely negative sense to mean that the system refuted has ceased to count for anything. whether adopting or rejecting his ideas. and persists into the 21st century. The more recent movement of communitarianism has a strong Hegelian influence. and Kierkegaard. Hegel began to write in an obscure. and Engels—among many others—were all deeply influenced by... one might present the following statement from Part One of the Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences: The Logic: . Hegel's philosophy was suppressed and even banned by the Prussian right-wing. in his "Science of Logic". therefore. The refutation of a philosophy. the refutation of every system which time has brought forth. as it does. Throughout the 19th century many chairs of philosophy around Europe were held by Hegelians. One especially difficult aspect of Hegel's work is his innovation in logic. Difficulties within Hegel's language and thought are magnified for those reading Hegel in translation. a much misunderstood phenomenon in the history of philosophy — the refutation of one system by another. Hegel's influence did not make itself felt again until the philosophy of British Idealism and the 20th century Hegelian Western Marxism that began with Georg Lukács. which he called speculation. Adorno devoted an essay to the difficulty of reading Hegel and asserted that there are certain passages where it is impossible to decipher what Hegel meant. has been set aside and done for. up to and including Descartes. and Schelling. but also strongly opposed to. of an earlier by a later. every philosophy that deserves the name always embodies the Idea: and secondly. and its special principle reduced to a factor in the completer principle that follows.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Hegel's influence was immense both within philosophy and in the other sciences. For first. Many philosophers who came after Hegel and were influenced by him. that the German language was particularly conducive to philosophical thought and writing. Hume. every system represents one particular factor or particular stage in the evolution of the Idea. and was firmly rejected by the left-wing in multiple official writings. thus altering the original meaning. After the period of Bruno Bauer. The German philosopher Theodor W. 10 Reading Hegel Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy. To understand Hegel fully requires paying attention to his critique of standard logic. only means that its barriers are crossed. Were it so. unintelligible manner after Fichte was removed from his professorship at Jena. Hegel assumed that his readers would be well-versed in Western philosophy. Fichte. the history of philosophy would be.[33] . Kant. For those wishing to read his work without this background. and which is today popularly called dialectics. many of the central themes of Hegel's philosophy.

synthesis". that was a term of insult originated by David Strauss. and he attributed the terminology to Immanuel Kant. The Left Hegelians. Hegel used this classification only once. logical positivism. i. In more recent studies. movement. However. antithesis.. Marxism. a few scholars. This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented itself and to a higher-level.[34] No Hegelians of the period ever referred to themselves as "Right Hegelians". advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post-Napoleon Restoration period. which grasps the unity of these opposites or .. and myriad revolutionary practices up until the present moment. have attempted to discard the triadic approach altogether. For Hegel. reason is but "speculative". "thesis. and activity" (thesis and antithesis) he doesn't use "synthesis" but instead speaks of the "Whole": "We then recognised the State as the moral Whole and the Reality of Freedom. Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British Idealism. and Fascism. the Reign of Terror that followed).g. interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense. Critiques of Hegel offered from the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a disproportionately large part of the literature on and about Hegel. the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions. as well as Peter Hodgson and Howard Kainz in America are notable for their recent contributions to post-USSR thinking about Hegel.[36] Believing that the traditional description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis-antithesis-synthesis was mistaken. leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. the subjective side of knowledge and will. and would eventually result in a "synthesis" (e. analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction. especially those formed prior to the Hegel renaissance. in Hegel's language. The Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile." Furthermore. which inspired global movements. a new wave of Hegel scholarship arose in the West. according to Benedetto Croce. The terminology was largely developed earlier by Johann Fichte. From Hegel's point of view. and since then the terms have been used as descriptive of this type of framework. secondly. the means for realising it. The "thesis-antithesis-synthesis" approach gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them. ". however. although Hegel refers to "the two elemental considerations: first. the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. for example). not "dialectical".g. and consequently as the objective unity of these two elements. also known as the Young Hegelians. The Right Hegelians.holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy. without the preconceptions of the prior schools of thought. encompassing the Russian Revolution. is only preliminary to the "speculative" (and not "synthesizing") aspect or "moment". more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction. that a "thesis" (e. the Chinese Revolution. this paradigm has been questioned. being-nothingness-becoming. the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality. immediate-mediate-concrete. the constitutional state of free citizens). like Raya Dunayevskaya. It was spread by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus in accounts of Hegelian philosophy. a self-styled Left Hegelian. with its life. the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim.g.g. by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface.[citation needed] The Left Hegelians also spawned Marxism.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 11 Left and Right Hegelianism Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. namely. the French Revolution) would cause the creation of its "antithesis" (e. abstract-negative-concrete) is about this movement from inner contradiction to higher-level integration or unification.e. To the contrary. what he called "aufhebung". The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel (e. Triads In previous modern accounts of Hegelianism (to undergraduate classes."[35] However. since the fall of the USSR. According to their argument. Walter Jaeschke and Otto Pöggeler in Germany. Hegel's dialectic was most often characterized as a three-step process.

Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. This view. i. two prominent American philosophers. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th Century German group known as the Young Hegelians. half-seriously. In Britain. and (c) an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method.S. Friedrich Engels. Karl Marx. Among modern scientists. Eric Voegelin and A. Stephen Rocker (1995) and Cyril O'Regan (1995). Criticism Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. Bertrand Russell. Søren Kierkegaard. such is the persistence of this misnomer that the model and terminology survive in a number of scholarly works. Theodor W. have produced philosophical works exhibiting a marked Hegelian influence. Russell. the physicist David Bohm. The book that did the most to reintroduce Hegel into the Marxist canon was perhaps Georg Lukács' History and Class Consciousness. John McDowell and Robert Brandom (sometimes. fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke. Josiah Royce) was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers G. the logician Kurt Gödel and the biologist Ernst Mayr have been interested in Hegel's philosophical work. and some contemporary scholars have suggested that Marx's interpretation of Hegel is irrelevant to a proper reading of Hegel. Moore. 12 Renaissance In the latter half of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1990s. also of Pittsburgh. neoconservative political theorist Francis Fukuyama's controversial book The End of History and the Last Man was heavily influenced by Alexandre Kojève. Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has attempted to challenge the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z. the mathematician William Lawvere. those published prior to the Phenomenology of Spirit. Moore and Bertrand Russell. Ernst Bloch. the Hegelian British Idealism school (members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley. Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions.A. Each is avowedly influenced by the late Wilfred Sellars. E. (b) a resurgence of the historical perspective that Hegel brought to everything. Philip M. Meditations Cartesiennes). For these scholars. Nevertheless. The contemporary theologian Hans Küng has also advanced contemporary scholarship in Hegel studies. Adorno. Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind. Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. a diverse range of individuals including Arthur Schopenhauer. who referred to his seminal work. in . E.[citation needed] Beginning in the 1960s.e. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel contradiction. in particular) mean that it is not possible to understand most French philosophers from Jean-Paul Sartre to Jacques Derrida without understanding Hegel. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. Recently. Schlitt (1984). Raya Dunayevskaya. referred to as the Pittsburgh Hegelians). It is widely admitted today[37] that the old-fashioned description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of "thesis-antithesis-synthesis" is inaccurate.[citation needed] A late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes such writers as Dale M. and their followers. in the United States. Rudolf Siebert and Theodore Geraets. Karl Marx. This was due to: (a) the rediscovery and reevaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists. after the fall of the USSR. The direct and indirect influence of Kojève's lectures and writings (on the Phenomenology of Spirit. Bernard Bosanquet. U. a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West. Merklinger (1991). sometimes referred to as the 'non-metaphysical option'. The Hegel renaissance also highlighted the significance of Hegel's early works. Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. has had a decided influence on many major English language studies of Hegel in the past 40 years. which included Ludwig Feuerbach. J. Some American philosophers associated with this movement include Lawrence Stepelevich. as a series of "incipient Méditations Hegeliennes" (in homage to Edmund Husserl's treatise. Friedrich Nietzsche. G. and. Marx plays a minor role in these new readings. Theodore Geraets (1985).

[38] Logical positivists such as Alfred Jules Ayer and the Vienna Circle also criticized Hegelian philosophy and its supporters. Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century. and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers. This view of Hegel as an apologist of state power and precursor of 20th century totalitarianism was criticized by Herbert Marcuse in his Reason and Revolution. 1813. 1874. Suchting and H. H. A.[43] 13 Selected works Published during Hegel's lifetime • Life of Jesus • Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie.[41] Bertrand Russell stated that Hegel was "the hardest to understand of all the great philosophers" in his Unpopular Essays and A History of Western Philosophy. 1801 The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy. tr. 2012 [44] • Wissenschaft der Logik.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel particular. T. 2 vols. H. tr. tr. 1929. and Maistre. H. Harris. 2nd ed. 1821 Elements of the Philosophy of Right. rev. Miller. translated by Terry Pinkard. B. Other scholars. Allen W.g. ed. B. have also criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. tr. 3rd ed. V. S. stifling all real thinking"[39] Kierkegaard criticized Hegel's 'absolute knowledge' unity[40] Scientist Ludwig Boltzmann also criticized the obscure complexity of Hegel's works. Karl Popper makes the claim in the second volume of The Open Society and Its Enemies that Hegel's system formed a thinly veiled justification for the absolute rule of Frederick William III. Dahlstrom 2010 (Pt. tr. I:) The Logic of Hegel. e. A. V. Harris and Walter Cerf. 1970 (Pt. 1991 . 1977 • The German Constitution. 1910. Nisbet. S. tr. 1830 (Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences) (Pt. William Wallace. V. tr. W. 1942. 1991. and that Hegel's idea of the ultimate goal of history was to reach a state approximating that of 1830s Prussia. George di Giovanni. tr.. Johnston and L. Miller. Helvetius. 1971 • Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. by A. Geraets. 1827. 2nd ed. 2010 • Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften. 1807 Phenomenology of Mind. tr. Miller. whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. H. Walter Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri. such as F. Knox. along with Rousseau. Bradley. T. II:) Hegel's Philosophy of Nature. 1969. tr. Wood. F. Miller. Klaus Brinkmann and Daniel O. Struthers. Saint-Simon. referring to Hegel's writing as an "unclear thoughtless flow of words". 1977 Phenomenology of Spirit. V. A. on the grounds that Hegel was not an apologist for any state or form of authority simply because it existed: for Hegel the state must always be rational. tr. considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. III:) Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. William Wallace. 1931 Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. 2nd ed. 1892. tr. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical. G. M. Baillie. W. 1812. A. 1802 • Phänomenologie des Geistes. Fichte. 1894. 1817.[42] Isaiah Berlin listed Hegel as one of the six architects of modern authoritarianism who undermined liberal democracy. 1816 Science of Logic. J. tr.

Ohio University Press. Freud en miroirs ». The Secret of Hegel: Being the Hegelian System in Origin Principle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Roger. 1965. Hegel: A Re-examination. Form and Matter • Taylor. Hegel's concept of experience. Oxford University Press. Frederick C. Retrieved 2010-09-24. Hegel. 2001. Shapiro.. 1994. Oxford University Press (previously issued in the OUP Past Masters series. 2005. Essays on Hegel's concept of spirit/mind. Jon. Hegel ou de la Raison intégrale. Jean-Luc. F. ISBN 0-85635-857-6 Essays • Adorno. Charles. Friedrich. W. N. MIT Press. The Life of Georg Wilhelm Freidrich Hegel" [45].Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 14 Published posthumously • • • • Lectures on Aesthetics Lectures on the Philosophy of History (also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History) 1837 Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion Lectures on the History of Philosophy Secondary literature General introductions • Francke. Peter. 1983. Schiller. Hegel: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Doubleday (reissued Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Truth and History. Routledge • Findlay. Walter.).. ISBN 0-521-38711-6. Nicholsen. with an introduction by Nicholsen and Jeremy J. Manchester: Carcanet Press. A collection of articles covering the range of Hegel's thought. Jay Lowenberg. Theodor W. ISBN 0-521-29199-2. ISBN 0-19-519879-4 • Gouin. ed. • Scruton. 1996. 1958. 1990. suivi de : « Aimer Penser Mourir : Hegel. "Understanding Hegel" in The Philosopher on Dover Beach. 225 p. . • Beiser.. J. 1996. Oxford: Blackwell • Kainz. 1913-1914 "The German classics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: masterpieces of German literature translated into English Vol 7. and why Hegel is difficult to read. William Guild. • Beiser. 2000. Hegel: An Introduction. James Hutchison. Oxford: Blackwell • Singer. An Introduction to Hegel. The Hegel Myths and Legends. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stephen.. Freedom. (ed. • Stewart. Nietzsche. Montréal (Québec). Hegel. Éditions Bellarmin. Frederick C. ISBN 2-89007-883-3 • Houlgate. ISBN 0-8214-1231-0.. • Kaufmann. Northwestern University Press. 1978) • Plant. Raymond. Hegel: A Reinterpretation. A comprehensive exposition of Hegel's thought and its impact on the central intellectual and spiritual issues of his and our time. ISBN 0-262-51080-4. Translated by Shierry M. 1983) • Stirling. Howard P. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Kuno. G. 2005. Howard. Hegel: Three Studies. Hegel. 1993. 1975.

ISBN 0-87220-648-3. 1963) Recent English-language literature • • • • • • • • • • • • Inwood. 1983. Robert C. Verene. Karl. Berlin. Terry P. Wilhelm. ISBN 0-231-07008-X. ISBN 0-262-12070-4 • Harris.. • Löwith. Georg. Der junge Hegel. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (Arguments of the Philosophers) Solomon. parue dans la revue Nuit Blanche : Le Commissaire et le Détective [46] • Mueller. 1989. and work. Hegel's Idealism: the Satisfactions of Self-Consciousness. Hegel: A Biography. Leipzig (repr. Albany: State University of New York Press Laitinen. Hegel: Biographie.Constantine (eds. ISBN 0-521-37923-7. Michael. Žižek. • Rosenkranz. Winfield.. By a leading American Hegel scholar. 1968. tr. Michael Tarsh as Hegel: An Intellectual Biography. tr. Overcoming Foundations: Studies in Systematic Philosophy. Green. Kenneth. Jacques d'. Still an important source for Hegel's life. Philosophy Without Foundations: Rethinking Hegel. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels Leben. 1959. Zürich and Vienna (2nd ed. 1929. Less Than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism. Hegel's development • Lukács. 1964. Terry P. 1983. H. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Hegel's Absolute: An Introduction to Reading the Phenomenology of Spirit. Palgrave Macmillan.). Eng. Horst. Gustav Emil. Translated by David E.. Amherst.. Arto & Sandis. ISBN 0-674-38707-4 Pippin. NY: Prometheus . 2012.. Hegel's Circular Epistemology. Theodor L. 1975. Maker. 1938. Richard Dien. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press Rockmore.. S. 1983. 1993. Leonard F. in Gesammelte Schriften.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 15 Biography • Althaus. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2100-7. 1998. Rodney Livingstone as The Young Hegel.. 2000. 2007. 2000 • Pinkard. 1972. vol. Tom. William. New York: Pageant Press. Hegel and Skepticism. Karl. Die Jugendgeschichte Hegels (repr.. Columbia University Press. IV) • Haering. New York: Columbia University Press. Hegel's Dialectic: The Explanation of Possibility. Hegel's Development: Towards the Sunlight 1770–1801. London: Merlin Press. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. H. Donald P. Aalen: Scientia Verlag. 1844. 2010. Eng. 1994. Hegel's Undiscovered Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis Dialectics: What Only Marx and Tillich Understood. 1948. Advocates a stronger continuity between Hegel and Kant. 1989. Before and After Hegel: A Historical Introduction to Hegel's Thought. Indianapolis: Hackett. 2 vols. Kluwer Academic Publishers Forster. Slavoj. Hegel: the man. • Hondt. Hegel. 2012.. Tom. Historical • Rockmore. 1992. 1986. Cambridge University Press. In the Spirit of Hegel. ISBN 0-521-49679-9.. Cambridge: Polity Press. Hegel: sein Wollen und sein Werk. Michael N. Oxford: Clarendon Press • Dilthey. Hegel's Development: Night Thoughts (Jena 1801–1806). London: Verso • Wheat. Temple University Press Westphal. Robert B. S. Hegel on Action. Calmann-Lévy /// Recension (2009) de cette biographie en tandem avec celle de Horst Althaus (1999). 1988. his vision. 1989. Hegel und die heroischen Jahre der Philosophie. Hegel's Epistemological Realism. Oxford: Clarendon Press • Harris. Indiana University Press Pinkard. 1906. From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought. 1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1954). aims to debunk popular misconceptions about Hegel's thought.

1983. Kenneth R. James H. A distillation of the author's monumental two-volume commentary Hegel's Ladder. ISBN 0-230-24754-7 Hartnack. Manchester: Carcanet Press. • Kojève. "The Idea of a Phenomenology of Spirit" [49]. Roger. S. 1990. ISBN 0-521-84484-3. ISBN 0-85635-857-6 • Wheat. Peter. ISBN 0-19-929064-4 • Kalkavage. Paris: Aubier. 1989. ISBN 3-7873-1585-3. 2004. 2002. James. The Logic of Hegel's Logic: An Introduction. Hamburg/Meiner. Alexandre. "Understanding Hegel" in The Philosopher on Dover Beach. (2003). 1979. and God. Hegel: Phenomenology and System. James (2000). • Wallace. Die Dialektik und ihre besonderen Formen in Hegels Logik. 2012. A classic commentary. ISBN 978-0-8101-2380-9 This study covers Hegel's Phenomenology and its contribution to the history of Continental Anti-Realism. ISBN 0-87220-645-9 • Russon. • Doull. • Braver. • Doull. ISBN 0-253-21692-3. Indianapolis: Hackett. 2006. • Westphal. ISBN 0-415-21788-1. Indiana University Press.. This work provides insights on Hegel's complex work as a whole as well as serving as a sure guide for every chapter and for virtually every paragraph • Scruton. Jr. On Hegel: The Sway of the Negative. Marx and Freud. ISBN 0-8101-0594-2. • Bristow. William. tr. ISBN 1-55111-633-2 De Boer. ISBN 0-87220-424-3 Houlgate. Robert M.. Robert. Joseph. Stephen. 2011. Heidegger. Galilée. Hegel's Undiscovered Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis Dialectics: What only Marx and Tillich Understood. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. Animus 8. Retrieved August 17. Lee. Walter A. An introduction for students. 1995. 2007. Hegel's Epistemology: A Philosophical Introduction to the Phenomenology of Spirit. Giacomo. Nichols. Karin. In the Spirit of Hegel. (In French language). 2003. An Introduction to Hegel's Logic. tr. Jean. Routledge. 2005. 1969. F. Rainer. The Opening of Hegel's Logic: From Being to Infinity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Leonard F. 1998. John.. Le sacrifice de Hegel. Hegel's Philosophy of Reality. 2001. Hegel and the Phenomenology of Spirit. ISSN 1209-0689 [48] . Samuel Cherniak and John Heckman as Genesis and Structure of Hegel's "Phenomenology of Spirit". Amherst. H. NY: Prometheus Logic • • • • Burbidge. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books. ISBN 0-7734-9509-6 • Schäfer. Wallace shows how Hegel contributes to the broadly Platonic .. Freedom. • Hyppolite.. 2007. 2005.. Indianapolis: Hackett. Introduction à la lecture de Hegel. Purdue University Press. Paris. • Davis. A Thing of This World: a History of Continental Anti-Realism. Basic Books.. 2010. as Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit. 1946. A History and Interpretation of the Logic of Hegel Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-8014-9203-3 Influential European reading of Hegel. Retrieved August 9. Eng. Robert C. Through a detailed analysis of Hegel's Science of Logic.L. 1947. Northwestern University Press: 2007. ISBN 1-55753-257-5 • Rinaldi. • Solomon. 2011. Reading Hegel's Phenomenology. Indianapolis: Hackett. Inwardness and Existence: Subjectivity in/and Hegel. • Cohen. Eng. Cambridge University Press. Broadview Press. Hegel and the Transformation of Philosophical Critique. Palgrave Macmillan. An extensive study of the question of sacrifice in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. "Hegel's "Phenomenology" and Postmodern Thought" [47]. Jackson. ISBN 978-1-58988-037-5. The Logic of Desire: An Introduction to Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. 1992. Animus 5. Genèse et structure de la Phénoménologie de l'esprit. ISSN 1209-0689 [48]. • Harris. 2007. Paris: Gallimard. University of Wisconsin Press.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 16 Phenomenology of Spirit • Stern. Oxford University Press. John. Justus.

• Moggach. F. Cambridge University Press. 2003. Rößler [The Hegelian Right]. 1984. • Kierans. Autumn 2007).). • Scruton. • Rose. pp. H. Stylistics. J. Erdmann. New York. • Popper. Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory. Alain P. William. K. 1974. 2: Hegel and Marx. Joachim. E. 1986. An influential attack on Hegel. Suny Press. • Marcuse. Wilhelm Fink (German). Best introduction to Hegel's political philosophy. Hegel's Theory of the Modern State. Athlone Press. devoted to debunking the conception that Hegel's work included in nuce the Fascist totalitarianism of National Socialism. Albany (New York). Herbert. The New Hegelians edited by Douglas Moggach. New York. Die Hegelsche Rechte.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel tradition of philosophy that includes Aristotle. Richard Dien. vol. Stephen. Republicanism and Modernity". Richard Dien. Shlomo. ISBN 0-85635-857-6 Aesthetics • • • • • • • • Bungay. Michelet. Rosenkranz und C. ISBN 0-7546-5536-9. • Lübbe. Mark Jarzombek. Friedrich Frommann Verlag. Annemarie. The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art. Between Tradition and Revolution: The Hegelian Transformation of Political Philosophy. From Concept to Objectivity: Thinking Through Hegel's Subjective Logic. 2011. 1984. Maker. Olivier. Hegel and Aesthetics. including the one presented by Charles Taylor in his Hegel. ISBN 0-485-12036-4. Hegel Contra Sociology. Roger. Ashgate. The Open Society and Its Enemies. 1990.jdj Politics • Avineri. Beauty and Truth.. Danto. Tragedy and Comedy. W. Gans. Karl. A Systematic Study and a Critique of Hegel. Manchester: Carcanet Press. and Kant. 2000. 17 • Winfield. A Study of Hegel's Aesthetics. Arthur Coleman. Roche. K. Douglas. 1998. Hinrichs. Fischer. Manfred. Art and the Absolute.). H. E. Columbia University Press. New York. L. • Winfield. ISSN 1209-0689 [48]. Cambridge. • Ritter. . "The Cunning of Architecture's Reason. 2006. In the course of doing this. An introduction to the philosophy of Hegel. Albany. Cambridge University Press. Animus 12. MIT Press. • Riedel. "Introduction: Hegelianism. Wallace defends Hegel against major critiques. Rethinking the Artforms after Hegel. Paris (French). Albany. 1986. 31–46. Kenneth (2008). William (ed. "'Absolute Negativity': Community and Freedom in Hegel's Philosophy of Right" [50]. the negation of philosophy through historical materialism. Einführung in Hegel's Ästhetik. "Hegel as a conservative thinker" in The Philosopher on Dover Beach. 1941." [51] Footprint (#1. 1981. Texte aus den Werken von F. 1962. Hermann (ed. Oppenheim. Plotinus. Mark-William. Carové. Hegel et la Musique. W. Retrieved August 17. 1996. Gillian. 1987. 2006. B. Hegel and the French Revolution. Gethmann-Siefert. C. Desmond.

Notes [1] "One of the few things on which the analysts. ISBN 0-7914-2006-X. "How the Ordinary Human Understanding Takes Philosophy as displayed in the works of Mr. Lectures on the History of Philosophy Volume I. 'The Significane of Hegel's speration of the state and civil society' pp1-13 in Pelczynski. University of Chicago Press. Economics. top [22] Stefan Gruner: "Hegel's Aether Doctrine". pragmatists. 0226233502. 80. • Fackenheim. E. Hegel's God: A Counterfeit Double?. 773. 192. Hegel and Religious Faith: Divided brain. (ed.. 1987. Hegel: A Biography. 2010. Plato. • Dickey.. William. htm) [24] Pelczynski. [4] Ibid.An extensive study of the Jewish question in Hegel's Early Theological Writings. 111 [20] Ibid. Galilée. ISBN 0-7546-0565-5 • O'Regan. Joseph." (Hegel.. 548. Cambridge University Press [26] ibid [28] Hartnack quotes Hegel. [31] The notable Introduction to Philosophy of History expresses the historical aspects of the dialectic. [17] par. Stephen.. and describes Hegel as aged eleven. 337. Beacon Press. VDM Publ. and the Politics of Spirit. page 88-119 [2] Pinkard. pp. [14] Ibid. [5] Ibid. Hegel's Rational Religion: The Validity of Hegel's Argument for the Identity in Content of Absolute Religion and Absolute Philosophy. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. NJ: Humanities.. 745).Z. 133-136 and 138. 145 [21] See Ibid. Hegel: A Biography. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ us/ kaufmann. 146. [32] "[T]he task that touches the interest of philosophy most nearly at the present moment: to put God back at the peak of philosophy. Albany. 224-5. 354-5. [10] Ibid. see also German Wikipedia. 1897) (http:/ / www. 1984.. org/ reference/ archive/ hegel/ works/ pr/ preface.. [11] Ibid. 687 [16] Pinkard. it opened the door for new teachers [such . T & T Clark. 1781. p.). but opposition to Hegel is part of the platform of all four. [12] Ibid. and existentialists agree with the dialectical theologians is that Hegel is to be repudiated: their attitude toward Kant. the index to Pinkard's book and his "Chronology of Hegel's Life". State University of New York Press. • Andrew Shanks.. • Rocker.Z. Europe: A history p. A fascinating account of how "Hegel became Hegel". Cyril. 1827 (translated by Dyde. Krug. top [19] Ibid. The Heterodox Hegel. in From Shakespeare to Existentialism: Studies in Poetry.. htm).. 228. 2-3. 1770–1807. Hegel: Religion. A. Aristotle. 356. [9] Ibid. Preface by Jean-Luc Nancy. pp. Religion. pages 91-115) [33] Karl Ameriks wrote of "the famous 'Atheism Controversy' of 1798 in which Goethe eventually chose to allow Fichte to be removed [from his position as professor] in order to avoid complications. 4. no. Boston 1959. [7] Ibid. [13] Ibid. marxists. 223. Cambridge University Press. 1994." Kritisches Journal der Philosophie. which correctly give the date as 1783 (pp. The most authoritative work to date on Hegel's philosophy of religion. ISBN 978-3-639-28451-5 [23] Etext of Philosophy of Right Hegel. Miller [Atlantic Highlands.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 18 Religion • Desmond. "The Hegel Myth and Its Method" (http:/ / www. absolutely prior to all else as the one and only ground of everything. too. and Philosophy by Walter Kaufmann. [3] Ibid. This event had momentous implications.. 745. and of the Marxists. [15] Norman Davies.. 1989]. using the guiding hypothesis that Hegel "was basically a theologian manqué". ISBN 0-521-33035-1. and the other great philosophers is not at all unanimous even within each movement. Cf. 3. 378 [18] See Science of Logic. The State and Civil Society.. The Religious Dimension in Hegel's Thought.. 2011). p.. Le spectre juif de Hegel (in French language). marxists. 2003." Walter Kaufmann. 658-9. 1995. I. A. Ashgate. trans... 2005. Paris. [8] Ibid. [6] Ibid. Laurence. 1984. 1802. 1. 238. incorrectly gives the date as September 20. atoning spirit (London. • Cohen.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel as Hegel] in Jena. New York: German Publication Society. Isaiah. weebly. Gray. Section paragraph 1 [39] On the Basis of Morality [40] Søren Kierkegaard Concluding Unscientific Postscriptt [41] Ludwig Boltzmann. edu/ mmj4/ www/ downloads/ footprint1. org/ stream/ germanclassicsof07franuoft#page/ n25/ mode/ 2up [46] http:/ / dx. ca/ animus/ Articles/ Volume%2012/ Kierans12.uqac. marxists. Freedom and Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty (Princeton University Press. Theoretical physics and philosophical problems: Selected writings. The Hegel Myth and Its Method (http:/ / www. mun.freely available resources (under the GNU FDL) • « Der Instinkt der Vernünftigkeit » and other texts (http://classiques. pdf [50] http:/ / www2. [35] Benedetto Croce. as the National Philosopher of Germany (1874) (http://www. com/ phenomenology-of-spirit-page. New York: Columbia University Press. D. Karl Ameriks. mun. worldcat. Reidel. doi. pdf [48] http:/ / www. mun. and it taught them to express any radical implications of their idealism in a much more esoteric form [italics added]. The idealist achievement. Granville Stanley Hall. Baker & Co. 1974.. William Torrey Harris. 1874 . archive. ca/ animus/ Articles/ Supplementa/ hegelasnational00unkngoog) Karl Rosenkranz. swgc. [38] B. p. pdf 19 External links • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (http://plato. org/ issn/ 1209-0689 [49] http:/ / www2. 155.historyguide. The Library of Liberal Arts. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ us/ kaufmann. in German classics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Pg. html [45] http:/ / www. germanclassicsof07franuoft#page/n25/mode/2up).Works on Hegel in Université du Québec site (in French) • Works by or about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (http://worldcat. 238 (http:/ / books. htm)) [43] Berlin. swgc. "Translator's Introduction". 1522/ 030141313 [47] http:/ / www2. From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought.html) • Hegel. ISBN 90-277-0250-0 [42] (See for instance Walter Kaufmann 1959. Green. History of western philosophy. mit. Inc. pg 701 chapter 22. Guide to ( gouin_jean_luc.archive... The Bobbs–Merrill Co. org/ doi:10. 2003) [44] http:/ / terrypinkard. swgc. 1964." page in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Lowenberg J.stanford. 1965 [36] Hegel and Language edited by Jere O'Neill Surber. [34] Karl Lö . com/ books?id=HFpQHr07IAkC& pg=PA238). pdf [51] http:/ / web.html) . • Hegel." The Cambridge Companion to German entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Hegel page in 'The History Guide' (http://www. Translated by Patrick Romanell.archive. translated by David E. "Introduction: interpreting German Idealism. ca/ animus/ Articles/ Volume%205/ doull5a. (1913) "The Life of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel" (http://www.

htm).Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 20 Audio • Introduction to The Philosophy of • Phenomenology of Spirit. translated by Terry Pinkard (2012) (http://terrypinkard. Librivox.htm) • Hegel's The Philosophy of Right (http://libcom.class.html) .org/library/philosophy-right-hegel) • Hegel's The Philosophy of History (http://libcom. reference archive on Hegel) at Project Gutenberg • Philosophy of History Introduction ( ( 2007 from Vimeo Andy Blunden Societies • The Hegel Society of America ( .com/ • Hegel by HyperText ( introduction-to-the-philosophy-of-history-by-georg-wilhelm-freidreich-hegel/) Video • Hegel: The First Cultural Psychologist (https://vimeo.gutenberg.Philosophy of Hegel's texts online • Works by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (

Farewell2arms. Hanshans23. Jayt. Camembert. Modernist. 2 anonymous edits License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Rice puddingg5. Ivo Coelho. Eliyak. SeanDwyer. Pavao Zornija. kindly svg'ed by Hans-Jörg Brehm for Maximilian Schönherr File:Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel00.php?title=File:Hegel-and-Napoleon-in-Jena-1806.hoop. Trele Morele. Gabbe. Lucidish. Marc Venot. Jonathan. Thomasbc. StAnselm. Bobnorwal. Uppland. Jules. Froth. Giftlite. Etxrge. DennisDaniels. NotWith. Windmillchaser. Anonymous from the 21st century. Lumos3. Pjacobi. Spiker 22. Richiar. Jcamtzf. Ltbarcly. SGGH. VolatileChemical. Nautis. Infrogmation. Kkm010. AR. Neddyseagoon. Jensboot. Korg. Synthesize. Faithx5. La goutte de pluie.M. Visviva. Sax Russell. Dpv. KnowledgeOfSelf. Jguk.wikipedia.php?title=File:Hegel. AlphaEta. Delirium. Hephaestos. NickVeys. Tameamseo. Pigman. Yopie. Wwmargera. Victor Yus. Raedawg. Kumarsarma. Karindeboer. Good Olfactory. Gwern. Ψμον. Atrewn. CriminalSaint. 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Sponge. Smerus. JoeGCarroll. Ruud Koot. Erikringmar. SidP. Wangi. Poor Yorick. MatthewLiberal. Utcursch. BeastBox. Bart133. Dcljr. Lucyin. Atticusattor. Pax85. Calwiki. Webclient101. Brosi. M1r2k3. Kaisershatner. Funandtrvl. John of Lancaster. Buder. Jrtayloriv. Lucaas. Chronicler. John Z. Skapur. AlterBerg. Mr. Андрей Романенко File:Hegel Unterschrift. Shiki2. Oculi. AndreasPraefcke.jpg  Source: http://en. Dcelzinga. Sunray. Kazrak. Kurt Jansson. Sethmahoney. Connolley.wikipedia. Woland1234.php?title=File:Stuttgart-Hegel-Birthplace-2006-04-09a. Viriditas. Harpakhrad11. Hans castorp81. Tomsega. Nasnema. Mschel. Jacobolus. Christophernandez. Lestrade. Jacques Custard. Pteron. Meckanic. Zaian. DVD R W. Attilios. Andres. Eldredo. Discospinster. Wayland. Themightyquill. Ggrieb. Aranel. PatrickSauncy. PJ Rey. Moagim. Jauerback. Infrogmation. ChristopherWillis. Jokasta. Technopat. TheUnpluggedGuy. Eastfrisian. Mikko Paananen. Erudecorp. Tomcat7. Anthrophilos. 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